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Sample records for determining precise oligosaccharidic

  1. Determining the solution conformational entropy of oligosaccharides by SEC with on-line viscometry detection.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mallory J; Striegel, André M

    2014-06-15

    Introduced here is a method for determining the solution conformational entropy of oligosaccharides (-ΔS) that relies on the on-line coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), an entropically-controlled separation technique, and differential viscometry (VISC). Results from this SEC/VISC method were compared, for the same injections of the same sample dissolutions and under identical solvent/temperature conditions, to results from a benchmark SEC/differential refractometry (SEC/DRI) method which has been applied successfully over the last decade to determining -ΔS of a variety of mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides. The accuracy (as compared to SEC/DRI) and precision of SEC/VISC were found to be excellent, as was the sensitivity of the viscometer in the oligomeric region. The experiments presented here contrast three sets of (1→4)-β-d-oligosaccharides, namely manno-, cello-, and N-acetylchitooligosaccharides of degree of polymerization (DP) 2 through 6. For each series, the dependence of -ΔS on DP was found to be monotonic while, between series, differences at each DP could be ascribed to either the additional degrees of freedom imparted by large, multi-atomic substituent groups, or to the presence or absence of additional intramolecular hydrogen bonds, depending on the axial versus equatorial arrangement of particular hydroxyl groups. An hypothesis is advanced to explain the unexpectedly high sensitivity of viscometric detection for low-molar-mass analytes. The method presented can be extended to the analysis of oligosaccharides other than those studied here. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Structural Determination and Daily Variations of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Nannan; Ochonicky, Karen L.; German, J. Bruce; Donovan, Sharon M.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2010-01-01

    Free milk oligosaccharides (OS) is a major component of mammalian milk. Swine are important agricultural species and biomedical models. Despite their importance, little is known of the OS profile of porcine milk. Herein, the porcine milk glycome was elucidated and monitored over the entire lactation period by liquid chromatography profiling and structural determination with mass spectrometry. Milk was collected from second parity sows (n=3) at farrowing and on days 1, 4, 7 and 24 of lactation. Twenty-nine distinct porcine milk oligosaccharides (pMO) were identified. The pMO are highly sialylated, which is more similar to bovine milk than human milk OS. Six fucosylated pMO were detected at low levels in porcine milk, making it more similar to human milk than bovine. In general, the pMO content was highest in milk collected at farrowing and day 1 of lactation, decreased during early lactation, but then rose at day 24, however, the pMO displayed different patterns of variation across lactation. In summary, porcine milk contains both acidic (sialylated) and neutral (fucosylated) OS, but sialic-acid containing OS predominate throughout lactation. PMID:20369835

  3. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  4. Determination Trial of Nondigestible Oligosaccharide in Processed Foods by Improved AOAC Method 2009.01 Using Porcine Small Intestinal Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2015-06-24

    We have previously shown that the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) methods 2001.03 and 2009.01 were not able to measure accurately nondigestible oligosaccharide because they are incapable of hydrolyzing digestible oligosaccharide, leading to overestimation of nondigestible oligosaccharide. Subsequently, we have proposed improved AOAC methods 2001.03 and 2009.01 using porcine small intestinal disaccharidases instead of amyloglucosidase. In the present study, we tried to determine nondigestible oligosaccharide in marketed processed foods using the improved AOAC method (improved method), and the results were compared with those by AOAC method 2009.01. In the improved method, the percentages of recovery of fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and raffinose to the label of processed food were 103.0, 89.9, and 102.1%, respectively. However, the AOAC method 2009.01 overestimated >30% of the quantity of nondigestible oligosaccharide in processed foods, because the margin of error was accepted ±20% on the contents of nondigestible oligosaccharides in processed foods for Japanese nutrition labeling, the improved method thus provided accurate quantification of nondigestible oligosaccharides in processed food and allows a comprehensive determination of nondigestible oligosaccharides.

  5. Enzymatic preparation and structural determination of oligosaccharides derived from sea cucumber (Acaudina molpadioides) fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long; Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Ge, Lei; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Cuiyu; Liu, Guanchen; He, Chen

    2013-08-15

    Sea cucumber fucoidan is a major bioactive component of sea cucumber. Sea cucumber is widely consumed in East Asian countries as healthy food. Employing the degrading enzyme from the marine bacterium strain Flavobacteriaceae CZ1127, sea cucumber (Acaudina molpadioides) fucoidan oligosaccharides were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis. The oligosaccharide profile of the hydrolysate was determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). With the assistance of LC-MS, four major oligosaccharides in the hydrolysate were purified. By using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, delicate structures of the oligosaccharides were verified as α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp, α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp, α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp and α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp.

  6. In vitro determination of prebiotic properties of oligosaccharides derived from an orange juice manufacturing by-product stream.

    PubMed

    Manderson, K; Pinart, M; Tuohy, K M; Grace, W E; Hotchkiss, A T; Widmer, W; Yadhav, M P; Gibson, G R; Rastall, R A

    2005-12-01

    Fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from orange peel pectin were assessed in mixed fecal bacterial culture. The orange peel oligosaccharide fraction contained glucose in addition to rhamnogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan pectic oligosaccharides. Twenty-four-hour, temperature- and pH-controlled, stirred anaerobic fecal batch cultures were used to determine the effects that oligosaccharides derived from orange products had on the composition of the fecal microbiota. The effects were measured through fluorescent in situ hybridization to determine changes in bacterial populations, fermentation end products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to assess short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and subsequently, a prebiotic index (PI) was determined. Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were able to increase the bifidobacterial and Eubacterium rectale numbers, albeit resulting in a lower prebiotic index than that from fructo-oligosaccharide metabolism. Orange albedo maintained the growth of most bacterial populations and gave a PI similar to that of soluble starch. Fermentation of POS resulted in an increase in the Eubacterium rectale numbers and concomitantly increased butyrate production. In conclusion, this study has shown that POS can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microflora; however, a classical prebiotic effect was not found. An increase in the Eubacterium rectale population was found, and butyrate levels increased, which is of potential benefit to the host.

  7. Precision orbit determination of altimetric satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, C. K.; Ries, John C.; Tapley, Byron D.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to determine accurate global sea level variations is important to both detection and understanding of changes in climate patterns. Sea level variability occurs over a wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, and precise global measurements are only recently possible with the advent of spaceborne satellite radar altimetry missions. One of the inherent requirements for accurate determination of absolute sea surface topography is that the altimetric satellite orbits be computed with sub-decimeter accuracy within a well defined terrestrial reference frame. SLR tracking in support of precision orbit determination of altimetric satellites is significant. Recent examples are the use of SLR as the primary tracking systems for TOPEX/Poseidon and for ERS-1 precision orbit determination. The current radial orbit accuracy for TOPEX/Poseidon is estimated to be around 3-4 cm, with geographically correlated orbit errors around 2 cm. The significance of the SLR tracking system is its ability to allow altimetric satellites to obtain absolute sea level measurements and thereby provide a link to other altimetry measurement systems for long-term sea level studies. SLR tracking allows the production of precise orbits which are well centered in an accurate terrestrial reference frame. With proper calibration of the radar altimeter, these precise orbits, along with the altimeter measurements, provide long term absolute sea level measurements. The U.S. Navy's Geosat mission is equipped with only Doppler beacons and lacks laser retroreflectors. However, its orbits, and even the Geosat orbits computed using the available full 40-station Tranet tracking network, yield orbits with significant north-south shifts with respect to the IERS terrestrial reference frame. The resulting Geosat sea surface topography will be tilted accordingly, making interpretation of long-term sea level variability studies difficult.

  8. High precision attitude determination for Magsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, G.; McCutcheon, R.; Summers, G.; Vanlandingham, F.; Meyers, G.

    1981-08-01

    A two phase approach to attitude determination software development is introduced. The prelaunch planning and software activities connected with the development and testing of the baseline system for processing nominal attitude data for MAGSAT are described and postlaunch analysis and modifications are outlined. Attitude data processing began 5 months after launch so that postlaunch anomalies could be accounted for. Another advantage of the two phase approach is that costs are reduced because the system is not burdened with software dealing with all possible contingencies. A definitive, continuous, time history of the three axis attitude of the spacecraft was generated to a precision of 20 arc sec (one standard deviation), in each axis. Sensor alignment determinations were done continuously because of the deletrious effects of changing alignments on attitude precision.

  9. Precision orbit determination software validation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Marsh, J. G.; Williamson, R. G.; Martin, T. V.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment which was designed to ascertain the level of agreement between GEODYN and UTOPIA, two completely independent computer programs used for precision orbit determination, and to identify the sources which limit the agreement. For a limited set of models and a seven-day data set arc length, the altitude components of the ephemeris obtained by the two programs agree at the sub-centimeter level throughout the arc.

  10. Oligosaccharides in several Philippine indigenous food legumes: determination, localization and removal.

    PubMed

    Revilleza, M J; Mendoza, E M; Raymundo, L C

    1990-01-01

    The oligosaccharide profile of raw mature seeds of seven different legumes indigenous to the Philippines was measured in 70% ethanol extracts of the seeds by thin layer chromatography using HPTLC plates and quantified by a densitometer. Based on the results, the legumes could be ranked according to decreasing oligosaccharide content or flatulence potential as follows: Sam-samping (Clitoria ternatea) greater than hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab) greater than sabawel (Mucuna pruriens) greater than lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) greater than swordbean (Canavalia gladiata) greater than rice bean (Vigna umbellata) greater than jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Sam-samping had 4.79% total oligosaccharides and hyacinth bean or batao, 3.66%. A jack bean accession had 1.79% oligosaccharides. Simple processing methods were tested to detoxify the oligosaccharides. Soaking the batao seeds had no effect while boiling even resulted in a net 23-31% increase in the levels of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose. On the other hand, two min of dry roasting resulted in complete removal of oligosaccharides whereas germination resulted in about 30-40% decrease after 1 and 2 days, respectively.

  11. Immobilized Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin binds oligosaccharides containing the Le(x) determinant.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Wilkins, P P; Alvarez-Manilla, G; Do, S I; Smith, D F; Cummings, R D

    1997-01-01

    A defined set of oligosaccharides and glycopeptides containing alpha-linked fucose were used to examine the specificity of the immobilized fucose-binding lectin Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA1), also known as lotus lectin. Glycans containing the Lewis x determinant (Le(x)) Gal beta 1-4[Fuc alpha 1-3]GlcNAc beta 1-3-R were significantly retarded in elution from high density LTA-Emphaze columns. The lectin also bound the fucosylated lacdiNAc trisaccharide GalNAc beta 1-4[Fuc alpha 1-3]GlcNAc. The lectin did not bind glycans containing either sialylLe(x) or VIM-2 determinants, nor did it bind the isomeric Le(x), Gal beta 1-3[Fuc alpha 1-4]GlcNAc-R. Although 2'-fucosyllactose Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta 1-4Glc) was retarded in elution from the columns, larger glycans containing the H-antigen Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta 1-3(4)GlcNAc-R interacted poorly with immobilized LTA. Our results demonstrate that immobilized LTA is effective in isolating glycans containing the Le(x) antigen and is useful in analyzing specific fucosylation of glycoconjugates.

  12. Angular MET sensor for precise azimuth determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Dmitry; Antonov, Alexander; Krishtop, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes using a MET-based low-noise angular motion sensor to precisely determine azimuth direction in a dynamic-scheme method of measuring Earth's rotation velocity vector. The scheme includes installing a sensor on a rotating platform so that it could scan a space and seek for the position of highest Earth's rotation vector projection on its axis. This method is very efficient provided a low-noise sensor is used. We take a low-cost angular sensor based on MET (molecular electronic transduction) technology. Sensors of this kind were originally developed for the seismic activity monitoring and are well-known for very good noise performance and high sensitivity. This approach, combined with use of special signal processing algorithms, allowed for reaching the accuracy of 0.07° for a measurement time of 200 seconds.

  13. Using metatranscriptomics to determine effects of dietary supplementation with bovine milk oligosaccharides in healthy adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study of human milk has revealed the presence of complex human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) molecules, believed to help encourage formation and development of the infant’s gut microbiome. HMOs function as prebiotics for beneficial bacteria, block attachment to pathogens, and interact directly with...

  14. Determination of fluorescence-labeled asparaginyl-oligosaccharide in glycoprotein by reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Takamasa; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Fukushima, Takeshi; Inagaki, Shinsuke

    2007-11-15

    Eight fluorescence reagents, i.e., DBD-F, NBD-F, DNS-Cl, NDA, PSC, FITC, Fmoc-Cl, and DMEQ-COCl, which are reactive to an amino functional group, were tested for the labeling of asparaginyl-oligosaccharides in a glycoprotein. Although the optimal reaction conditions and the fluorescence maximal wavelengths were different for each reagent, the highly sensitive fluorescence detection at the femtomole level of Disialo-Asn (a representative asparaginyl-oligosaccharide) was obtained from the labeling utilizing these reagents. Among them, PSC was the most reliable reagent in terms of detection sensitivity (approximately 3 fmol, signal-to-noise ratio of 5 (S/N = 5) on the chromatogram). However, the structural information could not be obtained from the fluorescence detection. Thus, the on-line determination of a real sample was carried out by UPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The detection limit of the PSC-labeled Disialo-Asn by selected-ion chromatography was 58 fmol (S/N = 5). When the proposed procedure was applied to the determination of oligosaccharides in ovalbumin, 15 species of PSC-labeled oligosaccharides possessing Man, GlcNAc, and Gal units were identified from the UPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The number of identified oligosaccharides was relatively greater than the method using Fmoc-Cl. Based on the ovalbumin results, the proposed labeling with PSC followed by UPLC-ESI-TOF-MS detection seems to be useful for the on-line asparaginyl-oligosaccharide analysis.

  15. Annotation and structural elucidation of bovine milk oligosaccharides and determination of novel fucosylated structures

    PubMed Central

    Aldredge, Danielle L; Geronimo, Maria R; Hua, Serenus; Nwosu, Charles C; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs) are recognized by the dairy and food industries, as well as by infant formula manufacturers, as novel, high-potential bioactive food ingredients. Recent studies revealed that bovine milk contains complex oligosaccharides structurally related to those previously thought to be present in only human milk. These BMOs are microbiotic modulators involved in important biological activities, including preventing pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelium and serving as nutrients for a selected class of beneficial bacteria. Only a small number of BMO structures are fully elucidated. To better understand the potential of BMOs as a class of biotherapeutics, their detailed structure analysis is needed. This study initiated the development of a structure library of BMOs and a comprehensive evaluation of structure-related specificity. The bovine milk glycome was profiled by high-performance mass spectrometry and advanced separation techniques to obtain a comprehensive catalog of BMOs, including several novel, lower abundant neutral and fucosylated oligosaccharides that are often overlooked during analysis. Structures were identified using isomer-specific tandem mass spectroscopy and targeted exoglycosidase digestions to produce a BMO library detailing retention time, accurate mass and structure to allow their rapid identification in future studies. PMID:23436288

  16. Annotation and structural elucidation of bovine milk oligosaccharides and determination of novel fucosylated structures.

    PubMed

    Aldredge, Danielle L; Geronimo, Maria R; Hua, Serenus; Nwosu, Charles C; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs) are recognized by the dairy and food industries, as well as by infant formula manufacturers, as novel, high-potential bioactive food ingredients. Recent studies revealed that bovine milk contains complex oligosaccharides structurally related to those previously thought to be present in only human milk. These BMOs are microbiotic modulators involved in important biological activities, including preventing pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelium and serving as nutrients for a selected class of beneficial bacteria. Only a small number of BMO structures are fully elucidated. To better understand the potential of BMOs as a class of biotherapeutics, their detailed structure analysis is needed. This study initiated the development of a structure library of BMOs and a comprehensive evaluation of structure-related specificity. The bovine milk glycome was profiled by high-performance mass spectrometry and advanced separation techniques to obtain a comprehensive catalog of BMOs, including several novel, lower abundant neutral and fucosylated oligosaccharides that are often overlooked during analysis. Structures were identified using isomer-specific tandem mass spectroscopy and targeted exoglycosidase digestions to produce a BMO library detailing retention time, accurate mass and structure to allow their rapid identification in future studies.

  17. Comprehensive profiles of human milk oligosaccharides yield highly sensitive and specific markers for determining secretor status in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Totten, Sarah M; Zivkovic, Angela M; Wu, Shuai; Ngyuen, UyenThao; Freeman, Samara L; Ruhaak, L Renee; Darboe, Momodou K; German, J Bruce; Prentice, Andrew M; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-12-07

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as an abundant and bioactive component of breast milk, work in many ways to promote the health of breast fed infants. The expression of HMOs has been shown to vary in accordance with Lewis blood type and secretor status, as women of different blood types differ in the expression of α1,2 fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and α1,3/4 fucosyltransferase (FUT3). In this study, HMOs were extracted from the milk of 60 women from The Gambia, Africa with various Lewis and secretor blood types. The HMOs were profiled using high resolution HPLC-Chip/TOF mass spectrometry. Notably, the amounts of fucosylation varied significantly between Le(a+b-) nonsecretors, Le(a-b+) and Le(a-b-) secretors, and Le(a-b-) nonsecretors. With higher frequency of expression of the recessive Lewis negative and nonsecretor phenotypes in West African populations, the HMO profiles of several milks from women of these phenotypes were examined, demonstrating decreased amounts of total oligosaccharide abundance and lower relative amounts of fucosylation. Also in this study, four specific fucosylated structures (2'FL, LNFP I, LDFT, and LNDFH I) were determined to be specific and sensitive glycan markers for rapidly determining secretor status without the need for serological testing.

  18. GRAS NRT Precise Orbit Determination: Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MartinezFadrique, Francisco M.; Mate, Alberto Agueda; Rodriquez-Portugal, Francisco Sancho

    2007-01-01

    EUMETSAT launched the meteorological satellite MetOp-A in October 2006; it is the first of the three satellites that constitute the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) space segment. This satellite carries a challenging and innovative instrument, the GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding (GRAS). The goal of the GRAS instrument is to support the production of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity with high accuracy, in an operational context, based on the bending of the GPS signals traversing the atmosphere during the so-called occultation periods. One of the key aspects associated to the data processing of the GRAS instrument is the necessity to describe the satellite motion and GPS receiver clock behaviour with high accuracy and within very strict timeliness limitations. In addition to these severe requirements, the GRAS Product Processing Facility (PPF) must be integrated in the EPS core ground segment, which introduces additional complexity from the data integration and operational procedure points of view. This paper sets out the rationale for algorithm selection and the conclusions from operational experience. It describes in detail the rationale and conclusions derived from the selection and implementation of the algorithms leading to the final orbit determination requirements (0.1 mm/s in velocity and 1 ns in receiver clock error at 1 Hz). Then it describes the operational approach and extracts the ideas and conclusions derived from the operational experience.

  19. Estimating maneuvers for precise relative orbit determination using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende-Alba, Gerardo; Montenbruck, Oliver; Ardaens, Jean-Sébastien; Wermuth, Martin; Hugentobler, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Precise relative orbit determination is an essential element for the generation of science products from distributed instrumentation of formation flying satellites in low Earth orbit. According to the mission profile, the required formation is typically maintained and/or controlled by executing maneuvers. In order to generate consistent and precise orbit products, a strategy for maneuver handling is mandatory in order to avoid discontinuities or precision degradation before, after and during maneuver execution. Precise orbit determination offers the possibility of maneuver estimation in an adjustment of single-satellite trajectories using GPS measurements. However, a consistent formulation of a precise relative orbit determination scheme requires the implementation of a maneuver estimation strategy which can be used, in addition, to improve the precision of maneuver estimates by drawing upon the use of differential GPS measurements. The present study introduces a method for precise relative orbit determination based on a reduced-dynamic batch processing of differential GPS pseudorange and carrier phase measurements, which includes maneuver estimation as part of the relative orbit adjustment. The proposed method has been validated using flight data from space missions with different rates of maneuvering activity, including the GRACE, TanDEM-X and PRISMA missions. The results show the feasibility of obtaining precise relative orbits without degradation in the vicinity of maneuvers as well as improved maneuver estimates that can be used for better maneuver planning in flight dynamics operations.

  20. Precise Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Karl-Hugo; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A precise method of determining absorption maxima where Gaussian functions occur is described. The method is based on a logarithmic transformation of the Gaussian equation and is suited for a mini-computer. (MR)

  1. Oligosaccharide structure determines prebiotic role of β-galactomannan against Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Roger; Lizardo, Rosil; Martínez, Paz; Brufau, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics are considered natural alternatives to dietary antibiotics in animal production. Plant extracts and yeast cell walls are mannose—rich products that can be used as substrate for adhesion of Gram-negative bacteria. We assessed whether the structure of these saccharides is relevant to develop their role as prebiotics and therefore, their suitability to be used as alternatives to antibiotics to prevent intestinal infections in pigs. The prebiotic functionality of β-galactomannan (βGM), mannanoligosaccharide from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Mannan SC) and monosaccharide D-Mannose were studied in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPI-2I) challenged with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Results showed that in vitro challenge with Salmonella induces the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL6 and chemokine CXCL8 compared with control without infection. Both βGM and Mannan SC, attenuate Salmonella-induced secretion of IL6 and CXCL8. Interestingly, cells treated with D-mannose showed similar levels of proinflammatory IL6 and CXCL8 compared with the control of infection. These data suggest that prebiotic role of βGM is related to its oligosaccharide structure. PMID:23137964

  2. Improved DORIS accuracy for precise orbit determination and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Pascal; Jayles, Christian; Tavernier, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 and 2002, 3 more DORIS satellites were launched. Since then, all DORIS results have been significantly improved. For precise orbit determination, 20 cm are now available in real-time with DIODE and 1.5 to 2 cm in post-processing. For geodesy, 1 cm precision can now be achieved regularly every week, making now DORIS an active part of a Global Observing System for Geodesy through the IDS.

  3. Mixed-Linkage Glucan Oligosaccharides Produced by Automated Glycan Assembly Serve as Tools To Determine the Substrate Specificity of Lichenase.

    PubMed

    Dallabernardina, Pietro; Schuhmacher, Frank; Seeberger, Peter H; Pfrengle, Fabian

    2017-03-02

    The mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-d-glucan (MLG) specific glycosyl hydrolase lichenase is an important biochemical tool for the structural characterization of MLGs. It holds potential for application in the brewery, animal feed, and biofuel industries. Several defined MLG oligosaccharides obtained by automated glycan assembly are used to analyze the substrate specificities of Bacillus subtilis lichenase. Two glucose building blocks (BBs), equipped with a temporary fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc) protecting group in the C-3 or C-4 position, served to assemble different oligosaccharides by using an automated oligosaccharide synthesizer. Light-induced cleavage of the glycan products from the solid support followed by global deprotection provided seven MLG oligosaccharides of different length and connectivity. After incubation of the MLG oligosaccharides with lichenase, the digestion products were analyzed by HPLC-MS. These digestion experiments provided insights into the enzyme's active site that is in line with other recent evidence suggesting that the substrate specificity of lichenases has to be reconsidered. These results demonstrate that synthetic MLG oligosaccharides are useful tools to analyze mixed-linkage β-glucanases.

  4. Conformational Analysis of a High-Mannose-Type Oligosaccharide Displaying Glucosyl Determinant Recognised by Molecular Chaperones Using NMR-Validated Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kajino, Megumi; Yanaka, Saeko; Zhu, Tong; Yagi, Hirokazu; Satoh, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2017-02-16

    Exploration of the conformational spaces of flexible oligosaccharides is essential to gain deeper insights into their functional mechanisms. Here we characterised dynamic conformation of a high-mannose-type dodecasaccharide with a terminal glucose residue, a critical determinant recognised by molecular chaperones. The dodecasaccharide was prepared by our developed chemoenzymatic technique, which uses (13) C labelling and lanthanide tagging to detect conformation-dependent paramagnetic effects by NMR spectroscopy. The NMR-validated molecular dynamics simulation produced the dynamic conformational ensemble of the dodecasaccharide. This determined its spatial distribution as well as the glycosidic linkage conformation of the terminal glucose determinant. Moreover, comparison of our results with previously reported crystallographic data indicates that the chaperone binding to its target oligosaccharides involves an induced-fit mechanism. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Selection of Wavelengths for Optimum Precision in Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiTusa, Michael R.; Schilt, Alfred A.

    1985-01-01

    Although many textbooks include a description of simultaneous determinations employing absorption spectrophotometry and treat the mathematics necessary for analytical quantitations, treatment of analytical wavelength selection has been mostly qualitative. Therefore, a general method for selecting wavelengths for optimum precision in simultaneous…

  6. Selection of Wavelengths for Optimum Precision in Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiTusa, Michael R.; Schilt, Alfred A.

    1985-01-01

    Although many textbooks include a description of simultaneous determinations employing absorption spectrophotometry and treat the mathematics necessary for analytical quantitations, treatment of analytical wavelength selection has been mostly qualitative. Therefore, a general method for selecting wavelengths for optimum precision in simultaneous…

  7. Determination of LAGEOS satellite's precise orbits and residual analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, C. G.; Zhang, F. P.; Zhu, Y. L.

    2003-02-01

    Determination of LAGEOS satellite's precise orbits based on an analysis residual error of SLR data are introduced in detail. The method analyzing the data of satellite laser ranging (SLR)?the dynamical models used and the number of parameters estimated should be changed with the different purposes. The schemes were compared with each other and were analyzed with the number of parameters estimated and the residual errors in detail. The determination of precise orbits is the key of these. To acquire a precise orbit, the models determining the EOP were modified. The scheme being used by SHAO was selected from the several schemes. In this paper, the results of LAGEOS satellite's precise orbits from Dec. 31, 1998 to Jun. 29, 2001 are set out only. The results show that the root-mean square value of the residuals are less than 2cm. SHAO has begun the service of LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 quick-look residual analysis since Oct.1, 1999. The results can be find on the intent address: http://center.shao.ac.cn/APSG/result

  8. Linkage Determination of Linear Oligosaccharides by MSn (n > 2) Collision-Induced Dissociation of Z1 Ions in the Negative Ion Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konda, Chiharu; Bendiak, Brad; Xia, Yu

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining unambiguous linkage information between sugars in oligosaccharides is an important step in their detailed structural analysis. An approach is described that provides greater confidence in linkage determination for linear oligosaccharides based on multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MSn, n >2) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of Z1 ions in the negative ion mode. Under low energy CID conditions, disaccharides 18O-labeled on the reducing carbonyl group gave rise to Z1 product ions (m/z 163) derived from the reducing sugar, which could be mass-discriminated from other possible structural isomers having m/z 161. MS3 CID of these m/z 163 ions showed distinct fragmentation fingerprints corresponding to the linkage types and largely unaffected by sugar unit identities or their anomeric configurations. This unique property allowed standard CID spectra of Z1 ions to be generated from a small set of disaccharide samples that were representative of many other possible isomeric structures. With the use of MSn CID (n = 3 - 5), model linear oligosaccharides were dissociated into overlapping disaccharide structures, which were subsequently fragmented to form their corresponding Z1 ions. CID data of these Z1 ions were collected and compared with the standard database of Z1 ion CID using spectra similarity scores for linkage determination. As the proof-of-principle tests demonstrated, we achieved correct determination of individual linkage types along with their locations within two trisaccharides and a pentasaccharide.

  9. Linkage determination of linear oligosaccharides by MS(n) (n > 2) collision-induced dissociation of Z₁ ions in the negative ion mode.

    PubMed

    Konda, Chiharu; Bendiak, Brad; Xia, Yu

    2014-02-01

    Obtaining unambiguous linkage information between sugars in oligosaccharides is an important step in their detailed structural analysis. An approach is described that provides greater confidence in linkage determination for linear oligosaccharides based on multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n), n >2) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of Z1 ions in the negative ion mode. Under low energy CID conditions, disaccharides (18)O-labeled on the reducing carbonyl group gave rise to Z1 product ions (m/z 163) derived from the reducing sugar, which could be mass-discriminated from other possible structural isomers having m/z 161. MS(3) CID of these m/z 163 ions showed distinct fragmentation fingerprints corresponding to the linkage types and largely unaffected by sugar unit identities or their anomeric configurations. This unique property allowed standard CID spectra of Z1 ions to be generated from a small set of disaccharide samples that were representative of many other possible isomeric structures. With the use of MS(n) CID (n = 3 - 5), model linear oligosaccharides were dissociated into overlapping disaccharide structures, which were subsequently fragmented to form their corresponding Z1 ions. CID data of these Z1 ions were collected and compared with the standard database of Z1 ion CID using spectra similarity scores for linkage determination. As the proof-of-principle tests demonstrated, we achieved correct determination of individual linkage types along with their locations within two trisaccharides and a pentasaccharide.

  10. Effect of sucrose concentration on the composition of enzymatically synthesized short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides as determined by FTIR and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Romano, Nelson; Santos, Mauricio; Mobili, Pablo; Vega, Roberto; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are mixtures of oligosaccharides composed of fructose and glucose units. As their composition is determined by the synthesis conditions, the goals of this work were: (a) to engineer FOS of different composition by adjusting the sucrose concentration used as initial substrate; (b) to define partial least square (PLS) based-models to quantify all the sugars present in the reaction medium directly from the FTIR spectra. The yield of each reaction was calculated as the percentage of initial sucrose converted to each oligosaccharide, as monitored by HPLC. In parallel, the reactions were followed by FTIR. Six different PLS models aiming to determine the concentration of each carbohydrate present in the reaction medium were calibrated and independently validated. The means of predicted values fitted well to those obtained by HPLC. Determining FOS composition directly from the FTIR spectra represents a useful tool to monitor enzymatic synthesis, with strong impact at both an academic and an industrial level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Precise determination of the helical repeat of tobacco mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Stubbs, Gerald

    2007-12-05

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 A. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-} 0.03 A by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  12. Precise Determination of the Helical Repeat of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, A.; McDonald, M.; Stubbs, G.

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 {angstrom}. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-}0.03 {angstrom} by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  13. Precise Atomic Mass Difference Determinations for Thallium and Lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidky, Mohamed Hussien

    Atomic mass differences are usually determined by a variation of a technique known as "peak matching". Two techniques have been developed and applied to the Manitoba II spectrometer: visual null peak matching and computer -assisted peak matching. For the computer matching technique, peaks may be located by using either a centroid or a least squares method. In this work, an improved procedure is established for the least squares method. With this new procedure the accuracy and the precision of a calculated mass difference is significantly improved. The Manitoba II mass spectrometer has been used to measure the spacings of 4 doublets in the mass spectra of TlCl_{rm x} and PbCl_{rm y}. The average precision of the new mass differences (least squares method computer runs) surpasses that of our earlier work (centroid method computer runs and visual runs) by a factor of about 1.3. This program of measurements was aimed at determining the ^{205}Pb - ^{205}Tl atomic mass difference, which is used to determine the threshold energy of the neutrino capture reaction: nu + ^{205}Tl to ^{205}Pb + e. It has been suggested that this reaction may provide a good mechanism on which a solar neutrino detector may be based (Freedman, 1976). A new value for the ^ {205}Pb- ^{205} Tl mass difference is calculated by combining our new data with other precise data obtained from (n, gamma) reactions and beta decays. Our value (51.87 +/- 0.84 keV) agrees with accepted values and substantially improves the precision of this mass difference.

  14. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  15. Precise relative earthquake depth determination using array processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, M. A.; Prieto, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    Precise determination of hypocentral depth remains one of the most relevant problems in earthquake seismology. It is well known that using depth phases allows for significant improvement in event depth determination; however, routinely and systematically picking such phases, for teleseismic or regional arrivals, is problematic due to poor signal-to-noise ratios around the pP and sP phases. To overcome this limitation, we have taken advantage of the additional information carried by seismic arrays. We use velocity spectral analysis to precisely measure pP-P times. The individual estimates obtained at different subarrays, for all pairs of earthquakes, are combined using a double-difference algorithm, in order to precisely map seismicity in regions where it is tightly clustered. We illustrate this method by relocating intermediate-depth earthquakes in the Nazca subducting plate, beneath northern Chile, where we confirm the existence of a narrowly spaced double seismic zone, previously imaged using a local dedicated deployment. As a second example we relocate the aftershock sequence of the 2014 Mw 7.9 intermediate depth, Rat Islands earthquake, and provide evidence of a subvertical fault plane for the main shock. Finally, we show that the resulting relative depth errors are typically smaller than 2 km.

  16. Adaptation of the AOAC 2011.25 integrated total dietary fiber assay to determine the dietary fiber and oligosaccharide content of dry edible beans.

    PubMed

    Kleintop, Adrienne E; Echeverria, Dimas; Brick, Leslie A; Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2013-10-09

    Dietary fiber (DF) has important health benefits in the human diet. Developing dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with improved DF and reduced nondigestible oligosaccharide content is an important goal for dry bean breeders to increase consumer acceptance. To determine if genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars for DF, two populations of diverse dry bean cultivars/lines that represent two centers of dry bean domestication were evaluated for dietary fiber using the Integrated Total Dietary Fiber Assay (AOAC 2011.25). This assay was adapted to measure water insoluble dietary fiber, water soluble dietary fiber, oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose, and the calculated total dietary fiber (TDF) content of cooked dry bean seed. The AOAC 2011.25 protocol was modified by using a quick, simple, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method paired with an electrochemical detection method to separate and quantify specific oligosaccharides, and using duplicate samples as replicates to generate statistical information. The TDF of dry bean entries ranged from 20.0 to 27.0% in population I and from 20.6 to 25.7% in population II. Total oligosaccharides ranged from 2.56 to 4.65% in population I and from 2.36 to 3.84% in population II. The results suggest that significant genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars/lines to allow for genetic selection for improved DF content in dry beans and that the modifications to the AOAC 2011.25 method were suitable for estimating DF in cooked dry edible beans.

  17. Precise orbit determination for the GOCE satellite using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, H.; Jäggi, A.; Švehla, D.; Beutler, G.; Hugentobler, U.; Visser, P.

    Apart from the gradiometer as the core instrument, the first ESA Earth Explorer Core Mission GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) will carry a 12-channel GPS receiver dedicated for precise orbit determination (POD) of the satellite. The EGG-C (European GOCE Gravity-Consortium), led by the Technical University in Munich, is building the GOCE HPF (High-level Processing Facility) dedicated to the Level 1b to Level 2 data processing. One of the tasks of this facility is the computation of the Precise Science Orbit (PSO) for GOCE. The PSO includes a reduced-dynamic and a kinematic orbit solution. The baseline for the PSO is a zero-difference procedure using GPS satellite orbits, clocks, and Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) from CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe), one of the IGS (International GNSS Service) Analysis Centers. The scheme for reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit determination is based on experiences gained from CHAMP and GRACE POD and is realized in one processing flow. Particular emphasis is put on maximum consistency in the analysis of day boundary overlapping orbital arcs, as well as on the higher data sampling rate with respect to CHAMP and GRACE and on differences originating from different GPS antenna configurations. We focus on the description of the procedure used for the two different orbit determinations and on the validation of the procedure using real data from the two GRACE satellites as well as simulated GOCE data.

  18. Precise Orbit Determination for the GOCE Satellite Using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, H.; Jäggi, A.; Svehla, D.; Beutler, G.; Hugentobler, U.; Visser, P.

    Apart from the gradiometer as the core instrument the first ESA Earth Explorer Core mission GOCE Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer carries a 12-channel GPS receiver dedicated for precise orbit determination POD of the satellite The EGG-C European GOCE Gravity-Consortium led by the Technical University in Munich is building the GOCE HPF High-level Processing Facility dedicated to the Level 1b to Level 2 data processing One of the tasks of this facility is the computation of the Precise Science Orbit PSO for GOCE The PSO includes a reduced-dynamic and a kinematic orbit solution The baseline for the PSO is a zero difference procedure using GPS satellite orbits clocks and Earth Rotation Parameters ERPs from CODE Center for Orbit Determination in Europe one of the IGS International GNSS Service Analysis Centers The scheme for reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit determination is based on experiences gained from CHAMP and GRACE POD and is realized in one processing flow Particular emphasis is put on maximum consistency in the analysis of day-boundary overlapping orbital arcs as well as on the higher data sampling rate and on differences originating from different GPS antenna configuration We focus on the description of the procedure used for the two different orbit determinations and on the validation of the procedure using real data from the two GRACE satellites as well as simulated GOCE data

  19. Relative Abundance of Oligosaccharides in Candida Species as Determined by Fluorophore-Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Goins, Tresa L.; Cutler, Jim E.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is a straightforward, sensitive method for determining the presence and relative abundance of individual oligomannosyl residues in Candida mannoprotein, the major antigenic determinant located on the outer surface of the yeast cell wall. The single terminal aldehydes of oligomannosyl residues released by hydrolysis were tagged with the charged fluorophore 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) and separated with high resolution on the basis of size by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ANTS fluorescence labeling was not biased by oligomannoside length; therefore, band fluorescence intensity was directly related to the relative abundance of individual oligomannoside moieties in heterogeneous samples. FACE analysis revealed the major oligomannosides released by acid hydrolysis and β-elimination of Fehling-precipitated mannan from Candida albicans, which were the same as those previously reported in studies based on mass and nuclear magnetic spectroscopic analysis. FACE was also amenable to the analysis of samples obtained by direct hydrolysis of whole yeast cells. Whole-cell acid hydrolysis and whole-cell β-elimination of two isolates each of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, C. rugosa, C. stellatoidea, and C. tropicalis resulted in oligomannoside gel banding patterns that were species and strain specific for the 16 isolates surveyed. Whereas some bands were specific for an individual isolate or species, other bands were shared by two or three species in various groupings. Differences in the mannoprotein composition of C. albicans A9 and four spontaneous cell surface mutants were also detected. Mannan “fingerprints,” or banding pattern profiles, derived from the electrophoretic mobilities of individual bands relative to the migration of acid-hydrolyzed dextran (relative migration index) yielded profiles characteristic of individual isolates not revealed by

  20. Hexuronic acid stereochemistry determination in chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides by electron detachment dissociation.

    PubMed

    Leach, Franklin E; Ly, Mellisa; Laremore, Tatiana N; Wolff, Jeremy J; Perlow, Jacob; Linhardt, Robert J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) has previously provided stereo-specific product ions that allow for the assignment of the acidic C-5stereochemistry in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but application of the same methodology to an epimer pair in the chondroitin sulfate glycoform class does not provide the same result. A series of experiments have been conducted in which glycosaminoglycan precursor ions are independently activated by electron detachment dissociation (EDD), electron induced dissociation (EID), and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) to assign the stereochemistry in chondroitin sulfate (CS) epimers and investigate the mechanisms for product ion formation during EDD in CS glycoforms. This approach allows for the assignment of electronic excitation products formed by EID and detachment products to radical pathways in NETD, both of which occur simultaneously during EDD. The uronic acid stereochemistry in electron detachment spectra produces intensity differences when assigned glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages are compared. The variations in the intensities of the doubly deprotonated (0,2)X(3) and Y(3) ions have been shown to be indicative of CS-A/DS composition during the CID of binary mixtures. These ions can provide insight into the uronic acid composition of binary mixtures in EDD, but the relative abundances, although reproducible, are low compared with those in a CID spectrum acquired on an ion trap. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) presents a multivariate approach to determining the uronic acid stereochemistry spectra of these GAGs by taking advantage of the reproducible peak distributions produced by electron detachment.

  1. Advances in precision orbit determination of GRACE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettadpur, Srinivas; Save, Himanshu; Kang, Zhigui

    The twin Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites carry a complete suite of instrumentation essential for precision orbit determination (POD). Dense, continuous and global tracking is provided by the Global Positioning System receivers. The satellite orientation is measured using two star cameras. High precision measurements of non-gravitational accel-erations are provided by accelerometers. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors are used for collecting data for POD validation. Additional validation is provided by the highly precise K-Band ranging system measuring distance changes between the twin GRACE satellites. This paper presents the status of POD for GRACE satellites. The POD quality will be vali-dated using the SLR and K-Band ranging data. The POD quality improvement from upgraded modeling of the GPS observations, including the transition to the new IGS05 standards, will be discussed. In addition, the contributions from improvements in the gravity field modeling -partly arising out of GRACE science results -will be discussed. The aspects of these improve-ments that are applicable for the POD of other low-Earth orbiting satellites will be discussed as well.

  2. Hexuronic Acid Stereochemistry Determination in Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides by Electron Detachment Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Franklin E.; Ly, Mellisa; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Perlow, Jacob; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) has previously provided stereo-specific product ions that allow for the assignment of the acidic C-5stereochemistry in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but application of the same methodology to an epimer pair in the chondroitin sulfate glycoform class does not provide the same result. A series of experiments have been conducted in which glycosaminoglycan precursor ions are independently activated by electron detachment dissociation (EDD), electron induced dissociation (EID), and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) to assign the stereochemistry in chondroitin sulfate (CS) epimers and investigate the mechanisms for product ion formation during EDD in CS glycoforms. This approach allows for the assignment of electronic excitation products formed by EID and detachment products to radical pathways in NETD, both of which occur simultaneously during EDD. The uronic acid stereochemistry in electron detachment spectra produces intensity differences when assigned glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages are compared. The variations in the intensities of the doubly deprotonated 0,2X3 and Y3 ions have been shown to be indicative of CS-A/DS composition during the CID of binary mixtures. These ions can provide insight into the uronic acid composition of binary mixtures in EDD, but the relative abundances, although reproducible, are low compared with those in a CID spectrum acquired on an ion trap. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) presents a multivariate approach to determining the uronic acid stereochemistry spectra of these GAGs by taking advantage of the reproducible peak distributions produced by electron detachment. PMID:22825742

  3. Precise orbit determination based on raw GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehentner, Norbert; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Precise orbit determination is an essential part of the most scientific satellite missions. Highly accurate knowledge of the satellite position is used to geolocate measurements of the onboard sensors. For applications in the field of gravity field research, the position itself can be used as observation. In this context, kinematic orbits of low earth orbiters (LEO) are widely used, because they do not include a priori information about the gravity field. The limiting factor for the achievable accuracy of the gravity field through LEO positions is the orbit accuracy. We make use of raw global positioning system (GPS) observations to estimate the kinematic satellite positions. The method is based on the principles of precise point positioning. Systematic influences are reduced by modeling and correcting for all known error sources. Remaining effects such as the ionospheric influence on the signal propagation are either unknown or not known to a sufficient level of accuracy. These effects are modeled as unknown parameters in the estimation process. The redundancy in the adjustment is reduced; however, an improvement in orbit accuracy leads to a better gravity field estimation. This paper describes our orbit determination approach and its mathematical background. Some examples of real data applications highlight the feasibility of the orbit determination method based on raw GPS measurements. Its suitability for gravity field estimation is presented in a second step.

  4. Precise attitude determination of defunct satellite laser ranging tragets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittet, Jean-Noel; Schildknecht, Thomas; Silha, Jiri

    2016-07-01

    The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to determine the dynamics of objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to range to the spacecraft with very high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits. Non-active spacecraft, which are not any more attitude controlled, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques. Such a spinning can be around one constant axis of rotation or it can be more complex, when also precession and nutation motions are present. The rotation of the RRA around the spacecraft's centre of mass can create both a oscillation pattern of laser range signal and a periodic signal interruption when the RRA is hidden behind the satellite. In our work we will demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique to cooperative targets can be used to determine precisely their attitude state. The processing of the obtained data will be discussed, as well as the attitude determination based on parameters estimation. Continuous SLR measurements to one target can allow to accurately monitor attitude change over time which can be further used for the future attitude modelling. We will show our solutions of the attitude states determined for the non-active ESA satellite ENVISAT based on measurements acquired during year 2013-2015 by Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. The angular momentum shows a stable behaviour with respect to the orbital plane but is not aligned with orbital momentum. The determination of the inertial rotation over time, shows it evolving between 130 to 190 seconds within two year. Parameter estimation also bring a strong indication of a retrograde rotation. Results on other former satellites in low and medium Earth orbit such as TOPEX/Poseidon or GLONASS type will be also presented.

  5. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Mao, D.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2010-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched on June 18, 2009. In mid-September 2009, the spacecraft orbit was changed from its commissioning orbit (30 x 216 km polar) to a quasi-frozen polar orbit with an average altitude of 50km (+-15km). One of the goals of the LRO mission is to develop a new lunar reference frame to facilitate future exploration. Precision Orbit Determination is used to achieve the accuracy requirements, and to precisely geolocate the high-resolution datasets obtained by the LRO instruments. In addition to the tracking data most commonly used to determine spacecraft orbits in planetary missions (radiometric Range and Doppler), LRO benefits from two other types of orbital constraints, both enabled by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument. The altimetric data collected as the instrument's primary purpose can be used to derive constraints on the orbit geometry at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). The multi-beam configuration and high firing-rate of LOLA further improves the strength of these crossovers, compared to what was possible with the MOLA instrument onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). Furthermore, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) stations and the spacecraft are made possible by the addition of a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. Thanks to the accuracy of the LOLA timing system, the precision of 5-s LR normal points is below 10cm. We present the first results of the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) of LRO through the commissioning and nominal phases of the mission. Orbit quality is discussed, and various gravity fields are evaluated with the new (independent) LRO radio tracking data. The altimetric crossovers are used as an independent data type to evaluate the quality of the orbits. The contribution of the LR

  6. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Bing -Nan; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; ...

    2016-07-09

    Here, we introduce a general and accurate method for determining lattice phase shifts and mixing angles, which is applicable to arbitrary, non-cubic lattices. Our method combines angular momentum projection, spherical wall boundaries and an adjustable auxiliary potential. This allows us to construct radial lattice wave functions and to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energies. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance. We benchmark our method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component. We are able to extract phase shifts and mixing angles formore » all angular momenta and energies, with precision greater than that of extant methods. We discuss a wide range of applications from nuclear lattice simulations to optical lattice experiments.« less

  7. Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Satellites at AIUB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, A.; Bock, H.; Thaller, D.; Dach, R.; Beutler, G.; Prange, L.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Many low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are nowadays equipped with on-board receivers to collect the observations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), or with retro-reflectors for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). At the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) LEO precise orbit determination (POD) using either GPS or SLR data is performed for satellites at very different altitudes. The classical numerical integration techniques used for dynamic orbit determination of LEO satellites at high altitudes are extended by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling techniques for satellites at low altitudes to efficiently cope with force model deficiencies. Accuracies of a few centimeters are achieved by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling, e.g., for the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE).

  8. Improving GLONASS Precise Orbit Determination through Data Connection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of GLONASS orbits, this paper presents a method to connect the data segments of a single station-satellite pair to increase the observation continuity and, consequently, the strength of the precise orbit determination (POD) solution. In this method, for each GLONASS station-satellite pair, the wide-lane ambiguities derived from the Melbourne–Wübbena combination are statistically tested and corrected for phase integer offsets and then the same is carried out for the narrow-lane ambiguities calculated from the POD solution. An experimental validation was carried out using one-month GNSS data of a global network with 175 IGS stations. The result shows that, on average, 27.1% of the GLONASS station-satellite pairs with multiple data segments could be connected to a single long observation arc and, thus, only one ambiguity parameter was estimated. Using the connected data, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 19.2% in ideal cases with an averaged reduction of about 6.3%. PMID:26633414

  9. Improving GLONASS Precise Orbit Determination through Data Connection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-12-02

    In order to improve the precision of GLONASS orbits, this paper presents a method to connect the data segments of a single station-satellite pair to increase the observation continuity and, consequently, the strength of the precise orbit determination (POD) solution. In this method, for each GLONASS station-satellite pair, the wide-lane ambiguities derived from the Melbourne-Wübbena combination are statistically tested and corrected for phase integer offsets and then the same is carried out for the narrow-lane ambiguities calculated from the POD solution. An experimental validation was carried out using one-month GNSS data of a global network with 175 IGS stations. The result shows that, on average, 27.1% of the GLONASS station-satellite pairs with multiple data segments could be connected to a single long observation arc and, thus, only one ambiguity parameter was estimated. Using the connected data, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 19.2% in ideal cases with an averaged reduction of about 6.3%.

  10. Precision orbit determination for the GEOSAT exact repeat mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. C.; Ries, J. C.; Shum, C. K.; Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.

    The Navy's Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT) was launched on March 12, 1985, carrying a single-frequency microwave altimeter which measures the height of the satellite above the ocean surface to a precision of a few centimeters. The GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM), which was initiated in November of 1986, placed the spacecraft in an exact 17 day repeat orbit. The Geophysical Data Records (GDR) for the ERM are available to the scientific community. GEOSAT is tracked by the Navy's OPNET and the Defense Mapping Agency's TRANET doppler tracking systems. The GDR orbits are computed using the OPNET tracking data and have an rms radial accuracy of one to two meters. The initial eighty days of the TRANET data during the ERM were made available for the assessment of the TRANET tracking system to perform precision orbit determination for the Topex/Poseidon Mission. This data was used to compute GEOSAT orbits using an improved gravity model which has been developed as part of the Topex gravity model improvement effort. Accuracy of the orbit was evaluated using altimeter crossover data. For a continuous 17 day GEOSAT orbit, the global crossover rms is at the 35 cm level, which suggests a radial orbit accuracy also on the order of 35 cm.

  11. Structure determination by MALDI-IRMPD mass spectrometry and exoglycosidase digestions of O-linked oligosaccharides from Xenopus borealis egg jelly.

    PubMed

    Li, Bensheng; Russell, Scott C; Zhang, Jinhua; Hedrick, Jerry L; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2011-07-01

    Differences in the fertilization behavior of Xenopus borealis from X. laevis and X. tropicalis suggest differences in the glycosylation of the egg jellies. To test this assumption, O-linked glycans were chemically released from the egg jelly coat glycoproteins of X. borealis. Over 50 major neutral glycans were observed, and no anionic glycans were detected from the released O-glycan pool. Preliminary structures of ∼30 neutral oligosaccharides were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) infrared multiphoton dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The mass fingerprint of a group of peaks for the core-2 structure of O-glycans was conserved in the tandem mass spectra and was instrumental in rapid and efficient structure determination. Among the 29 O-glycans, 22 glycans contain the typical core-2 structure, 3 glycans have the core-1 structure and 2 glycans contained a previously unobserved core structure with hexose at the reducing end. There were seven pairs of structural isomers observed in the major O-linked oligosaccharides. To further elucidate the structures of a dozen O-linked glycans, specific and targeted exoglycosidase digestions were carried out and the products were monitored with MALDI-MS. Reported here are the elucidated structures of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins of X. borealis egg jelly coats. The structural differences in O-glycans from jelly coats of X. borealis and its close relatives may provide a better understanding of the structure-function relationships and the role of glycans in the fertilization process within Xenopodinae.

  12. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  13. Precision Determination of the D{sup 0} Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Cawlfield, C.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Kim, D.; Lowrey, N.; Naik, P.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.

    2007-03-02

    A precision measurement of the D{sup 0} meson mass has been made using {approx}281 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data taken with the CLEO-c detector at the {psi}(3770) resonance. The exclusive decay D{sup 0}{yields}K{sub S}{phi} has been used to obtain M(D{sup 0})=1864.847{+-}0.150(stat){+-}0.095(syst) MeV. This corresponds to M(D{sup 0}D*{sup 0})=3871.81{+-}0.36 MeV, and leads to a well-constrained determination of the binding energy of the proposed D{sup 0}D*{sup 0} molecule X(3872), as E{sub b}=0.6{+-}0.6 MeV.

  14. Precision orbit determination for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Smith, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.

    1990-01-01

    Precise ephemerides have been determined for the U.S. Navy Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) using an improved gravity-field model, PTGF-4A (Shum et al. 1989). The Geosat orbits were computed in a terrestrial reference system which is tied to the reference system defined by satellite laser ranging (SLR) to Lageos through a survey between the Tranet Doppler receiver and the SLR system located at Wettzell, FRG. The remaining Doppler tracking station coordinates were estimated simultaneously with the geopotential in the PTGF-4A solution. In this analysis, three continuous 17-day Geosat orbits, which were computed using the 46-station Tranet data and global altimeter crossover data, have a crossover residual rms of 20 cm, indicating that the Geosat radial orbit error is of the order of 20 cm. The orbits computed based on data collected by a 7-station OPNET tracking network and crossover data have the same level of accuracy.

  15. Precision orbit determination for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Smith, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.

    1990-03-01

    Precise ephemerides have been determined for the U.S. Navy Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) using an improved gravity-field model, PTGF-4A (Shum et al. 1989). The Geosat orbits were computed in a terrestrial reference system which is tied to the reference system defined by satellite laser ranging (SLR) to Lageos through a survey between the Tranet Doppler receiver and the SLR system located at Wettzell, FRG. The remaining Doppler tracking station coordinates were estimated simultaneously with the geopotential in the PTGF-4A solution. In this analysis, three continuous 17-day Geosat orbits, which were computed using the 46-station Tranet data and global altimeter crossover data, have a crossover residual rms of 20 cm, indicating that the Geosat radial orbit error is of the order of 20 cm. The orbits computed based on data collected by a 7-station OPNET tracking network and crossover data have the same level of accuracy.

  16. Improving integer ambiguity resolution for GLONASS precise orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The frequency division multiple access adopted in present GLONASS introduces inter-frequency bias (IFB) at the receiver-end both in code and phase observables, which makes GLONASS ambiguity resolution rather difficult or even not available, especially for long baselines up to several thousand kilometers. This is one of the major reasons that GLONASS could hardly reach the orbit precision of GPS, both in terms of consistency among individual International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers and discontinuity at the overlapping day boundaries. Based on the fact that the GLONASS phase IFB is similar on L1 and L2 bands in unit of length and is a linear function of the frequency number, several approaches have been developed to estimate and calibrate the IFB for integer ambiguity resolution. However, they are only for short and medium baselines. In this study, a new ambiguity resolution approach is developed for GLONASS global networks. In the approach, the phase ambiguities in the ionosphere-free linear combination are directly transformed with a wavelength of about 5.3 cm, according to the special frequency relationship of GLONASS L1 and L2 signals. After such transformation, the phase IFB rate can be estimated and corrected precisely and then the corresponding double-differenced ambiguities can be directly fixed to integers even for baselines up to several thousand kilometers. To evaluate this approach, experimental validations using one-month data of a global network with 140 IGS stations was carried out for GLONASS precise orbit determination. The results show that the GLONASS double-difference ambiguity resolution for long baselines could be achieved with an average fixing-rate of 91.4 %. Applying the fixed ambiguities as constraints, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 37.2 % in ideal cases and with an averaged reduction of about 21.4 %, which is comparable with that by the GPS ambiguity resolution. The orbit improvement is

  17. Precise Orbit Determination of the GOCE Re-Entry Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gini, Francesco; Otten, Michiel; Springer, Tim; Enderle, Werner; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim

    2015-03-01

    During the last days of the GOCE mission, after the GOCE spacecraft ran out of fuel, it slowly decayed before finally re-entering the atmosphere on the 11th November 2013. As an integrated part of the AOCS, GOCE carried a GPS receiver that was in operations during the re-entry phase. This feature provided a unique opportunity for Precise Orbit Determination (POD) analysis. As part of the activities carried out by the Navigation Support Office (HSO-GN) at ESOC, precise ephemerides of the GOCE satellite have been reconstructed for the entire re-entry phase based on the available GPS observations of the onboard LAGRANGE receiver. All the data available from the moment the thruster was switched off on the 21st of October 2013 to the last available telemetry downlink on the 10th November 2013 have been processed, for a total of 21 daily arcs. For this period a dedicated processing sequence has been defined and implemented within the ESA/ESOC NAvigation Package for Earth Observation Satellites (NAPEOS) software. The computed results show a post-fit RMS of the GPS undifferenced carrier phase residuals (ionospheric-free linear combination) between 6 and 14 mm for the first 16 days which then progressively increases up to about 80 mm for the last available days. An orbit comparison with the Precise Science Orbits (PSO) generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland) shows an average difference around 9 cm for the first 8 daily arcs and progressively increasing up to 17 cm for the following days. During this reentry phase (21st of October - 10th November 2013) a substantial drop in the GOCE altitude is observed, starting from about 230 km to 130 km where the last GPS measurements were taken. During this orbital decay an increment of a factor of 100 in the aerodynamic acceleration profile is observed. In order to limit the mis-modelling of the non-gravitational forces (radiation pressure and aerodynamic effects) the newly developed

  18. Can an ancestral condition for milk oligosaccharides be determined? Evidence from the Tasmanian echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus).

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Olav T; Nicol, Stewart C; Davies, Noel W; Sekii, Nobuhiro; Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Urashima, Tadasu

    2014-09-01

    The monotreme pattern of egg-incubation followed by extended lactation represents the ancestral mammalian reproductive condition, suggesting that monotreme milk may include saccharides of an ancestral type. Saccharides were characterized from milk of the Tasmanian echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus. Oligosaccharides in pooled milk from late lactation were purified by gel filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography using a porous graphitized carbon column and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy; oligosaccharides in smaller samples from early and mid-lactation were separated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem collision mass spectroscopy (MS/MS) product ion patterns. Eight saccharides were identified by (1)H NMR: lactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, difucosyllactose (DFL), B-tetrasaccharide, B-pentasaccharide, lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFP3), 4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllactose [Neu4,5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc] and 4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose [Neu4,5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc]. Six of these (all except DFL and LNFP3) were present in early and mid-lactation per ESI-MS, although some at trace levels. Four additional oligosaccharides examined by ESI-MS and MS/MS are proposed to be 3'-sialyllactose [Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc], di-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllactose [Neu4,5,UAc3(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc where U = 7, 8 or 9], 4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllactose sulfate [Neu4,5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcS, where position of the sulfate (S) is unknown] and an unidentified 800 Da oligosaccharide containing a 4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllactose core. 4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllactose was the predominant saccharide at all lactation stages. 4-O-Acetylation is known to protect sialyllactose from bacterial sialidases and may be critical to prevent microbial degradation on the mammary areolae and/or in the hatchling digestive tract so that sialyllactose can be available for enterocyte uptake. The ability to

  19. Simple column-switching ion chromatography method for determining eight monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Binhe; Wang, Nani; Wang, Muhua; Chen, Suqing; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Honeydew is excreted by aphids as a sweet waste and nectar is floral honey. Honeydew and nectar are complicated samples which consist of various sugars and amino acids. In this work, a simple ion chromatography with column-switching method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 8 monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar. A reversed-phase column was used as a pretreatment column to eliminate organics on-line and sugars were eluted from a collection loop to analytical column by using column-switching technique. This method showed good linearity (r⩾0.9994) and afforded low limits of detection ranging from 1.55 to 10.17μgL(-1) for all the analytes. Recoveries ranged from 95% to 105% and repeatability results were acceptable with relative standard deviation of less than 3.21% (n=6). This method was successfully applied to quantification of these sugars in honeydew and nectar. These results showed honeydew had much more oligosaccharides than nectar.

  20. Precise determination of ferrous iron in silicate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Eizo

    2002-03-01

    We have developed a highly precise method for the determination of ferrous iron (Fe 2+) in silicate rocks. Our new method is based on Wilson's procedure (1955) in which surplus V 5+ is used to oxidize Fe 2+ into Fe 3+ while equivalently reducing V 5+ into V 4+. Because V 4+ is more resistant to atmospheric oxidation than Fe 2+, Fe 2+ in the sample can be determined by measuring unreacted V 5+ by adding excess Fe 2+ after sample decomposition and then titrating the unreacted Fe 2+ with Cr 6+. With our method, which involves conditioning the sample solution with 5 M H 2SO 4 in a relatively small beaker (7 mL), the oxidation of Fe 2+ or V 4+ that leads to erroneous results can be completely avoided, even in 100-h sample decompositions at 100°C. We have measured the concentration of FeO in 15 standard silicate rock powders provided by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ). Analytical reproducibility was better than 0.5% (1σ) for all but those samples that had small amounts of Fe 2+ (<1.5 wt.% of FeO). Fourteen of these samples gave FeO contents significantly higher than the GSJ reference values. This likely indicates that the GSJ reference values, obtained by compiling previously published data, contain a large number of poor-quality data obtained by methods with lower recovery of Fe 2+ caused by oxidation or insufficient sample decomposition during analyses. To achieve accurate determinations of Fe 2+ in our method, several factors besides the oxidation must be considered, including: (1) long-term variations in the concentration of Fe 2+ solution must be corrected; (2) excess use of the indicator must be avoided; and (3) the formation of inert FeF + complex must be avoided during titration when using boric acid as a masking agent.

  1. Precise satellite orbit determination with particular application to ERS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Joana Afonso Pereira

    The motivation behind this study is twofold. First to assess the accuracy of ERS-1 long arc ephemerides using state of the art models. Second, to develop improved methods for determining precise ERS-1 orbits using either short or long arc techniques. The SATAN programs, for the computation of satellite orbits using laser data were used. Several facilities were added to the original programs: the processing of PRARE range and altimeter data, and a number of algorithms that allow more flexible solutions by adjusting a number of additional parameters. The first part of this study, before the launch of ERS-1, was done with SEAS AT data. The accuracy of SEASAT orbits computed with PRARE simulated data has been determined. The effect of temporal distribution of tracking data along the arc and the extent to which altimetry can replace range data have been investigated. The second part starts with the computation of ERS-1 long arc solutions using laser data. Some aspects of modelling the two main forces affecting ERS-l's orbit are investigated. With regard to the gravitational forces, the adjustment of a set of geopotential coefficients has been considered. With respect to atmospheric drag, extensive research has been carried out on determining the influence on orbit accuracy of the measurements of solar fluxes (P10.7 indices) and geomagnetic activity (Kp indices) used by the atmospheric model in the computation of atmospheric density at satellite height. Two new short arc methods have been developed: the Constrained and the Bayesian method. Both methods are dynamic and consist of solving for the 6 osculating elements. Using different techniques, both methods overcome the problem of normal matrix ill- conditioning by constraining the solution. The accuracy and applicability of these methods are discussed and compared with the traditional non-dynamic TAR method.

  2. Sentinel-1A - First precise orbit determination results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, H.; Jäggi, A.; Fernández, J.; Escobar, D.; Ayuga, F.; Arnold, D.; Wermuth, M.; Hackel, S.; Otten, M.; Simons, W.; Visser, P.; Hugentobler, U.; Féménias, P.

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel-1A is the first satellite of the European Copernicus programme. Equipped with a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument the satellite was launched on April 3, 2014. Operational since October 2014 the satellite delivers valuable data for more than two years. The orbit accuracy requirements are given as 5 cm in 3D. In order to fulfill this stringent requirement the precise orbit determination (POD) is based on the dual-frequency GPS observations delivered by an eight-channel GPS receiver. The Copernicus POD (CPOD) Service is in charge of providing the orbital and auxiliary products required by the PDGS (Payload Data Ground Segment). External orbit validation is regularly performed by comparing the CPOD Service orbits to orbit solutions provided by POD expert members of the Copernicus POD Quality Working Group (QWG). The orbit comparisons revealed systematic orbit offsets mainly in radial direction (approx. 3 cm). Although no independent observation technique (e.g. DORIS, SLR) is available to validate the GPS-derived orbit solutions, comparisons between the different antenna phase center variations and different reduced-dynamic orbit determination approaches used in the various software packages helped to detect the cause of the systematic offset. An error in the given geometry information about the satellite has been found. After correction of the geometry the orbit validation shows a significant reduction of the radial offset to below 5 mm. The 5 cm orbit accuracy requirement in 3D is fulfilled according to the results of the orbit comparisons between the different orbit solutions from the QWG.

  3. Radiation force modeling for ICESat precision orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Charles Edward

    2007-12-01

    Precision orbit determination (POD) for the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) relies on an epoch-state batch filter, in which the dynamic models play a central role. Its implementation in the Multi-Satellite Orbit Determination Program (MSODP) originally included a box-and-wing model, representing the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite, to compute solar radiation forces. This "macro-model" has been adapted to the ICESat geometry, and additionally, extended to the calculation of forces induced by radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth. To determine the area and reflectivity parameters of the ICESat macro-model surfaces, a high-fidelity simulation of the radiation forces in low-Earth orbit was first developed, using a detailed model of the satellite, called the "micro-model". In this effort, new algorithms to compute such forces were adapted from a Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method originally designed to determine incident heating rates. After working with the vendor of the Thermal Synthesizer System (TSS) to implement these algorithms, a modified version of this software was employed to generate solar and Earth radiation forces for all ICESat orbit and attitude geometries. Estimates of the macro-model parameters were then obtained from a least-squares fit to these micro-model forces, applying an algorithm that also incorporated linear equality and inequality constraints to ensure feasible solutions. Three of these fitted solutions were selected for post-launch evaluation. Two represented conditions at the start and at the end of the mission, while the third comprised four separate solutions, one for each of the nominal satellite attitudes. In addition, three other sets of macro-model parameters were derived from area-weighted averaging of the micro-model reflectivities. They included solar-only and infrared-only spectral parameters, as well as a set combining these parameters. Daily POD solutions were generated with each of these macro-model sets

  4. Status of Precise Orbit Determination for Jason-2 Using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melachroinos, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The JASON-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and JASON-I altimetry missions. JASON-2 is equipped with a TRSR Blackjack GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). The most recent time series of orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on SLR/DORIS data have been completed using both ITRF2005 and ITRF2008. These orbits have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS for dynamic vs SLRlDORIS reduced-dynamic orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by other analysis centers (Lemoine et al., 2010; Zelensky et al., 2010; Cerri et al., 2010). We have recently upgraded the GEODYN software to implement model improvements for GPS processing. We describe the implementation of IGS standards to the Jason2 GEODYN GPS processing, and other dynamical and measurement model improvements. Our GPS-only JASON-2 orbit accuracy is assessed using a number of tests including analysis of independent SLR and altimeter crossover residuals, orbit overlap differences, and direct comparison to orbits generated at GSFC using SLR and DORIS tracking, and to orbits generated externally at other centers. Tests based on SLR and the altimeter crossover residuals provide the best performance indicator for independent validation of the NASAlGSFC GPS-only reduced dynamic orbits. For the ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 implementation of our GPS-only obits we are using the IGS05 and IGS08 standards. Reduced dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model error and TRF instability. We evaluate the GPS vs SLR & DORIS orbits produced using the GEODYN software and assess in particular their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the Z direction for both ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame for altimeter satellite POD.

  5. Exoplanet mass determination using precision imaging astrometry and coronagraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Ruslan; Finan, Emily R.; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Ammons, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Performing simultaneous high-contrast imaging and astrometry observations of a star increases the detection efficiency and characterization accuracy of single- and multiple- planetary systems around nearby stars. Combining the data generated with both techniques allows solving the Semi-Major Axis, period, and planetary mass in the system faster and more precisely than using imaging or astrometry data separately. In addition, it allows the planetary mass to be measured independently from its brightness, resolving the mass/albedo degeneracy when only direct imaging observations are available. Independent albedo determination allows calibrated planet photometry to be obtained, enabling better atmosphere characterization. To perform both direct imaging and astrometry observations, the telescope requires two instruments: a high-performance coronagraph to perform direct imaging, and a wide field camera astrometry accuracy able to deliver sub-micro arc second astrometry accuracy if earth-like planetary science is pursued. Such accuracy is only possible after calibrating relative distortions between astrometry observations, which at the sub-micro arc second regime dominates the error budget. We propose to utilize a diffractive pupil, in which an array of dots on the primary mirror generates polychromatic diffraction spikes in the focal plane, to calibrate the dynamic distortions of the optical system. In this talk, we present the results of the NASA TDEM effort to demonstrate the diffractive pupil concept on wide-field images while simultaneously performing high-contrast imaging. We also discuss the opportunity that this mission architecture could offer to future probe missions and flagships such as HabEX and LUVOIR.

  6. Precise ReOs determinations and systematics of iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1996-08-01

    The ReOs system for samples of FeNi, sulphide, and phosphide from iron meteorites was investigated. Techniques were developed which yield reproducible analyses for Re/Os at the 2%‰ level and which permit complete isotopic exchange between sample and tracer, as is necessary for concentration measurements of Re and Os by isotope dilution. High precision osmium and rhenium isotope data have been obtained using negative ion thermal ionization, with ionization efficiencies of up to 10% for Os and 20% for Re, both for normals and for Re and Os extracted from the samples. Replicate analyses of Re/Os are in good agreement, within ±2.5%o. The results show a well defined correlation line on a 187Re- 187Os evolution diagram for iron meteorites from groups IAB, IIAB, IIIAB, IVA, and IVB, all taken together. This correlation line yields a slope of 0.07863 ± 0.00031 (2σ) and initial 187Os/ 188Os = 0.09560 ± 0.00018 (2σ). If the individual groups of iron meteorites for which there is sufficient dispersion in Re/Os are considered, data on the IIAB and on the IVA irons appear to indicate a difference in age of 60 ± 45 Ma, with the IVA group being older. This age difference is qualitatively the same as obtained for PdAg data but is larger. Sulphides from two IAB iron meteorites show extremely low concentrations of Re and Os and indicate that Re and Os are not partitioned into this phase during planetary differentiation. There is evidence for recent element remobilization or contamination, corresponding to relative enrichment of Re or loss of Os in the sulphides. Schreibersites contain small but significant amounts of Re and Os, with high Re/Os relative to the metal phases and with 187Os/ 188Os much more radiogenic than in the metal. Model ages for the Schreibersites are relatively young (4.3-3.5 AE) and indicate that the Schreibersites were open-systems for ReOs at least 0.5-1 AE after the original formation of the iron meteorites. It now appears possible to use

  7. Rapid and precise determination of ATP using a modified photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shultz, David J.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1980-01-01

    An inexpensive delay timer was designed to modify a commercially available ATP photometer which allows a disposable tip pipette to be used for injecting either enzyme or sample into the reaction cuvette. The disposable tip pipette is as precise and accurate as a fixed-needle syringe but eliminates the problem of sample contamination and decreases analytical time. (USGS)

  8. Solution conformation of n-linked oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Homans, S.W.; Dwek, R.A.; Rademacher, T.W.

    1987-10-20

    The purpose of this review is to show how the current understanding of oligosaccharide solution conformations and dynamics has been furthered by recent developments in NMR methodology together with the use of energy calculations. First, a general strategy for the assignment of /sup 1/H NMR spectra of oligosaccharides is described. The use of these assignments for the interpretation of nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments is then discussed. The latter generate distance constraints, which, in conjunction with conformational energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, allow the structural and dynamic properties of a given oligosaccharide to be determined. Finally, the authors explore the extent to which the proposed recognition function of oligosaccharides can be rationalized in terms of these properties.

  9. Determination of GPS real-time precise clock offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Ge, Maorong; Ye, Shirong

    2008-12-01

    The paper puts forward a new method of real-time precise GPS satellite clock offset estimation. The method adapts the Square Root Information Filter (SRIF) that has benefits of the numerical stabilization, also eliminates the ambiguity parameter through the difference of the epoch which will save the time of the filter consumedly. Based on the above methods, the real-time precise clock offset estimation module is added to the PANDA software which developed by the WuHan University for Position and Navigation Data Analysis. In addition, a examples are analyzed for one week observation from 70 IGS global tracking stations around the world with the software, The results show: The software can achieve the 1HZ's updating clock offset resolution for a global network of GPS tracking stations. Also, the accuracy of 0.2ns is achieved with the software compared with the IGS final products.

  10. Increasing precision of lifetime determination in fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Wei; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2010-02-01

    The interest in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is increasing, as commercial FLIM modules become available for confocal and multi-photon microscopy. In biological FLIM applications, low fluorescence signals from samples can be a challenge, and this causes poor precision in lifetime. In this study, for the first time, we applied wavelet-based denoising methods in time-domain FLIM, and compared them with our previously developed total variation (TV) denoising methods. They were first tested using artificial FLIM images. We then applied them to lowlight live-cell images. The results demonstrated that our TV methods could improve lifetime precision multi-fold in FLIM images and preserve the overall lifetime and pre-exponential term values when improving local lifetime fitting, while wavelet-based methods were faster. The results here can enhance the precision of FLIM, especially for low-light and / or fast video-rate imaging, to improve current and rapidly emerging new applications of FLIM such as live-cell, in vivo whole-animal, or endoscopic imaging.

  11. Evolutionary Glycomics: Characterization of Milk Oligosaccharides in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Nannan; Wu, Shuai; Kim, Jaehan; An, Hyun Joo; Hinde, Katie; Power, Michael L.; Gagneux, Pascal; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2011-01-01

    Free oligosaccharides are abundant components of mammalian milk and have primary roles as prebiotic compounds, in immune defense, and in brain development. Mass spectrometry-based technique is applied to profile milk oligosaccharides from apes (chimpanzee, gorilla, and siamang), new world monkeys (golden lion tamarin and common marmoset), and an old world monkey (rhesus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patterns of primate milk oligosaccharide composition from a phylogenetic perspective in order to assess the extent to which the compositions of hMOs derives from ancestral, primate patterns as opposed to more recent evolutionary events. Milk oligosaccharides were quantitated by nanoflow liquid chromatography on chip-based devices. The relative abundances of fucosylated and sialylated milk oligosaccharides in primates were also determined. For a systematic and comprehensive study of evolutionary patterns of milk oligosaccharides, cluster analysis of primate milk was performed using the chromatographic profile. In general, the oligosaccharides in primate milk, including humans, are more complex and exhibit greater diversity compared to the ones in non-primate milk. A detailed comparison of the oligosaccharides across evolution revealed non-sequential developmental pattern, i.e. that primate milk oligosaccharides do not necessarily cluster according to the primate phylogeny. This report represents the first comprehensive and quantitative effort to profile and elucidate the structures of free milk oligosaccharides so that they can be related to glycan function in different primates. PMID:21214271

  12. High precision photon flux determination for photon tagging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Asratyan, A.; Baker, K.; Benton, L.; Burkert, V.; Clinton, E.; Cole, P.; Collins, P.; Dale, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, R.; Deur, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Ent, R.; Evdokimov, A.; Feng, J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Gasparian, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Goryachev, V.; Hardy, K.; He, J.; Ito, M.; Jiang, L.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kolarkar, A.; Konchatnyi, M.; Korchin, A.; Korsch, W.; Kosinov, O.; Kowalski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Larin, I.; Lawrence, D.; Li, X.; Martel, P.; Matveev, V.; McNulty, D.; Mecking, B.; Milbrath, B.; Minehart, R.; Miskimen, R.; Mochalov, V.; Nakagawa, I.; Overby, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Payen, M.; Pedroni, R.; Prok, Y.; Ritchie, B.; Salgado, C.; Shahinyan, A.; Sitnikov, A.; Sober, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stevens, W.; Underwood, J.; Vasiliev, A.; Vishnyakov, V.; Wood, M.; Zhou, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory PrimEx Collaboration has developed and implemented a method to control the tagged photon flux in photoproduction experiments at the 1% level over the photon energy range from 4.9 to 5.5 GeV. This method has been successfully implemented in a high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime. Here, we outline the experimental equipment and the analysis techniques used to accomplish this. These include the use of a total absorption counter for absolute flux calibration, a pair spectrometer for online relative flux monitoring, and a new method for post-bremsstrahlung electron counting.

  13. Human milk oligosaccharides: the novel modulator of intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyunghun; Nguyen, Vi; Kim, Jaehan

    2012-08-01

    Human milk, which nourishes the early infants, is a source of bioactive components for the infant growth, development and commensal formulation as well. Human milk oligosaccharide is a group of complex and diverse glycans that is apparently not absorbed in human gastrointestinal tract. Although most mammalian milk contains oligosaccharides, oligosaccharides in human milk exhibit unique features in terms of their types, amounts, sizes, and functionalities. In addition to the prevention of infectious bacteria and the development of early immune system, human milk oligosaccharides are able to facilitate the healthy intestinal microbiota. Bifidobacterial intestinal microbiota appears to be established by the unilateral interaction between milk oligosaccharides, human intestinal activity and commensals. Digestibility, membrane transportation and catabolic activity by bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells, all of which are linked to the structural of human milk oligosaccharides, are crucial in determining intestinal microbiota.

  14. Precise determination of the unperturbed 8B neutrino spectrum.

    PubMed

    Roger, T; Büscher, J; Bastin, B; Kirsebom, O S; Raabe, R; Alcorta, M; Äystö, J; Borge, M J G; Carmona-Gallardo, M; Cocolios, T E; Cruz, J; Dendooven, P; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Gasques, L R; Giri, G S; Huyse, M; Hyldegaard, S; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W L; Lantz, M; Perea, A; Riisager, K; Saastamoinen, A; Santra, B; Shidling, P D; Sohani, M; Sørensen, A J; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; van der Hoek, D J; Van Duppen, P; Versolato, O O; Wilschut, H W

    2012-04-20

    A measurement of the final state distribution of the (8)B β decay, obtained by implanting a (8)B beam in a double-sided silicon strip detector, is reported here. The present spectrum is consistent with a recent independent precise measurement performed by our collaboration at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä [O. S. Kirsebom et al., Phys. Rev. C 83, 065802 (2011)]. It shows discrepancies with previously measured spectra, leading to differences in the derived neutrino spectrum. Thanks to a low detection threshold, the neutrino spectrum is for the first time directly extracted from the measured final state distribution, thus avoiding the uncertainties related to the extrapolation of R-matrix fits. Combined with the IGISOL data, this leads to an improvement of the overall errors and the extension of the neutrino spectrum at high energy. The new unperturbed neutrino spectrum represents a benchmark for future measurements of the solar neutrino flux as a function of energy.

  15. High Precision 40K/39K Ratio Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, M. O.; Mezger, K.; Nagler, T. F.; Villa, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    Potassium is one of the eight most abundant chemical elements in the Earth's crust and a major element in many rock-forming minerals. The isotope 40K is radioactive and undergoes β- decay to 40Ca (ca. 89.3%) and electron capture to 40Ar (ca. 10.7%). Both decays can potentially be used as dating systems. The most commonly used branch is the decay of 40K to 40Ar because it can yield highly precise ages. Both decay schemes rely on the knowledge of the 40K branching ratio and the natural 40K abundance. A 40K abundance of 0.011672±41 % was measured on terrestrial material [1]. The relative uncertainty of 0.35 % has not been improved since. Recent improvements in the precision of mass spectrometric measurements have led to the situation that the uncertainties on the K decay constant and the abundance of 40K are a major source of uncertainty on the measured ages. A more precise definition of the 40K decay constant was attempted by different research groups within the last decade [2-9] but the goal of obtaining 0.1 % relative uncertainty on K-Ar ages for geological materials, as requested by the EARTHtime initiative, has not been achieved yet. In order to improve on this situation we studied the abundances of the K isotopes in terrestrial standards. A ThermoFischer Triton+ thermal ionisation mass spectrometer was used for K isotope ratio measurements of the NIST SRM 918b K standard loaded on Ta filaments with 0.1M phosphoric acid. Three techniques were applied: (A) dynamic measurement with in-run normalisation to the IUPAC value 41K/39K=0.072168; (B) a simple total evaporation procedure; (C) the "NBL-modified" total evaporation [10]. The 40K ion beam was measured in a Faraday cup with a 1E12 Ω resistor; 39K and 41K were collected in Faraday cups with 1E11 Ω resistors. Amplifier gains were intercalibrated by supplying fixed voltages off-line. Different measurement techniques were combined with different loading procedures. We also tested ionisation yields for the

  16. Improvement of the precision of lattice parameter determination by nano-beam electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Koh; Nakahara, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    A highly precise determination of lattice parameters using higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections observed in nano-beam electron diffraction is presented. The introduction of more than 40 HOLZ reflections, whose positions are corrected by considering the aberration of the electron optics and are determined with an accuracy of 0.04 nm⁻¹, allows us to achieve a remarkable high precision of a 0.02% error, which is four times higher than the precision without HOLZ reflections.

  17. Precise Determination of the Unperturbed B8 Neutrino Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, T.; Büscher, J.; Bastin, B.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Raabe, R.; Alcorta, M.; Äystö, J.; Borge, M. J. G.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Cocolios, T. E.; Cruz, J.; Dendooven, P.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gasques, L. R.; Giri, G. S.; Huyse, M.; Hyldegaard, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lantz, M.; Perea, A.; Riisager, K.; Saastamoinen, A.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Sohani, M.; Sørensen, A. J.; Tengblad, O.; Traykov, E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Duppen, P. Van; Versolato, O. O.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2012-04-01

    A measurement of the final state distribution of the B8 β decay, obtained by implanting a B8 beam in a double-sided silicon strip detector, is reported here. The present spectrum is consistent with a recent independent precise measurement performed by our collaboration at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä [O. S. Kirsebom , Phys. Rev. C 83, 065802 (2011)PRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.83.065802]. It shows discrepancies with previously measured spectra, leading to differences in the derived neutrino spectrum. Thanks to a low detection threshold, the neutrino spectrum is for the first time directly extracted from the measured final state distribution, thus avoiding the uncertainties related to the extrapolation of R-matrix fits. Combined with the IGISOL data, this leads to an improvement of the overall errors and the extension of the neutrino spectrum at high energy. The new unperturbed neutrino spectrum represents a benchmark for future measurements of the solar neutrino flux as a function of energy.

  18. A reduced-dynamic technique for precise orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.; Yunck, T. P.; Thornton, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the Global Positioning System (GPS) will enable a reduced-dynamic technique for achieving subdecimeter orbit determination of earth-orbiting satellites. With this technique, information on the transition between satellite states at different observing times is furnished by both a formal dynamic model and observed satellite positional change (which is inferred kinematically from continuous GPS carrier-phase data). The relative weighting of dynamic and kinematic information can be freely varied. Covariance studies show that in situations where observing geometry is poor and the dynamic model is good, the model dominates determination of the state transition; where the dynamic model is poor and the geometry strong, carrier phase governs the determination of the transition. When neither kinematic nor dynamic information is clearly superior, the reduced-dynamic combination of the two can substantially improve the orbit-determination solution. Guidelines are given here for selecting a near-optimal weighting for the reduced-dynamic solution, and sensitivity of solution accuracy to this weighting is examined.

  19. Oligosaccharides in feces of breast- and formula-fed babies.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; van Zoeren, Diny; van Lingen, Richard A; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth J M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-10-18

    So far, little is known on the fate of oligosaccharides in the colon of breast- and formula-fed babies. Using capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE-LIF-MS(n)), we studied the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of 27 two-month-old breast-, formula- and mixed-fed preterm babies. The interpretation of the complex oligosaccharide profiles was facilitated by beforehand clustering the CE-LIF data points by agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). In the feces of breast-fed babies, characteristic human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) profiles, showing genetic fingerprints known for human milk of secretors and non-secretors, were recognized. Alternatively, advanced degradation and bioconversion of HMOs, resulting in an accumulation of acidic HMOs or HMO bioconversion products was observed. Independent of the prebiotic supplementation of the formula with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) at the level used, similar oligosaccharide profiles of low peak abundance were obtained for formula-fed babies. Feeding influences the presence of diet-related oligosaccharides in baby feces and gastrointestinal adaptation plays an important role herein. Four fecal oligosaccharides, characterized as HexNAc-Hex-Hex, Hex-[Fuc]-HexNAc-Hex, HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-Hex and HexNAc-[Fuc]-Hex-HexNAc-Hex-Hex, highlighted an active gastrointestinal metabolization of the feeding-related oligosaccharides. Their presence was linked to the gastrointestinal mucus layer and the blood-group determinant oligosaccharides therein, which are characteristic for the host's genotype.

  20. Precise method for determining avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2017-07-01

    A physically motivated method is proposed for determining the avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The method is based on measuring the dependence of the relative photon detection efficiency (PDErel) on the bias voltage when one type of carriers (electron or hole) is injected into the avalanche multiplication zone of the p-n junction. The injection of electrons or holes from the base region of the SiPM semiconductor structure is performed using short-wave or long-wave light. At a low overvoltage (1-2 V) the detection efficiency is linearly dependent on the bias voltage; therefore, extrapolation to zero PDErel value determines the SiPM avalanche breakdown voltage with an accuracy within a few millivolts.

  1. Determining the isomeric heterogeneity of neutral oligosaccharide-alditols of bovine submaxillary mucin using negative ion traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Siems, William F; Gang, David R; Hill, Herbert H

    2015-02-17

    Negative ions produced by electrospray ionization were used to evaluate the isomeric heterogeneity of neutral oligosaccharide-alditols isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM). The oligosaccharide-alditol mixture was preseparated on an off-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, and the structural homogeneity of individual LC fractions was investigated using a Synapt G2 traveling wave ion mobility spectrometer coupled between quadupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Mixtures of isomers separated by both chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry were studied. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple mobility peaks having the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) demonstrated the presence of different structural isomers and not differences in ion conformations due to charge site location. Although the oligosaccharide-alditol mixture was originally separated by HPLC, multiple ion mobility peaks due to structural isomers were observed for a number of oligosaccharide-alditols from single LC fractions. The collision-induced dissociation cells located in front of and after the ion mobility separation device enabled oligosaccharide precursor or product ions to be separated by ion mobility and independent fragmentation spectra to be acquired for isomeric carbohydrate precursor or product ions. MS/MS spectra so obtained for independent mobility peaks at a single m/z demonstrated the presence of structural variants or stereochemical isomers having the same molecular formula. This was observed both for oligosaccharide precursor and product ions. In addition, mobilities of both [M - H](-) and [M + Cl](-) ions, formed by adding NH4OH or NH4Cl to the electrospray solvent, were examined and compared for selected oligosaccharide-alditols. Better separation among structural isomers appeared to be achieved for some [M + Cl](-) anions.

  2. Performance tests of two precision attitude determination systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaloon, K. J.; Farrenkopf, R. L.; Belsky, F. J.; Mann, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of laboratory performance tests of two satellite attitude determination systems are given. One system employed a strapdown star tracker and gyro assembly, the other a single axis, gimballed star tracker and a gyro assembly. The laboratory tests simulated those orbit conditions which would be experienced on a three axis stabilized, earth pointed satellite in geosynchronous orbit. A ground-fixed laboratory test was performed in which system axes remained stationary in the laboratory coordinates while revolving star beams stimulated the star trackers. The laboratory instrumentation techniques used to meet the stringent accuracy requirements are described. Results are presented which show both systems met the performance goal of 3.6 arc seconds. Comparative analyses of both systems are also discussed.

  3. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Rowlands, David; McGarry, Jan; Neumann, Gregory; Chinn, Douglas; Mazarico, Erwan; Torrence, Mark

    The U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission will be launched in October 2008, and will carry out a detailed mapping of the Moon using a science payload of multiple instruments, including the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) (Chin, 2007). One of the primary goals of the LRO mission is develop a geodetic grid for the planet. A subsidiary goal is the improvement of the lunar gravity field. The environment for POD on LRO is especially challenging. The spacecraft will orbit the Moon at a mean altitude of 50 km, and the expected error from the Lunar Prospector series of gravity models (to degree 100 or to degree 150) can be expected to be hundreds of meters. LRO will be tracked by S Band Doppler from White Sands, New Mexico, and Dongara, Australia, as well as by one-way laser ranging from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking stations on the Earth. However, unlike the Japanese lunar mission SELENE (Kaguya), no direct tracking will be available while the spacecraft is over the lunar farside. We review the status of orbit modelling for LRO, for both the geopotential modelling and the nonconservative force models, as well as anticipated improvements. We discuss the modelling for the one-way laser ranging observable, and how the data from the one-way laser ranging (LR) system will be acquired from selected stations of the global stations of the SLR network. We discuss the orbit determination strategies which we expect to implement on this mission, including the use of altimeter crossovers from the LOLA instrument to supplement the Earth-based tracking and we review the projected orbit determination accuracies that will be attainable.

  4. Precise determination of micromotion for trapped-ion optical clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J.; Partner, H. L.; Burgermeister, T.; Mehlstäubler, T. E.

    2015-09-01

    As relative systematic frequency uncertainties in trapped-ion spectroscopy are approaching the low 10-18 range, motional frequency shifts account for a considerable fraction of the uncertainty budget. Micromotion, a driven motion fundamentally connected to the principle of the Paul trap, is a particular concern in these systems. In this article, we experimentally investigate at this level three common methods for minimizing and determining the micromotion amplitude. We develop a generalized model for a quantitative application of the photon-correlation technique, which is applicable in the commonly encountered regime where the transition linewidth is comparable to the rf drive frequency. We show that a fractional frequency uncertainty due to the 2nd-order Doppler shift below |Δν/ν|=1 ×10-20 can be achieved. The quantitative evaluation is verified in an interleaved measurement with the conceptually simpler resolved sideband method. If not performed deep within the Lamb-Dicke regime, a temperature-dependent offset at the level of 10-19 is observed in resolved sideband measurements due to sampling of intrinsic micromotion. By direct comparison with photon-correlation measurements, we show that the simple to implement parametric heating method is sensitive to micromotion at the level of |Δν/ν|=1 ×10-20 as well.

  5. [Determination of fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Ding, Tao; Xu, Suli; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Fei, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q/Orbitrap MS) was developed to determine fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder. The milk powder samples were dissolved in deionized water. Subsequently, an aqueous solution of zinc acetate was used to precipitate protein. After centrifugation, the final aqueous solution was filtered by a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane with pore size of 0.22 μm. The analytes were separated on a Carbohydrate column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) through gradient elution with the combination of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution. The target-MS/MS templates were performed at isolation window of m/z 4.0 and collision energy of 30 eV in positive mode to extract the accurate product ion mass of analytes. Under the optimal condition, 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-F-β-fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4) were well separated and the accuracy of extracted mass routinely detected was below 5 x 10(-6) (5 ppm). The whole analysis time is only ten minutes. The detection limits for GF2 and GF3 were 100 μg/kg, and the detection limit for GF4 was 55 μg/kg. Good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were in the range of 75.8%-107.3% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.6% - 8.3%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, fast and only in need of precipitation of proteins. The interference of matrix can be eliminated through the selection of product ion. The results were convenient and reliable and thus can be used in the large batch determination of any milk powder.

  6. Evaluation of ion mobility-mass spectrometry for determining the isomeric heterogeneity of oligosaccharide-alditols derived from bovine submaxillary mucin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Kaplan, Kimberly; Davis, Eric; Siems, William F.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid separation and independent analysis of isomeric species are needed for the structural characterization of carbohydrates in glycomics research. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry techniques were used to examine a series of isomeric neutral oligosaccharide-alditols derived from bovine submaxillary mucin. Several analytical techniques were employed: (1) off line separation of the oligosaccharide-alditol mixture by HPLC; (2) direct and rapid evaluation of isomeric heterogeneity of oligosaccharides by electrospray ionization-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry; and (3) mobility-selected MS2 and MS3 to evaluate isomeric mobility peaks by dual gate ion mobility-tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple isomeric ion mobility peaks were observed for the majority of oligosaccharide-alditols, which was achieved on the millisecond time scale after LC separation. Fragmentation spectra obtained from the collision-induced dissociation of isomeric precursor ions could be essentially identical, or dramatically different for a given precursor m/z using the dual-gate ion mobility quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This further confirmed the need for rapid physical resolution of isomeric precursor species prior to their tandem mass spectral analysis. PMID:24634605

  7. Determination of thioxylo-oligosaccharide binding to family 11 xylanases using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Jänis, Janne; Hakanpää, Johanna; Hakulinen, Nina; Ibatullin, Farid M; Hoxha, Antuan; Derrick, Peter J; Rouvinen, Juha; Vainiotalo, Pirjo

    2005-05-01

    Noncovalent binding of thioxylo-oligosaccharide inhibitors, methyl 4-thio-alpha-xylobioside (S-Xyl2-Me), methyl 4,4II-dithio-alpha-xylotrioside (S-Xyl3-Me), methyl 4,4II,4III-trithio-alpha-xylotetroside (S-Xyl4-Me), and methyl 4,4II,4III,4IV-tetrathio-alpha-xylopentoside (S-Xyl5-Me), to three family 11 endo-1,4-beta-xylanases from Trichoderma reesei (TRX I and TRX II) and Chaetomium thermophilum (CTX) was characterized using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS and X-ray crystallography. Ultra-high mass-resolving power and mass accuracy inherent to FT-ICR allowed mass measurements for noncovalent complexes to within |DeltaM|average of 2 p.p.m. The binding constants determined by MS titration experiments were in the range 10(4)-10(3) M-1, decreasing in the series of S-Xyl5-Me>or=S-Xyl4-Me>S-Xyl3-Me. In contrast, S-Xyl2-Me did not bind to any xylanase at the initial concentration of 5-200 microM, indicating increasing affinity with increasing number of xylopyranosyl units, with a minimum requirement of three. The crystal structures of CTX-inhibitor complexes gave interesting insights into the binding. Surprisingly, none of the inhibitors occupied any of the aglycone subsites of the active site. The binding to only the glycone subsites is nonproductive for catalysis, and yet this has also been observed for other family 11 xylanases in complex with beta-d-xylotetraose [Wakarchuk WW, Campbell RL, Sung WL, Davoodi J & Makoto Y (1994) Protein Sci3, 465-475, and Sabini E, Wilson KS, Danielsen S, Schulein M & Davies GJ (2001) Acta CrystallogrD57, 1344-1347]. Therefore, the role of the aglycone subsites remains controversial despite their obvious contribution to catalysis.

  8. Prebiotic oligosaccharides in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Mark A; Kalanetra, Karen M; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Mirmiran, Majid; Barile, Daniela; Tancredi, Daniel J; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of increasing doses of 2 prebiotic oligosaccharides and of an "all-human diet" on the intestinal microbiota of premature infants. Twelve premature infants receiving formula feedings were randomly assigned to receive either galacto-oligosaccharide (F+GOS) or a pooled concentrated donor human milk product containing human milk oligosaccharides (F+HMO) in increasing doses during a 5-week period. A second group of 15 premature infants received their mother's own milk fortified with either a concentrated donor human milk product (H+H) or a bovine powdered fortifier (H+B). Serial stool specimens from each infant were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial composition. All of the infants studied had relatively low levels of bifidobacteria and no measurable Lactobacilli. Infants from the F+GOS and F+HMO groups demonstrated an increase in relative numbers of Clostridia with increasing doses. Compared with the H+B group, the infants in the F+HMO and the H+H groups showed an unexpected trend toward an increase in γ-Proteobacteria over time/dose. Principal coordinate analyses and Shannon diversity scores were not significantly different among the 4 groups. Infants in the H+H group received more antibiotics during the study period than those in the other groups. Two of the infants receiving GOS developed feeding intolerance. None of the prebiotic interventions resulted in significant increases in bifidobacteria compared with baseline specimens or the H+B group; however, many of the infants did not receive the highest doses of GOS and HMO, and antibiotic use in the H+H group was high.

  9. DORIS precise orbit determination and location system performances of ultra stable oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, M.

    1992-06-01

    Elements of the DORIS (Doppler precise positioning System) performances and performances of the DORIS USO (Ultra Stable Oscillators) are described. The DORIS system was designed and developed to meet new needs in precision orbit determination and high accuracy beacon location. DORIS payload was integrated on three French SPOT satellites and on the Topex-Poseidon NASA satellite. The first model DORIS SPOT 2 began operating on 22 Jan. 1990. The fundamental measurement precision depends strongly on the stability of USO, which are used in the onboard receiver, and in ground location beacons.

  10. Structures of sulfated oligosaccharides in human trachea mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Bhat, U R; Mendicino, J

    1993-09-08

    The structures of high molecular weight sulfated oligosaccharide chains in mucins purified from the sputum of a patient with cystic fibrosis and blood group H determinant were established. Reduced oligosaccharides released by treatment with alkaline borohydride were separated by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Agarose and a fraction containing multisulfated chains was further purified by lectin affinity chromatography to completely remove small amounts of sialylated chains. A major sulfated oligosaccharide fraction containing chains with an average of 160 to 200 sugar residues was isolated by gel filtration on BioGel P-10 columns and individual subfractions were characterized by methylation analysis, periodate oxidation and sequential glycosidase digestion before and after desulfation. Carbohydrate analysis yielded Fuc, Gal and GldNAc in a ratio of 1:2:2.1 and only one galactosaminitol residue for every 160- to 200 sugar residues. The average molecular weight of oligosaccharide chains in these fractions was between 27,000 and 40,000 daltons. Structural analysis showed that these high molecular weight chains contained varying amounts of the repeating unit shown in the following oligosaccharide. Only one in about every 10 repeating units contained sulfate esters. Several shorter chains which contain 2 to 3 sulfate esters were also isolated from this multisulfated oligosaccharide fraction. The structures proposed for these oligosaccharides indicate that they are lower molecular weight chains with the same general structure as those found in the high molecular weight sulfated oligosaccharides. Taken collectively, the results of these studies show that a major sulfated oligosaccharide fraction in respiratory mucin purified from the mucus of patients with cystic fibrosis contains high molecular weight branched chains that consist of a repeating oligosaccharide sequence with sulfate linked to the 6 positions of galactose and possibly GlcNAc residues in the side chains.

  11. High precision determination of bromine isotope ratio by GC-MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Faina; Halicz, Ludwik

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new methodology for the precise determination of bromine isotope ratio in individual organic compounds based on the simultaneous introduction of brominated organic compounds and strontium as an external spike into MC-ICPMS. Using the proposed methodology, an external precision (2[sigma]) up to 0.1[per mille sign] has been attained. The new approach for the bromine isotope ratio analysis could be applied for the investigating the fate of the organobromine compounds in the environment.

  12. Centroiding Experiment for Determining the Positions of Stars with High Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Araki, H.; Hanada, H.; Tazawa, S.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Niwa, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have experimented with the determination of the positions of star images on a detector with high precision such as 10 microarcseconds, required by a space astrometry satellite, JASMINE. In order to accomplish such a precision, we take the following two procedures. (1) We determine the positions of star images on the detector with the precision of about 0.01 pixel for one measurement, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon weighted means of the star images. (2) We determine the positions of star images with the precision of about 0.0001-0.00001 pixel, which corresponds to that of 10 microarcseconds, using a large amount of data over 10000 measurements, that is, the error of the positions decreases according to the amount of data. Here, we note that the procedure 2 is not accomplished when the systematic error in our data is not excluded adequately even if we use a large amount of data. We first show the method to determine the positions of star images on the detector using photon weighted means of star images. This algorithm, used in this experiment, is very useful because it is easy to calculate the photon weighted mean from the data. This is very important in treating a large amount of data. Furthermore, we need not assume the shape of the point spread function in deriving the centroid of star images. Second, we show the results in the laboratory experiment for precision of determining the positions of star images. We obtain that the precision of estimation of positions of star images on the detector is under a variance of 0.01 pixel for one measurement (procedure 1). We also obtain that the precision of the positions of star images becomes a variance of about 0.0001 pixel using about 10000 measurements (procedure 2).

  13. Comparison and Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Single-system Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. P.; Hao, J. M.; Deng, K.; Chen, Y. L.

    2016-09-01

    The method of double-difference dynamic precise orbit determination for BeiDou satellites by using both carrier phase and smoothed pseudo-range is presented. The data processing flows of zero-difference and double-difference dynamic precise orbit determination for BeiDou satellites are presented. And the two methods are analyzed. The precision of two methods is compared based on the real data. The results show that in the condition of stations layout and by using the two methods, the three-dimension precision of GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite) can reach about 1 m, and those of IGSO (Inclined Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite) and MEO (Medium Earth Orbit Satellite) can be better than 0.5 m. And the radial precision of the three kinds of orbit satellites can be all better than 10 cm. Compared with the zero-difference dynamic method, the orbit precision of GEO is better with the double-difference dynamic method, and that of IGSO is comparable, but that of MEO is worse.

  14. Accurate and precise determination of isotopic ratios by MC-ICP-MS: a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu

    2009-01-01

    For many decades the accurate and precise determination of isotope ratios has remained a very strong interest to many researchers due to its important applications in earth, environmental, biological, archeological, and medical sciences. Traditionally, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been the technique of choice for achieving the highest accuracy and precision. However, recent developments in multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) have brought a new dimension to this field. In addition to its simple and robust sample introduction, high sample throughput, and high mass resolution, the flat-topped peaks generated by this technique provide for accurate and precise determination of isotope ratios with precision reaching 0.001%, comparable to that achieved with TIMS. These features, in combination with the ability of the ICP source to ionize nearly all elements in the periodic table, have resulted in an increased use of MC-ICP-MS for such measurements in various sample matrices. To determine accurate and precise isotope ratios with MC-ICP-MS, utmost care must be exercised during sample preparation, optimization of the instrument, and mass bias corrections. Unfortunately, there are inconsistencies and errors evident in many MC-ICP-MS publications, including errors in mass bias correction models. This review examines "state-of-the-art" methodologies presented in the literature for achievement of precise and accurate determinations of isotope ratios by MC-ICP-MS. Some general rules for such accurate and precise measurements are suggested, and calculations of combined uncertainty of the data using a few common mass bias correction models are outlined.

  15. Oligosaccharides in Food and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    Oligosaccharides are an integral part of the daily diet for humans and animals. They are primarily used for their nutritional properties, however they are currently receiving much attention due to their physiological effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. Galacto-oligosaccharides and the fructan-type oligosaccharides, namely FOS and inulin are well established as beneficial to the host and are classified as prebiotic based on data from clinical studies. These compounds dominate this sector of the market, although there are oligosaccharides emerging which have produced very interesting in vitro results in terms of prebiotic status and human trials are required to strengthen the claim. Such compounds include pectic oligosaccharides, gluco-oligosaccharides, gentio-oligosaccharides, kojio-oligosaccharides, and alternan oligosaccharides. The raw materials for production of these prebiotic compounds are derived from natural sources such as plants but also from by products of the food processing industry. In addition to being prebiotic these compounds can be incorporated into foodstuffs due to the physiochemical properties they possess.

  16. Profiles of human milk oligosaccharides and production of some human milk oligosaccharides in transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pedro Antonio

    2012-05-01

    During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2'-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation.

  17. Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Production of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Animals12

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pedro Antonio

    2012-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Galβ1–4(Fucα1–3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2′-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

  18. Complex carbohydrates of red wine: characterization of the extreme diversity of neutral oligosaccharides by ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Doco, Thierry; Williams, Pascale; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Cheynier, Véronique; Sommerer, Nicolas

    2015-01-21

    The major neutral oligosaccharides of a Carignan red wine have been characterized for the first time. The oligosaccharides were prepared after removal of phenolic compounds by polyamide chromatography and of polysaccharides by alcohol precipitation and then were fractionated by anion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. In a second step, the glycosyl composition and linkages of wine oligosaccharides were determined. Oligosaccharide fractions were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and an ion trap mass analyzer after separation by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on a Nucleodur HILIC column (zwitterionic sulfoalkyl betaine stationary phase). Glycosyl residue composition analysis showed the predominant presence of arabinose, with galactose, rhamnose, and mannose in lower proportion. Neutral oligosaccharides were present at a concentration of 185 mg/L in this wine. The MS spectra in the negative ion mode of the oligosaccharide fractions showed a series of oligosaccharidic structures corresponding to oligo-arabinans often linked to the basic unit α-l-Rhap-(1 → 4)-α-d-GalpA. The wine oligosaccharides identified correspond to arabino-oligosaccharides, rhamno-arabino-oligosaccharides, and different rhamnogalacturonan-arabino-oligosaccharides with DP ranging from 5 to 49, resulting from the degradation of grape cell wall pectins. Oligosaccharides have an extreme diversity, with more than 100 peaks detected in HPLC-ESI-MS spectra corresponding each to at least one oligosaccharidic structure.

  19. Structural studies of sialylated oligosaccharides of human midcycle cervical mucin.

    PubMed

    Yurewicz, E C; Matsuura, F; Moghissi, K S

    1987-04-05

    It was previously shown that reductive alkali treatment of purified human cervical mucin releases a heterogeneous population of reduced neutral, sialylated, and sulfated oligosaccharides (Yurewicz, E. C., and Moghissi, K. S. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 11895-11904). Four major sialylated oligosaccharide fractions were isolated with approximate compositions of Fuc:GlcNac:Gal:NeuAc:N-acetylgalactosaminitol (GalNAcol) = 0:0:0:1:1 (B1a), 0:0:1:1:1 (B2b), 0:1:2:1:1 (B3a), and 1:1:2:1:1 (B4a), where Fuc is fucose. They comprised roughly 3, 11, 7, and 6% of recovered oligosaccharide chains, respectively. On the basis of periodate oxidations, methylation analyses, and sequential degradations with glycosidases, the following structures were determined. (Formula: see text) Oligosaccharides 1 and 2 are characterized by the presence of N-acetylneuraminic acid in alpha 2,6-linkage to N-acetylgalactosaminitol. The remaining oligosaccharides contain N-acetylneuraminic acid in alpha 2,3-linkage to galactose residues. Oligosaccharides 3 and 4 and oligosaccharides 5 and 6 were isolated as unresolved isomeric mixtures in fractions B3a and B4a, respectively. Oligosaccharides 3 and 4 were distinguished on the basis of susceptibility to digestion with Aspergillus niger beta-galactosidase whereas oligosaccharides 5 and 6 were distinguished on the basis of differential rates of digestion with beef kidney alpha-fucosidase. The structural data indicate the presence of at least two sialyltransferases in human cervical epithelium and further suggest a potential physiologically significant competition between sialyltransferase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase for C-6 of the N-acetylgalactosamine residue O-glycosidically linked to serine/threonine of the polypeptide core.

  20. Precise characterization of Guatemalan obsidian sources, and source determination of artifacts from Quirigua

    SciTech Connect

    Stross, F.H.; Sheets, P.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

    1983-01-01

    For the determination of provenience of obsidian artifacts, precise and accurate measurements of composition patterns of the geologic sources are necessary for definitive and cost-effective assignments. Inter-comparison of data from different laboratories is often difficult. Suggestions for maximizing the usefulness of data already in the literature are made, contributions to a useful data bank of source composition patterns are recorded, and provenience determinations of 30 artifacts excavated in Quirigua, Guatemala are presented to exemplify the technique.

  1. A high precision attitude determination and control system for the UYS-1 nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurais, J. R.; Ferreira, H. C.; Ishihara, J. Y.; Borges, R. A.; Kulabukhov, A. M.; Larin, V. A.; Belikov, V. V.

    This paper presents the design of a high precision attitude determination and control system for the UYS-1 Ukrainian nanosatellite. Its main task is the 3-axis stabilization with less than 0.5° angle errors, so the satellite may take high precision photos of Earth's surface. To accomplish this task, this system comprises a star tracker and three reaction wheels. To avoid external disturbances and actuators faults, a PD-type and a PID-type robust controllers are simulated and the results are compared to an empirically adjusted PD controller.

  2. The GLAS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Precision Orbit Determination (POD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rim, Hyung Jin; Yoon, S. P.; Schultz, Bob E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was the sole instrument for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry mission. The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to make ice sheet elevation measurements of the polar regions. Additional goals were to measure the global distribution of clouds and aerosols and to map sea ice, land topography and vegetation. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission to be used to determine the mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as for providing cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. The GLAS instrument operated from 2003 to 2009 and provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine changes in sea ice freeboard, land topography and vegetation around the globe, in addition to elevation changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. This document describes the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) algorithm for the ICESat mission. The problem of determining an accurate ephemeris for an orbiting satellite involves estimating the position and velocity of the satellite from a sequence of observations. The ICESatGLAS elevation measurements must be very accurately geolocated, combining precise orbit information with precision pointing information. The ICESat mission POD requirement states that the position of the instrument should be determined with an accuracy of 5 and 20 cm (1-s) in radial and horizontal components, respectively, to meet the science requirements for determining elevation change.

  3. Functional oligosaccharides: application and manufacture.

    PubMed

    Rastall, R A

    2010-01-01

    Oligosaccharides are attracting increasing interest as prebiotic functional food ingredients. They can be extracted or obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from a variety of biomass sources or synthesized from simple oligosaccharides by enzymatic transfer reactions. The major prebiotic oligosaccharides on the market are inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides. They have been evaluated using a range of in vitro and in vivo methods, although there is a need for more large-scale human trials using modern microbiological methods. Prebiotics are being studied for their effects on gut health and well being and specific clinical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), acute infections, and mineral absorption. Developing understanding of the functional ecology of the human gut is influencing current thinking on what a prebiotic might achieve and is providing new targets for prebiotic intervention.

  4. Highly sensitive derivatization reagents possessing positively charged structures for the determination of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun Zhe; Nagai, Keisuke; Shi, Qing; Zhou, Wenjun; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Lee, Yong-Ill; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-09-23

    We have developed three kinds of novel derivatization reagents (4-CEBTPP, 4-CBBTPP, 5-COTPP) with triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a basic structure carrying a permanent positive charge for resolution of the oligosaccharides in glycoprotein using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The synthesized reagents reacted with the sialylglycosylamine of the sialylglycopeptide after treatment by PNGase F. The final derivatives were analyzed by ESI-MS and sensitively detected in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Furthermore, the limits of detection (S/N=3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the fmol level (30fmol). Therefore, we used the limit of detection of the reagent products detected by the SRM and evaluated the utility of each reagent. Among the reagents, the positively charged 4-CEBTPP derivative's peak area was the highest; 4-CEBTPP with a positively charged structure showed about a 20 times greater sensitivity for the glycosylamine of the SGP product compared to the conventional fluorescence reagent, Fmoc-Cl. In addition, various fragment ions based on the carbohydrate units also appeared in the MS/MS spectra. Among the fragment ions, m/z 627.37 (CE=40eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP-GlcNAc and m/z 120.09 (CE=100eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP are the most important ones for identifying the oligosaccharide. 4-CEBTPP-SGA was easily identified by the selected-ion chromatogram in the product ion scan (m/z 120.09) and in the precursor ion scan (m/z 627.37) by MS/MS detection. The derivatized analytes have a high ionization efficiency and they are detected with a high sensitivity in the electrospray ionization. The novel derivatization reagent with a multi-function provided a higher sensitivity for the oligosaccharide analysis, as well as a better specificity and feasibility. Furthermore, several oligosaccharides in fetuin and ribonuclease B were successfully identified by the proposed procedure

  5. Sucrose and Related Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, Gillian

    Sucrose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↔2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is the most common low-molecular-weight sugar found in the plant kingdom. It is ubiquitously known as common table sugar and primarily produced industrially from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris); the basics of the industrial manufacture of sucrose are outlined in this chapter. Commercial sucrose has a very high purity (> 99.9%) making it one of the purest organic substances produced on an industrial scale. Value-addition to sucrose via chemical and biotechnological reactions is becoming more important for the diversification of the sugar industry to maintain the industries' competitiveness in a world increasingly turning to a bio-based economy. The basis for the chemical reactivity of sucrose is the eight hydroxyl groups present on the molecule, although, sucrose chemical reactivity is regarded as difficult. Increasing use of enzymatic biotechnological techniques to derivatize sucrose is expected, to add special functionalities to sucrose products like biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. Analysis of sucrose by colorimetric, enzymatic, oxidation-reduction and chromatography methods are discussed. Oligosaccharides related to sucrose are outlined in detail and include sucrose-based plant, honey and in vitro oligosaccharides.

  6. Stable isotope labeling of oligosaccharide cell surface antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.J.; Silks, L.A. III; Martinez, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    The overall goal of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to develop new methods for synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled oligosaccharides that are required for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of their solution conformation. Oligosaccharides are components of the cell`s outer surface and are involved in important processes such as cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Recently, Danishefsky and coworkers at Slone-Kettering Cancer Center developed a method for the solid-phase chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides. The specific goal of this LDRD project was to prepare uniform {sup 13}C-labeled aldohexose precursors required for the solid-phase synthesis of the Lewis blood-group antigenic determinants. We report the synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled D-glucal, D-galactal and Fucosyl precursors. We have been collaborating with the Danishefsky group on the synthesis of the Lewis oligosaccharides and the NMR analysis of their solution conformation.

  7. Precise determination of magnetic moment of a fluxoid quantum in a superconducting microring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Heonhwa; Kim, Yun Won; Lee, Soon-Gul; Choi, Mahn-Soo; Kim, Min-Seok; Choi, Jae-Hyuk

    2017-02-01

    Using dynamic cantilever magnetometry and experimentally determining the cantilever's vibrational mode shape, we precisely measured the magnetic moment of a lithographically defined micron-sized superconducting Nb ring, a key element for the previously proposed subpiconewton force standard. The magnetic moments due to individual magnetic fluxoids and a diamagnetic response were independently determined at T =4.3 K, with a subfemtoampere-square-meter resolution. The results show good agreement with the theoretical estimation yielded by the Brandt and Clem model within the spring constant determination accuracy.

  8. 40 CFR 80.584 - What are the precision and accuracy criteria for approval of test methods for determining the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the precision and accuracy....584 What are the precision and accuracy criteria for approval of test methods for determining the sulfur content of motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Precision....

  9. Precise momentum determination of the external COSY proton beam near 1930 MeV//c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betigeri, M. G.; Bojowald, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Drochner, M.; Ernst, J.; Förtsch, S.; Freindl, L.; Frekers, D.; Garske, W.; Grewer, K.; Hamacher, A.; Hawash, M.; Igel, S.; Ilieva, I.; Jahn, R.; Jarczyk, L.; Kemmerling, G.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Klimala, W.; Kolev, D.; Kutsarova, T.; Lieb, B. J.; Lippert, G.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Nann, H.; Plendl, H. S.; Protic, D.; Razen, B.; von Rossen, P.; Roy, B.; Siudak, R.; Smyrski, J.; Strzałkowski, A.; Tsenov, R.; Zolnierczuk, P. A.; Zwoll, K.; GEM Collaboration

    1999-05-01

    We present a method to determine precisely the absolute momentum of the external proton beam from the Jülich Cooler Synchrotron COSY near 1930 MeV /c. In the pp → d π+ reaction at 1930.477 MeV /c incident beam momentum, the forward going pions ( θ c.m.=0° ) and the backward going deuterons ( θ c.m.=180° ) have the same laboratory momentum. Such coincident pion-deuteron events are detected in the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer BIG KARL located at θ lab=0° . Using the nearly linear dependence of the difference between the measured pion and deuteron momenta as a function of the proton beam momentum, the absolute momentum of the external proton beam from COSY near 1930 MeV /c was determined with a precision of 5.2×10 -5.

  10. High-Precision Microwave Spectroscopy of Muonium for Determination of Muonic Magnetic Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, H. A.; Higashi, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Mizutani, T.; Tajima, M.; Tanaka, K. S.; Ueno, Y.; Fukao, Y.; Iinuma, H.; Ikedo, Y.; Kadono, R.; Kawamura, N.; Koda, A.; Kojima, K. M.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Nagamine, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Ogitsu, T.; Okubo, R.; Saito, N.; Sasaki, K.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Sugano, M.; Toyoda, A.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Ishida, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tomono, D.; Kanda, S.; Kubo, K.; Aoki, M.; Torikai, E.; Kawall, D.

    2016-02-01

    The muonium atom is a system suitable for precision measurements for determination of muon’s fundamental properties as well as for the test of quantum electrodynamics (QED). A microwave spectroscopy experiment of this exotic atom is being prepared at J-PARC, jointly operated by KEK and JAEA in Japan, aiming at an improved relative precision at a level of 10-8 in determination of the muonic magnetic moment. A major improvement of statistical uncertainty is expected with the higher muon intensity of the pulsed beam at J-PARC, while reduction of various sources of systematic uncertainties are being studied: those arising from microwave power fluctuations, magnetic field inhomogeneity, muon stopping distribution and atomic collisional shift of resonance frequencies. Experimental strategy and methods are presented in this paper, with an emphasis on our recent development of apparatuses and evaluation of systematic uncertainties.

  11. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  12. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) design and analysis. Two-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) focused chiefly on the two-axis gimballed star tracker and electronics design improved from that of Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS), and application of the improved tracker for PADS at geosynchronous altitude. System design, system analysis, software design, and hardware design activities are reported. The system design encompasses the PADS configuration, system performance characteristics, component design summaries, and interface considerations. The PADS design and performance analysis includes error analysis, performance analysis via attitude determination simulation, and star tracker servo design analysis. The design of the star tracker and electronics are discussed. Sensor electronics schematics are included. A detailed characterization of the application software algorithms and computer requirements is provided.

  13. Oligosaccharides: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Delzenne, N M

    2003-02-01

    Oligosaccharides, consisting of a mixture of hexose oligomers with a variable extent of polymerisation, are food products with interesting nutritional properties. They may be naturally present in food, mostly in fruits, vegetables or grains, or produced by biosynthesis from natural sugars or polysaccharides and added to food products because of their nutritional properties or organoleptic characteristics. The dietary intake of oligosaccharides is difficult to estimate, but it may reach 3-13 g/d per person (for fructo-oligosaccharides), depending on the population. The extent of resistance to enzymic reactions occurring in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract allows oligosaccharides to become 'colonic nutrients', as some intestinal bacterial species express specific hydrolases and are able to convert oligosaccharides into short-chain fatty acids (acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate) and/or gases by fermentation. Oligosaccharides that selectively promote some interesting bacterial species (e.g. lactobacilli, bifidobacteria), and thus equilibrate intestinal microflora, are now termed prebiotics. The pattern of short-chain fatty acid production in the caeco-colon, as well as the prebiotic effect, if demonstrated, are dynamic processes that vary with the type of oligosaccharide (e.g. extent of polymerisation, nature of hexose moieties), the duration of the treatment, the initial composition of flora or the diet in which they are incorporated. Experimental data obtained in vitro and in vivo in animals, and also recent data obtained in human subjects, support the involvement of dietary oligosaccharides in physiological processes in the different intestinal cell types (e.g. mucins production, cell division, immune cells function, ionic transport) and also outside the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. hormone production, lipid and carbohydrates metabolism). The present paper gives an overview of the future development of oligosaccharides, newly recognised as dietary

  14. On the Mitigation of Solar Index Variability for High Precision Orbit Determination in Low Earth Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-16

    and ANal- ysis ( OCEAN ) tool to evaluate solution accuracy and predictive capabilities of each combination. In all test cases examined, using either the...Orbit Covariance Estimation and ANalysis ( OCEAN ) high precision orbit deter- mination tool in order to determine the suitability of each model for...the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). There is an extensive body of work studying the

  15. Comparison of oligosaccharides in milk specimens from humans and twelve other species.

    PubMed

    Warren, C D; Chaturvedi, P; Newburg, A R; Oftedal, O T; Tilden, C D; Newburg, D S

    2001-01-01

    Human milk contains large amounts of many oligosaccharides, most of which are fucosylated; several inhibit pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and toxins that cause disease in humans. Although bovine milk is known to have much less and many fewer types of oligosaccharides, no studies heretofore have indicated whether the amount or complexity of human milk oligosaccharides is unique to our species. Toward this end, a comparison was made of the major individual oligosaccharides in milk specimens from a variety of species, including the great apes. The neutral compounds, which represent the bulk of oligosaccharides in human milk, were isolated, perbenzoylated, resolved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and detected at 229nm. Ambiguous structures were determined by mass spectrometry. All milk specimens contained lactose, although levels were quite low in bear and kangaroo milk. The types of oligosaccharides in milk specimens from the primates resembled those of human milk, but the amounts, especially of the larger molecules, were markedly lower. The relative amounts of oligosaccharides in the bonobo changed over the course of lactation, as they do in humans. Marine mammals generally had few oligosaccharides in their milk other than 2'-fucosyllactose. Grizzly and black bear milk specimens contained a wide range of oligosaccharides, many of which had novel, fucosylated structures. Milk specimens from humans, bears, and marsupials had the greatest quantity of, and the most complex, neutral oligosaccharides. Although human milk contained more oligosaccharide than did milk specimens from the other species studied, the presence of appreciable amounts of complex oligosaccharides was not unique to humans. This finding suggests that in animal milk specimens, as in human milk, neutral fucosylated oligosaccharides potentially offer protection from pathogens to offspring with immature immune systems.

  16. Precise orbit determination of Compass-M1: a primary result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baoqi

    On April 13, 2007, the first experiment satellite, Compass-M1, of China's the second generation Compass Navigation system was successfully launched. Unlike previous Compass satellites, Compass-M1 is the first satellite in medium earth orbit (MEO), and broadcast navigation signals in multi-frequencies in L-band. If signals were received from more than four satellites, users can determine their locations in a passive manner like using GPS. A primary result of precise orbit determination of Compass-M1 is presented in this paper. Five tracking stations, all located in China, are used. Double-frequency code and carrier phase observations are processed in zero-difference mode. Receiver and satellite clocks are modeled by linear or quadratic polynomial. The radiation pressure model is the so-called extended CODE orbit model, and an a priori model is introduced according to the size and physical attribute of Compass-M1. The solution is based on 3-day arc dynamical precise orbit determination. Estimated parameters include six keplerian orbit elements, two radiation pressure model parameters and clock polynomial coefficients. Orbit overlap difference and validating with SLR indicate that the accuracy of the precise orbit is quite exciting and exceeds our expectation.

  17. Precise orbit determination of the Fengyun-3C satellite using onboard GPS and BDS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Wenwen; Shi, Chuang; Jiang, Kecai; Guo, Xiang; Dai, Xiaolei; Meng, Xiangguang; Yang, Zhongdong; Yang, Guanglin; Liao, Mi

    2017-04-01

    The GNSS Occultation Sounder instrument onboard the Chinese meteorological satellite Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) tracks both GPS and BDS signals for orbit determination. One month's worth of the onboard dual-frequency GPS and BDS data during March 2015 from the FY-3C satellite is analyzed in this study. The onboard BDS and GPS measurement quality is evaluated in terms of data quantity as well as code multipath error. Severe multipath errors for BDS code ranges are observed especially for high elevations for BDS medium earth orbit satellites (MEOs). The code multipath errors are estimated as piecewise linear model in 2° × 2° grid and applied in precise orbit determination (POD) calculations. POD of FY-3C is firstly performed with GPS data, which shows orbit consistency of approximate 2.7 cm in 3D RMS (root mean square) by overlap comparisons; the estimated orbits are then used as reference orbits for evaluating the orbit precision of GPS and BDS combined POD as well as BDS-based POD. It is indicated that inclusion of BDS geosynchronous orbit satellites (GEOs) could degrade POD precision seriously. The precisions of orbit estimates by combined POD and BDS-based POD are 3.4 and 30.1 cm in 3D RMS when GEOs are involved, respectively. However, if BDS GEOs are excluded, the combined POD can reach similar precision with respect to GPS POD, showing orbit differences about 0.8 cm, while the orbit precision of BDS-based POD can be improved to 8.4 cm. These results indicate that the POD performance with onboard BDS data alone can reach precision better than 10 cm with only five BDS inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit satellites and three MEOs. As the GNOS receiver can only track six BDS satellites for orbit positioning at its maximum channel, it can be expected that the performance of POD with onboard BDS data can be further improved if more observations are generated without such restrictions.

  18. Experimental Study on the Precise Orbit Determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116

  19. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-03-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better.

  20. Quantitative aspects of microchip isotachophoresis for high precision determination of main components in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hradski, Jasna; Chorváthová, Mária Drusková; Bodor, Róbert; Sabo, Martin; Matejčík, Štefan; Masár, Marián

    2016-12-01

    Although microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is intended to provide reliable quantitative data, so far there is only limited attention paid to these important aspects. This study gives a general overview of key aspects to be followed to reach high-precise determination using isotachophoresis (ITP) on the microchip with conductivity detection. From the application point of view, the procedure for the determination of acetate, a main component in the pharmaceutical preparation buserelin acetate, was developed. Our results document that run-to-run fluctuations in the sample injection volume limit the reproducibility of quantitation based on the external calibration. The use of a suitable internal standard (succinate in this study) improved the repeatability of the precision of acetate determination from six to eight times. The robustness of the procedure was studied in terms of impact of fluctuations in various experimental parameters (driving current, concentration of the leading ions, pH of the leading electrolyte and buffer impurities) on the precision of the ITP determination. The use of computer simulation programs provided means to assess the ITP experiments using well-defined theoretical models. A long-term validity of the calibration curves on two microchips and two MCE equipments was verified. This favors ITP over other microchip electrophoresis techniques, when chip-to-chip or equipment-to-equipment transfer of the analytical method is required. The recovery values in the range of 98-101 % indicate very accurate determination of acetate in buserelin acetate, which is used in the treatment of hormone-dependent tumors. This study showed that microchip ITP is suitable for reliable determination of main components in pharmaceutical preparations.

  1. Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Human Rotavirus Infectivity in MA104 Cells.

    PubMed

    Laucirica, Daniel R; Triantis, Vassilis; Schoemaker, Ruud; Estes, Mary K; Ramani, Sasirekha

    2017-09-01

    Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood.Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains.Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells). Oligosaccharides were added at different time points in the infectivity assays. Infections in the absence of oligosaccharides served as controls.Results: When compared with infections in the absence of glycans, all oligosaccharides substantially reduced the infectivity of both human rotavirus strains in vitro; however, virus strain-specific differences in effects were observed. Compared with control infections, the maximum reduction in G1P[8] infectivity was seen with 2'FL when added after the onset of infection (62% reduction, P < 0.01), whereas the maximum reduction in G2P[4] infectivity was seen with the mixture of 3'SL + 6'SL when added during infection (73% reduction, P < 0.01). The mixture of 3'SL + 6'SL at the same ratio as is present in breast milk was more potent in reducing G2P[4] infectivity (73% reduction, P < 0.01) than when compared with 3'SL (47% reduction) or 6'SL (40% reduction) individually. For all oligosaccharides the reduction in infectivity was mediated by an effect on the virus and not on the cells.Conclusions: Milk oligosaccharides reduce the infectivity of human rotaviruses in MA104 cells, primarily through an effect on the virus. Although breastfed infants are directly protected, the addition of specific

  2. Precision orbit determination for TOPEX/Poseidon using TDRSS Doppler tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Doll, C. E.; Marshall, J. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; McCarthy, J. J.; Eddy, W. F.

    1995-08-01

    Precision orbit determination on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter satellite is now being routinely achieved with sub-5cm radial and sub-15 cm total positioning accuracy using state-of-the-art modeling with precision tracking provided by a combination of: (a) global Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), or (b) the Global Positioning System (GPS) Constellation which provides pseudo-range and carrier phase observations. The geostationary Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites are providing the operational tracking and communication support for this mission. The TDRSS Doppler data are of high precision (0.3 mm/s nominal noise levels). Unlike other satellite missions supported operationally by TDRSS, T/P has high quality independent tracking which enables absolute orbit accuracy assessments. In addition, the T/P satellite provides extensive geometry for positioning a satellite at geostationary altitude, and thus the TDRSS-T/P data provides an excellent means for determining the TDRS orbits. Arc lengths of 7 and 10 days with varying degrees of T/P spacecraft attitude complexity are studied. Sub-meter T/P total positioning error is achieved when using the TDRSS range-rate data, with radial orbit errors of 10.6 cm and 15.5 cm RMS for the two arcs studied. Current limitations in the TDRSS precision orbit determination capability include mismodeling of numerous TDRSS satellite-specific dynamic and electronic effects, and in the inadequate treatment of the propagation delay and bending arising from the wet troposphere and ionosphere.

  3. A Task-Analytic Approach to the Determination of Training Requirements for the Precision Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A task-analytic approach was used to evaluate the results from an experiment comparing two training methods for the "Precision Descent," a cockpit procedure designed to complement a new, computer-based air traffic control advisory system by allowing air traffic controllers to assign precise descent trajectories to aircraft. A task model was developed for the procedure using a methodology that represents four different categories of task-related knowledge: (1) ability to determine current flight goals; (2) ability to assess the current flight situation relative to those goals; (3) operational knowledge about flight-related tasks; and (4) knowledge about task selection. This model showed what knowledge experienced pilots already possessed, and how that knowledge was supplemented by training material provided in the two training conditions. All flight crews were given a "Precision Descent Chart" that explained the procedure's clearances and compliance requirements. This information enabled pilots to establish appropriate flight goals for the descent, and to monitor their compliance with those goals. In addition to this chart, half of the crews received a "Precision Descent Bulletin" containing technique recommendations for performing procedure-related tasks. The Bulletin's recommendations supported pilots in task selection and helped clarify the procedure's compliance requirements. Eight type-rated flight crews flew eight Precision Descents in a Boeing 747-400 simulator, with four crews in each of the two training conditions. Both conditions (Chart and Chart-with-Bulletin) relied exclusively on the use of those documents to introduce the procedure. No performance feedback was provided during the experiment. Preliminary result show better procedure compliance and higher acceptability ratings from flight crews in the Chart-with-Bulletin condition. These crews performed flight-related tasks less efficiently, however, using the simpler but less efficient methods suggested

  4. A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study to determine the gastrointestinal effects of consumption of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides enriched bread in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prebiotics are food ingredients, usually non-digestible oligosaccharides, that are selectively fermented by populations of beneficial gut bacteria. Endoxylanases, altering the naturally present cereal arabinoxylans, are commonly used in the bread industry to improve dough and bread characteristics. Recently, an in situ method has been developed to produce arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) at high levels in breads through the use of a thermophilic endoxylanase. AXOS have demonstrated potentially prebiotic properties in that they have been observed to lead to beneficial shifts in the microbiota in vitro and in murine, poultry and human studies. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled human intervention study was undertaken with 40 healthy adult volunteers to assess the impact of consumption of breads with in situ produced AXOS (containing 2.2 g AXOS) compared to non-endoxylanase treated breads. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in faeces were assessed and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to assess changes in gut microbial groups. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in saliva were also measured. Results Consumption of AXOS-enriched breads led to increased faecal butyrate and a trend for reduced iso-valerate and fatty acids associated with protein fermentation. Faecal levels of bifidobacteria increased following initial control breads and remained elevated throughout the study. Lactobacilli levels were elevated following both placebo and AXOS-breads. No changes in salivary secretory IgA levels were observed during the study. Furthermore, no adverse effects on gastrointestinal symptoms were reported during AXOS-bread intake. Conclusions AXOS-breads led to a potentially beneficial shift in fermentation end products and are well tolerated. PMID:22657950

  5. Photon flux determination for a precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, Aram

    2008-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Hall B PrimEx Collaboration is using tagged photons to perform a 1.4% level measurement of the absolute cross section for the photo-production of neutral pions in the Coulomb field of a nucleus as a test of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Such a high precision pushes the limits of the photon tagging technique in regards to the determination of the absolute photon flux. A multifaceted approach to this problem has included measuring the absolute tagging ratios with a Total Absorption Counter (TAC) as well as relative tagging ratios with a Pair Spectrometer (PS), and determining the rate of the tagging counters using multi-hit TDC's and a clock trigger. This enables the determination of the absolute tagged photon flux for the PrimEx experiment with uncertainty of ~ 1.0%, which is unprecedented. In view of the stringent constraints on the required precision of the photon flux for this experiment, periodicmeasurements of the pair production cross section were performed throughout the run. In these measurements, both the photon energy and flux were determined by the Jefferson Lab Hall B tagger, and the electron-positron pairs were swept by a magnetic field and detected in the new 1728 channel hybrid calorimeter (HyCal). The pair production crosssection was extracted with an uncertainty of ~ 2%, producing an agreement with theoretical calculations at the level of ~ 2%. This measurement provided a unique opportunity to verify the photon flux determination procedure for the PrimEx experiment.

  6. GNSS orbit determination by precise modeling of non-gravitational forces acting on satellite's body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, Agata; Kalarus, Maciej; Liwosz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Satellites orbiting around Earth are affected by gravitational forces and non-gravitational perturbations (NGP). While the perturbations caused by gravitational forces, which are due to central body gravity (including high-precision geopotential field) and its changes (due to secular variations and tides), solar bodies attraction and relativistic effects are well-modeled, the perturbations caused by the non-gravitational forces are the most limiting factor in Precise Orbit Determination (POD). In this work we focused on very precise non-gravitational force modeling for medium Earth orbit satellites by applying the various models of solar radiation pressure including changes in solar irradiance and Earth/Moon shadow transition, Earth albedo and thermal radiation. For computing influence of aforementioned forces on spacecraft the analytical box-wing satellite model was applied. Smaller effects like antenna thrust or spacecraft thermal radiation were also included. In the process of orbit determination we compared the orbit with analytically computed NGP with the standard procedure in which CODE model is fitted for NGP recovery. We considered satellites from several systems and on different orbits and for different periods: when the satellite is all the time in full sunlight and when transits the umbra and penumbra regions.

  7. Precise determination of seawater calcium using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hou-Chun; You, Chen-Feng; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Chen, Bao-Shan; Li, Yen

    2014-02-21

    We describe a method for rapid, precise and accurate determination of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentration in seawater using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). A 10 μL aliquot of seawater was spiked with an appropriate (43)Ca enriched solution for (44)Ca/(43)Ca ID-ICP-MS analyses, using an Element XR (Thermo Fisher Scientific), operated at low resolution in E-scan acquisition mode. A standard-sample bracketing technique was applied to correct for potential mass discrimination and ratio drift at every 5 samples. A precision of better than 0.05% for within-run and 0.10% for duplicate measurements of the IAPSO seawater standard was achieved using 10 μL solutions with a measuring time less than 3 minutes. Depth profiles of seawater samples collected from the Arctic Ocean basin were processed and compared with results obtained by the classic ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) titration. Our new ID-ICP-MS data agreed closely with the conventional EGTA data, with the latter consistently displaying 1.5% excess Ca(2+) values, possibly due to a contribution of interference from Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) in the EGTA titration. The newly obtained Sr/Ca profiles reveal sensitive water mass mixing in the upper oceanic column to reflect ice melting in the Arctic region. This novel technique provides a tool for seawater Ca(2+) determination with small sample size, high throughput, excellent internal precision and external reproducibility.

  8. Precise determination of the 235U reactor antineutrino cross section per fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate which among the reactor antineutrino fluxes from the decays of the fission products of 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Pu may be responsible for the reactor antineutrino anomaly if the anomaly is due to a miscalculation of the antineutrino fluxes. We find that it is very likely that at least the calculation of the 235U flux must be revised. From the fit of the data we obtain the precise determination σ235 = (6.33 ± 0.08) ×10-43cm2 /fission of the 235U cross section per fission, which is more precise than the calculated value and differs from it by 2.2σ. The cross sections per fission of the other fluxes have large uncertainties and in practice their values are undetermined by the fit.

  9. Determination of the half-life of 213Fr with high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisichella, M.; Musumarra, A.; Farinon, F.; Nociforo, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurement of half-life and Qα value of neutral and highly charged α emitters is a major subject of investigation currently. In this framework, we recently pushed half-life measurements of neutral emitters to a precision of a few per mil. This result was achieved by using different techniques and apparatuses at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) and GSI Darmstadt. Here we report on 213Fr half-life determination [T1/2(213Fr) = 34.14±0.06 s] at INFN-LNS, detailing the measurement protocol used. Direct comparison with the accepted value in the literature shows a discrepancy of more than three sigma. We propose this new value as a reference, discussing previous experiments.

  10. Precision Determination of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant G in HUST Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The Newtonian gravitational constant G holds an important place in physics. Though there have been about 300 published measurement values of G since the first laboratory measurement done by Cavendish over 200 years ago, its measurement precision is among the worst of all the fundamental physics constants. Up to now, even for the seven most precise values of G with their assigned uncertainties within 50 ppm, they are only consistent with each other in the range of about 500 ppm. It seems clear that further investigation and depression of more possible systematic errors are needed greatly for improving the accuracy of the G measurement. In order to find the unknown potential errors in different methods, the time-of-swing method and the angular-acceleration-feedback method are both used to determine the G value in our cave laboratory. In this talk, we will present some updated progress about the G measurement by means of these two different methods.

  11. Precise determination of the 113Cd fourth-forbidden non-unique β -decay Q value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, N. D.; Bollen, G.; Eibach, M.; Gulyuz, K.; Izzo, C.; Kandegedara, R. M. E. B.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Valverde, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Using Penning trap mass spectrometry, we have performed a precise determination of the Q value for the highly forbidden β decay of 113Cd. An independent measurement of the Q value fixes the end-point energy in a fit to the 113Cdβ -decay spectrum. This provides a strong test of systematics for detectors that have observed this decay, such as those developed for β β -decay searches in cadmium and other isotopes. It will also aid in the theoretical description of the β -decay spectrum. The result, Qβ=323.89 (27 ) keV , agrees at the 1.3 σ level with the value obtained from the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation [Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012), 10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003], but is a factor of almost four more precise. We also report improved values for the atomic masses of 113Cd,113In, and 112Cd.

  12. Determination of precise crystallographic directions for mask alignment in wet bulk micromachining for MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sajal Sagar; Pal, Prem; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Xing, Yan; Sato, Kazuo

    2016-12-01

    In wet bulk micromachining, the etching characteristics are orientation dependent. As a result, prolonged etching of mask openings of any geometric shape on both Si{100} and Si{110} wafers results in a structure defined by the slowest etching planes. In order to fabricate microstructures with high dimensional accuracy, it is vital to align the mask edges along the crystal directions comprising of these slowest etching planes. Thus, precise alignment of mask edges is important in micro/nano fabrication. As a result, the determination of accurate crystal directions is of utmost importance and is in fact the first step to ensure dimensionally accurate microstructures for improved performance. In this review article, we have presented a comprehensive analysis of different techniques to precisely determine the crystallographic directions. We have covered various techniques proposed in the span of more than two decades to determine the crystallographic directions on both Si{100} and Si{110} wafers. Apart from a detailed discussion of each technique along with their design and implementation, we have provided a critical analysis of the associated constraints, benefits and shortcomings. We have also summed up the critical aspects of each technique and presented in a tabular format for easy reference for readers. This review article comprises of an exhaustive discussion and is a handy reference for researchers who are new in the field of wet anisotropic etching or who want to get abreast with the techniques of determination of crystal directions.

  13. HALO--a Java framework for precise transcript half-life determination.

    PubMed

    Friedel, Caroline C; Kaufmann, Stefanie; Dölken, Lars; Zimmer, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Recent improvements in experimental technologies now allow measurements of de novo transcription and/or RNA decay at whole transcriptome level and determination of precise transcript half-lives. Such transcript half-lives provide important insights into the regulation of biological processes and the relative contributions of RNA decay and de novo transcription to differential gene expression. In this article, we present HALO (Half-life Organizer), the first software for the precise determination of transcript half-lives from measurements of RNA de novo transcription or decay determined with microarrays or RNA-seq. In addition, methods for quality control, filtering and normalization are supplied. HALO provides a graphical user interface, command-line tools and a well-documented Java application programming interface (API). Thus, it can be used both by biologists to determine transcript half-lives fast and reliably with the provided user interfaces as well as software developers integrating transcript half-life analysis into other gene expression profiling pipelines. Source code, executables and documentation are available at http://www.bio.ifi.lmu.de/software/halo.

  14. High-precision determination of iron oxidation state in silicate glasses using XANES

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Kelley, Katherine A.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Fischer, Rebecca A.

    2009-11-04

    Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and Moessbauer spectra were collected on natural basaltic glasses equilibrated over a range of oxygen fugacity (QFM - 3.5 to QFM + 4.5). The basalt compositions and fO{sub 2} conditions were chosen to bracket the natural range of redox conditions expected for basalts from mid-ocean ridge, ocean island, back-arc basin, and arc settings, in order to develop a high-precision calibration for the determination of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe in natural basalts. The pre-edge centroid energy, corresponding to the 1s {yields} 3d transition, was determined to be the most robust proxy for Fe oxidation state, affording significant advantages compared to the use of other spectral features. A second-order polynomial models the correlation between the centroid and Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe, yielding a precision of {+-} 0.0045 in Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe for glasses with Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe > 8%, which is comparable to the precision of wet chemistry. This high precision relies on a Si (311) monochromator to better define the Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} transitions, accurate and robust modeling of the pre-edge feature, dense fO{sub 2}-coverage and compositional appropriateness of reference glasses, and application of a non-linear drift correction. Through re-analysis of the reference glasses across three synchrotron beam sessions, we show that the quoted precision can be achieved (i.e., analyses are reproducible) across multiple synchrotron beam sessions, even when spectral collection conditions (detector parameters or sample geometry) change. Rhyolitic glasses were also analyzed and yield a higher centroid energy at a given Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe than basalts, implying that major variations in melt structure affect the relationship between centroid position and Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe, and that separate calibrations are needed for the determination of oxidation state in basalts and rhyolites.

  15. Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation of Protonated Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fentabil, Messele A.; Daneshfar, Rambod; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.

    2011-12-01

    The dissociation pathways, kinetics, and energetics of protonated oligosaccharides in the gas phase were investigated using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). Time-resolved BIRD measurements were performed on singly protonated ions of cellohexaose (Cel6), which is composed of β-(1 → 4)-linked glucopyranose rings, and five malto-oligosaccharides (Malx, where x = 4-8), which are composed of α-(1 → 4)-linked glucopyranose units. At the temperatures investigated (85-160 °C), the oligosaccharides dissociate at the glycosidic linkages or by the loss of a water molecule to produce B- or Y-type ions. The Y ions dissociate to smaller Y or B ions, while the B ions yield exclusively smaller B ions. The sequential loss of water molecules from the smallest B ions (B1 and B2) also occurs. Rate constants for dissociation of the protonated oligosaccharides and the corresponding Arrhenius activation parameters (Ea and A) were determined. The Ea and A-factors measured for protonated Malx (x > 4) are indistinguishable within error (~19 kcal mol-1, 1010 s-1), which is consistent with the ions being in the rapid energy exchange limit. In contrast, the Arrhenius parameters for protonated Cel6 (24 kcal mol-1, 1012 s-1) are significantly larger. These results indicate that both the energy and entropy changes associated with the glycosidic bond cleavage are sensitive to the anomeric configuration. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that formation of B and Y ions occurs through a common dissociation mechanism, with the position of the proton establishing whether a B or Y ion is formed upon glycosidic bond cleavage.

  16. On the Determination of the Blank Shape Contour for Thin Precision Parts Obtained by Stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Azaouzi, M.; Delameziere, A.; Naceur, H.; Batoz, J. L.; Sibaud, D.; Belouettar, S.

    2007-05-17

    The present study deals with the 'automatic' determination of the initial blank shape contour for 3D thin metallic precision parts obtained by stamping, knowing the 3D CAD geometry of the final part (the desired product). The forming process can involve several steps presented in this paper that consists in applying a heuristic method of optimization to find out the initial blank shape of thin precision metallic part in order to obtain a final part, with a required 3D geometry (specified). The purpose of the present approach is to replace the experimental trial and error optimization method used currently, which is expensive and time consuming. The principle of the 'heuristic' optimization method is to first estimate the blank shape using the Inverse Approach, then to compensate the shape error calculated in each node of the blank contour. The 'heuristic' optimization loop is done using a precise incremental code (Abaqus Explicit or Stampack) and, the iterations loop is stopped when the shape errors are within some initially fixed tolerances. The method is tested in the case of a special stamping process where the parts are pressed in one or more steps using a manual press, without blank holder and by the mean of tools having complex shape. The sensitivities of the process parameters regarding the optimal solution are investigated.

  17. The high-precision videometrics methods to determining absolute vertical benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinbo; Zhu, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    The mobile measurement equipment plays an important role in engineering measurement tasks and its measuring device is fixed with the vehicle platform. Therefore, how to correct the measured error in time that caused by swayed platform is a basic problem. Videometrics has its inherent advantages in solving this problem. First of all, videometrics technology is non-contact measurement, which has no effect on the target's structural characteristics and motion characteristics. Secondly, videometrics technology has high precision especially for surface targets and linear targets in the field of view. Thirdly, videometrics technology has the advantages of automatic, real-time and dynamic. This paper is mainly for mobile theodolite.etc that works under the environment of absolute vertical benchmark and proposed two high-precision methods to determine vertical benchmark: Direct-Extracting, which is based on the intersection of plats under the help of two cameras; Benchmark-Transformation, which gets the vertical benchmark by reconstructing the level-plat. Two methods both have the precision of under 10 seconds by digital simulation and physical experiments. The methods proposed by this paper have significance both on the theory and application.

  18. A demonstration of high precision GPS orbit determination for geodetic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.; Border, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    High precision orbit determination of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is a key requirement for GPS-based precise geodetic measurements and precise low-earth orbiter tracking, currently under study at JPL. Different strategies for orbit determination have been explored at JPL with data from a 1985 GPS field experiment. The most successful strategy uses multi-day arcs for orbit determination and includes fine tuning of spacecraft solar pressure coefficients and station zenith tropospheric delays using the GPS data. Average rms orbit repeatability values for 5 of the GPS satellites are 1.0, 1.2, and 1.7 m in altitude, cross-track, and down-track componenets when two independent 5-day fits are compared. Orbit predictions up to 24 hours outside the multi-day arcs agree within 4 m of independent solutions obtained with well tracked satellites in the prediction interval. Baseline repeatability improves with multi-day as compared to single-day arc orbit solutions. When tropospheric delay fluctuations are modeled with process noise, significant additional improvement in baseline repeatability is achieved. For a 246-km baseline, with 6-day arc solutions for GPS orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million (0.4-0.6 cm) for east, north, and length components and 8 parts in 100 million for the vertical component. For 1314 and 1509 km baselines with the same orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million for the north components (2-3 cm) and 4 parts in 100 million or better for east, length, and vertical components.

  19. Precision electron-capture energy in 202Pb and its relevance for neutrino mass determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, A.; Filianin, P.; Althubiti, N. A. S.; Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Cocolios, T. E.; Eliseev, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Neidherr, D.; Novikov, Yu.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2017-07-01

    Within the framework of an extensive programme devoted to the search for alternative candidates for the neutrino mass determination, the atomic mass difference between 202Pb and 202Tl has been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The obtained value Q_{EC} = 38.8(43) keV is three times more precise than the AME2012 value. While it will probably not lead to a replacement of 163Ho in modern experiments on the determination of the electron-neutrino mass, the electron capture in 202Pb would however allow a determination of the electron-neutrino mass on the few-eV level using a cryogenic micro-calorimeter.

  20. Independent Mars spacecraft precise orbit determination software development and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianguo; Yang, Xuan; Ye, Mao; Li, Fei; Jin, Weitong; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present an independent software for Mars spacecraft precise orbit determination and gravity field recovery we call the Mars Gravity Recovery and Analysis Software (MAGREAS), which is aimed to analyze tracking data from the Chinese Mars exploration mission and similar NASA and ESA Mars-related projects. The design structure, module distribution, and functions of the software are described in this manuscript. A detailed cross validation with the mature precise orbit determination platform Geodyn-II was done. Additionally, we use MAGREAS to process the MEX orbital tracking data with two-way and three-way tracking modes separately. Measurement residuals and the difference from the reconstructed ephemeris provided by Royal Observatory of Belgium indicate that our software is reliable. In addition to describe of our software and validate with Geodyn-II, we give a simulation case close to Chinese Mars exploration mission to indicate the application of our software. We present a simulation of a four-way tracking mode between Earth tracking station, Mars orbiter, and Mars lander to validate the effectiveness of our MAGREAS-based approach for Mars orbiter determination and lander positioning. Experimental results show that our proposed tracking mode significantly improves positioning accuracy. This work will provide a reference for the design of the Chinese Mars exploration mission as well as for the processing of Chinese Mars mission orbital tracking data.

  1. Precision determination of invisible-particle masses at the CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Alan J.; Ross, Graham G.; Serna, Mario

    2008-09-01

    We develop techniques to determine the mass scale of invisible particles pair-produced at hadron colliders. We employ the constrained mass variable m2C, which provides an event-by-event lower bound to the mass scale given a mass difference. We complement this variable with a new variable m2C,UB which provides an additional upper bound to the mass scale and demonstrate its utility with a realistic case study of a supersymmetry model. These variables together effectively quantify the “kink” in the function max mT2 which has been proposed as a mass-determination technique for collider-produced dark matter. An important advantage of the m2C method is that it does not rely simply on the position at the end point, but it uses the additional information contained in events which lie far from the end point. We found the mass by comparing the HERWIG generated m2C distribution to ideal distributions for different masses. We find that for the case studied, with 100fb-1 of integrated luminosity (about 400 signal events), the invisible particle’s mass can be measured to a precision of 4.1 GeV. We conclude that this technique’s precision and accuracy is as good as, if not better than, the best known techniques for invisible-particle mass determination at hadron colliders.

  2. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  3. DPOD2014: a new DORIS extension of ITRF2014 for Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, G.; Willis, P.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the tracking systems used to determine orbits of the altimeter mission satellites (such as TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1/2/3 & Cryosat-2), the position of the DORIS tracking stations provides a fundamental reference for the estimation of the precise orbits and so, by extension is fundamental for the quality of the altimeter data and derived products. Therefore, the time evolution of the position of both the existing and the newest DORIS stations must be precisely modeled and regularly updated. To satisfy operational requirements for precise orbit determination and routine delivery of geodetic products, the International DORIS Service maintains the so-called DPOD solutions, which can be seen as extensions of the latest available ITRF solution from the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). In mid-2016, the IDS agreed to change the processing strategy of the DPOD solution. The new solution from the IDS Combination Center (CC) consists of a DORIS cumulative position and velocity solution using the latest IDS combined weekly solutions. The first objective of this study is to describe the new DPOD elaboration scheme and to show the IDS CC internal validation steps. The second purpose is to present the external validation process made by an external team before the new DPOD is made available to all the users. The elaboration and validation procedures will be illustrated by the presentation of first version of the DPOD2014 (ITRF2014 DORIS extension) and focus will be given on the update of the position and velocity of two DORIS sites: Everest (after Gorkha earthquake M7.8 in April 2015) and Thule (Greenland).

  4. Improving BeiDou precise orbit determination using observations of onboard MEO satellite receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Haibo; Li, Bofeng; Ge, Maorong; Shen, Yunzhong; Schuh, Harald

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the precise orbit determination (POD) of the regional Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been a hot spot because of its special constellation consisting of five geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites and five inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites besides four medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites since the end of 2012. GEO and IGSO satellites play an important role in regional BDS applications. However, this brings a great challenge to the POD, especially for the GEO satellites due to their geostationary orbiting. Though a number of studies have been carried out to improve the POD performance of GEO satellites, the result is still much worse than that of IGSO and MEO, particularly in the along-track direction. The major reason is that the geostationary characteristic of a GEO satellite results in a bad geometry with respect to the ground tracking network. In order to improve the tracking geometry of the GEO satellites, a possible strategy is to mount global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers on MEO satellites to collect the signals from GEO/IGSO GNSS satellites so as that these observations can be used to improve GEO/IGSO POD. We extended our POD software package to simulate all the related observations and to assimilate the MEO-onboard GNSS observations in orbit determination. Based on GPS and BDS constellations, simulated studies are undertaken for various tracking scenarios. The impact of the onboard GNSS observations is investigated carefully and presented in detail. The results show that MEO-onboard observations can significantly improve the orbit precision of GEO satellites from metres to decimetres, especially in the along-track direction. The POD results of IGSO satellites also benefit from the MEO-onboard data and the precision can be improved by more than 50% in 3D direction.

  5. Precise determination of the heat delivery during in vivo magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia with infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Harley F.; Capistrano, Gustavo; Mello, Francyelli M.; Zufelato, Nicholas; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela; Bakuzis, Andris F.

    2017-05-01

    Non-invasive and real-time monitoring of the heat delivery during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH) is of fundamental importance to predict clinical outcomes for cancer treatment. Infrared thermography (IRT) can determine the surface temperature due to three-dimensional heat delivery inside a subcutaneous tumor, an argument that is supported by numerical simulations. However, for precise temperature determination, it is of crucial relevance to use a correct experimental configuration. This work reports an MNH study using a sarcoma 180 murine tumor containing 3.9 mg of intratumorally injected manganese-ferrite nanoparticles. MNH was performed at low field amplitude and non-uniform field configuration. Five 30 min in vivo magnetic hyperthermia experiments were performed, monitoring the surface temperature with a fiber optical sensor and thermal camera at distinct angles with respect to the animal’s surface. The results indicate that temperature errors as large as 7~\\circ C can occur if the experiment is not properly designed. A new IRT error model is found to explain the data. More importantly, we show how to precisely monitor temperature with IRT during hyperthermia, which could positively impact heat dosimetry and clinical planning.

  6. High-precision laser-assisted absolute determination of x-ray diffraction angles.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, K; Braun, J; Bruhns, H; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Mokler, P H; Ullrich, J

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for absolute wavelength determination in high-precision crystal x-ray spectroscopy recently introduced has been upgraded reaching unprecedented accuracies. The method combines visible laser beams with the Bond method, where Bragg angles (θ and -θ) are determined without any x-ray reference lines. Using flat crystals this technique makes absolute x-ray wavelength measurements feasible even at low x-ray fluxes. The upgraded spectrometer has been used in combination with first experiments on the 1s2p(1)P(1) → 1s(2)(1)S(0) w-line in He-like argon. By resolving a minute curvature of the x-ray lines the accuracy reaches there the best ever reported value of 1.5 ppm. The result is sensitive to predicted second-order QED contributions at the level of two-electron screening and two-photon radiative diagrams and will allow for the first time to benchmark predicted binding energies for He-like ions at this level of precision.

  7. High-precision laser-assisted absolute determination of x-ray diffraction angles

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, K.; Braun, J.; Bruhns, H.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Mokler, P. H.; Ullrich, J.

    2012-01-15

    A novel technique for absolute wavelength determination in high-precision crystal x-ray spectroscopy recently introduced has been upgraded reaching unprecedented accuracies. The method combines visible laser beams with the Bond method, where Bragg angles ({theta} and -{theta}) are determined without any x-ray reference lines. Using flat crystals this technique makes absolute x-ray wavelength measurements feasible even at low x-ray fluxes. The upgraded spectrometer has been used in combination with first experiments on the 1s2p {sup 1}P{sub 1}{yields} 1s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} w-line in He-like argon. By resolving a minute curvature of the x-ray lines the accuracy reaches there the best ever reported value of 1.5 ppm. The result is sensitive to predicted second-order QED contributions at the level of two-electron screening and two-photon radiative diagrams and will allow for the first time to benchmark predicted binding energies for He-like ions at this level of precision.

  8. A demonstration of sub-meter GPS orbit determination and high precision user positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy I.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Katsigris, Eugenia C.

    1988-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the submeter GPS (Global Positioning System) orbits can be determined using multiday arc solutions with the current GPS constellation subset visible for about 8 h each day from North America. Submeter orbit accuracy was shown through orbit repeatability and orbit prediction. North American baselines of 1000-2000 km length can be estimated simultaneously with the GPS orbits to an accuracy of better than 1.5 parts in 108 (3 cm over 2000 km distance) with a daily precision of two parts in 108 or better. The most reliable baseline solutions are obtained using the same type of receivers and antennas at each end of the baseline. Baselines greater than 1000 km distance from Florida to sites in the Caribbean region have also been determined with daily precision of 1-4 parts in 108. The Caribbean sites are located well outside the fiducial tracking network and the region of optimal GPS common visibility. Thus, these results further demonstrate the robustness of the multiday arc GPS orbit solutions.

  9. A proposed experimental method for interpreting Doppler effect measurements and determining their precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    The principal problem in the measurement of the Doppler reactivity effect is separating it from the thermal reactivity effects of the expansion of the heated sample. It is shown in this proposal that the thermal effects of sample expansion can be experimentally determined by making additional measurements with porous samples having the same mass and/or volume as the primary sample. By combining these results with independent measurements of the linear temperature coefficient and the computed temperature dependence of the Doppler coefficient the magnitude of the Doppler coefficient may be extracted from the data. These addiational measurements are also useful to experimentally determine the precision of the reactivity oscillator technique used to measure the reactivity effects of the heated sample.

  10. High-precision orbit determination for high-earth elliptical orbiters using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.; Estefan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Orbit covariance analyses pertaining to the Japanese VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP) MUSES-B satellite and to the International VLBI Satellite are presented. It is determined that a combination of Doppler and GPS measurements can provide the orbit accuracy required to support advanced radio interferometric experiments. For the VSOP, the required orbit accuracy of 130 m is easily met with two-way Doppler as the primary type of data; the 0.4 cm/s VSOP velocity requirement is also feasible provided that precise ground calibrations of tropospheric delays and station coordinates are available. It is concluded that combining the data from a VSOP GPS flight instrument with the ground GPS and two-way Doppler data will significantly enhance orbit determination accuracy in position and velocity.

  11. The rapid and precise determination of the optical thickness of thin coatings in a vacuum.

    PubMed

    van Heel, A C; van Vonno, W

    1967-05-01

    The classical interference experiment with a double slit is adapted for measuring the optical thickness (n - 1)d of transparent and slightly absorbing thin films on transparent or reflecting substrates and for measuring the geometrical thickness d of metal films on reflecting substrates. Also, a method is described for measuring in vacuum the optical thickness of transparent or slightly absorbing thin films on transparent substrates. Results are given of measurements on magnesium fluoride, silicon monoxide, and zinc sulfide films. The influence of admitting air into the vacuum chamber has been investigated. With the available arrangements, a precision of lambda/1000 in the determination of the optical or geometrical thickness is easily obtainable for all film thicknesses. A thickness determination can he completed in about 1 min.

  12. Robust Flight Path Determination for Mars Precision Landing Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kohen, Hamid

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents the application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to the problem of robust flight path determination for Mars precision landing. The robust flight path problem is defined here as the determination of the flight path which delivers a low-lift open-loop controlled vehicle to its desired final landing location while minimizing the effect of perturbations due to uncertainty in the atmospheric model and entry conditions. The genetic algorithm was capable of finding solutions which reduced the landing error from 111 km RMS radial (open-loop optimal) to 43 km RMS radial (optimized with respect to perturbations) using 200 hours of computation on an Ultra-SPARC workstation. Further reduction in the landing error is possible by going to closed-loop control which can utilize the GA optimized paths as nominal trajectories for linearization.

  13. High precision momentum calibration of the magnetic spectrometers at MAMI for hypernuclear binding energy determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaryan, A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Achenbach, P.; Ajvazyan, R.; Elbakyan, H.; Montgomery, R.; Nakamura, S. N.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schulz, F.; Toyama, Y.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a new method for absolute momentum calibration of magnetic spectrometers used in nuclear physics, using the time-of-flight (TOF) differences of pairs of particles with different masses. In cases where the flight path is not known, a calibration can be determined by using the TOF differences of two pair combinations of three particles. A Cherenkov detector, read out by a radio frequency photomultiplier tube, is considered as the high-resolution and highly stable TOF detector. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is demonstrated that the magnetic spectrometers at the MAMI electron-scattering facility can be calibrated absolutely with an accuracy δp / p ≤10-4 , which will be crucial for high precision determination of hypernuclear masses.

  14. Precision nuclear orientation measurements for determining mixed magnetic dipole/electric quadrupole hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, W. D.; Roman, P.; Marshak, H.

    1989-06-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the gamma-ray anisotropies from oriented160Tb nuclei produced by neutron activation of the central portion of a high-purity single crystal Tb slab. The magnetically saturated sample was studied over a wide temperature range from 18 mK to 150 mK. The temperatures were determined using precision resistance thermometry with in situ calibration by a magnetically shielded six-element superconducting fixed point device. Temperature stability during data acquisition was better than 0.1%, and least-squares fitting of the resulting temperature dependences of 0° and 90° anisotropies allowed both the magnetic dipole and the electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction frequencies to be determined with good accuracy. The weighted averages for 18 gamma rays are v M=1393.8 (8.1) MHz and v P=178.0 (2.1) MHz, in excellent agreement with NMR results on ion-implanted samples.

  15. Precise orbit determination of Multi-GNSS constellation including GPS GLONASS BDS and GALIEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaolei

    2014-05-01

    In addition to the existing American global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (GLONASS), the new generation of GNSS is emerging and developing, such as the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) and the European GALILEO system. Multi-constellation is expected to contribute to more accurate and reliable positioning and navigation service. However, the application of multi-constellation challenges the traditional precise orbit determination (POD) strategy that was designed usually for single constellation. In this contribution, we exploit a more rigorous multi-constellation POD strategy for the ongoing IGS multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) where the common parameters are identical for each system, and the frequency- and system-specified parameters are employed to account for the inter-frequency and inter-system biases. Since the authorized BDS attitude model is not yet released, different BDS attitude model are implemented and their impact on orbit accuracy are studied. The proposed POD strategy was implemented in the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software and can process observations from GPS, GLONASS, BDS and GALILEO together. The strategy is evaluated with the multi-constellation observations from about 90 MGEX stations and BDS observations from the BeiDou experimental tracking network (BETN) of Wuhan University (WHU). Of all the MGEX stations, 28 stations record BDS observation, and about 80 stations record GALILEO observations. All these data were processed together in our software, resulting in the multi-constellation POD solutions. We assessed the orbit accuracy for GPS and GLONASS by comparing our solutions with the IGS final orbit, and for BDS and GALILEO by overlapping our daily orbit solution. The stability of inter-frequency bias of GLONASS and inter-system biases w.r.t. GPS for GLONASS, BDS and GALILEO were investigated. At last, we carried out precise point positioning (PPP) using the multi

  16. A Framework for Precise Orbit Determination of Small Body Orbiting Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesar, Siamak G.

    Spacecraft flying in close proximity of small bodies face a very complex dynamical environment with numerous types of perturbing forces acting on them. Development of new techniques are needed for precise navigation of spacecraft in such environments. This study focuses on furthering our understanding of precise orbit determination of spacecraft in close proximity of small bodies via implementation of new methods for precise representation of strong and weak perturbing forces acting on spacecraft, such as the irregular gravitational field, strong solar radiation pressure effects, and thermal radiation pressure effects from the surface of small bodies. Solar radiation pressure is a strong perturbing force acting on spacecraft in the orbital environment of small bodies that constantly pushes the spacecraft in a general direction away from the Sun. The existence of strong solar radiation pressure effects creates a complex dynamical environment around asteroids and comets that results in a particular set of orbital regimes, such as the family of the terminator or close to terminator orbits, whose dynamical evolution may not be intuitive. Small perturbations caused by maneuver errors and other sources may lead to large deviations in a spacecraft trajectory from its nominal orbit. Understanding the evolution of errors and uncertainties in the orbital elements of spacecraft is a crucial piece of mission planning and spacecraft navigation. In this thesis, we derive analytical expressions that govern the secular motion of the perturbed orbital elements in an environment that is strongly perturbed by the solar radiation pressure effects. Furthermore, we study a framework based on a Fourier series expansion for precise representation of the solar radiation pressure and small body surface thermal radiation pressure effects on spacecraft. This method is utilized in generating precise orbit determination solutions for simulated spacecraft in orbit about small bodies in the

  17. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: orbit quality and gravity field estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mao, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of the Precision Orbit Determination work undertaken by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Science Team for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, in order to meet the position knowledge accuracy requirements (50-m total position) and to precisely geolocate the LRO datasets. In addition to the radiometric tracking data, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth stations and the spacecraft are made possible by a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. The LOLA timing system enables 5-s LR normal points with precision better than 10cm. Other types of geodetic constraints are derived from the altimetric data itself. The orbit geometry can be constrained at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). Due to the Moon's slow rotation, orbit solutions and normal equations including altimeter crossovers are processed and created in one month batches. Recent high-resolution topographic maps near the lunar poles are used to produce a new kind of geodetic constraints. Purely geometric, those do not necessitate actual groundtrack intersections. We assess the contributions of those data types, and the quality of our orbits. Solutions which use altimetric crossover meet the horizontal 50-m requirement, and perform usually better (10-20m). We also obtain gravity field solutions based on LRO and historical data. The various LRO data are accumulated into normal equations, separately for each one month batch and for each measurement type, which enables the final weights to be adjusted during the least-squares inversion step. Expansion coefficients to degree and order 150 are estimated, and a Kaula rule is still needed to stabilize the farside field. The gravity field solutions are compared to previous solutions (GLGM-3, LP150Q, SGM100h) and the geopotential predicted from the latest LOLA spherical harmonic expansion.

  18. Repeated Sampling to Determine the Precision of Estimating Nematode Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, D. P.; Barker, K. R.; Noe, J. P.; Koenning, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The first phase of this study involved repeated samplings of five fields using composite samples of 10, 20, 40, and 80 soil cores, to determine the precision of nematode assays. The second phase focused on randomly selecting two and four 2-ha subunits (data on Meloidogyne spp.) of 24 fields ranging from 6 to 40 ha and computing the precision of estimated means for these numbers ofsubunits versus the general field mean (based on all 2-ha subunits). Average numbers of nematodes from most samples containing Meloidogyne spp., Heterodera glycines, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Scutellonema brachyurum, and (or) Hoplolaimus galeatus were within 50% of the overall means. Coefficient of variation (CV) values were generally lower for 40 cores than for 10, 20, and 80 cores per sample. When data for all nematodes and fields were combined, this value was lowest for 40 and 80 cores. The CV values were higher for Meloidogyne spp. than for H. glycines. Means of two samplings increased the probability of obtaining numbers nearer the mean for that field than numbers from a single composite sample. For the second phase, population estimates of Meloidogyne spp. based on four 2-ha subunits generally were closer to field means than were those for two subunits. Sampling precision with these subunits diminished greatly in large fields with variable soils and (or) mixed cropping histories. Either two or four subunits gave population estimates within 3-20% of the field mean in most instances. The mean man hours required for sampling ca. 2-ha parcels of 4-20-ha fields was 0.54 hours. PMID:19287757

  19. Determining neutrino mass hierarchy by precision measurements in electron and muon neutrino disappearance experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.; Parke, S.J.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.; /Sao Paulo U.

    2006-07-01

    Recently a new method for determining the neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the effective values of the atmospheric {Delta}m{sup 2} measured in the electron neutrino disappearance channel, {Delta}m{sup 2}(ee), with the one measured in the muon neutrino disappearance channel, {Delta}m{sup 2}({mu}{mu}), was proposed. If {Delta}m{sup 2}(ee) is larger (smaller) than {Delta}m{sup 2} ({mu}{mu}) the hierarchy is of the normal (inverted) type. We re-examine this proposition in the light of two very high precision measurements: {Delta}m{sup 2}({mu}{mu}) that may be accomplished by the phase II of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment, for example, and {Delta}m{sup 2}(ee) that can be envisaged using the novel Moessbauer enhanced resonant {bar {nu}}{sub e} absorption technique. Under optimistic assumptions for the systematic uncertainties of both measurements, we estimate the parameter region of ({theta}{sub 13}, {delta}) in which the mass hierarchy can be determined. If {theta}{sub 13} is relatively large, sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} {approx}> 0.05, and both of {Delta}m{sup 2}(ee) and {Delta}m{sup 2}({mu}{mu}) can be measured with the precision of {approx} 0.5 % it is possible to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at > 95% CL for 0.3{pi} {approx}< {delta} {approx}< 1.7 {pi} for the current best fit values of all the other oscillation parameters.

  20. Precise determination of the heat delivery during in vivo magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia with infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Harley; Capistrano, Gustavo; Mello, Francyelli; Zufelato, Nicholas; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisangela; Bakuzis, Andris F

    2017-03-17

    Monitoring noninvasively and in real-time the heat delivery during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is of fundamental importance to predict clinical outcome for cancer treatment. Infrared thermography (IRT) can inform the surface temperature due to three-dimensional heat delivery inside a subcutaneous tumor, an argument that is supported by numerical simulations. However, for precise temperature determination, it is of crucial relevance to use a correct experimental configuration. This work reports a magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia study (MNH) using a sarcoma 180 murine tumor containing 3.9 mg of intratumorally injected manganese-ferrite nanoparticles. MNH was performed at low field amplitude and nonuniform field configuration. Five 30-minute in vivo magnetic hyperthermia experiments were performed, monitoring the surface temperature with fibre optical sensor and thermal camera at distinct angles with respect to the animal surface. The results indicate that temperature errors as huge as 7^{o}C can occur if the experiment is not properly designed. A new IRT error model is found to explain the data. More importantly, it is shown how to precisely monitor temperature with IRT during hyperthermia, which could positively impact heat dosimetry and clinical planning.

  1. Performance of BDS-3: Measurement Quality Analysis, Precise Orbit and Clock Determination.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin; Geng, Tao; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Wang, Bin

    2017-05-28

    Since 2015, China has successfully launched five experimental BeiDou global navigation system (BDS-3) satellites for expanding the regional system to global coverage. An initial performance assessment and characterization analysis of the BDS-3 is presented. Twenty days of tracking data have been collected from eleven monitoring stations. The tracking characteristics and measurement quality are analyzed and compared with the regional BDS (BDS-2) in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudo-range multipath, and noise. The preliminary results suggest that the measurement quality of BDS-3 outperforms the BDS-2 for the same type of satellites. In addition, the analysis of multipath combinations reveals that the problem of satellite-induced code biases found in BDS-2 seems to have been solved for BDS-3. Precise orbit and clock determination are carried out and evaluated. The orbit overlap comparison show a precision of 2-6 dm in 3D root mean square (RMS) and 6-14 cm in the radial component for experimental BDS-3 satellites. External validations with satellite laser ranging (SLR) show residual RMS on the level of 1-3 dm. Finally, the performance of the new-generation onboard atomic clocks is evaluated and results confirm an increased stability compared to BDS-2 satellite clocks.

  2. Evaluation of precision estimates for fiber-dimensional and electrical hygrometers for water activity determinations.

    PubMed

    Stroup, W H; Peeler, J T; Smith, K

    1987-01-01

    The precision of instruments used in 3 collaborative studies conducted within the Food and Drug Administration over a 4-year period (1981, 1982, 1984) for water activity (aw) determinations according to the official AOAC method is evaluated. Calibration responses of the instruments were tested for linearity over the aw range from 0.75 to 0.97. Average absolute percent difference between predicted and assigned aw values for the linear model ranged from 0.3 to 0.7% for a fiber-dimensional hygrometer (Abbeon) and 3 electrical hygrometers (Beckman, Rotronics, and Weather Measure). The calibration responses for another electrical hygrometer (Hygrodynamics) were nonlinear. The fiber-dimensional hygrometer yielded mean aw values and precision estimates that did not differ significantly from those obtained with the electrical hygrometers for (NH4)2SO4slush, KNO3 slush, sweetened condensed milk, pancake syrup, and cheese spread. However, the mean aw value for a soy sauce was 0.838 for the electrical hygrometers compared with 0.911 for the fiber-dimensional hygrometer. The fiber-dimensional hygrometer was affected by a volatile component(s) in the soy sauce that caused an erroneously high aw value. Pooled estimates of reproducibility (Sx) in the 3 studies were 0.008 for the fiber-dimensional hygrometer and 0.010 for the electrical hygrometers; these values were not significantly different from those reported in the study that verified the current official AOAC method.

  3. Precise orbit determination of a maneuvered GEO satellite using CAPS ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Hu, Xiaogong; Huang, Cheng; Yang, Qiangwen; Jiao, Wenhai

    2009-03-01

    Wheel-off-loadings and orbital maneuvers of the GEO satellite result in additional accelerations to the satellite itself. Complex and difficult to model, these time varying accelerations are an important error source of precise orbit determination (POD). In most POD practices, only non-maneuver orbital arcs are treated. However, for some applications such as satellite navigation RDSS services, uninterrupted orbital ephemeris is demanded, requiring the development of POD strategies to be processed both during and after an orbital maneuver. We in this paper study the POD for a maneuvered GEO satellite, using high precision and high sampling rate ranging data obtained with Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS). The strategy of long arc POD including maneuver arcs is studied by using telemetry data to model the maneuver thrust process. Combining the thrust and other orbital perturbations, a long arc of 6 days’ CAPS ranging data is analyzed. If the telemetry data are not available or contain significant errors, attempts are made to estimate thrusting parameters using CAPS ranging data in the POD as an alternative to properly account for the maneuver. Two strategies achieve reasonably good data fitting level in the tested arc with the maximal position difference being about 20 m.

  4. Performance of BDS-3: Measurement Quality Analysis, Precise Orbit and Clock Determination

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xin; Geng, Tao; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Since 2015, China has successfully launched five experimental BeiDou global navigation system (BDS-3) satellites for expanding the regional system to global coverage. An initial performance assessment and characterization analysis of the BDS-3 is presented. Twenty days of tracking data have been collected from eleven monitoring stations. The tracking characteristics and measurement quality are analyzed and compared with the regional BDS (BDS-2) in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudo-range multipath, and noise. The preliminary results suggest that the measurement quality of BDS-3 outperforms the BDS-2 for the same type of satellites. In addition, the analysis of multipath combinations reveals that the problem of satellite-induced code biases found in BDS-2 seems to have been solved for BDS-3. Precise orbit and clock determination are carried out and evaluated. The orbit overlap comparison show a precision of 2–6 dm in 3D root mean square (RMS) and 6–14 cm in the radial component for experimental BDS-3 satellites. External validations with satellite laser ranging (SLR) show residual RMS on the level of 1–3 dm. Finally, the performance of the new-generation onboard atomic clocks is evaluated and results confirm an increased stability compared to BDS-2 satellite clocks. PMID:28555027

  5. Precise Determination of the Lyman-1 Transition Energy in Hydrogen-like Gold Ions with Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Kiselev, O.; McCammon, D.; Scholz, P.

    2014-09-01

    The precise determination of the transition energy of the Lyman-1 line in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. We report the determination of the Lyman-1 transition energy of gold ions (Au) with microcalorimeters at the experimental storage ring at GSI. X-rays produced by the interaction of 125 MeV/u Au ions with an internal argon gas-jet target were detected. The detector array consisted of 14 pixels with silicon thermistors and Sn absorbers, for which an energy resolution of 50 eV for an X-ray energy of 59.5 keV was obtained in the laboratory. The Lyman-1 transition energy was determined for each pixel in the laboratory frame, then transformed into the emitter frame and averaged. A Dy-159 source was used for energy calibration. The absolute positions of the detector pixels, which are needed for an accurate correction of the Doppler shift, were determined by topographic measurements and by scanning a collimated Am-241 source across the cryostat window. The energy of the Lyman-1 line in the emitter frame is eV, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the position of the cryostat relative to the interaction region of beam and target.

  6. Quantitation and structures of oligosaccharide chains in human trachea mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Bhat, U R; Mendicino, J

    1992-12-02

    Human respiratory mucin glycoproteins from patients with cystic fibrosis were purified and oligosaccharide chains were released by treatment with alkaline borohydride. A neutral oligosaccharide alditol fraction was isolated from mucin obtained from a patient with A blood group determinant by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and individual oligosaccharide chains were then isolated by gel filtration on BioGel P-6 columns and high performance liquid chromatography with gradient and isocratic solvent systems. The structures of the purified oligosaccharides were determined by methylation analysis, sequential glycosidase digestion and 'H-NMR spectroscopy. The amount of each chain was determined by compositional analysis. A wide array of discrete branched oligosaccharide structures that contain from 3 to 22 sugar residues were found. Many of the oligosaccharides are related and appear to be precursors of larger chains. The predominant branched oligosaccharides which accumulate contain terminal blood group H (Fuc alpha 2Ga1 beta 4) or blood group A (Fuc alpha 2(Ga1NAc alpha 3) (Ga1 beta 4) determinants which stop further branching and chain elongation. The elongation of oligosaccharide chains in respiratory mucins occurs on the beta 3-linked G1cNAc at branch points, whereas the beta 6-linked G1cNAc residue ultimately forms short side chains with a Fuc alpha 2(Ga1NAc alpha 3) Ga1 beta 4 G1cNAc beta 6 structure in individuals with A blood group determinant. The results obtained in the current studies further suggest that even higher molecular weight oligosaccharide chains with analogous branched structures are present in some human respiratory mucin glycoproteins. Increasing numbers of the repeating sequence shown in the oligosaccharide below is present in the higher molecular weight chains. [formula: see text] This data in conjunction with our earlier observations on the extensive branching of these oligosaccharide chains helps to define and explain the enormous range of

  7. Inulin Potential for Enzymatic Obtaining of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Flores, Adriana C; Morlett, Jesús A; Rodríguez, Raúl

    2016-08-17

    Oligosaccharides have been marketed since the 80s as low-calorie agents and recently have gained interest in the pharmaceutical and food industry as functional sweeteners and prebiotic enriching population of Bifidobacteria. Currently, they have an approximated value of $200 per kg and recently, inulin has been proposed as a feedstock for production of oligosaccharides through selective hydrolysis by action of endoinulinase. High optimum temperature (60°C) and thermostability are two important criteria that determine suitability of this enzyme for industrial applications as well as enzyme cost, a major limiting factor. Significant reduction in cost can be achieved by employing low-value and abundant inulin-rich plants as Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia, yacon, garlic, and onion, among others. In general, the early harvested tubers of these plants contain a greater amount of highly polymerized sugar fractions, which offer more industrial value than late-harvested tubers or those after storage. Also, development of recombinant microorganisms could be useful to reduce the cost of enzyme technology for large-scale production of oligosaccharides. In the case of fungal inulinases, several studies of cloning and modification have been made to achieve greater efficiency. The present paper reviews inulin from vegetable sources as feedstock for oligosaccharides production through the action of inulinases, the impact of polymerization degree of inulin and its availability, and some strategies to increase oligosaccharide production.

  8. Invited Article: A precise instrument to determine the Planck constant, and the future kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, D.; Seifert, F.; Chao, L. S.; Li, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Williams, C.; Schlamminger, S.

    2016-06-01

    A precise instrument, called a watt balance, compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second, and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct link between mechanical action and the Planck constant is established by the practical realization of the electrical units derived from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects. We describe in this paper the fourth-generation watt balance at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and report our initial determination of the Planck constant obtained from data taken in late 2015 and the beginning of 2016. A comprehensive analysis of the data and the associated uncertainties led to the SI value of the Planck constant, h = 6.626 069 83(22) × 10-34 J s. The relative standard uncertainty associated with this result is 34 × 10-9.

  9. SURFING: A Program for Precise Determination of Sample Position in Stress Measurements Via Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.-Q.

    2000-08-08

    Precise determination of the specimen position relative to the sampling volume for texture and stress measurements by neutron diffraction is difficult or sometimes impossible using only optical devices due to large or irregular sample dimensions and/or complicated shape of the sampling volume. The knowledge of the shape and size of the sampling volume allows development of a general mathematical model for the intensity variation with a parallelogram-shape sampling volume moving from outside to inside the specimen for both transmission and reflection geometric set-ups. Both fixed slits and radial collimators are options in defining the geometrical setup. The attenuation by the sample also has been taken into account in this model. Experimental results agree well with the model calculations. The program SURFING is based on the model calculation and was written in Labwindows/CVI{copyright}.

  10. Advanced application flight experiments precision attitude determination system. Volume 2: System tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The performance capability of each of two precision attitude determination systems (PADS), one using a strapdown star tracker, and the other using a single-axis gimbal star tracker was measured in the laboratory under simulated orbit conditions. The primary focus of the evaluation was on the contribution to the total system accuracy by the star trackers, and the effectiveness of the software algorithms in functioning with actual sensor signals. A brief description of PADS, the laboratory test configuration and the test facility, is given along with a discussion of the data handling and display, laboratory computer programs, PADS performance evaluation programs, and the strapdown and gimbal system tests. Results are presented and discussed.

  11. Precision Determination of the Small-x Gluon from Charm Production at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauld, Rhorry; Rojo, Juan

    2017-02-01

    The small-x gluon in global fits of parton distributions is affected by large uncertainties from the lack of direct experimental constraints. In this Letter, we provide a precision determination of the small-x gluon from the exploitation of forward charm production data provided by LHCb for three different center-of-mass (c.m.) energies: 5 TeV, 7 TeV, and 13 TeV. The LHCb measurements are included in the parton distribution function (PDF) fit by means of normalized distributions and cross-section ratios between data taken at different c.m. values, R13 /7 and R13 /5. We demonstrate that forward charm production leads to a reduction of the PDF uncertainties of the gluon down to x ≃10-6 by up to an order of magnitude, with implications for high-energy colliders, cosmic ray physics, and neutrino astronomy.

  12. Analytical methodology for determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements. [pilot workload and acceptance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic analytical approach to the determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements is formulated. The approach is based upon the hypothesis that pilot acceptance level or opinion rating of a given system is inversely related to the degree of pilot involvement in the control task. A nonlinear simulation of the helicopter approach to landing task incorporating appropriate models for UH-1H aircraft, the environmental disturbances and the human pilot was developed as a tool for evaluating the pilot acceptance hypothesis. The simulated pilot model is generic in nature and includes analytical representation of the human information acquisition, processing, and control strategies. Simulation analyses in the flight director mode indicate that the pilot model used is reasonable. Results of the simulation are used to identify candidate pilot workload metrics and to test the well known performance-work-load relationship. A pilot acceptance analytical methodology is formulated as a basis for further investigation, development and validation.

  13. High precision mapping of kidney stones using μ-IR spectroscopy to determine urinary lithogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Francisco; Ortiz-Alías, Pilar; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Evolution of urinary lithiasis is determined by the metabolism and life-style of the related patient. The appropriate classification of the stone is mandatory for the identification of the lithogenic process. In this study, cros-sections from a single stone of each of the most frequent urolithiasis types (calcium oxalate mono and dihydrate and carbonate apatite) have been selected and imaged using IR microspectroscopy. Moreover, the use of high definition sFTIR (synchrotron source) has revealed hidden information to the conventional FTIR. This work has demonstrated that minor components become key factors on the description of the stages of stone formation. Intensity map for COM (1630 cm(-1) peak). The high spatial definition achieved is key for the precise description of the kidney stone history. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Precise Orbit Determination for LEO Spacecraft Using GNSS Tracking Data from Multiple Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Da; Bertiger, William; Desai, Shailen; Haines, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To support various applications, certain Earth-orbiting spacecrafts (e.g., SRTM, COSMIC) use multiple GNSS antennas to provide tracking data for precise orbit determination (POD). POD using GNSS tracking data from multiple antennas poses some special technical issues compared to the typical single-antenna approach. In this paper, we investigate some of these issues using both real and simulated data. Recommendations are provided for POD with multiple GNSS antennas and for antenna configuration design. The observability of satellite position with multiple antennas data is compared against single antenna case. The impact of differential clock (line biases) and line-of-sight (up, along-track, and cross-track) on kinematic and reduced-dynamic POD is evaluated. The accuracy of monitoring the stability of the spacecraft structure by simultaneously performing POD of the spacecraft and relative positioning of the multiple antennas is also investigated.

  15. High-Precision Determination of the Pion-Nucleon σ Term from Roy-Steiner Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoferichter, Martin; Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-08-01

    We present a determination of the pion-nucleon (π N ) σ term σπ N based on the Cheng-Dashen low-energy theorem (LET), taking advantage of the recent high-precision data from pionic atoms to pin down the π N scattering lengths as well as of constraints from analyticity, unitarity, and crossing symmetry in the form of Roy-Steiner equations to perform the extrapolation to the Cheng-Dashen point in a reliable manner. With isospin-violating corrections included both in the scattering lengths and the LET, we obtain σπ N=(59.1 ±1.9 ±3.0 ) MeV =(59.1 ±3.5 ) MeV , where the first error refers to uncertainties in the π N amplitude and the second to the LET. Consequences for the scalar nucleon couplings relevant for the direct detection of dark matter are discussed.

  16. Precision Determination of the Small-x Gluon from Charm Production at LHCb.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Rhorry; Rojo, Juan

    2017-02-17

    The small-x gluon in global fits of parton distributions is affected by large uncertainties from the lack of direct experimental constraints. In this Letter, we provide a precision determination of the small-x gluon from the exploitation of forward charm production data provided by LHCb for three different center-of-mass (c.m.) energies: 5 TeV, 7 TeV, and 13 TeV. The LHCb measurements are included in the parton distribution function (PDF) fit by means of normalized distributions and cross-section ratios between data taken at different c.m. values, R_{13/7} and R_{13/5}. We demonstrate that forward charm production leads to a reduction of the PDF uncertainties of the gluon down to x≃10^{-6} by up to an order of magnitude, with implications for high-energy colliders, cosmic ray physics, and neutrino astronomy.

  17. Invited Article: A precise instrument to determine the Planck constant, and the future kilogram

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, D. Seifert, F.; Williams, C.; Chao, L. S.; Li, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Schlamminger, S.

    2016-06-15

    A precise instrument, called a watt balance, compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second, and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct link between mechanical action and the Planck constant is established by the practical realization of the electrical units derived from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects. We describe in this paper the fourth-generation watt balance at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and report our initial determination of the Planck constant obtained from data taken in late 2015 and the beginning of 2016. A comprehensive analysis of the data and the associated uncertainties led to the SI value of the Planck constant, h = 6.626 069 83(22) × 10{sup −34} J s. The relative standard uncertainty associated with this result is 34 × 10{sup −9}.

  18. A Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon TDRESS-based Operational Orbit Determination Results with the Precision Orbit Ephemeris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frauenholz, R. B.; Bhat, R. S.; Shapiro, B. E.; Leavitt, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Since its' launch on August 10, 1992, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite hs successfully observed the earth's ocean circulation using a combination of precision orbit determination (POD) and dual-frequency radar altimetry.

  19. Entry Abort Determination Using Non-Adaptive Neural Networks for Mars Precision Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybeal, Sarah R.; Kranzusch, Kara M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will attempt the first precision landing on Mars using a modified version of the Apollo Earth entry guidance program. The guidance routine, Entry Terminal Point Controller (ETPC), commands the deployment of a supersonic parachute after converging the range to the landing target. For very dispersed cases, ETPC may not converge the range to the target and safely command parachute deployment within Mach number and dynamic pressure constraints. A full-lift up abort can save 85% of these failed trajectories while abandoning the precision landing objective. Though current MSL requirements do not call for an abort capability, an autonomous abort capability may be desired, for this mission or future Mars precision landers, to make the vehicle more robust. The application of artificial neural networks (NNs) as an abort determination technique was evaluated by personnel at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC). In order to implement an abort, a failed trajectory needs to be recognized in real time. Abort determination is dependent upon several trajectory parameters whose relationships to vehicle survival are not well understood, and yet the lander must be trained to recognize unsafe situations. Artificial neural networks (NNs) provide a way to model these parameters and can provide MSL with the artificial intelligence necessary to independently declare an abort. Using the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission as a case study, a non-adaptive NN was designed, trained and tested using Monte Carlo simulations of MSL descent and incorporated into ETPC. Neural network theory, the development history of the MSL NN, and initial testing with severe dust storm entry trajectory cases are discussed in Reference 1 and will not be repeated here. That analysis demonstrated that NNs are capable of recognizing failed descent trajectories and can significantly increase the survivability of MSL for very

  20. Aerosol optical depth determination in the UV using a four-channel precision filter radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlund, Thomas; Kouremeti, Natalia; Kazadzis, Stelios; Gröbner, Julian

    2017-03-01

    The determination of aerosol properties, especially the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength region, is of great importance for understanding the climatological variability of UV radiation. However, operational retrievals of AOD at the biologically most harmful wavelengths in the UVB are currently only made at very few places. This paper reports on the UVPFR (UV precision filter radiometer) sunphotometer, a stable and robust instrument that can be used for AOD retrievals at four UV wavelengths. Instrument characteristics and results of Langley calibrations at a high-altitude site were presented. It was shown that due to the relatively wide spectral response functions of the UVPFR, the calibration constants (V0) derived from Langley plot calibrations underestimate the true extraterrestrial signals. Accordingly, correction factors were introduced. In addition, the instrument's spectral response functions also result in an apparent air-mass-dependent decrease in ozone optical depth used in the AOD determinations. An adjusted formula for the calculation of AOD, with a correction term dependent on total column ozone amount and ozone air mass, was therefore introduced. Langley calibrations performed 13-14 months apart resulted in sensitivity changes of ≤ 1.1 %, indicating good instrument stability. Comparison with a high-accuracy standard precision filter radiometer, measuring AOD at 368-862 nm wavelengths, showed consistent results. Also, very good agreement was achieved by comparing the UVPFR with AOD at UVB wavelengths derived with a Brewer spectrophotometer, which was calibrated against the UVPFR at an earlier date. Mainly due to non-instrumental uncertainties connected with ozone optical depth, the total uncertainty of AOD in the UVB is higher than that reported from AOD instruments measuring in UVA and visible ranges. However, the precision can be high among instruments using harmonized algorithms for ozone and Rayleigh optical depth as

  1. DPTRAJ/ODP - DOUBLE PRECISION TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS AND ORBIT DETERMINATION PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckheimer, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Double Precision Trajectory Analysis Program, DPTRAJ, and the Orbit Determination Program, ODP, have been developed and improved over the years to provide the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory with a highly reliable and accurate navigation capability for their deep space missions such as VOYAGER. DPTRAJ and ODP are each collections of programs which work together to provide the desired computational results. DPTRAJ, ODP, and their supporting utility programs are capable of handling the massive amounts of data and performing the various numerical calculations required for solving the navigation problems associated with planetary fly-by and lander missions. They were used extensively in support of NASA's VOYAGER project. DPTRAJ produces a spacecraft ephemeris by numerical integration of the equations of motion, which can be formulated using a full set of acceleration models. For each particular trajectory case the extent of the modeling employed and the precision of the integration process are controlled by user input specifications. The equation of motion used includes four types of terms. An acceleration term accounts for the basic conic motion of the spacecraft with respect to the central body. Terms that measure the attraction of the perturbing bodies on the spacecraft and terms that indirectly affect the motion as perturbations on the central body may be included. Terms are also provided to account for other gravitational and non-gravitational effects on the motion. ODP's function is the processing of the observational data in order to compute precise estimates of the spacecraft, or lander, position coordinate histories. This function is executed by processing the observation data and auxiliary calibration information. ODP also computes a spacecraft state vector, or a lander position vector, along with parameters which define the acceleration. The heart of the ODP process is a data fitting subprocess in which validated, edited, and corrected observational data

  2. Entry Abort Determination Using Non-Adaptive Neural Networks for Mars Precision Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybeal, Sarah R.; Kranzusch, Kara M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will attempt the first precision landing on Mars using a modified version of the Apollo Earth entry guidance program. The guidance routine, Entry Terminal Point Controller (ETPC), commands the deployment of a supersonic parachute after converging the range to the landing target. For very dispersed cases, ETPC may not converge the range to the target and safely command parachute deployment within Mach number and dynamic pressure constraints. A full-lift up abort can save 85% of these failed trajectories while abandoning the precision landing objective. Though current MSL requirements do not call for an abort capability, an autonomous abort capability may be desired, for this mission or future Mars precision landers, to make the vehicle more robust. The application of artificial neural networks (NNs) as an abort determination technique was evaluated by personnel at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC). In order to implement an abort, a failed trajectory needs to be recognized in real time. Abort determination is dependent upon several trajectory parameters whose relationships to vehicle survival are not well understood, and yet the lander must be trained to recognize unsafe situations. Artificial neural networks (NNs) provide a way to model these parameters and can provide MSL with the artificial intelligence necessary to independently declare an abort. Using the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission as a case study, a non-adaptive NN was designed, trained and tested using Monte Carlo simulations of MSL descent and incorporated into ETPC. Neural network theory, the development history of the MSL NN, and initial testing with severe dust storm entry trajectory cases are discussed in Reference 1 and will not be repeated here. That analysis demonstrated that NNs are capable of recognizing failed descent trajectories and can significantly increase the survivability of MSL for very

  3. Precision geoid determination by spherical FFT in and around the Korean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, H.-S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the precision geoid determination by a gravimetric solution in and around the Korean peninsula. A number of data files were compiled for this work, containing now more than 69,900 point gravity data on land and ocean areas. The EGM96 global geopotential model to degree 360 was used in order to determine the long wavelength effect of the geoid surface. By applying the remove-restore technique the geoid undulations were determined by combining a geopotential model, mean free-air gravity anomalies and height in a Digital Elevation Model (DEM)null. Computation involves a spherical approximation to conduct the Stokes' integration by a two dimensional spherical Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with 100% zero-padding. A terrain correction was also computed by FFT with a spherical approximation of the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) terrain correction integration. Accuracy estimates are given for absolute geoid undulations using 78 GPS/Leveling stations. The comparative evaluation gives the bias of 0.187 meters and standard deviation of 0.28 meters, respectively. The relative accuracy achieved was of the order of 3.1 ppm for baselines between 10 and 350 kilometers.

  4. The ST5000: a high-precision star tracker and attitude determination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, Jeffrey W.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Jaehnig, Kurt P.

    2008-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin's Space Astronomy Laboratory has designed and built a Star Tracker suitable for use on sounding rockets and class D satellites. This device brings together autonomous attitude determination ("Lost in Space" mode), multi-star tracking, and a novel form of Progressive Image Transmission (US patent #5,991,816), which allows the device to be used as an ultra-low bandwidth imager. The Star Tracker 5000 (ST5000) reached operational status in a suborbital sounding rocket flight in August 2007. The ST5000 determined the rocket's inertial (FK5) attitude with arcsecond precision using its autonomous attitude determination capability, and then provided continuous sub-arc-second tracking for the full 360-second on-target portion of the flight. The ST5000 RMS tracking error was 0.54 arc-seconds in yaw and pitch, and 17 arc-seconds in roll. The vehicle RMS jitter was 0.5 arc-seconds in yaw and pitch, and 10 arc-seconds in roll. The ST5000 was funded by NASA grants NAG5-7026 and NAG5-8588.

  5. Desaturation manoeuvres and precise orbit determination for the BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, E. M.; Cicalò, S.; Milani, A.; Tommei, G.

    2012-07-01

    This work analyses the consequences that the desaturation manoeuvres can have on the precise orbit determination corresponding to the Mercury Orbiter Radioscience Experiment (MORE) of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury. This is an ESA/JAXAjoint project with challenging objectives regarding geodesy, geophysics and fundamental physics. We will show how these manoeuvres affect the orbit of the s/c and the radio science measurements and how to include them in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. The non-linear least-squares fit is applied on a set of observational arcs separated by intervals of time where the probe is not visible. With the current baseline of two ground stations, two manoeuvres are performed per day, one during the observing session and the other in the dark. To reach the scientific goals of the mission, they have to be treated as 'solve for quantities'. We developed a specific methodology based on the deterministic propagation of the orbit, which is able to deal with these variables, by connecting subsequent observational arcs in a smooth way. The numerical simulations demonstrate that this constrained multi-arc strategy is able to determine all the manoeuvres together with the other parameters of interest at a high level of accuracy.

  6. Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of

  7. Precise determination of U isotopic compositions in low concentration carbonate samples by MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruo-Mei; You, Chen-Feng

    2013-03-30

    We developed a fast and simple analytical procedure for precise determination of U isotopic compositions in low concentration natural samples. The main advantage of the new method is that it requires only 12ng U and can obtain all U isotopic ratios without using spike. Five carbonate reference materials (JCp-1, RKM-4, RKM-5, GBW04412 and GBW04413) and 3 international standards with different matrices (IAPSO, IRMM-3184 and CRM-U010) were analyzed for ((234)U/(238)U) and (238)U/(235)U ratios by MC-ICPMS. Using our method, the results for these standards are in close agreement with the certified values, 1.144 ± 0.004, 0.966 ± 0.004 and 0.990 ± 0.003 for ((234)U/(238)U) and 137.72 ± 0.13, 137.64 ± 0.15 and 98.63 ± 0.04 for (238)U/(235)U, in IAPSO, IRMM-3184 and CRM-U010, respectively. The long-term reproducibility of ((234)U/(238)U) and (238)U/(235)U is 0.970 ± 0.002 and 137.56 ± 0.09; 1.144 ± 0.004 and 137.72 ± 0.13, respectively, for in-house U solution and IAPSO. The new ((234)U/(238)U) results for carbonates show much better precision than previous studies and also reflect their age variability. The obtained (238)U/(235)U ratios, representing the first measurements in these carbonate specimens, are rather constant. The method described here requires only 12 ng of U for analysis and can be completed in 5.2 min. The approach provides a fast method to measure ((234)U/(238)U) and (238)U/(235)U ratios in sample matrices commonly encountered in studies of chemical weathering, oceanography and paleoclimatology.

  8. Impact of Ionosphere on GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Meyer, U.; Schaer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Deficiencies in geodetic products derived from the orbital trajectories of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites determined by GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination (POD) were identified in recent years. The precise orbits of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission are, e.g., severely affected by an increased position noise level over the geomagnetic poles and spurious signatures along the Earth's geomagnetic equator (see Fig. 1, which shows the carrier phase residuals of a reduced-dynamic orbit determination for GOCE in m). Such degradations may directly map into the gravity fields recovered from the orbits. They are related to a disturbed GPS signal propagation through the Earth's ionosphere and indicate that the GPS observation model and/or the data pre-processing need to be improved. While GOCE was the first mission where severe ionosphere-related problems became obvious, the GPS-based LEO POD of satellites of the more recent missions Swarm and Sentinel-1A turn out to be affected, as well. We characterize the stochastic and systematic behavior of the ionosphere by analyzing GPS data collected by the POD antennas of various LEO satellites covering a broad altitude range (e.g., GRACE, GOCE and Swarm) and for periods covering significant parts of an entire solar cycle, which probe substantially different ionosphere conditions. The information may provide the basis for improvements of data pre-processing to cope with the ionosphere-induced problems of LEO POD. The performance of cycle slip detection can, e.g., be degraded by large changes of ionospheric refraction from one measurement epoch to the next. Geographically resolved information on the stochastic properties of the ionosphere above the LEOs provide more realistic threshold values for cycle slip detection algorithms. Removing GPS data showing large ionospheric variations is a crude method to mitigate the ionosphere-induced artifacts in orbit and gravity field products

  9. Oligosaccharides from Sucrose via Glycansucrases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycansucrases are a class of microbial enzymes that polymerize either the fructosyl or the glucosyl moiety of sucrose to give beta-D-fructans or alpha-D-glucans. They are also capable of transferring fructosyl or glucosyl units to acceptor molecules to yield oligosaccharides. Although the glycosy...

  10. Application of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling in Uavs for Precise Determination of Exterior Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and especially micro aerial vehicle (MAV) technology together with increasing quality and decreasing price of imaging devices have resulted in growing use of MAVs in photogrammetry. The practicality of MAV mapping is seriously enhanced with the ability to determine parameters of exterior orientation (EO) with sufficient accuracy, in both absolute and relative senses (change of attitude between successive images). While differential carrier phase GNSS satisfies cm-level positioning accuracy, precise attitude determination is essential for both direct sensor orientation (DiSO) and integrated sensor orientation (ISO) in corridor mapping or in block configuration imaging over surfaces with low texture. Limited cost, size, and weight of MAVs represent limitations on quality of onboard navigation sensors and puts emphasis on exploiting full capacity of available resources. Typically short flying times (10-30 minutes) also limit the possibility of estimating and/or correcting factors such as sensor misalignment and poor attitude initialization of inertial navigation system (INS). This research aims at increasing the accuracy of attitude determination in both absolute and relative senses with no extra sensors onboard. In comparison to classical INS/GNSS setup, novel approach is presented here to integrated state estimation, in which vehicle dynamic model (VDM) is used as the main process model. Such system benefits from available information from autopilot and physical properties of the platform in enhancing performance of determination of trajectory and parameters of exterior orientation consequently. The navigation system employs a differential carrier phase GNSS receiver and a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) grade inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with MAV control input from autopilot. Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed on trajectories for typical corridor mapping and block imaging. Results reveal

  11. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ku, T.-L.; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of Th-230 abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (U-238)-(U-234)-(Th-230) dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10 to the 8th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 3 percent (2sigma), and 3 x 10 to the 10th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to C-14 dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly post-date, the summer solar insolation high at 65 deg N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  12. Precise Orbit Determination Of Low Earth Satellites At AIUB Using GPS And SLR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, A.; Bock, H.; Thaller, D.; Sosnica, K.; Meyer, U.; Baumann, C.; Dach, R.

    2013-12-01

    An ever increasing number of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites is, or will be, equipped with retro-reflectors for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and on-board receivers to collect observations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS and the European Galileo systems in the future. At the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) LEO precise orbit determination (POD) using either GPS or SLR data is performed for a wide range of applications for satellites at different altitudes. For this purpose the classical numerical integration techniques, as also used for dynamic orbit determination of satellites at high altitudes, are extended by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling techniques to efficiently cope with potential force model deficiencies for satellites at low altitudes. Accuracies of better than 2 cm may be achieved by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling for satellites at very low altitudes such as for the GPS-based POD of the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE).

  13. Precise determination of N-acetylcysteine in pharmaceuticals by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rudašová, Marína; Masár, Marián

    2016-01-01

    A novel microchip electrophoresis method for the rapid and high-precision determination of N-acetylcysteine, a pharmaceutically active ingredient, in mucolytics has been developed. Isotachophoresis separations were carried out at pH 6.0 on a microchip with conductivity detection. The methods of external calibration and internal standard were used to evaluate the results. The internal standard method effectively eliminated variations in various working parameters, mainly run-to-run fluctuations of an injected volume. The repeatability and accuracy of N-acetylcysteine determination in all mucolytic preparations tested (Solmucol 90 and 200, and ACC Long 600) were more than satisfactory with the relative standard deviation and relative error values <0.7 and <1.9%, respectively. A recovery range of 99-101% of N-acetylcysteine in the analyzed pharmaceuticals predetermines the proposed method for accurate analysis as well. This work, in general, indicates analytical possibilities of microchip isotachophoresis for the quantitative analysis of simplified samples such as pharmaceuticals that contain the analyte(s) at relatively high concentrations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R L; Chen, J H; Ku, T L; Wasserburg, G J

    1987-06-19

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of (230)Th abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10(8) atoms of (230)Th can be measured to an accuracy of +/-3 percent (2sigma) and 3 x 10(10) atoms of (230)Th can be measured to an accuracy of +/-0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to (14)C dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly postdate, the summer solar insolation high at 65 degrees N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  15. GOCE Precise Orbit Determination for the Entire Mission- Challenges in the Final Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, A.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.

    2015-03-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), ESA’s first Earth Explorer core mission, was launched on March 17, 2009 into a sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit and eventually re-entered into the Earth’s atmosphere on November 11, 2013. A precise science orbit (PSO) product was provided by the GOCE High-level Processing Facility (HPF) from the GPS high-low Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (hl-SST) data from the beginning until the very last days of the mission. We recapitulate the PSO procedure and refer to the results achieved until the official end of the GOCE mission on October 21, 2013, where independent validations with Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements confirmed a high quality of the PSO product of about 2 cm 1-D RMS. We then focus on the period after the official end of the mission, where orbits could still be determined thanks to the continuously running GPS receivers delivering high quality data until a few hours before the re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. We address the challenges encountered for orbit determination during these last days and report on adaptions in the PSO procedure to also obtain good orbit results at the unprecedented low orbital altitudes below 224 km.

  16. Analysis of Current Position Determination Accuracy in Natural Resources Canada Precise Point Positioning Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzan, Grzegorz; Dawidowicz, Karol; Krzysztof, Świaţek

    2013-09-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used to determine highprecision position with a single GNSS receiver. Unlike DGPS or RTK, satellite observations conducted by the PPP technique are not differentiated, therefore they require that parameter models should be used in data processing, such as satellite clock and orbit corrections. Apart from explaining the theory of the PPP technique, this paper describes the available web-based online services used in the post-processing of observation results. The results obtained in the post-processing of satellite observations at three points, with different characteristics of environment conditions, using the CSRS-PPP service, will be presented as the results of the experiment. This study examines the effect of the duration of the measurement session on the results and compares the results obtained by working out observations made by the GPS system and the combined observations from GPS and GLONASS. It also presents the analysis of the position determination accuracy using one and two measurement frequencies

  17. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ku, T.-L.; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of Th-230 abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (U-238)-(U-234)-(Th-230) dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10 to the 8th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 3 percent (2sigma), and 3 x 10 to the 10th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to C-14 dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly post-date, the summer solar insolation high at 65 deg N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  18. Quantification of neutral human milk oligosaccharides by graphitic carbon HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yuanwu; Chen, Ceng; Newburg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Defining the biologic roles of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) requires an efficient, simple, reliable, and robust analytical method for simultaneous quantification of oligosaccharide profiles from multiple samples. The HMOS fraction of milk is a complex mixture of polar, highly branched, isomeric structures that contain no intrinsic facile chromophore, making their resolution and quantification challenging. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was devised to resolve and quantify 11 major neutral oligosaccharides of human milk simultaneously. Crude HMOS fractions are reduced, resolved by porous graphitic carbon HPLC with a water/acetonitrile gradient, detected by mass spectrometric specific ion monitoring, and quantified. The HPLC separates isomers of identical molecular weights allowing 11 peaks to be fully resolved and quantified by monitoring mass to charge (m/z) ratios of the deprotonated negative ions. The standard curves for each of the 11 oligosaccharides is linear from 0.078 or 0.156 to 20 μg/mL (R2 > 0.998). Precision (CV) ranges from 1% to 9%. Accuracy is from 86% to 104%. This analytical technique provides sensitive, precise, accurate quantification for each of the 11 milk oligosaccharides and allows measurement of differences in milk oligosaccharide patterns between individuals and at different stages of lactation. PMID:23068043

  19. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; Cavalier, David; Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-11-26

    inhibitory effects of oligosaccharides on commercial enzymes. In conclusion, the carbohydrate composition of the recalcitrant oligosaccharides, ratios of different DP oligomers and their distribution profiles were determined. Recalcitrance and enzyme inhibition studies help determine whether the commercial enzyme mixtures lack the enzyme activities required to completely de-polymerize the plant cell wall. Such studies clarify the reasons for oligosaccharide accumulation and contribute to strategies by which oligosaccharides can be converted into fermentable sugars and provide higher biofuel yields with less enzyme.

  20. Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Saisi; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Bowman, Michael J.; ...

    2015-11-26

    inhibitory effects of oligosaccharides on commercial enzymes. In conclusion, the carbohydrate composition of the recalcitrant oligosaccharides, ratios of different DP oligomers and their distribution profiles were determined. Recalcitrance and enzyme inhibition studies help determine whether the commercial enzyme mixtures lack the enzyme activities required to completely de-polymerize the plant cell wall. Such studies clarify the reasons for oligosaccharide accumulation and contribute to strategies by which oligosaccharides can be converted into fermentable sugars and provide higher biofuel yields with less enzyme.« less

  1. High Precision, Directly Determined Radii and Effective Temperatures for Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, Gerard

    have demonstrated the potential of all aspects of this program, and through the proposed effort will unify the diverse components to study these giants. A homogenous catalog of linear radii and effective temperatures for hundreds of giants will be generated, which in turn will be used to calibrate radius and temperature scales for application to the broad population of giants. Significance. Fundamental temperature and radius scales are used throughout stellar astrophysics, including stellar structure studies, stellar modeling, galactic spectral synthesis, planet detection studies, and star formation theory. We expect to reduce the error in effective temperature calibration by 2-4x, and the error in linear radius by 2-3x or more. A high- precision improvement to these scales will, in turn, broadly advance a wide swath of studies that depend on precisely knowing the radii and temperature of stars. This proposal aims to produce the definitive linear radius and effective temperature scales for giants. A significant improvement in the determinations of the radii and effective temperatures of giant stars across the HR diagram will have far reaching consequences across the broad expanse of astrophysical research. Relevance to NASA. High-precision calibrations of temperature scales are essential to flux calibrations of past and ongoing NASA science satellite observations, such as those from Spitzer and WISE, and a significantly improved linear radius reference markedly improves Kepler discoveries in both the exoplanet and asteroseismology areas. In addition to the high scientific potential of this program, it also provides technical benefits by furthering interferometric techniques that will be critical for future high angular resolution astronomy.

  2. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: distributions of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1988-01-05

    The asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), and thyrotropin (TSH) consist of a heterogeneous array of neutral, sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures. In this study, the authors determined the relative quantities of the various asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on LH, FSH, and TSH from these three animal species. The proportions of sulfated versus sialylated oligosaccharides varied markedly among the different hormones. Both hormone- and animal species-specific differences in the types and distributions of sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures were evident. In particular, LH and FSH, which are synthesized in the same pituitary cell and bear ..cap alpha..-subunits with the identical amino acid sequence, contained significantly different distributions of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides. For all three animal species, the ratio of sialylated to sulfated oligosaccharides differed by >10-fold for LH and FSH, with sulfated structures dominating on LH and sialylated structures on FSH. Sialylated oligosaccharides were also heterogeneous with respect to sialic acid linkage (..cap alpha..2,3 versus ..cap alpha..2,6). The differences in oligosaccharide structures among the various pituitary glycoprotein hormones as well as among the various glycosylation sites within a single hormone support the hypothesis that glycosylation may serve important functional roles in the expression and/or regulation of hormone bioactivity.

  3. Precise Orbit Determination of the two LAGEOS and LARES satellites and the LARASE activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimo Lucchesi, David; Peron, Roberto; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Nobili, Anna Maria; Pardini, Carmen; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment (LARASE) research program aims to provide an original contribution in testing and verifying Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) in its Weak-Field and Slow-Motion (WFSM) limit by means of the powerful Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. Therefore, in this perspective, a Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of a dedicated set of passive laser-ranged satellites is required. In particular, the joint analysis of the orbit of the two LAGEOS (LAser GEOdynamic Satellite) satellites with that of the more recently launched LARES (LAser RElativity Satellite) satellite will be exploited in order to obtain precise measurements of the gravitational interaction in the field of the Earth. A major point to be reached within the activities of LARASE is to provide the relativistic measurements with an error budget of the various systematic effects (both gravitational and non-gravitational) that be robust and reliable. This requires a careful analysis of the various disturbing effects on the orbit of the considered satellites, especially for the new LARES. This activity has been planned both for the gravitational and the non-gravitational perturbations (NGP). Therefore, we started to re-visit, update and improve previous dynamical models, especially for the NGP, and we also developed new models in such a way to improve the current dynamical models used in space geodesy to account for the main perturbations acting on the orbit of LAGEOS and LARES. We focused especially on the spin dynamics, the drag effects (especially for LARES, because of its much lower height with respect to the two LAGEOS) and, at a preliminary level, the thermal ones that, as it is well known from the literature, are very important for the LAGEOS satellites. These studies are of fundamental importance not only for the objective of a reliable error budget, but also in order to improve the POD. In this context, because of the importance of the LAGEOS satellites in

  4. Physiology of Consumption of Human Milk Oligosaccharides by Infant Gut-associated Bifidobacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Asakuma, Sadaki; Hatakeyama, Emi; Urashima, Tadasu; Yoshida, Erina; Katayama, Takane; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Ashida, Hisashi; Hirose, Junko; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2011-01-01

    The bifidogenic effect of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) has long been known, yet the precise mechanism underlying it remains unresolved. Recent studies show that some species/subspecies of Bifidobacterium are equipped with genetic and enzymatic sets dedicated to the utilization of HMOs, and consequently they can grow on HMOs; however, the ability to metabolize HMOs has not been directly linked to the actual metabolic behavior of the bacteria. In this report, we clarify the fate of each HMO during cultivation of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria. Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis JCM1222, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum JCM1217, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192 were selected for this purpose and were grown on HMO media containing a main neutral oligosaccharide fraction. The mono- and oligosaccharides in the spent media were labeled with 2-anthranilic acid, and their concentrations were determined at various incubation times using normal phase high performance liquid chromatography. The results reflect the metabolic abilities of the respective bifidobacteria. B. bifidum used secretory glycosidases to degrade HMOs, whereas B. longum subsp. infantis assimilated all HMOs by incorporating them in their intact forms. B. longum subsp. longum and B. breve consumed lacto-N-tetraose only. Interestingly, B. bifidum left degraded HMO metabolites outside of the cell even when the cells initiate vegetative growth, which indicates that the different species/subspecies can share the produced sugars. The predominance of type 1 chains in HMOs and the preferential use of type 1 HMO by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria suggest the coevolution of the bacteria with humans. PMID:21832085

  5. Chromatographic Separations of Enantiomers and Underivatized Oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying

    2004-01-01

    My graduate research has focused on separation science and bioanalytical analysis, which emphasized in method development. It includes three major areas: enantiomeric separations using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Super/subcritical fluid chromatography (SFC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE); drug-protein binding behavior studies using CE; and carbohydrate analysis using liquid chromatograph-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Enantiomeric separations continue to be extremely important in the pharmaceutical industry. An in-depth evaluation of the enantiomeric separation capabilities of macrocyclic glycopeptides CSPs with SFC mobile phases was investigated using a set of over 100 chiral compounds. It was found that the macrocyclic based CSPs were able to separate enantiomers of various compounds with different polarities and functionalities. Seventy percent of all separations were achieved in less than 4 min due to the high flow rate (4.0 ml/min) that can be used in SFC. Drug-protein binding is an important process in determining the activity and fate of a drug once it enters the body. Two drug/protein systems have been studied using frontal analysis CE method. More sensitive fluorescence detection was introduced in this assay, which overcame the problem of low sensitivity that is common when using UV detection for drug-protein studies. In addition, the first usage of an argon ion laser with 257 nm beam coupled with CCD camera as a frontal analysis detection method enabled the simultaneous observation of drug fluorescence as well as the protein fluorescence. LC-ESI-MS was used for the separation and characterization of underivatized oligosaccharide mixtures. With the limits of detection as low as 50 picograms, all individual components of oligosaccharide mixtures (up to 11 glucose-units long) were baseline resolved on a Cyclobond I 2000 column and detected using ESI-MS. This system is characterized by high chromatographic

  6. Precise orbit determination of high-earth elliptical orbiters using differenced Doppler and range measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in Deep Space Network station calibration methods have led to renewed interest in the use of differenced Doppler and range data types for interplanetary navigation. Described here is an orbit determination error analysis of the performance of these differenced data types when used with conventional two-way Doppler for precise navigation of High-Earth Orbiters. Three highly elliptical Earth orbits are investigated, with apogee heights on the order of 20,000 km, 70,000 km, and 156,000 km. Results indicate that the most significant navigational accuracy improvements, relative to the performance obtained from two way Doppler alone, are achieved for the lowest altitude orbit by using differenced Doppler measurements with two way Doppler (assuming that spacecraft onboard downlink antennas have no ground footprint limitation in the near-apogee regime). In the case of the two higher altitude orbits, accuracy improvements over Doppler-only performance, although less dramatic, are also achieved when differenced range measurements are combined with two-way Doppler.

  7. Precise orbit determination of high-earth elliptical orbiters using differenced Doppler and ranging measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in Deep Space Network station calibration methods have led to renewed interest in the use of differenced Doppler and range data types for interplanetary navigation. Described here is an orbit determination error analysis of the performance of these differenced data types when used with conventional two-way Doppler for precise navigation of High-Earth Orbiters. Three highly elliptical earth orbits are investigated, with apogee heights on the order of 20,000 km, 70,000 km, and 156,000 km. Results indicate that the most significant navigational accuracy improvements, relative to the performance obtained from two way Doppler alone, are achieved for the lowest altitude orbit by using differenced Doppler measurements with two way Doppler (assuming that spacecraft onboard downlink antennas have no ground footprint limitation in the near-apogee regime). In the case of the two higher altitude orbit accuracy improvements over Doppler-only performance, although less dramatic, are also achieved when differenced range measurements are combined with two-way Doppler.

  8. Factors determining the stability, resolution, and precision of a conventional Raman spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fukura, Satoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Odake, Shoko; Kagi, Hiroyuki

    2006-08-01

    We verified the performance of a conventional Raman spectrometer, which is composed of a 30 cm single polychromator, a Si based charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, and a holographic supernotch filter. For that purpose, the time change of the peak positions of Raman spectra of naphthalene and fluorescence spectra of ruby (Cr-doped Al(2)O(3)) were monitored continually. A time-dependent deviation composed of two components was observed: a monotonous drift up to 0.4 cm(-1) and a periodic oscillation with a range of 0.15 cm(-1). The former component was stabilized at approximately 2000 s after the CCD detector was cooled, indicating that incomplete refrigeration of the CCD detector induced the drift. The latter component synchronized with the periodic oscillation of the room temperature, indicating that thermal expansion or contraction of the whole apparatus induced this oscillation. The implemental deviation is reduced when measurements are conducted using a sufficiently cooled CCD detector at a constant room temperature. Moreover, the effect of the room temperature oscillation is lowered in a spectrum acquired over a duration that is longer than one cycle of this oscillation. Applying the least squares fitting method to carefully measured spectra enhanced the precision of the determination of the peak position to 0.05 cm(-1) using the spectrometer with pixel resolution of 1.5 cm(-1).

  9. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Chen, J.H.; Ku, T.L.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1987-06-19

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of STTh abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in STYU-STUU-STTh dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10Y atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 3% (2sigma) and 3 x 10 atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 0.2%. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to UC dating. The precision should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly postdate, the summer solar insolation high at 65N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  10. A Novel Method for Precise Onboard Real-Time Orbit Determination with a Standalone GPS Receiver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuhong; Gong, Xuewen; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing systems require accurate, autonomous and real-time orbit determinations (RTOD) for geo-referencing. Onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) has widely been used to undertake such tasks. In this paper, a novel RTOD method achieving decimeter precision using GPS carrier phases, required by China’s HY2A and ZY3 missions, is presented. A key to the algorithm success is the introduction of a new parameter, termed pseudo-ambiguity. This parameter combines the phase ambiguity, the orbit, and clock offset errors of the GPS broadcast ephemeris together to absorb a large part of the combined error. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the orbit and clock offset errors, the pseudo-ambiguity can be modeled as a random walk, and estimated in an extended Kalman filter. Experiments of processing real data from HY2A and ZY3, simulating onboard operational scenarios of these two missions, are performed using the developed software SATODS. Results have demonstrated that the position and velocity accuracy (3D RMS) of 0.2–0.4 m and 0.2–0.4 mm/s, respectively, are achieved using dual-frequency carrier phases for HY2A, and slightly worse results for ZY3. These results show it is feasible to obtain orbit accuracy at decimeter level of 3–5 dm for position and 0.3–0.5 mm/s for velocity with this RTOD method. PMID:26690149

  11. A Novel Method for Precise Onboard Real-Time Orbit Determination with a Standalone GPS Receiver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhong; Gong, Xuewen; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-12-04

    Satellite remote sensing systems require accurate, autonomous and real-time orbit determinations (RTOD) for geo-referencing. Onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) has widely been used to undertake such tasks. In this paper, a novel RTOD method achieving decimeter precision using GPS carrier phases, required by China's HY2A and ZY3 missions, is presented. A key to the algorithm success is the introduction of a new parameter, termed pseudo-ambiguity. This parameter combines the phase ambiguity, the orbit, and clock offset errors of the GPS broadcast ephemeris together to absorb a large part of the combined error. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the orbit and clock offset errors, the pseudo-ambiguity can be modeled as a random walk, and estimated in an extended Kalman filter. Experiments of processing real data from HY2A and ZY3, simulating onboard operational scenarios of these two missions, are performed using the developed software SATODS. Results have demonstrated that the position and velocity accuracy (3D RMS) of 0.2-0.4 m and 0.2-0.4 mm/s, respectively, are achieved using dual-frequency carrier phases for HY2A, and slightly worse results for ZY3. These results show it is feasible to obtain orbit accuracy at decimeter level of 3-5 dm for position and 0.3-0.5 mm/s for velocity with this RTOD method.

  12. How Bright is the Proton? A Precise Determination of the Photon Parton Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Aneesh; Nason, Paolo; Salam, Gavin P.; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that it is important, notably for a range of physics studies at the Large Hadron Collider, to have accurate knowledge on the distribution of photons in the proton. We show how the photon parton distribution function (PDF) can be determined in a model-independent manner, using electron-proton (e p ) scattering data, in effect viewing the e p →e +X process as an electron scattering off the photon field of the proton. To this end, we consider an imaginary, beyond the Standard Model process with a flavor changing photon-lepton vertex. We write its cross section in two ways: one in terms of proton structure functions, the other in terms of a photon distribution. Requiring their equivalence yields the photon distribution as an integral over proton structure functions. As a result of the good precision of e p data, we constrain the photon PDF at the level of 1%-2% over a wide range of momentum fractions.

  13. Determination of genotoxicity by the Comet assay applied to murine precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Switalla, S; Knebel, J; Ritter, D; Dasenbrock, C; Krug, N; Braun, A; Sewald, K

    2013-03-01

    Precision-cut lung slices (PCLSs) are an organotypic lung model that is widely used in pharmacological, physiological, and toxicological studies. Genotoxicity testing, as a pivotal part of early risk assessment, is currently established in vivo in various organs including lung, brain, or liver, and in vitro in cell lines or primary cells. The aim of the present study was to provide the three-dimensional organ culture PCLS as a new ex vivo model for determination of genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Murine PCLS were exposed to increasing concentrations of ethyl methane sulfonate 'EMS' (0.03-0.4%) and formalin (0.5-5mM). Tissue was subsequently dissociated, and DNA single-strand breaks were quantified using the Comet assay. Number of viable dissociated lung cells was between 4×10(5) and 6.7×10(5)cells/slice. Even treatment with EMS did not induce toxicity compared to untreated tissue control. As expected, DNA single-strand breaks were increased dose-dependently and significantly after exposure to EMS. Here, tail length rose from 24μm to 75μm. In contrast, formalin resulted in a significant induction of DNA cross-links. The effects induced by EMS and formalin demonstrate the usefulness of PCLS as a new ex vivo lung model for genotoxicity testing in the early risk assessment of airborne substances in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoliquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of oligosaccharides employing graphitized carbon chromatography on microchip with a high-accuracy mass analyzer.

    PubMed

    Niñonuevo, Milady; An, Hyunjoo; Yin, Hongfeng; Killeen, Kevin; Grimm, Rudi; Ward, Robert; German, Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito

    2005-10-01

    The nanoLC separations of oligosaccharides using microchip-based columns are described. Mixtures of alditols from mucins and human milk are separated on graphitized carbon. The nanoLC-MS device showed high mass accuracy for the oligosaccharides ranging between 1 and 6 ppm on routine analyses. The high mass accuracy readily allowed identification of oligosaccharide peaks and the determination of their compositions. High retention time reproducibility was exhibited by the microchip LC. Little variation was observed for standard sample either alone or in a complex heterogeneous mixture. The nanoLC-MS exhibits excellent capabilities in profiling mixtures of oligosaccharides.

  15. Spacecraft Alignment Determination and Control for Dual Spacecraft Precision Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Shah, Neerav

    2017-01-01

    Many proposed formation flying missions seek to advance the state of the art in spacecraft science imaging by utilizing precision dual spacecraft formation flying to enable a virtual space telescope. Using precision dual spacecraft alignment, very long focal lengths can be achieved by locating the optics on one spacecraft and the detector on the other. Proposed science missions include astrophysics concepts with spacecraft separations from 1000 km to 25,000 km, such as the Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager (MASSIM) and the New Worlds Observer, and Heliophysics concepts for solar coronagraphs and X-ray imaging with smaller separations (50m 500m). All of these proposed missions require advances in guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) for precision formation flying. In particular, very precise astrometric alignment control and estimation is required for precise inertial pointing of the virtual space telescope to enable science imaging orders of magnitude better than can be achieved with conventional single spacecraft instruments. This work develops design architectures, algorithms, and performance analysis of proposed GNC systems for precision dual spacecraft astrometric alignment. These systems employ a variety of GNC sensors and actuators, including laser-based alignment and ranging systems, optical imaging sensors (e.g. guide star telescope), inertial measurement units (IMU), as well as micro-thruster and precision stabilized platforms. A comprehensive GNC performance analysis is given for Heliophysics dual spacecraft PFF imaging mission concept.

  16. Spacecraft Alignment Determination and Control for Dual Spacecraft Precision Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Shah, Neerav

    2017-01-01

    Many proposed formation flying missions seek to advance the state of the art in spacecraft science imaging by utilizing precision dual spacecraft formation flying to enable a virtual space telescope. Using precision dual spacecraft alignment, very long focal lengths can be achieved by locating the optics on one spacecraft and the detector on the other. Proposed science missions include astrophysics concepts with spacecraft separations from 1000 km to 25,000 km, such as the Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager (MASSIM) and the New Worlds Observer, and Heliophysics concepts for solar coronagraphs and X-ray imaging with smaller separations (50m-500m). All of these proposed missions require advances in guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) for precision formation flying. In particular, very precise astrometric alignment control and estimation is required for precise inertial pointing of the virtual space telescope to enable science imaging orders of magnitude better than can be achieved with conventional single spacecraft instruments. This work develops design architectures, algorithms, and performance analysis of proposed GNC systems for precision dual spacecraft astrometric alignment. These systems employ a variety of GNC sensors and actuators, including laser-based alignment and ranging systems, optical imaging sensors (e.g. guide star telescope), inertial measurement units (IMU), as well as microthruster and precision stabilized platforms. A comprehensive GNC performance analysis is given for Heliophysics dual spacecraft PFF imaging mission concept.

  17. Precision and Accuracy in the Determination of Sulfur Oxides, Fluoride, and Spherical Aluminosilicate Fly Ash Particles in Project MOHAVE.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Michele; Joseph, Jyothi M; Caka, Fern M; Lewis, Laura; Eatough, Delbert J

    1997-04-01

    The precision and accuracy of the determination of particulate sulfate and fluoride, and gas phase S02 and HF are estimated from the results obtained from collocated replicate samples and from collocated comparison samples for highland low-volume filter pack and annular diffusion denuder samplers. The results of replicate analysis of collocated samples and replicate analyses of a given sample for the determination of spherical aluminosilicate fly ash particles have also been compared. Each of these species is being used in the chemical mass balance source apportionment of sulfur oxides in the Grand Canyon region as part of Project MOHAVE, and the precision and accuracy analyses given in this paper provide input to that analysis. The precision of the various measurements reported here is ±1.8 nmol/m(3) and ±2.5 nmol/m(3) for the determination of S02 and sulfate, respectively, with an annular denuder. The precision is ±0.5 nmol/m(3) and ±2.0 nmol/m(3) for the determination of the same species with a high-volume or low-volume filter pack. The precision for the determination of the sum of HF(g) and fine particulate fluoride is +0.3 nmol/m(3). The precision for the determination of aluminosilicate fly ash particles is ±100 particles/m(3). At high concentrations of the various species, reproducibility of the various measurements is ±10% to ±14% of the measured concentration. The concentrations of sulfate determined using filter pack samplers are frequently higher than those determined using diffusion denuder sampling systems. The magnitude of the difference (e.g., 2-10 nmol sulfate/m(3)) is small, but important relative to the precision of the data and the concentrations of particulate sulfate present (typically 5-20 nmol sulfate/m(3)). The concentrations of S02(g) determined using a high-volume cascade impactor filter pack sampler are correspondingly lower than those obtained with diffusion denuder samplers. The concentrations of SOx (SOz(g) plus particulate

  18. A Rapid, Convenient, and Precise Method for the Absolute Determination of the Acceleration of Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a compact and portable apparatus for the measurement, with a high degree of precision, the value of the gravitational acceleration g. The apparatus consists of a falling mercury drop and an electronic timing circuit. (GA)

  19. Plant oligosaccharides - outsiders among elicitors?

    PubMed

    Larskaya, I A; Gorshkova, T A

    2015-07-01

    This review substantiates the need to study the plant oligoglycome. The available information on oligosaccharins - physiologically active fragments of plant cell wall polysaccharides - is summarized. The diversity of such compounds in chemical composition, origin, and proved biological activity is highlighted. At the same time, plant oligosaccharides can be considered as outsiders among elicitors of various natures in research intensity of recent decades. This review discusses the reasons for such attitude towards these regulators, which are largely connected with difficulties in isolation and identification. Together with that, approaches are suggested whose potentials can be used to study oligosaccharins. The topics of oligosaccharide metabolism in plants, including the ways of formation, transport, and inactivation are presented, together with data on biological activity and interaction with plant hormones. The current viewpoints on the mode of oligosaccharin action - perception, signal transduction, and possible "targets" - are considered. The potential uses of such compounds in medicine, food industry, agriculture, and biotechnology are discussed.

  20. Determination of the Thermal Offset of the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeffelin, Martial; Kato, Seiji; Smith, Amie M.; Rutledge, C. Ken; Charlock, Thomas P.; Mahan, J. Robert

    2001-01-01

    Eppley's precision spectral pyranometer (PSP) is used in networks around the world to measure downwelling diffuse and global solar irradiance at the surface of the Earth. In recent years several studies have shown significant discrepancy between irradiances measured by pyranometers and those computed by atmospheric radiative transfer models. Pyranometer measurements have been questioned because observed diffuse irradiances sometimes are below theoretical minimum values for a pure molecular atmosphere, and at night the instruments often produce nonzero signals ranging between + 5 and - 10 W/sq m. We install thermistor sondes in the body of a PSP as well as on its inner dome to monitor the temperature gradients within the instrument, and we operate a pyrgeometer (PIR) instrument side by side with the PSP. We derive a relationship between the PSP output and thermal radiative exchange by the dome and the detector and a relationship between the PSP output and the PIR thermopile output (net-IR). We determine the true PSP offset by quickly capping the instrument at set time intervals. For a ventilated and shaded PSP, the thermal offset can reach - 15 W/sq m under clear skies, whereas it remains close to zero for low overcast clouds. We estimate the PSP thermal offset by two methods: (1) using the PSP temperatures and (2) using the PIR net-IR signal. The offset computed from the PSP temperatures yields a reliable estimate of the true offset (+/- 1 W/sq m). The offset computed from net-IR is consistent with the true offset at night and under overcast skies but predicts only part of the true range under clear skies.

  1. Determination of the thermal offset of the Eppley precision spectral pyranometer.

    PubMed

    Haeffelin, M; Kato, S; Smith, A M; Rutledge, C K; Charlock, T P; Mahan, J R

    2001-02-01

    Eppley's precision spectral pyranometer (PSP) is used in networks around the world to measure downwelling diffuse and global solar irradiance at the surface of the Earth. In recent years several studies have shown significant discrepancy between irradiances measured by pyranometers and those computed by atmospheric radiative transfer models. Pyranometer measurements have been questioned because observed diffuse irradiances sometimes are below theoretical minimum values for a pure molecular atmosphere, and at night the instruments often produce nonzero signals ranging between +5 and -10 W m(-2). We install thermistor sondes in the body of a PSP as well as on its inner dome to monitor the temperature gradients within the instrument, and we operate a pyrgeometer (PIR) instrument side by side with the PSP. We derive a relationship between the PSP output and thermal radiative exchange by the dome and the detector and a relationship between the PSP output and the PIR thermopile output (net-IR). We determine the true PSP offset by quickly capping the instrument at set time intervals. For a ventilated and shaded PSP, the thermal offset can reach -15 W m(-2) under clear skies, whereas it remains close to zero for low overcast clouds. We estimate the PSP thermal offset by two methods: (1) using the PSP temperatures and (2) using the PIR net-IR signal. The offset computed from the PSP temperatures yields a reliable estimate of the true offset (+/-1 W m(-2)). The offset computed from net-IR is consistent with the true offset at night and under overcast skies but predicts only part of the true range under clear skies.

  2. Determination of the Thermal Offset of the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeffelin, Martial; Kato, Seiji; Smith, Amie M.; Rutledge, C. Ken; Charlock, Thomas P.; Mahan, J. Robert

    2001-01-01

    Eppley's precision spectral pyranometer (PSP) is used in networks around the world to measure downwelling diffuse and global solar irradiance at the surface of the Earth. In recent years several studies have shown significant discrepancy between irradiances measured by pyranometers and those computed by atmospheric radiative transfer models. Pyranometer measurements have been questioned because observed diffuse irradiances sometimes are below theoretical minimum values for a pure molecular atmosphere, and at night the instruments often produce nonzero signals ranging between + 5 and - 10 W/sq m. We install thermistor sondes in the body of a PSP as well as on its inner dome to monitor the temperature gradients within the instrument, and we operate a pyrgeometer (PIR) instrument side by side with the PSP. We derive a relationship between the PSP output and thermal radiative exchange by the dome and the detector and a relationship between the PSP output and the PIR thermopile output (net-IR). We determine the true PSP offset by quickly capping the instrument at set time intervals. For a ventilated and shaded PSP, the thermal offset can reach - 15 W/sq m under clear skies, whereas it remains close to zero for low overcast clouds. We estimate the PSP thermal offset by two methods: (1) using the PSP temperatures and (2) using the PIR net-IR signal. The offset computed from the PSP temperatures yields a reliable estimate of the true offset (+/- 1 W/sq m). The offset computed from net-IR is consistent with the true offset at night and under overcast skies but predicts only part of the true range under clear skies.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Maria C; Honorato, Talita L; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2006-04-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are nondigestible carbohydrates that can be obtained by enzymatic synthesis. Glucosyltransferases can be used to produce these carbohydrates through an acceptor reaction synthesis. When maltose is the acceptor a trisaccharide composed of one maltose unit and one glucose unit linked by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond (panose) is obtained as the primer product of the dextransucrase acceptor reaction. In this work, panose enzymatic synthesis was evaluated by a central composite experimental design in which maltose and sucrose concentration were varied in a wide range of maltose/sucrose ratios in a batch reactor system. A partially purified enzyme was used in order to reduce the process costs, because enzyme purification is one of the most expensive steps in enzymatic synthesis. Even using high maltose/sucrose ratios, dextran and higher-oligosaccharide formation were not avoided. The results showed that intermediate concentrations of sucrose and high maltose concentration resulted in high panose productivity with low dextran and higher-oligosaccharide productivity.

  4. Using GPS and leveling data in local precise geoid determination and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, B.; Çelik, R. N.; Erol, S.

    2003-04-01

    the fundamental mathematical equation; N=h-H. In the equation, "h" is the ellipsoidal height of a point P, "H" is the orthometric height of the same point and "N" is "geoid undulation" value. Normally, "H" orthometric height derived from leveling measurements but these measurements are tiring applications. So, while having a geoid model in the region as the essential part of geodetic infrastructure, number leveling measurements can be reduced from the procedure and by this way time and labor is saved. Geoid determination is modeling of the data in such a way that geoid height can be obtained digital or analog at a point whose horizontal position is known. Geoid models can be developed for local, regional or global regions. Using satellite techniques, especially GPS, in geodetic measurements are increased importance of geoid. Because geoid is a natural tie between high precision geodetic coordinates and coordinates which obtained from satellites. There are several geoid determination methods according to used data and models. GPS/Leveling method, which is also known as geometric method, is one of these methods. This method is appropriate for local precise geoid determination in respectively small areas. In this paper, it is going to be given information about GPS/Leveling geoid determination method and mathematical models, which are used in geoid determination with this method. And Izmir local geoid model will be presented as a case study. Izmir is one of the west metropolitan cities of Turkey and located near Aegean Sea. The topography is extremely rough in the region. There are two different geoid determination studies which were carried out in 1996 and 2001 in Izmir. Both models were accomplished according to GPS/Leveling method. Those two geoid models of Izmir Metropolitan region are investigated in here, the conflict of them were discussed. The relation between distribution of common reference points and differences of geoid undulation values, which are calculated

  5. Model improvements and validation of TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, S.; Montenbruck, O.; Steigenberger, P.; Balss, U.; Gisinger, C.; Eineder, M.

    2016-12-01

    The radar imaging satellite mission TerraSAR-X requires precisely determined satellite orbits for validating geodetic remote sensing techniques. Since the achieved quality of the operationally derived, reduced-dynamic (RD) orbit solutions limits the capabilities of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) validation, an effort is made to improve the estimated orbit solutions. This paper discusses the benefits of refined dynamical models on orbit accuracy as well as estimated empirical accelerations and compares different dynamic models in a RD orbit determination. Modeling aspects discussed in the paper include the use of a macro-model for drag and radiation pressure computation, the use of high-quality atmospheric density and wind models as well as the benefit of high-fidelity gravity and ocean tide models. The Sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit geometry of TerraSAR-X results in a particular high correlation of solar radiation pressure modeling and estimated normal-direction positions. Furthermore, this mission offers a unique suite of independent sensors for orbit validation. Several parameters serve as quality indicators for the estimated satellite orbit solutions. These include the magnitude of the estimated empirical accelerations, satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals, and SLR-based orbit corrections. Moreover, the radargrammetric distance measurements of the SAR instrument are selected for assessing the quality of the orbit solutions and compared to the SLR analysis. The use of high-fidelity satellite dynamics models in the RD approach is shown to clearly improve the orbit quality compared to simplified models and loosely constrained empirical accelerations. The estimated empirical accelerations are substantially reduced by 30% in tangential direction when working with the refined dynamical models. Likewise the SLR residuals are reduced from -3 ± 17 to 2 ± 13 mm, and the SLR-derived normal-direction position corrections are reduced from 15 to 6 mm, obtained from

  6. Model improvements and validation of TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, S.; Montenbruck, O.; Steigenberger, P.; Balss, U.; Gisinger, C.; Eineder, M.

    2017-05-01

    The radar imaging satellite mission TerraSAR-X requires precisely determined satellite orbits for validating geodetic remote sensing techniques. Since the achieved quality of the operationally derived, reduced-dynamic (RD) orbit solutions limits the capabilities of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) validation, an effort is made to improve the estimated orbit solutions. This paper discusses the benefits of refined dynamical models on orbit accuracy as well as estimated empirical accelerations and compares different dynamic models in a RD orbit determination. Modeling aspects discussed in the paper include the use of a macro-model for drag and radiation pressure computation, the use of high-quality atmospheric density and wind models as well as the benefit of high-fidelity gravity and ocean tide models. The Sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit geometry of TerraSAR-X results in a particular high correlation of solar radiation pressure modeling and estimated normal-direction positions. Furthermore, this mission offers a unique suite of independent sensors for orbit validation. Several parameters serve as quality indicators for the estimated satellite orbit solutions. These include the magnitude of the estimated empirical accelerations, satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals, and SLR-based orbit corrections. Moreover, the radargrammetric distance measurements of the SAR instrument are selected for assessing the quality of the orbit solutions and compared to the SLR analysis. The use of high-fidelity satellite dynamics models in the RD approach is shown to clearly improve the orbit quality compared to simplified models and loosely constrained empirical accelerations. The estimated empirical accelerations are substantially reduced by 30% in tangential direction when working with the refined dynamical models. Likewise the SLR residuals are reduced from -3 ± 17 to 2 ± 13 mm, and the SLR-derived normal-direction position corrections are reduced from 15 to 6 mm, obtained from

  7. Analysis and role of oligosaccharides in milk.

    PubMed

    Ruhaak, L Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-08-01

    Milk is an important fluid in glycobiology because it contains a number of short carbohydrate chains either free or as glycoconjugates. These compounds as a class are the most abundant component and benefit the infant by developing and maintaining the infant's gut flora. New and emerging methods for oligosaccharide analysis have been developed to study milk. These methods allow for the rapid profiling of oligosaccharide mixtures with quantitation. With these tools, the role of oligosaccharide in milk is being understood. They further point to how oligosaccharide analysis can be performed, which until now has been very difficult and have lagged significantly those of other biopolymers.

  8. Important factors determining the nanoscale tracking precision of dynamic microtubule ends

    PubMed Central

    BOHNER, G.; GUSTAFSSON, N.; CADE, N.I.; MAURER, S.P.; GRIFFIN, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tracking dynamic microtubule ends in fluorescence microscopy movies provides insight into the statistical properties of microtubule dynamics and is vital for further analysis that requires knowledge of the trajectories of the microtubule ends. Here we analyse the performance of a previously developed automated microtubule end tracking routine; this has been optimized for comparatively low signal‐to‐noise image sequences that are characteristic of microscopy movies of dynamic microtubules growing in vitro. Sequences of simulated microtubule images were generated assuming a variety of different experimental conditions. The simulated movies were then tracked and the tracking errors were characterized. We found that the growth characteristics of the microtubules within realistic ranges had a negligible effect on the tracking precision. The fluorophore labelling density, the pixel size of the images, and the exposure times were found to be important parameters limiting the tracking precision which could be explained using concepts of single molecule localization microscopy. The signal‐to‐noise ratio was found to be a good single predictor of the tracking precision: typical experimental signal‐to‐noise ratios lead to tracking precisions in the range of tens of nanometres, making the tracking program described here a useful tool for dynamic microtubule end tracking with close to molecular precision. PMID:26444439

  9. Towards the GEOSAT Follow-On Precise Orbit Determination Goals of High Accuracy and Near-Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Beckley, Brian D.; Lillibridge, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On spacecraft (GFO) primary mission objective is to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Satellite laser ranging data, especially in combination with altimeter crossover data, offer the only means of determining high-quality precise orbits. Two tuned gravity models, PGS7727 and PGS7777b, were created at NASA GSFC for GFO that reduce the predicted radial orbit through degree 70 to 13.7 and 10.0 mm. A macromodel was developed to model the nonconservative forces and the SLR spacecraft measurement offset was adjusted to remove a mean bias. Using these improved models, satellite-ranging data, altimeter crossover data, and Doppler data are used to compute both daily medium precision orbits with a latency of less than 24 hours. Final precise orbits are also computed using these tracking data and exported with a latency of three to four weeks to NOAA for use on the GFO Geophysical Data Records (GDR s). The estimated orbit precision of the daily orbits is between 10 and 20 cm, whereas the precise orbits have a precision of 5 cm.

  10. Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. Results The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and β-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and β-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. Conclusion This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23663691

  11. Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Goh, Yong Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-05-10

    Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and β-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and β-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Synthetic Oligosaccharide Stimulates and Stabilizes Angiogenesis: Structure–Function Relationships and Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, S. A.; Feng, X.; Xie, J.; Du, Y.; Hua, Y.; He, H.; O’Connor, L.; Linhardt, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the proangiogenesis effect of series of saccharides and a synthetic oligosaccharide and potential mechanisms, an in vitro 3-dimensional endothelial cell sprouting (3D-ECS) assay and the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model were used. We demonstrated that a sulfated oligosaccharide significantly promotes the endothelial capillary network initiated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF). Furthermore, although the capillary network initiated by VEGF and b-FGF lasts no more than 7 days, addition of a sulfated oligosaccharide significantly amplifies angiogenesis and stabilizes the capillary network of new blood vessels. In the CAM model, sulfated oligosaccharide also stimulated angiogenesis. In both the CAM and the 3D-ECS assay, structure–function studies reveal that increased saccharide chain length up to the hexa- to decasaccharide show optimal proangiogenesis efficacy. In addition, the sulfation and molecular shape (branched vs linear) of oligosaccharide are important for sustained proangiogenesis efficacy. Data indicate that chemically defined synthetic oligosaccharides can play an important role in regulation of capillary structure and stability, which may contribute to future advances in therapeutic angiogenesis. The proangiogenesis efficacy of an oligosaccharide is mediated via integrin αvβ3 and involves mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling mechanisms. PMID:16954815

  13. Precise GLONASS orbit determination within the IGS/IGLOS Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R.; Fragner, E.; Slater, J. A.; Habrich, H.; Glotov, V.; Romero, I.; Schaer, S.

    During the past 3.5 years, Russia has launched a number of new GLONASS satellites to renew step by step the whole space segment. 10 satellites are currently operational, while the new GLONASS-M satellite is still in commission phase. In parallel, the International GPS Service (IGS) established in 2000 a GLONASS Service Pilot Project (IGLOS) as a follow-on to the very successful International GLONASS Experiment (IGEX-98) that ended in April 1999. The IGLOS Pilot Project has a global network of over 40 tracking stations with dual-frequency GLONASS receivers, collocated with IGS GPS stations. As with the GPS data, the GLONASS data are collected continuously and archived in RINEX format at the IGS Global Data Centers. In addition, three of the satellites are routinely tracked by the International Laser Ranging Service, taking advantage of the retro-reflector array carried by each satellite. Three organizations, ESA/ESOC (European Space Operations Center, Germany), BKG (Bundesamt f. Kartographie u. Geodäsie, Germany) and CODE (University Berne, Switzerland), compute precise orbits from the receiver tracking data, while the Russian Mission Control Center computes orbits from the laser ranging data. The laser data provide a means to validate orbit determination modeling and to investigate orbit residuals. These 4 independent orbits, which are consistent at the 10-15cm level, are used by the IGLOS Analysis Coordinator to compute one combined IGLOS orbit for each satellite. The IGLOS project is a working model of a 2-system GNSS. Time standardization, reference frames and file formats have been addressed to handle GPS and GLONASS data in the same operations. The combined systems contain over 36 satellites, which can be exploited for many applications. In this context time transfer, real-time navigation, and atmospheric studies are valid examples which can benefit from the additional data that GLONASS provides. Finally, taking into consideration the upcoming GALILEO system

  14. Precise orbit determination for quad-constellation satellites at Wuhan University: strategy, result validation, and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-02-01

    This contribution summarizes the strategy used by Wuhan University (WHU) to determine precise orbit and clock products for Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). In particular, the satellite attitude, phase center corrections, solar radiation pressure model developed and used for BDS satellites are addressed. In addition, this contribution analyzes the orbit and clock quality of the quad-constellation products from MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) for a common time period of 1 year (2014). With IGS final GPS and GLONASS products as the reference, Multi-GNSS products of WHU (indicated by WUM) show the best agreement among these products from all MGEX ACs in both accuracy and stability. 3D Day Boundary Discontinuities (DBDs) range from 8 to 27 cm for Galileo-IOV satellites among all ACs' products, whereas WUM ones are the largest (about 26.2 cm). Among three types of BDS satellites, MEOs show the smallest DBDs from 10 to 27 cm, whereas the DBDs for all ACs products are at decimeter to meter level for GEOs and one to three decimeter for IGSOs, respectively. As to the satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation for Galileo-IOV satellites, the accuracy evaluated by SLR residuals is at the one decimeter level with the well-known systematic bias of about -5 cm for all ACs. For BDS satellites, the accuracy could reach decimeter level, one decimeter level, and centimeter level for GEOs, IGSOs, and MEOs, respectively. However, there is a noticeable bias in GEO SLR residuals. In addition, systematic errors dependent on orbit angle related to mismodeled solar radiation pressure (SRP) are present for BDS GEOs and IGSOs. The results of Multi-GNSS combined kinematic PPP demonstrate that the best accuracy of position and fastest convergence speed have been achieved using WUM products, particularly in the Up direction. Furthermore, the accuracy of static BDS only PPP degrades when the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites switches to orbit-normal orientation

  15. Mitotic Index Determined by Phosphohistone H3 Immunohistochemistry for Precise Grading in Follicular Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bedekovics, Judit; Irsai, Gábor; Hegyi, Katalin; Beke, Lívia; Krenács, László; Gergely, Lajos; Méhes, Gábor

    2016-12-16

    The World Health Organization classification recommends follicular lymphoma (FL) grading (G1-3) by considering centroblast number, while also suggesting its influence on disease outcome. As centroblast counting and other proliferation markers have limitations, we looked for more specific measures of cellular activity in FL. Phosphorylated histone H3 (pHH3) was widely applied for the objective detection of mitotic activity in different tumors. The aim was to evaluate the utility of pHH3 protein in FL grading and compare its value with the classical features of cell proliferation. Representative samples from 48 FL patients and 9 samples with follicular hyperplasia were examined. Hematoxylin-eosin-based mitosis index (HE-MI), number of mitotic figures based on anti-pHH3 immunohistochemical staining (pHH3-MI), and percentage of Ki-67-positive cells [proliferation index (PI)] were determined and compared with centroblast-based histologic grade. PHH3-MI showed significant correlation with HE-MI (r=0.85, P<0.0001) and PI (r=0.84, P<0.0001). All 3 cell proliferation parameters showed significant correlation with histologic grade: HE-MI versus grade, r=0.85 (P<0.0001); PI versus grade, r=0.74 (P<0.0001); pHH3-MI versus grade, r=0.80 (P<0.0001). PHH3-MI showed continuous increase with the histologic grade. The pHH3-MI value was distinctive between the G2 and the G1 FL groups (P<0.0001) and was increased in G3 FL compared with that in the G2 FL group (P=0.0020). In conclusion, easy-to-perform mitotic counting following phosphohistone H3 immunohistochemistry (pHH3-MI) correlates well with centroblast-based grading. PHH3 immunohistochemistry offers a reliable quantification tool supporting lymphoma grading and can be recommended as an additional parameter for the precise subcategorization of FL cases.

  16. A Precise, Simple, and Low-Cost Experiment to Determine the Isobaric Expansion Coefficient for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pe´rez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The procedure of a physical chemistry experiment for university students must be designed in a way that the accuracy and precision of the measurements is properly maintained. However, in many cases, that requires costly and sophisticated equipment not readily available in developing countries. A simple, low-cost experiment to determine isobaric…

  17. A Precise, Simple, and Low-Cost Experiment to Determine the Isobaric Expansion Coefficient for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pe´rez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The procedure of a physical chemistry experiment for university students must be designed in a way that the accuracy and precision of the measurements is properly maintained. However, in many cases, that requires costly and sophisticated equipment not readily available in developing countries. A simple, low-cost experiment to determine isobaric…

  18. Precise /sup 3/H-/sup 3/He mass difference for neutrino mass determination

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmaa, E.; Pikver, R.; Suurmaa, E.; Past, J.; Puskar, J.; Koppel, I.; Tammik, A.

    1985-01-28

    The precise /sup 3/H-/sup 3/He atomic mass difference has been measured by high-resolution (10/sup -8/) ion cyclotron resonance in a 4.7-T magnetic field. The result of 18 599 +- 2 eV favors a nonzero electron antineutrino mass.

  19. [Effect of ligand concentration on the precision of determining the parameters of ligand-receptor interaction by serial dilution methods].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2004-01-01

    Earlier we suggested the method of serial dilution, which allows one to determine the parameters of ligand-receptor interaction even if the reactants are in a mixture and their concentrations are unknown. The method is especially useful if the liability of studied receptor does not allow its separation from corresponding ligand. The important prerequisite of the method's precision is that the concentration of the ligand should be sufficiently high comparing to the concentration of the receptor. In the present paper it was demonstrated that the method allows one to obtain sufficiently good precision even in the case when the concentration of the ligand is only one tenth of the receptor concentration.

  20. Analysis of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M. L.; Ruiz-Matute, A. I.; Corzo, N.; Martínez-Castro, I.

    Carbohydrates and more specifically prebiotics, are complex mixtures of isomers with different degrees of polymerization (DP), monosaccharide units and/or glycosidic linkages. Many efforts are focused on the search for new products and the determination of their biological activity. However, the study of their chemical structure is fundamental to both acquire a basic knowledge of the carbohydrate and to increase the understanding of the mechanisms for their metabolic effect.

  1. The transfer of mannose to dolichol diphosphate oligosaccharides in pig liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Oliver, G J; Hemming, F W

    1975-11-01

    The transfer, catalysed by pig liver microsomal preparations, of mannose, from GDP-mannose, to lipid-linked oligosaccharides and the properties of the products are described. Solubility, hydrolytic and chromatographic data suggest that they are dolichol diphosphate derivatives. The presence of two N-acetyl groups in at least part of the heterogenous oligosaccharide portion was tentatively deduced. Reduction with borohydride of the oligosaccharide showed that the newly added mannose residues were not at its reducing end. Periodate oxidation suggested that 60% of these were at the non-reducing terminus and that 40% were positioned internally. T.l.c. showed the presence of seven oligosaccharide fractions with chromatographic mobilities corresponding to glucose oligomers with 7-13 residues. The molar proportions of the oligosaccharide fractions in the mixture were determined by borotritiide reduction and the number of mannose residues added to each oligosaccharide fraction during the incubation was calculated. Two of the oligosaccharide fractions had received on average one, or slightly more than one, mannose residue per chain during the incubation; four of the other fractions were each shown to be a mixture, 20-25% of which had received one mannose residue during the incubation and 75-80% of which had not been mannosylated during the incubation. This supported other evidence for the presence of endogenous lipid-linked oligosaccharides in the microsomal preparation which had been formed before the incubation in vitro. Evidence for the possibility of two pools of dolichol monophosphate mannose, one being more closely associated with mannosyl transfer to dolichol diphosphate oligosaccharides than the other, is also discussed.

  2. The Human Milk Metabolome Reveals Diverse Oligosaccharide Profiles123

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; O’Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4–120%), with several metabolites having low variation (<20%), including lactose, urea, glutamate, myo-inositol, and creatinine. Principal components analysis identified 2 clear groups of participants who were differentiable on the basis of milk oligosaccharide concentration and who were classified as secretors or nonsecretors of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene products according to the concentration of 2′-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose I. Exploration of the interrelations between the milk sugars by using Spearman rank correlations revealed significant positive and negative associations, including positive correlations between fucose and products of the FUT2 gene and negative correlations between fucose and products of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) gene. The total concentration of milk oligosaccharides was conserved among participants (%CV = 18%), suggesting tight regulation of total oligosaccharide production; however, concentrations of specific oligosaccharides varied widely between participants (%CV = 30.4–84.3%). The variability in certain milk metabolites suggests possible roles in infant or infant gut microbial development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  3. The human milk metabolome reveals diverse oligosaccharide profiles.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2013-11-01

    Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4-120%), with several metabolites having low variation (<20%), including lactose, urea, glutamate, myo-inositol, and creatinine. Principal components analysis identified 2 clear groups of participants who were differentiable on the basis of milk oligosaccharide concentration and who were classified as secretors or nonsecretors of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene products according to the concentration of 2'-fucosyllactose, lactodifucotetraose, and lacto-N-fucopentaose I. Exploration of the interrelations between the milk sugars by using Spearman rank correlations revealed significant positive and negative associations, including positive correlations between fucose and products of the FUT2 gene and negative correlations between fucose and products of the fucosyltransferase 3 (FUT3) gene. The total concentration of milk oligosaccharides was conserved among participants (%CV = 18%), suggesting tight regulation of total oligosaccharide production; however, concentrations of specific oligosaccharides varied widely between participants (%CV = 30.4-84.3%). The variability in certain milk metabolites suggests possible roles in infant or infant gut microbial development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817127.

  4. High-precision half-life determination for 21Na using a 4 π gas-proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, P.; Laffoley, A. T.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Dunlop, M. R.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Leslie, J. R.; MacLean, A. D.; Miller, D.; Moukaddam, M.; Olaizola, B.; Severijns, N.; Smith, J. K.; Southall, D.; Svensson, C. E.

    2017-08-01

    A high-precision half-life measurement for the superallowed β+ transition between the isospin T =1 /2 mirror nuclei 21Na and 21Ne has been performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility yielding T1 /2=22.4506 (33 ) s, a result that is a factor of 4 more precise than the previous world-average half-life for 21Na and represents the single most precisely determined half-life for a transition between mirror nuclei to date. The contribution to the uncertainty in the 21Na F tmirror value due to the half-life is now reduced to the level of the nuclear-structure-dependent theoretical corrections, leaving the branching ratio as the dominant experimental uncertainty.

  5. [Molecular structure and fractal analysis of oligosaccharide].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-long; Wang, Lu-man; He, Dong-qi; Zhang, Tian-lan; Gou, Bao-di; Li, Qing

    2014-10-18

    To propose a calculation method of oligosaccharides' fractal dimension, and to provide a new approach to studying the drug molecular design and activity. By using the principle of energy optimization and computer simulation technology, the steady structures of oligosaccharides were found, and an effective way of oligosaccharides fractal dimension's calculation was further established by applying the theory of box dimension to the chemical compounds. By using the proposed method, 22 oligosaccharides' fractal dimensions were calculated, with the mean 1.518 8 ± 0.107 2; in addition, the fractal dimensions of the two activity multivalent oligosaccharides which were confirmed by experiments, An-2 and Gu-4, were about 1.478 8 and 1.516 0 respectively, while C-type lectin-like receptor Dectin-1's fractal dimension was about 1.541 2. The experimental and computational results were expected to help to find a class of glycoside drugs whose target receptor was Dectin-1. Fractal dimension, differing from other known macro parameters, is a useful tool to characterize the compound molecules' microscopic structure and function, which may play an important role in the molecular design and biological activity study. In the process of oligosaccharides drug screening, the fractal dimension of receptor and designed oligosaccharides or glycoclusters can be calculated respectively. The oligosaccharides with fractal dimension close to that of target receptor should then take priority compared with others, to get the drug molecules with latent activity.

  6. Human milk and related oligosaccharides as prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Barile, Daniela; Rastall, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are believed to have a range of biological activities beyond providing nutrition to the infant. Principal among these is that they may act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides that provide a health benefit to the host mediated by the modulation of the human gut microbiota. While it is clear that such oligosaccharides may have potential applications in infants and adults alike, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing HMO. Consequently functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are under investigation. GOS are produced enzymatically from lactose for commercial use in food applications--including addition to infant formulae--as similar to breast milk oligosaccharides, they encourage a gut bacteria population that promotes health and reduces the incidence of intestinal infections. New methods for separation and concentration of complex, breast milk-like oligosaccharides from bovine milk industrial streams that contain only low amounts of these valuable oligosaccharides are providing the opportunity to investigate other viable sources of specific oligosaccharides for use as prebiotics in supplements or food products.

  7. Precise determination of atomic g-factor ratios from a dual isotope magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, I.; Barrett, B.; Kumarakrishnan, A.

    2011-09-15

    We demonstrate a technique, for carrying out precise measurements of atomic g-factor ratios, which relies on measurements of Larmor oscillations from coherences between magnetic sublevels in the ground states of {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb atoms confined in a dual isotope magneto-optical trap. We show that a measurement of g{sub F}{sup (87)}/g{sub F}{sup (85)} with a resolution of 0.69 parts per 10{sup 6} is possible by recording the ratio of Larmor frequencies in the presence of a constant magnetic field. This represents the most precise single measurement of g{sub F}{sup (87)}/g{sub F}{sup (85)} without correcting for systematic effects.

  8. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.; Zollinger, W.T.; Heckendorn, F.M. II; Park, L.R.

    1994-02-15

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360[degree] about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms. 8 figures.

  9. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark; Talarek, Ted R.; Zollinger, W. Thor; Heckendorn, II, Frank M.; Park, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360.degree. about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms.

  10. Galileo Declassified: IOV Spacecraft Metadata and Its Impact on Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilssner, Florian; Schönemann, Erik; Springer, Tim; Flohrer, Claudia; Enderle, Werner

    2017-04-01

    In December 2016, shortly after the declaration of Galileo Initial Services, the European GNSS Agency (GSA) disclosed Galileo spacecraft metadata relevant to precise orbit determination (POD), such as antenna phase center parameters, dimensions of the solar panels and the main body, specularity and reflectivity coefficients for the surface materials, yaw attitude steering law, and signal group delays. The metadata relates to the first four operational Galileo satellites, known as the In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites, and is publicly available through the European GNSS Service Center (GSC) web site. One of the dataset's major benefits is that it includes nearly all information about the satellites' surface properties needed to develop a physically meaningful analytical solar radiation pressure (SRP) macro model, or "box-wing" (BW) model. Such a BW model for the IOV spacecraft has now been generated for use in NAPEOS, the European Space Operation Centre's (ESOC's) main geodetic software package for POD. The model represents the satellite as a simple six-sided box with two attached panels, or "wings", and allows for the a priori computation of the direct and indirect (Earth albedo) SRP force. Further valuable parameters of the metadata set are the IOV navigation antenna (NAVANT) phase center offsets (PCOs) and variations (PCVs) inferred from pre-launch anechoic chamber measurements. In this work, we report on the validation of the Galileo IOV metadata and its impact on POD, an activity ESOC has been deeply committed to since the launch of the first Galileo experimental satellite, GIOVE-A, in 2005. We first reanalyze the full history of Galileo tracking data the global International GNSS Service (IGS) network has collected since 2012. We generate orbit and clock solutions based on the widely used Empirical CODE Orbit Model (ECOM) with and without the IOV a priori BW model. For the satellite antennas, we apply the new as well as the standard IGS-recommended phase

  11. External validation, repeat determination, and precision of risk estimation in misclassified exposure data in epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, S W; Maximovitch, D M; Day, N E

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to quantify the difference in precision of risk estimates in epidemiology between the situations where misclassification of exposure is corrected for by external validation and where it is corrected for by internal repeat measurement. Precision was measured in terms of the expected width of the 95% confidence interval on the odds ratio. DESIGN--In a hypothetical case-control study, first with 100 cases and 100 controls, then with 100 cases and 1000 controls (the latter to approximate the cohort study situation), expected estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated based on postulated underlying true odds ratios and misclassification error rates. The sizes of the confidence intervals using the two design strategies were compared, based on the same number of subjects receiving internal repeat measurements as were used in the external validation study. MAIN RESULTS--Confidence intervals obtained using internal repeat measurement were considerably narrower than those using external validation. Both methods yielded approximately correct point estimates. CONCLUSIONS--In terms of precision, it is preferable to correct for misclassification using internal repeat measurement rather than external validation. PMID:1494080

  12. Precise Orbit Determination of Meteors by HPLA Radar and the MU Radar Meteor Head Echo Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takuji; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Tanaka, Yoshi; Kero, Johan; Szasz, Csilla; Watanabe, Juniichi; Abe, Shinsuke; Kastinen, Daniel

    Mass influx from the space into the terrestrial atmosphere is mainly caused by meteors. Meteors delivers various elements into the atmosphere, but the meteoric dust particles are also of great importance in the terrestrial atmosphere, as they act as nucleus for condensation and clouds and affect various atmospheric phenomena both in physical and chemical aspects. Thus, to investigate the meteor flux, orbits and their interactions in the upper atmosphere is very important but at the same time the method of investigation is limited, especially for the precise measurements High power large aperture (HPLA) radar observation is a recent technique to provide useful information on meteor influx and orbits, as well as interactions with the atmosphere. The recent development of the technique carried out using the middle and upper atmosphere radar (MU radar) of Kyoto University at Shigaraki (34.9N, 136.1S), which is a large atmospheric VHF radar with 46.5 MHz frequency, 1 MW output transmission power and 8330 m2 aperture array antenna, has established very precise orbit observations from meteor head echoes. Since 2009, orbital data of about 120,000 meteors have been collected. An open database (MU radar meteor head echo database: MURMHED) for research and education is now being created. In this study, we present the physical quantities and precisions obtained from the MU radar meteor head echo observations and the details of the open database.

  13. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography for the separation, purification, and quantification of raffinose family oligosaccharides from Lycopus lucidus Turcz.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tu; Fu, Qing; Li, Fangbing; Zhou, Wei; Xin, Huaxia; Wang, Hui; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-08-01

    A systematic strategy based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was developed for the separation, purification and quantification of raffinose family oligosaccharides from Lycopus lucidus Turcz. Methods with enough hydrophilicity and selectivity were utilized to resolve the problems encountered in the separation of oligosaccharides such as low retention, low resolution and poor solubility. The raffinose family oligosaccharides in L. lucidus Turcz. were isolated using solid-phase extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography at semi-preparative scale to obtain standards of stachyose, verbascose and ajugose. Utilizing the obtained oligosaccharides as standards, a quantitative determination method was developed, validated and applied for the content determination of raffinose family oligosaccharides both in the aerial and root parts of L. lucidus Turcz. There were no oligosaccharides in the aerial parts, while in the root parts, the total content was 686.5 mg/g with the average distribution: raffinose 66.5 mg/g, stachyose 289.0 mg/g, verbascose 212.4 mg/g, and ajugose 118.6 mg/g. The result provided the potential of roots of L. lucidus Turcz. as new raffinose family oligosaccharides sources for functional food. Moreover, since the present systematic strategy is efficient, sensitive and robust, separation, purification and quantification of oligosaccharides by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography seems to be possible.

  14. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. Preparation and antioxidant activity of the oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun

    2014-06-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can degrade polysaccharides and has bleaching effect. In this study, the oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica were prepared by hydrolysis with H2O2 and their antioxidant activity was investigated. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined as follows: reaction time 24h, reaction temperature 75°C, and H2O2 concentration 4%. Under the optimum conditions, the maximum yield of the oligosaccharides reached 17.65%, which was higher than that of aqueous extraction, and at the same time, the maximal decoloration rate reached 79.85%. The oligosaccharides sample contained 94.82% sugar, of which the average degree was approximately 8, and showed light green. The oligosaccharides derived from L. japonica showed high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (91.31%) at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elucidation of the structure of the oligosaccharide from wild type Moraxella bovis Epp63 lipooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Cristina; Grice, I Darren; Daal, Terese-Marie; Peak, Ian R; Molinaro, Antonio; Wilson, Jennifer C

    2014-03-31

    Moraxella bovis is a Gram-negative microorganism that causes Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), colloquially known as 'Pink eye' in cattle worldwide. Lipopolysaccharides/lipooligosaccharides are the predominant glycans on the surface of Gram-negative microorganisms. Structural elucidation of the oligosaccharide structure of the rough phenotype of Moraxella bovis strain Epp63 was determined using GC-MS, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide is a branched structure that comprises 10 sugars in addition to KDO. The unusual features of this oligosaccharide include the fact that the oligosaccharide is devoid of heptose. The KDO residue is directly attached to a (→4,6)-branched glucose and additionally contains a terminal open chain acetal-linked N-acetylgalactosamine, (1S)-GalaNAc residue →4,6-linked to a sub-terminal galactose residue.

  17. Precise Determination of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor to Higher Q{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    William K. Brooks; Jeffery D. Lachniet

    2004-10-01

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} has been extracted from quasielastic scattering from deuterium in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, CLAS. The kinematic coverage of the measurement is continuous over a broad range, extending from below 1 GeV{sup 2} to nearly 5 GeV{sup 2} in four-momentum transfer squared. High precision is achieved by employing a ratio technique in which most uncertainties cancel, and by a simultaneous in-situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency, the largest correction to the data. Preliminary results are shown with statistical errors only.

  18. A CCD based approach to high-precision size and refractive index determination of levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.D.; Lermer, N.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    We describe a fast and convenient method of high precision size and refractive index determination of electrodynamically levitated microdroplets using Fraunhofer diffraction. The diffraction data were obtained with a 16-bit, unintensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera, and converted into angle-resolved elastic scattering intensity patterns by means of a carefully determined set of transformation parameters. The angular scattering patterns were analyzed without any {ital a priori} estimate of the droplet size and only a nominal estimate ({approx}2{percent}) of the refractive index. Experimental angular scattering patterns were fit to calculated patterns from Mie theory using a graded step-size and scaling algorithm and optimized with respect to both droplet diameter and refractive index (real part only) with a precision of {le}3 parts in 10{sup 4} and 1 part in 10{sup 3}, respectively. Potential application to quantitative fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, as well as mixture analysis in microdroplets is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Determining the Precise Cerebral Response to Acupuncture: An Improved fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Baoci; Li, Yongzhong; Li, Lin; Xue, Jingquan; Nie, Binbin

    2012-01-01

    Background In acupuncture brain imaging trials, there are many non-acupuncture factors confounding the neuronal mapping. The modality of the placebo, subjects’ psychological attitude to acupuncture and their physical state are the three most confounding factors. Objective To obtain more precise and accurate cerebral fMRI mapping of acupuncture. Design and Setting A 2×2 randomized, controlled, participant-blinded cross-over factorial acupuncture trial was conducted at Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, China. Participants Forty-one college students with myopia were recruited to participate in our study and were allocated randomly to four groups, Group A, Group B, Group C and Group D. Interventions Group A received real acupuncture (RA) and treatment instruction (TI); Group B received RA and non-treatment instruction (NI); Group C received sham acupuncture (SA) and TI; Group D received SA and NI. Results Stimulation at LR3 activated some areas of the visual cortex, and the cerebral response to non-acupuncture factors was complex and occurred in multiple areas. Conclusions The results provide more evidence regarding the credibility of acupuncture therapy and suggest that more precise experimental designs are needed to eliminate sources of bias in acupuncture controlled trials and to obtain sound results. PMID:23152865

  20. Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, David L.; Axelrod, T.; Blondin, Stephane; Claver, Chuck; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; Saha, Abhijit; Smith, Allyn; Smith, R.Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-08-24

    The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

  1. Calibration and validation of individual GOCE accelerometers by precise orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, P. N. A. M.; IJssel, J. A. A. van den

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circular Explorer (GOCE) carries a gradiometer consisting of three pairs of accelerometers in an orthogonal triad. Precise GOCE science orbit solutions (PSO), which are based on satellite-to-satellite tracking observations by the Global Positioning System and which are claimed to be at the few cm precision level, can be used to calibrate and validate the observations taken by the accelerometers. This has been done for each individual accelerometer by a dynamic orbit fit of the time series of position co-ordinates from the PSOs, where the accelerometer observations represent the non-gravitational accelerations. Since the accelerometers do not coincide with the center of mass of the GOCE satellite, the observations have to be corrected for rotational and gravity gradient terms. This is not required when using the so-called common-mode accelerometer observations, provided the center of the gradiometer coincides with the GOCE center of mass. Dynamic orbit fits based on these common-mode accelerations therefore served as reference. It is shown that for all individual accelerometers, similar dynamic orbit fits can be obtained provided the above-mentioned corrections are made. In addition, accelerometer bias estimates are obtained that are consistent with offsets in the gravity gradients that are derived from the GOCE gradiometer observations.

  2. Modeling radiation forces acting on TOPEX/Poseidon for precision orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Geodetic satellites such as GEOSAT, SPOT, ERS-1, and TOPEX/Poseidon require accurate orbital computations to support the scientific data they collect. Until recently, gravity field mismodeling was the major source of error in precise orbit definition. However, albedo and infrared re-radiation, and spacecraft thermal imbalances produce in combination no more than a 6-cm radial root-mean-square (RMS) error over a 10-day period. This requires the development of nonconservative force models that take the satellite's complex geometry, attitude, and surface properties into account. For TOPEX/Poseidon, a 'box-wing' satellite form was investigated that models the satellite as a combination of flat plates arranged in a box shape with a connected solar array. The nonconservative forces acting on each of the eight surfaces are computed independently, yielding vector accelerations which are summed to compute the total aggregate effect on the satellite center-of-mass. In order to test the validity of this concept, 'micro-models' based on finite element analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon were used to generate acceleration histories in a wide variety of orbit orientations. These profiles are then compared to the box-wing model. The results of these simulations and their implication on the ability to precisely model the TOPEX/Poseidon orbit are discussed.

  3. Modeling radiation forces acting on TOPEX/Poseidon for precision orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.

    1992-06-01

    Geodetic satellites such as GEOSAT, SPOT, ERS-1, and TOPEX/Poseidon require accurate orbital computations to support the scientific data they collect. Until recently, gravity field mismodeling was the major source of error in precise orbit definition. However, albedo and infrared re-radiation, and spacecraft thermal imbalances produce in combination no more than a 6-cm radial root-mean-square (RMS) error over a 10-day period. This requires the development of nonconservative force models that take the satellite's complex geometry, attitude, and surface properties into account. For TOPEX/Poseidon, a 'box-wing' satellite form was investigated that models the satellite as a combination of flat plates arranged in a box shape with a connected solar array. The nonconservative forces acting on each of the eight surfaces are computed independently, yielding vector accelerations which are summed to compute the total aggregate effect on the satellite center-of-mass. In order to test the validity of this concept, 'micro-models' based on finite element analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon were used to generate acceleration histories in a wide variety of orbit orientations. These profiles are then compared to the box-wing model. The results of these simulations and their implication on the ability to precisely model the TOPEX/Poseidon orbit are discussed.

  4. Towards an unbiased filter routine to determine precipitation and evapotranspiration from high precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andre; Groh, Jannis; Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Vereecken, Harry; Pütz, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters are considered to be the best means for a precise measurement of water fluxes at the interface between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere. Any decrease of the net mass of the lysimeter can be interpreted as evapotranspiration (ET), any increase as precipitation (P). However, the measured raw data need to be filtered to separate real mass changes from noise. Such filter routines typically apply two steps: (i) a low pass filter, like moving average, which smooths noisy data, and (ii) a threshold filter that separates significant from insignificant mass changes. Recent developments of these filters have identified and solved some problems regarding bias in the data processing. A remaining problem is that each change in flow direction is accompanied with a systematic flow underestimation due to the threshold scheme. In this contribution, we analyze this systematic effect and show that the absolute underestimation is independent of the magnitude of a flux event. Thus, for small events, like dew or rime formation, the relative error is high and can reach the same magnitude as the flux itself. We develop a heuristic solution to the problem by introducing a so-called ;snap routine;. The routine is calibrated and tested with synthetic flux data and applied to real measurements obtained with a precision lysimeter for a 10-month period. The heuristic snap routine effectively overcomes these problems and yields an almost unbiased representation of the real signal.

  5. Fixed-point single-precision estimation. [Kalman filtering for NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer orbit determination algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, E. H.; Farrell, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of autonomous orbit determination has validated the use of an 18-bit NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer (NSSC) for the extended Kalman filter. Dimensionally consistent scales are chosen for all variables in the algorithm, such that nearly all of the onboard computation can be performed in single precision without matrix square root formulations. Allowable simplifications in algorithm implementation and practical means of ensuring convergence are verified for accuracies of a few km provided by star/vertical observations

  6. Preparation of κ-carra-oligosaccharides with microwave assisted acid hydrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangsheng; Zhao, Xia; Lv, Youjing; Li, Miaomiao; Yu, Guangli

    2015-04-01

    A rapid method of microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was established to prepare κ-carra-oligosaccharides. The optimal hydrolysis condition was determined by an orthogonal test. The degree of polymerization (DP) of oligosaccharides was detected by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considering the results of HPTLC and PAGE, the optimum condition of microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was determined. The concentration of κ-carrageenan was 5 mg mL-1; the reaction solution was adjusted to pH 3 with diluted hydrochloric acid; the solution was hydrolyzed under microwave irradiation at 100 for 15 °C min. Oligosaccharides were separated by a Superdex 30 column (2.6 cm × 90 cm) using AKTA Purifier UPC100 and detected with an online refractive index detector. Each fraction was characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The data showed that odd-numbered κ-carra-oligosaccharides with DP ranging from 3 to 21 could be obtained with this method, and the structures of the oligosaccharides were consistent with those obtained by traditional mild acid hydrolysis. The new method was more convenient, efficient and environment-friendly than traditional mild acid hydrolysis. Our results provided a useful reference for the preparation of oligosaccharides from other polysaccharides.

  7. A Study into the Method of Precise Orbit Determination of a HEO Orbiter by GPS and Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikenaga, Toshinori; Hashida, Yoshi; Unwin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In the present day, orbit determination by Global Positioning System (GPS) is not unusual. Especially for low-cost small satellites, position determination by an on-board GPS receiver provides a cheap, reliable and precise method. However, the original purpose of GPS is for ground users, so the transmissions from all of the GPS satellites are directed toward the Earth s surface. Hence there are some restrictions for users above the GPS constellation to detect those signals. On the other hand, a desire for precise orbit determination for users in orbits higher than GPS constellation exists. For example, the next Japanese Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) mission "ASTRO-G" is trying to determine its orbit in an accuracy of a few centimeters at apogee. The use of GPS is essential for such ultra accurate orbit determination. This study aims to construct a method for precise orbit determination for such high orbit users, especially in High Elliptical Orbits (HEOs). There are several approaches for this objective. In this study, a hybrid method with GPS and an accelerometer is chosen. Basically, while the position cannot be determined by an on-board GPS receiver or other Range and Range Rate (RARR) method, all we can do to estimate the user satellite s position is to propagate the orbit along with the force model, which is not perfectly correct. However if it has an accelerometer (ACC), the coefficients of the air drag and the solar radiation pressure applied to the user satellite can be updated and then the propagation along with the "updated" force model can improve the fitting accuracy of the user satellite s orbit. In this study, it is assumed to use an accelerometer available in the present market. The effects by a bias error of an accelerometer will also be discussed in this paper.

  8. Sequencing and characterization of oligosaccharides using infrared multiphoton dissociation and boronic acid derivatization in a quadrupole ion trap.

    PubMed

    Pikulski, Michael; Hargrove, Amanda; Shabbir, Shagufta H; Anslyn, Eric V; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    A simplified method for determining the sequence and branching of oligosaccharides using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) is described. An IR-active boronic acid (IRABA) reagent is used to derivatize the oligosaccharides before IRMPD analysis. The IRABA ligand is designed to both enhance the efficiency of the derivatization reaction and to facilitate the photon absorption process. The resulting IRMPD spectra display oligosaccharide fragments that are formed from primarily one type of diagnostic cleavage, thus making sequencing straightforward. The presence of sequential fragment ions, a phenomenon of IRMPD, permit the comprehensive sequencing of the oligosaccharides studied in a single stage of activation. We demonstrate this approach for two series of oligosaccharides, the lacto-N-fucopentaoses (LNFPs) and the lacto-N-difucohexaoses (LNDFHs).

  9. The Ability of Bifidobacteria To Degrade Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharide Constituents and Derived Oligosaccharides Is Strain Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Audrey; Moens, Frédéric; Selak, Marija; Maes, Dominique; Weckx, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates with promising health-promoting properties that stimulate the activity of specific colon bacteria, in particular bifidobacteria. However, the mechanisms by which bifidobacterial strains break down these compounds in the colon is still unknown. This study investigates AXOS consumption of a large number of bifidobacterial strains (36), belonging to 11 different species, systematically. To determine their degradation mechanisms, all strains were grown on a mixture of arabinose and xylose, xylo-oligosaccharides, and complex AXOS molecules as the sole added energy sources. Based on principal component and cluster analyses of their different arabinose substituent and/or xylose backbone consumption patterns, five clusters that were species independent could be distinguished among the bifidobacterial strains tested. In parallel, the strains were screened for the presence of genes encoding several putative AXOS-degrading enzymes, but no clear-cut correlation could be made with the different degradation mechanisms. The intra- and interspecies differences in the consumption patterns of AXOS indicate that bifidobacterial strains could avoid competition among each other or even could cooperate jointly to degrade these complex prebiotics. The knowledge gained on the AXOS degradation mechanisms in bifidobacteria can be of importance in the rational design of prebiotics with tailor-made composition and thus increased specificity in the colon. PMID:24141124

  10. Present and future electroweak precision measurements and the indirect determination of the mass of the Higgs boson

    SciTech Connect

    U. Baur et al.

    2002-02-14

    We discuss the experimental and theoretical uncertainties on precision electroweak observables and their relationship to the indirect constraints on the Higgs boson mass, MH, in the Standard Model (SM). The critical experimental measurements (M{sub W}, sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub eff}, m{sub t},...) are evaluated in terms of their present uncertainties and their prospects for improved precision at future colliders, and their contribution to the constraints on MH. In addition, the current uncertainties of the theoretical predictions for M{sub W} and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff} due to missing higher order corrections are estimated and expectations and necessary theoretical improvements for future colliders are explored. The constraints from rare B decays are also discussed. Analysis of the present experimental and theoretical precisions yield a current upper bound on M{sub H} of {approx} 200 GeV. Including anticipated improvements corresponding to the prospective situation at future colliders (Tevatron Run II, LHC, LC/GigaZ), we find a relative precision of about 25% to 8% (or better) is achievable in the indirect determination of M{sub H}.

  11. Measurement of the positive muon lifetime and determination of the Fermi constant to part-per-million precision.

    PubMed

    Webber, D M; Tishchenko, V; Peng, Q; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Chitwood, D B; Crnkovic, J; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hartwig, Z; Hertzog, D W; Johnson, B; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kizilgul, S; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Phillips, J; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Winter, P; Wolfe, B

    2011-01-28

    We report a measurement of the positive muon lifetime to a precision of 1.0 ppm; it is the most precise particle lifetime ever measured. The experiment used a time-structured, low-energy muon beam and a segmented plastic scintillator array to record more than 2×10(12) decays. Two different stopping target configurations were employed in independent data-taking periods. The combined results give τ(μ(+)) (MuLan)=2 196 980.3(2.2)  ps, more than 15 times as precise as any previous experiment. The muon lifetime gives the most precise value for the Fermi constant: G(F) (MuLan)=1.166 378 8(7)×10(-5)  GeV(-2) (0.6 ppm). It is also used to extract the μ(-)p singlet capture rate, which determines the proton's weak induced pseudoscalar coupling g(P).

  12. The use of laser altimetry data in Chang'E-1 precision orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng-Qi; Huang, Yong; Li, Pei-Jia; Hu, Xiao-Gong; Fan, Min

    2016-09-01

    Accurate altimetric measurement not only can be applied to the calculation of a topography model but also can be used to improve the quality of the orbit reconstruction in the form of crossovers. Altimetry data from the Chang'E-1 (CE-1) laser altimeter are analyzed in this paper. The differences between the crossover constraint equation in the form of height discrepancies and in the form of minimum distances are mainly discussed. The results demonstrate that the crossover constraint equation in the form of minimum distances improves the CE-1 orbit precision. The overlap orbit performance has increased ˜ 30% compared to the orbit using only tracking data. External assessment using the topography model also shows orbit improvement. The results will be helpful for recomputing ephemeris and improving the CE-1 topography model.

  13. Determination of Personalized IOL-Constants for the Haigis Formula under Consideration of Measurement Precision

    PubMed Central

    Leydolt, Christina; Menapace, Rupert; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2016-01-01

    The capabilities of a weighted least squares approach for the optimization of the intraocular lens (IOL) constants for the Haigis formula are studied in comparison to an ordinary least squares approach. The weights are set to the inverse variances of the effective optical anterior chamber depth. The effect of random measurement noise is simulated 100000 times using data from N = 69 cataract patients and the measurement uncertainty of two different biometers. A second, independent data set (N = 33) is used to show the differences that can be expected between both methods. The weighted least squares formalism reduces the effect of measurement error on the final constants. In more than 64% it will result in a better approximation, if the measurement errors are estimated correctly. The IOL constants can be calculated with higher precision using the weighted least squares method. PMID:27391100

  14. The Coyote Universe. I. Precision Determination of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David

    2010-05-01

    Near-future cosmological observations targeted at investigations of dark energy pose stringent requirements on the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the nonlinear clustering of matter. Currently, N-body simulations comprise the only viable approach to this problem. In this paper, we study various sources of computational error and methods to control them. By applying our methodology to a large suite of cosmological simulations we show that results for the (gravity-only) nonlinear matter power spectrum can be obtained at 1% accuracy out to k ~ 1 h Mpc-1. The key components of these high accuracy simulations are precise initial conditions, very large simulation volumes, sufficient mass resolution, and accurate time stepping. This paper is the first in a series of three; the final aim is a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum that improves current fitting formulae by an order of magnitude.

  15. THE COYOTE UNIVERSE. I. PRECISION DETERMINATION OF THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmann, Katrin; White, Martin; Wagner, Christian; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David

    2010-05-20

    Near-future cosmological observations targeted at investigations of dark energy pose stringent requirements on the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the nonlinear clustering of matter. Currently, N-body simulations comprise the only viable approach to this problem. In this paper, we study various sources of computational error and methods to control them. By applying our methodology to a large suite of cosmological simulations we show that results for the (gravity-only) nonlinear matter power spectrum can be obtained at 1% accuracy out to k {approx} 1 h Mpc{sup -1}. The key components of these high accuracy simulations are precise initial conditions, very large simulation volumes, sufficient mass resolution, and accurate time stepping. This paper is the first in a series of three; the final aim is a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum that improves current fitting formulae by an order of magnitude.

  16. Evaluation of factors determining the precision of body composition measurements by air displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Collins, A L; McCarthy, H D

    2003-06-01

    To investigate methodological precision of air displacement plethysmography for assessment of body composition in a heterogenous sample of adults. Accuracy of volume measurements by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) for a range of known volumes was ascertained. Repeated measurements of body volume, lung volume, and derived body composition using the BODPOD measurement system were performed. Influence of surface area estimation on ADP measurement was investigated as a possible source of variation. Clinical Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health & Sports Science, University of North London, London, UK. One hundred and two healthy subjects (57 women, 45 men) who ranged in age between 16 and 55 y and in BMI (kg/m(2)) between 17.8 and 41.9. Cross-sectional study of healthy adults for comparison with previous studies. Repeat measurements of raw body volume, lung volume and % body fat (BF) by ADP were all performed on the same day. From the range of known volumes a marked increase in the CV and a significantly greater measurement error were found at volumes below 40 l (P=0.04). Repeat measurements of raw body volume in human subjects resulted in a technical error equivalent to 0.8% BF. There was no significant difference found between measured and predicted lung volume and the 95% confidence interval for difference was only 0.3% BF. Repeat measurements of lung volume in our subset resulted in a technical error equivalent to 0.5% BF. Although body surface area estimation only accounted for variation in % BF of 0.1%, the extent of variation appeared to be governed by leanness (P<0.001). Although ADP retains excellent precision, in practice, repeat measurements of ADP should be performed whenever possible to allow for erroneous volume measurement within one procedure. Protocols for ADP measurement should be created with an awareness of those factors, which may affect measurements. This study was supported by the University of North London Diversity & Development Fund.

  17. Nature and biosynthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides related to oligosaccharides in human breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Intanon, Montira; Arreola, Sheryl Lozel; Pham, Ngoc Hung; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Haltrich, Dietmar; Nguyen, Thu-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are prominent among the functional components of human breast milk. While HMO have potential applications in both infants and adults, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing these complex structures. Consequently, functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides are under investigation, and nowadays, infant formulae are supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides to mimic the biological effects of HMO. Recently, approaches toward the production of defined human milk oligosaccharide structures using microbial, fermentative methods employing single, appropriately engineered microorganisms were introduced. Furthermore, galactose-containing hetero-oligosaccharides have attracted an increasing amount of attention because they are structurally more closely related to HMO. The synthesis of these novel oligosaccharides, which resemble the core of HMO, is of great interest for applications in the food industry. PMID:24571717

  18. Precise Determination of 40Ti Mass by Measuring the 40Sc Isospin Analogue State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ping; Hellström, M.; Collatz, R.; Benlliure, J.; Chulkov, L.; Cortina Gil, D.; Farget, F.; Grawe, H.; Z., Hu; Iwasa, N.; Pfützner, M.; Piechaczek, A.; Raabe, R.; Reusen, I.; Roeckl, E.; Vancraeynest, G.; Wöhr, A.

    2001-11-01

    The mass of 40Ti has been determined by using the isobaric multiplet mass equation method. The experimental data of the 40Ti β-decay were used to determine the level of the isospin analogue state of 40Sc. The ground-state mass excess and the QEC value for 40Ti were determined to be -9060+/-12 keV and 11 466 +/- 13 keV, respectively.

  19. Calorimetric system for high-precision determination of activity of the 51Cr neutrino source in the BEST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Danshin, S. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalashnikova, A. A.; Kozlova, J. P.; Martynov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The calorimetric system based on mass-flow calorimeter for high-precision determination of neutrino flux from 51Cr source with activity 3MCi and higher is created for experiment BEST. The achieved heat release uncertainties are less than 0.25% in the whole range of the heat power and less than 0.1% in the range of 250-500 W. Total value the uncertainty considering the uncertainty of the energy release in the 51Cr decay (0.23%) shows that the activity of 3MCi 51Cr neutrino source can be determined with accuracy better than 0.5%.

  20. Jason-1 Precise Orbit Determination from GPS Tracking: Method, Performance and Calibration of the Lc Phase Center Offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level Ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the Ocean topography goals of the mission. T/P has demonstrated that the time variation of Ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the Ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy.

  1. High-precision method for determining the position of laser beam focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Kleimenov, A N; Potemkin, I B; Khabibulin, V M

    2013-12-31

    The method of wavefront doubled-frequency spherical modulation for determining the laser beam waist position has been simulated and experimentally studied. The error in determining the focal plane position is less than 10{sup -5} D. The amplitude of the control doubled-frequency electric signal is experimentally found to correspond to 12% of the total radiation power. (laser beams)

  2. Advances in Analysis of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2012-01-01

    Oligosaccharides in human milk strongly influence the composition of the gut microflora of neonates. Because it is now clear that the microflora play important roles in the development of the infant immune system, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are studied frequently. Milk samples contain complex mixtures of HMO, usually comprising several isomeric structures that can be either linear or branched. Traditionally, HMO profiling was performed using HPLC with fluorescence or UV detection. By using porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography MS, it is now possible to separate and identify most of the isomers, facilitating linkage-specific analysis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight analysis allows fast profiling, but does not allow isomer separation. Novel MS fragmentation techniques have facilitated structural characterization of HMO that are present at lower concentrations. These techniques now facilitate more accurate studies of HMO consumption as well as Lewis blood group determinations. PMID:22585919

  3. New Method for a Continuous Determination of the Spin Tune in Storage Rings and Implications for Precision Experiments.

    PubMed

    Eversmann, D; Hejny, V; Hinder, F; Kacharava, A; Pretz, J; Rathmann, F; Rosenthal, M; Trinkel, F; Andrianov, S; Augustyniak, W; Bagdasarian, Z; Bai, M; Bernreuther, W; Bertelli, S; Berz, M; Bsaisou, J; Chekmenev, S; Chiladze, D; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; de Vries, J; Dymov, S; Engels, R; Esser, F M; Felden, O; Gaisser, M; Gebel, R; Glückler, H; Goldenbaum, F; Grigoryev, K; Grzonka, D; Guidoboni, G; Hanhart, C; Heberling, D; Hempelmann, N; Hetzel, J; Hipple, R; Hölscher, D; Ivanov, A; Kamerdzhiev, V; Kamys, B; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Koop, I; Krause, H-J; Krewald, S; Kulikov, A; Lehrach, A; Lenisa, P; Lomidze, N; Lorentz, B; Maanen, P; Macharashvili, G; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Makino, K; Mariański, B; Mchedlishvili, D; Meißner, Ulf-G; Mey, S; Nass, A; Natour, G; Nikolaev, N; Nioradze, M; Nogga, A; Nowakowski, K; Pesce, A; Prasuhn, D; Ritman, J; Rudy, Z; Saleev, A; Semertzidis, Y; Senichev, Y; Shmakova, V; Silenko, A; Slim, J; Soltner, H; Stahl, A; Stassen, R; Statera, M; Stephenson, E; Stockhorst, H; Straatmann, H; Ströher, H; Tabidze, M; Talman, R; Thörngren Engblom, P; Trzciński, A; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Valetov, E; Vassiliev, A; Weidemann, C; Wilkin, C; Wirzba, A; Wrońska, A; Wüstner, P; Zakrzewska, M; Zuprański, P; Zyuzin, D

    2015-08-28

    A new method to determine the spin tune is described and tested. In an ideal planar magnetic ring, the spin tune-defined as the number of spin precessions per turn-is given by ν(s)=γG (γ is the Lorentz factor, G the gyromagnetic anomaly). At 970  MeV/c, the deuteron spins coherently precess at a frequency of ≈120  kHz in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The spin tune is deduced from the up-down asymmetry of deuteron-carbon scattering. In a time interval of 2.6 s, the spin tune was determined with a precision of the order 10^{-8}, and to 1×10^{-10} for a continuous 100 s accelerator cycle. This renders the presented method a new precision tool for accelerator physics; controlling the spin motion of particles to high precision is mandatory, in particular, for the measurement of electric dipole moments of charged particles in a storage ring.

  4. New Method for a Continuous Determination of the Spin Tune in Storage Rings and Implications for Precision Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversmann, D.; Hejny, V.; Hinder, F.; Kacharava, A.; Pretz, J.; Rathmann, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Trinkel, F.; Andrianov, S.; Augustyniak, W.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Bai, M.; Bernreuther, W.; Bertelli, S.; Berz, M.; Bsaisou, J.; Chekmenev, S.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; de Vries, J.; Dymov, S.; Engels, R.; Esser, F. M.; Felden, O.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Glückler, H.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grigoryev, K.; Grzonka, D.; Guidoboni, G.; Hanhart, C.; Heberling, D.; Hempelmann, N.; Hetzel, J.; Hipple, R.; Hölscher, D.; Ivanov, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kamys, B.; Keshelashvili, I.; Khoukaz, A.; Koop, I.; Krause, H.-J.; Krewald, S.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Maanen, P.; Macharashvili, G.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Makino, K.; Mariański, B.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Mey, S.; Nass, A.; Natour, G.; Nikolaev, N.; Nioradze, M.; Nogga, A.; Nowakowski, K.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Ritman, J.; Rudy, Z.; Saleev, A.; Semertzidis, Y.; Senichev, Y.; Shmakova, V.; Silenko, A.; Slim, J.; Soltner, H.; Stahl, A.; Stassen, R.; Statera, M.; Stephenson, E.; Stockhorst, H.; Straatmann, H.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Talman, R.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Trzciński, A.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Valetov, E.; Vassiliev, A.; Weidemann, C.; Wilkin, C.; Wirzba, A.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Zakrzewska, M.; Zuprański, P.; Zyuzin, D.; JEDI Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    A new method to determine the spin tune is described and tested. In an ideal planar magnetic ring, the spin tune—defined as the number of spin precessions per turn—is given by νs=γ G (γ is the Lorentz factor, G the gyromagnetic anomaly). At 970 MeV /c , the deuteron spins coherently precess at a frequency of ≈120 kHz in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The spin tune is deduced from the up-down asymmetry of deuteron-carbon scattering. In a time interval of 2.6 s, the spin tune was determined with a precision of the order 10-8, and to 1 ×10-10 for a continuous 100 s accelerator cycle. This renders the presented method a new precision tool for accelerator physics; controlling the spin motion of particles to high precision is mandatory, in particular, for the measurement of electric dipole moments of charged particles in a storage ring.

  5. New physics effects in tree-level decays and the precision in the determination of the quark mixing angle γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brod, Joachim; Lenz, Alexander; Tetlalmatzi-Xolocotzi, Gilberto; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-08-01

    We critically review the assumption that no new physics is acting in tree-level B -meson decays and study the consequences for the ultimate precision in the direct determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) angle γ . In our exploratory study we find that sizeable universal new physics contributions, Δ C1 ,2, to the tree-level Wilson coefficients C1 ,2 of the effective Hamiltonian describing weak decays of the b quark are currently not excluded by experimental data. In particular, we find that Im Δ C1 and Im Δ C2 can easily be of order ±10 % without violating any constraints from data. Such a size of new physics effects in C1 and C2 corresponds to an intrinsic uncertainty in the CKM angle γ of the order of |δ γ |≈4 ° , which is slightly below the current experimental precision. The accuracy in the determination of γ can be improved by putting stronger constraints on the tree-level Wilson coefficients, in particular C1. To this end we suggest a more refined theoretical study as well as more precise measurements of the observables that currently provide the strongest bounds on hypothetical new weak phases in C1 and C2. We note that the semileptonic C P asymmetries seem to have the best prospect for improving the bound on the weak phase in C1.

  6. Precision laser surveying instrument using atmospheric turbulence compensation by determining the absolute displacement between two laser beam components

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on sighting measurements are compensated for by adjusting any sighting measurements using a correction factor that does not depend on atmospheric state conditions such as temperature, pressure, density or turbulence. The correction factor is accurately determined using a precisely measured physical separation between two color components of a light beam (or beams) that has been generated using either a two-color laser or two lasers that project different colored beams. The physical separation is precisely measured by fixing the position of a short beam pulse and measuring the physical separation between the two fixed-in-position components of the beam. This precisely measured physical separation is then used in a relationship that includes the indexes of refraction for each of the two colors of the laser beam in the atmosphere through which the beam is projected, thereby to determine the absolute displacement of one wavelength component of the laser beam from a straight line of sight for that projected component of the beam. This absolute displacement is useful to correct optical measurements, such as those developed in surveying measurements that are made in a test area that includes the same dispersion effects of the atmosphere on the optical measurements. The means and method of the invention are suitable for use with either single-ended systems or a double-ended systems.

  7. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults.

  8. In vitro fermentation of prebiotic oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Sims, Ian M; Ryan, Jason L J; Kim, Sang H

    2014-02-01

    The utilisation of various prebiotic oligosaccharides by probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was investigated in order to determine the synbiotic potential of various prebiotic/probiotic combinations. Analysis by HPLC and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of the cell-free medium taken during growth of the three probiotic bacteria showed differences in the consumption of the various oligosaccharides. Analysis of galactooligosaccharides showed that both L. rhamnosus and B. lactis consumed mostly mono- and di-saccharide, while L. acidophilus consumed oligosaccharides up to trisaccharide. Both B. lactis and L. acidophilus utilised fructooligosaccharides and inulin, but showed different patterns of oligosaccharide consumption. Only L. rhamnosus grew on β-glucan oligosaccharides and preferentially consumed the trisaccharide. The results indicate the synbiotic potential of the various probiotic/prebiotic combinations, particularly L. acidophilus/galactooligosaccharides, L. acidophilus/fructooligosaccharides or inulin and L. rhamnosus/β-glucan oligosaccharides.

  9. Composite tube and plate manufacturing repeatability as determined by precision measurements of thermal strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Lenn A.; Tucker, James R.; Bluth, A. Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Composite materials often carry the reputation of demonstrating high variability in critical material properties. The JWST telescope metering structure is fabricated of several thousand separate composite piece parts. The stringent dimensional stability requirements on the metering structure require the critical thermal strain response of every composite piece be verified either at the billet or piece part level. JWST is a unique composite space structure in that it has required the manufacturing of several hundred composite billets that cover many lots of prepreg and many years of fabrication. The flight billet thermal expansion acceptance criteria limits the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to a tolerance ranging between +/-0.014 ppm/K to +/-0.04 ppm/K around a prescribed nominal when measured from 293 K down to 40 K. The different tolerance values represent different material forms including flat plates and different tube cross-section dimensions. A precision measurement facility was developed that could measure at the required accuracy and at a pace that supported the composite part fabrication rate. The test method and facility is discussed and the results of a statistical process analysis of the flight composite billets are surveyed.

  10. Optical Sensing to Determine Tomato Plant Spacing for Precise Agrochemical Application: Two Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Guanter, Jorge; Garrido-Izard, Miguel; Valero, Constantino; Slaughter, David C.; Pérez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of automated individual crop plant care in vegetable crop fields has increased, resulting in improved efficiency and economic benefits. A systems-based approach is a key feature in the engineering design of mechanization that incorporates precision sensing techniques. The objective of this study was to design new sensing capabilities to measure crop plant spacing under different test conditions (California, USA and Andalucía, Spain). For this study, three different types of optical sensors were used: an optical light-beam sensor (880 nm), a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor (905 nm), and an RGB camera. Field trials were conducted on newly transplanted tomato plants, using an encoder as a local reference system. Test results achieved a 98% accuracy in detection using light-beam sensors while a 96% accuracy on plant detections was achieved in the best of replications using LiDAR. These results can contribute to the decision-making regarding the use of these sensors by machinery manufacturers. This could lead to an advance in the physical or chemical weed control on row crops, allowing significant reductions or even elimination of hand-weeding tasks. PMID:28492504

  11. Fabry-Perot Based Differential Radiometers for Precise Determination of Atmospheric Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Wilson, Emily L.; Goergieva, Elena

    2006-01-01

    We have developed at Goddard over the last 5 years a new type of remote sensing instrument based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer that has broad applicability to a variety of problems of great current interest. The instrument detects absorption features of various atmospheric trace species in direct or reflected sunlight. The Fabry-Perot offers high resolution and high optical throughput with small size and simplicity of operation. We have developed instruments for use as ground based, airborne and satellite sensors for species such as carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Our current concentration is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive, ground based device suitable for wide deployment as a validation instrument for the OCO satellite scheduled to launch in 2008. We shall show sensitivity measurements for these three species, compare our water vapor measurements to those obtained using other types of sensors and discuss some of the peculiarities that must be addressed in order to provide the very high quality column measurements required to validate the OCO carbon dioxide measurements.

  12. The evaluation of ITRF2014 with respect to Altimeter Satellite Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beckley, B. D.; Couhert, A.; Jalabert, E.

    2016-12-01

    The terrestrial reference frame is the foundation for analysis and interpretation of Earth science observations, especially for data from ocean radar altimeter satellites. The accuracy of the coordinates as well as the consistency of the technique solutions within an ITRF affect the accuracy with which orbits are computed, and map into the accuracy of the estimates for global mean sea level. Therefore it is of prime interest to evaluate the reference frame realizations produced by the ITRF product centers (IGN, DGFI, JPL) with respect to altimeter satellite performance. In this paper we address the altimeter satellite performance as seen on the reference missions, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2, whose data provide one of the prime climate records for measurement of global and regional sea level change. Our preliminary evaluations indicate an improvement in the DORIS RMS of fit for ITRF2014 for DORIS only computations, especially after 2010. We also evaluate the reference frame performance for the SLR solutions within each of the ITRF2014 and we compute new time series of mean sea level change using the ITRF2014/IGN and JPL realizations compared to ITRF2008. We conclude with a discussion of an implementation plan for the new ITRF in the next set of operational precise orbits and products for altimeter satellite users.

  13. Interlaboratory assessment of measurement precision and bias in the coulometric Karl Fischer determination of water.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Angelo, Jacob B

    2002-10-01

    The precision and bias of the coulometric Karl Fischer ASTM method D1533-00 have been assessed in a collaborative ASTM round robin program for a group of 34 laboratories. The test materials used in this study included water saturated 1-octanol (WSO), water saturated 1-butanol (WSB), and a series of new and used transformer oil samples. Fundamental systematic biases have been demonstrated in the accuracy of the measurement of water in the WSO, WSB, and transformer oil samples. The systematic bias in the measurement of the WSO and WSB standards indicates that for some laboratories either the instruments were not accurate or the quantity of the standard was not measured accurately. A second type of systematic bias consisted of measurement errors associated with the selection of the Karl Fischer solvent that was used with each instrument, and this was superimposed upon the error in the measurement of the water in the standards. Using the statistical calculation method ASTM D 6300 the repeatability and reproducibility for water in transformer oil were found to be 7 mg/kg and 14 mg/kg respectively. The method detection limit of water was 8 mg/kg oil. The method bias was estimated based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2890, WSO, since no suitable reference material for water in transformer oil was available for this study.

  14. Precise, fast, and flexible determination of protein interactions by affinity capillary electrophoresis: part 3: anions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhong; Redweik, Sabine; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Albishri, Hassan M; Preu, Lutz; Wätzig, Hermann

    2014-08-01

    The binding of physiologically anionic species or negatively charged drug molecules to proteins is of great importance in biochemistry and medicine. Since affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) has already proven to be a suitable analytical tool to study the influence of ions on proteins, this technique was applied here for comprehensively studying the influence of various anions on proteins of BSA, β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, myoglobin, and lysozyme. The analysis was performed using different selected anions of succinate, glutamate, phosphate, acetate, nitrate, iodide, thiocyanate, and pharmaceuticals (salicylic acid, aspirin, and ibuprofen) that exist in the anionic form at physiological pH 7.4. Due to the excellent repeatability and precision of the ACE measurements, not necessarily strong but significant influences of the anions on the proteins were found in many cases. Different influences in the observed bindings indicated change of charge, mass, or conformational changes of the proteins due to the binding with the studied anions. Combining the mobility-shift and pre-equilibrium ACE modes, rapidity and reversibility of the protein-anion bindings were discussed. Further, circular dichroism has been used as an orthogonal approach to characterize the interactions between the studied proteins and anions to confirm the ACE results. Since phosphate and various anions from amino acids and small organic acids such as succinate or acetate are present in very high concentrations in the cellular environment, even weak influences are certainly relevant as well.

  15. Precise Determination of the Baseline Between the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Rolf; Rothacher, Markus; Michalak, Grzegorz; Moon, Yongjin

    TerraSAR-X, launched on June 15, 2007, and TanDEM-X, to be launched in September 2009, both carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) category A payload instrument package. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), for precise orbit determination and atmospheric sounding and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) serving as target for the global Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) ground station network. The TOR is supplied by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) Germany, and the Center for Space Research (CSR), Austin, Texas. The objective of the German/US collaboration is twofold: provision of atmospheric profiles for use in numerical weather predictions and climate studies from the occultation data and precision SAR data processing based on precise orbits and atmospheric products. For the scientific objectives of the TanDEM- X mission, i.e., bi-static SAR together with TerraSAR-X, the dual-frequency GPS receiver is of vital importance for the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts. The paper discusses the feasibility of generating millimeter baselines by the example of GRACE, where for validation the distance between the two GRACE satellites is directly available from the micrometer-level intersatellite link measurements. The distance of the GRACE satellites is some 200 km, the distance of the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X formation will be some 200 meters. Therefore the proposed approach is then subject to a simulation of the foreseen TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X formation. The effect of varying space environmental conditions, of possible phase center variations, multi path, and of varying center of mass of the spacecrafts are evaluated and discussed.

  16. Precise determination of the phase boundary between coesite and stishovite in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shigeaki; Kikegawa, Takumi; Higo, Yuji; Tange, Yoshinori

    2017-03-01

    The phase boundary between coesite and stishovite in SiO2 was determined over the range of 1200-1700 K using a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus combined with the synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique. The stability of each phase was determined by observing the powdered X-ray diffraction data. The transition boundary between the coesite and stishovite phases was found to occur at P (GPa) = 4.7 + 0.0031 × T (K). The transition pressure determined in this study was in general agreement with what was observed in previous high-pressure experiments and heat capacity measurements. However, the slope of the transition, dP/dT, determined in our study was higher than that estimated in a previous study utilized with the in situ X-ray method. In contrast, the slope calculated by the heat capacity data was in good agreement with that determined in our study. The phase transition determined in our study occurs at around 10 GPa at the normal mantle geotherm, coinciding with the seismic discontinuity around 300 km depth known as the X-discontinuity.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis of Mono- and Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Toppazzini, Mila; Coslovi, Anna; Rossi, Marco; Flamigni, Anna; Baiutti, Edi; Campa, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports an overview of the recent advances in the analysis of mono- and oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis (CE); furthermore, relevant reviews and research articles recently published in the field are tabulated. Additionally, pretreatments and procedures applied to uncharged and acidic carbohydrates (i.e., monosaccharides and lower oligosaccharides carrying carboxylate, sulfate, or phosphate groups) are described.Representative examples of such procedures are reported in detail, upon describing robust methodologies for the study of (1) neutral oligosaccharides derivatized by reductive amination and by formation of glycosylamines; (2) sialic acid derivatized with 2-aminoacridone, released from human serum immunoglobulin G; (3) anomeric couples of neutral glycosides separated using borate-based buffers; (4) unsaturated, underivatized oligosaccharides from lyase-treated alginate.

  18. Precise Sr isotopic compositions determination by the double-spike technique (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Liu, Y.; Lin, L.

    2010-12-01

    Strontium has four stable isotopes, with the exception of 87Sr, whose natural abundance may be varied due to the decay of 87Rb, the abundance of the other three isotopes remained unchanged in all natural samples. Consequently, the radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions have been widely used in geological, marine, environmental, and atmospheric sciences as a chronometer as well as tracers. With the advances of MC-ICPMS, while mass spectrometer induced mass fractionation is usually well within the analytical uncertainties for any given element, many scientists are exploring the possibilities of using stable isotopic fractionation for a series of metals, e.g., Fe, Zn, Mo, and Cd, that are either essential to marine organisms, or as proxies for environmental and physical parameters, e.g., pH, temperature, pressure, and redox states, in the past. Evidently, the variations of stable isotopic composition of Sr from both deep sea and shallow sea corals have been used as temperature proxy for monitoring the variations of water temperature in the past. In order to explore the usage of radiogenic and stable Sr isotopic compositions in a series of different water samples as potential proxies for temperature and source components, a mixed 84-86Sr double spike has been set up, such that both radiogenic and stable Sr isotopic compositions can be obtained simultaneously. Living corals Porites collected from offshore southern Taiwan and seawater have been tested initially, and the initial results suggest that the variations of stable Sr isotopes do not show any correlation with the oxygen records, while radiogenic Sr data indicate a mixing of various water masses near the offshore southern Taiwan. More precise and high spatial resolution coral record is needed in order to verify the preliminary findings. In addition, pore water extracted from a series of mud volcanoes in the southern and eastern Taiwan have also been analyzed for Sr isotopes in order to verify the sources and the

  19. Precise orbit determination of a geosynchronous satellite with differential very-long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiomi, Tadashi; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Border, James S.; Donivan, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    The use of differential VLBI (DVLBI) to determine the orbit of a U.S. geosynchronous satellite with a position accuracy of a few meters is examined. DVLBI was employed to track the geosynchronous satellite DSCS-II; two observation channels with 2 MHz bandwidth each in a 2 GHz band were used to receive the telemetry signal of the satellite and quasar radio signals. The random observation, delay, station location, and quasar position errors are discussed. The correlation processing of the quasar and satellite signals is described. The accuracy of the estimated satellite position is evaluated using a covariance analysis. It is determined that the satellite position was estimated with an accuracy of about 4 m at the center of the observation arc. It is noted that the modeling error of the solar radiation pressure factor, ionospheric correction error, and observation error need to be corrected in order to provide more accurate orbit determinations.

  20. Precise determination of earth's center of mass using measurements from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1992-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.

  1. A wavefront orientation method for precise numerical determination of tsunami travel time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, I. V.; Thomson, R. E.

    2013-04-01

    We present a highly accurate and computationally efficient method (herein, the "wavefront orientation method") for determining the travel time of oceanic tsunamis. Based on Huygens principle, the method uses an eight-point grid-point pattern and the most recent information on the orientation of the advancing wave front to determine the time for a tsunami to travel to a specific oceanic location. The method is shown to provide improved accuracy and reduced anisotropy compared with the conventional multiple grid-point method presently in widespread use.

  2. Urine oligosaccharide pattern in patients with hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Bertil; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Landberg, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Free milk-type oligosaccharides are produced during pregnancy and lactation and may have an impact on several cells in the immune system. Our aim was to investigate if patients with isolated hyperprolactinaemia, not related to pregnancy, also have increased synthesis and urinary excretion of milk-type oligosaccharides and to compare the excretion pattern with that found during pregnancy. Urine samples were collected as morning sample from 18 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, 13 healthy controls with normal prolactin levels and four pregnant women. After purification, lactose and free oligosaccharides were analysed and quantified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The identity of peaks was confirmed by exoglycosidase treatment and comparison with oligosaccharide standards. Prolactin was measured in serum collected between 09 and 11 a.m. by a standardized immunochemical method. Patients with hyperprolactinaemia had higher urinary excretion of lactose than normoprolactinemic controls and urinary lactose correlated positively to prolactin levels (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). Increased levels of the fucosylated oligosaccharides 2-fucosyl lactose and lacto-di-fucotetraose were found in urine from three and two patients, respectively. The acidic oligosaccharide 3-sialyl lactose was found in high amount in urine from two patients with prolactin of >10,000 mU/l. However, pregnant women in their third trimester had the highest concentration of all these oligosaccharides and excretion increased during pregnancy. This study is first to show that both lactose and certain fucosylated and sialylated milk-type oligosaccharides are increased in some patients with hyperprolactinaemia. It remains to elucidate the functional importance of these findings.

  3. Kinetic characterization of Aspergillus niger chitinase CfcI using a HPAEC-PAD method for native chitin oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    van Munster, Jolanda M; Sanders, Peter; ten Kate, Geralt A; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; van der Maarel, Marc J E C

    2015-04-30

    The abundant polymer chitin can be degraded by chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52) to oligosaccharides and N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) monomers. Kinetic characterization of these enzymes requires product quantification by an assay method with a low detection limit, preferably compatible with the use of native, non-labeled substrates. Here we report a quantitative HPAEC-PAD method that allows fast separation of chitin oligosaccharides (COS) ranging from (GlcNac)1-6 at detection limits of 1-3 pmol and a linear range of 5-250 pmol. Quantification under intra- and interday precision conditions was performed with 2.1-5.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 1.2-10.3% RSD, respectively. This method was successfully used for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the Aspergillus niger chitinase CfcI with native COS. CfcI was recently shown to release GlcNAc from the reducing end of COS, a new activity for fungal chitinases. A Carbohydrate Binding Module of family 18 (CBM18) is inserted in the CfcI catalytic domain. Site directed mutagenesis was used to assess the functionality of this CfcI-CBM18: four of its key amino acids were replaced by glycine residues, yielding CfcISYNF. Comparison of the kinetic parameters of CfcI and CfcISYNF confirmed that this CBM18 is functionally involved in catalysis.

  4. 13 Years of TOPEX/POSEIDON Precision Orbit Determination and the 10-fold Improvement in Expected Orbit Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Klosko, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Launched in the summer of 1992, TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) was a joint mission between NASA and the Centre National d Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the French Space Agency, to make precise radar altimeter measurements of the ocean surface. After the remarkably successful 13-years of mapping the ocean surface T/P lost its ability to maneuver and was de-commissioned January 2006. T/P revolutionized the study of the Earth s oceans by vastly exceeding pre-launch estimates of surface height accuracy recoverable from radar altimeter measurements. The precision orbit lies at the heart of the altimeter measurement providing the reference frame from which the radar altimeter measurements are made. The expected quality of orbit knowledge had limited the measurement accuracy expectations of past altimeter missions, and still remains a major component in the error budget of all altimeter missions. This paper describes critical improvements made to the T/P orbit time series over the 13-years of precise orbit determination (POD) provided by the GSFC Space Geodesy Laboratory. The POD improvements from the pre-launch T/P expectation of radial orbit accuracy and Mission requirement of 13-cm to an expected accuracy of about 1.5-cm with today s latest orbits will be discussed. The latest orbits with 1.5 cm RMS radial accuracy represent a significant improvement to the 2.0-cm accuracy orbits currently available on the T/P Geophysical Data Record (GDR) altimeter product.

  5. Shocked monazite chronometry: integrating microstructural and in situ isotopic age data for determining precise impact ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Timmons M.; Timms, Nicholas E.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Tohver, Eric; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Pearce, Mark A.; Reddy, Steven M.

    2017-03-01

    situ U-Th-Pb analysis can date impact-related deformation. Monazite is, therefore, one of the few high-temperature geochronometers that can be used for accurate and precise dating of meteorite impacts.

  6. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abend, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of

  7. Structure-function relationships of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Bode, Lars; Jantscher-Krenn, Evelyn

    2012-05-01

    Human milk contains more than a hundred structurally distinct oligosaccharides. In this review, we provide examples of how the structural characteristics of these human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) determine functionality. Specific α1-2-fucosylated HMO have been shown to serve as antiadhesive antimicrobials to protect the breast-fed infant against infections with Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea. In contrast, α1-2-fucosylation may abolish the beneficial effects of HMO against Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite that causes colitis, acute dysentery, or chronic diarrhea. In a different context, HMO need to be both fucosylated and sialylated to reduce selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and activation, which may protect breast-fed infants from excessive immune responses. In addition, our most recent data show that a single HMO that carries not 1 but 2 sialic acids protects neonatal rats from necrotizing enterocolitis, one of the most common and often fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Oligosaccharides currently added to infant formula are structurally different from the oligosaccharides naturally occurring in human milk. Thus, it appears unlikely that they can mimic some of the structure-specific effects of HMO. Recent advances in glycan synthesis and isolation have increased the availability of certain HMO tri- and tetrasaccharides for in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. In the end, intervention studies are needed to confirm that the structure-specific effects observed at the laboratory bench translate into benefits for the human infant. Ultimately, breastfeeding remains the number one choice to nourish and nurture our infants.

  8. Gliding Motility of Mycoplasma mobile on Uniform Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Taishi; Hamaguchi, Tasuku

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The binding and gliding of Mycoplasma mobile on a plastic plate covered by 53 uniform oligosaccharides were analyzed. Mycoplasmas bound to and glided on only 21 of the fixed sialylated oligosaccharides (SOs), showing that sialic acid is essential as the binding target. The affinities were mostly consistent with our previous results on the inhibitory effects of free SOs and suggested that M. mobile recognizes SOs from the nonreducing end with four continuous sites as follows. (i and ii) A sialic acid at the nonreducing end is tightly recognized by tandemly connected two sites. (iii) The third site is recognized by a loose groove that may be affected by branches. (iv) The fourth site is recognized by a large groove that may be enhanced by branches, especially those with a negative charge. The cells glided on uniform SOs in manners apparently similar to those of the gliding on mixed SOs. The gliding speed was related inversely to the mycoplasma's affinity for SO, suggesting that the detaching step may be one of the speed determinants. The cells glided faster and with smaller fluctuations on the uniform SOs than on the mixtures, suggesting that the drag caused by the variation in SOs influences gliding behaviors. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma is a group of bacteria generally parasitic to animals and plants. Some Mycoplasma species form a protrusion at a pole, bind to solid surfaces, and glide in the direction of the protrusion. These procedures are essential for parasitism. Usually, mycoplasmas glide on mixed sialylated oligosaccharides (SOs) derived from glycoprotein and glycolipid. Since gliding motility on uniform oligosaccharides has never been observed, this study gives critical information about recognition and interaction between receptors and SOs. PMID:26148712

  9. Structure-Function Relationships of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Lars; Jantscher-Krenn, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    Human milk contains more than a hundred structurally distinct oligosaccharides. In this review, we provide examples of how the structural characteristics of these human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) determine functionality. Specific α1–2-fucosylated HMO have been shown to serve as antiadhesive antimicrobials to protect the breast-fed infant against infections with Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea. In contrast, α1–2-fucosylation may abolish the beneficial effects of HMO against Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite that causes colitis, acute dysentery, or chronic diarrhea. In a different context, HMO need to be both fucosylated and sialylated to reduce selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and activation, which may protect breast-fed infants from excessive immune responses. In addition, our most recent data show that a single HMO that carries not 1 but 2 sialic acids protects neonatal rats from necrotizing enterocolitis, one of the most common and often fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Oligosaccharides currently added to infant formula are structurally different from the oligosaccharides naturally occurring in human milk. Thus, it appears unlikely that they can mimic some of the structure-specific effects of HMO. Recent advances in glycan synthesis and isolation have increased the availability of certain HMO tri- and tetrasaccharides for in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. In the end, intervention studies are needed to confirm that the structure-specific effects observed at the laboratory bench translate into benefits for the human infant. Ultimately, breastfeeding remains the number one choice to nourish and nurture our infants. PMID:22585916

  10. Annotation and Structural Analysis of Sialylated Human Milk Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuai; Grimm, Rudolf; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2011-01-01

    Sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) are important components of human milk oligosaccharides. Sialic acids are typically found on the nonreducing end and are known binding sites for pathogens and aid in neonates’ brain development. Due to their negative charge and hydrophilic nature, they also help modulate cell-cell interactions. It has also been shown that sialic acids are involved in regulating the immune response and aid in brain development. In this study, the enriched SHMOs from pooled milk sample were analyzed by HPLC-Chip/QTOF MS. The instrument employs a microchip-based nano-LC column packed with porous graphitized carbon (PGC) to provide excellent isomer separation for SHMOs with highly reproducible retention time. The precursor ions were further examined with collision-induced dissociation (CID). By applying the proper collision energy, isomers can be readily differentiated by diagnostic peaks and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A set of 30 SHMO structures with retention times, accurate masses and MS/MS spectra was deduced and incorporated into an HMO library. When combined with previously determined neutral components, a library with over 70 structures is obtained allowing high-throughput oligosaccharide structure identification. PMID:21133381

  11. Determination of precise pyrimidine cationic structure by vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Han; Lee, Ji Hye; Hwang, Hyonseok; Kim, Hong Lae; Kwon, Chan Ho

    2014-01-28

    The vibrational spectrum of a pyrimidine cation in the ground electronic state was obtained using vacuum ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization (VUV-MATI) spectroscopy. Accurate ionization energy of pyrimidine was determined from the 0-0 band position in the VUV-MATI spectrum and was measured by varying the PFI field to the zero field limit, which is 75,258 ± 7 cm(-1) (9.3308 eV). The spectrum displayed a large number of vibrational peaks, which could be nearly completely assigned through Franck-Condon analysis performed with variations of geometrical parameters at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. Based on the excellent agreement between experimental and calculated results, the definite geometry of the pyrimidine cation in the ground electronic state was determined to be a planar structure with C2v symmetry with a decreased N-N distance in the ring.

  12. Precise determination of the refractive index of suspended particles: light transmission as a function of refractive index mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClymer, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Many fluids appear white because refractive index differences lead to multiple scattering. In this paper, we use safe, low-cost commercial index matching fluids to quantitatively study light transmission as a function of index mismatch, reduce multiple scattering to allow single scattering probes, and to precisely determine the index of refraction of suspended material. The transmission profile is compared with Rayleigh-Gans and Mie theory predictions. The procedure is accessible as a student laboratory project, while providing advantages over other standard methods of measuring the refractive index of an unknown nanoparticle, making it valuable to researchers.

  13. Precise Determination of Thicknesses of Multilayer Polyethylene Composite Materials by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palka, Norbert; Krimi, Soufiene; Ospald, Frank; Miedzinska, Danuta; Gieleta, Roman; Malek, Marcin; Beigang, Rene

    2015-06-01

    The multilayer structure of an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composite material was investigated in the terahertz (THz) spectral range by means of time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) technique. Such structures consist of many alternating layers of fibers, each being perpendicular to the other and each having a thickness of about 50 μm. Refractive indices of two composite samples and of a sample composed of four single layers (plies) having the same fiber orientation were determined for two orthogonal orientations of the electric field in a transmission TDS system. The birefringence of a single layer was measured, and the origin of this phenomenon is discussed. Using the TDS system in reflection, the formation of many pulses shifted in time was observed originating from reflections from interfaces of successive layers caused by the periodic modulation of the refractive index along the propagation of the THz radiation. This phenomenon is theoretically described and simulated by means of a transfer matrix method (TMM). A time-domain fitting procedure was used to determine thicknesses of all layers of the composite material. The reconstructed waveform based on the optimized thicknesses shows very good agreement with the measured waveform, with typical differences between measurements and simulations between 3 and 7 μm (depending on the sample). As a result, we were able to determine the thicknesses of all layers of two multilayer (~200 plies) structures by means of the reflection TDS technology with high accuracy.

  14. Determination of the molar mass of argon from high-precision acoustic comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.; Moldover, M. R.; Yang, I.; Plimmer, M. D.; Lin, H.

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the accurate determination of the molar mass M of a sample of argon gas used for the determination of the Boltzmann constant. The method of one of the authors (Moldover et al 1988 J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 93 85-144) uses the ratio of the square speed of sound in the gas under analysis and in a reference sample of known molar mass. A sample of argon that was isotopically-enriched in 40Ar was used as the reference, whose unreactive impurities had been independently measured. The results for three gas samples are in good agreement with determinations by gravimetric mass spectrometry; (  -  1)  =  (-0.31  ±  0.69)  ×  10-6, where the indicated uncertainty is one standard deviation that does not account for the uncertainties from the acoustic and mass-spectroscopy references.

  15. Atom-chip-based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abend, Sven; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity with a quantum gravimeter based on an atom chip. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal [1]. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates [2], as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties that will allow to overcome the current limitations in the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technology offers the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We present a lab-based prototype that uses the atom chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serves as inertial reference inside the vacuum [3]. With this setup, it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal. All steps are pursued on a baseline of 1 cm right below the atom chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will target for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz [4]. The device will be characterized in cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor and finally employed in a campaign to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the

  16. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements.

  17. Precision determination of the dpi<-->NN transition strength at threshold.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Th; Amaro, F D; Anagnostopoulos, D F; Bühler, P; Covita, D S; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A; Indelicato, P; Le Bigot, E-O; Nekipelov, M; dos Santos, J M F; Schlesser, S; Schmid, Ph; Simons, L M; Trassinelli, M; Veloso, J F C A; Zmeskal, J

    2010-04-09

    An unusual but effective way to determine at threshold the dpi<-->NN transition strength alpha is to exploit the hadronic ground-state broadening Gamma(1s) in pionic deuterium, accessible by x-ray spectroscopy. The broadening is dominated by the true absorption channel dpi(-)-->nn, which is related to s-wave pion production pp-->dpi(+) by charge symmetry and detailed balance. Using the exotic atom circumvents the problem of Coulomb corrections to the cross section as necessary in the production experiments. Our dedicated measurement finds Gamma(1s)=(1171(-49)(+23)) meV yielding alpha=(252(-11)(+5)) microb.

  18. Precision Determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Element Vc b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Andrea; Gambino, Paolo; Healey, Kristopher J.; Nandi, Soumitra

    2015-02-01

    We extract the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element Vcb and the most relevant parameters of the heavy quark expansion from data of inclusive semileptonic B decays. Our calculation includes the recently computed O (αsΛQCD2/mb2) corrections and a careful estimate of the residual theoretical uncertainty. Using a recent determination of the charm quark mass, we obtain |Vcb|=(42.21 ±0.78 )×1 0-3 and mbkin(1 GeV )=(4.553 ±0.020 ) GeV .

  19. The GLAS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Precision Attitude Determination (PAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sungkoo; Smith, Noah; Schutz, Bob E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was the sole instrument for NASAs Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry mission. The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to make ice sheet elevation measurements of the polar regions. Additional goals were to measure the global distribution of clouds and aerosols and to map sea ice, land topography and vegetation. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission to be used to determine the mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as for providing cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas.

  20. Precise equilibrium structure determination of hydrazoic acid (HN{sub 3}) by millimeter-wave spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Amberger, Brent K.; Esselman, Brian J.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-09-14

    The millimeter-wave spectrum of hydrazoic acid (HN{sub 3}) was analyzed in the frequency region of 235-450 GHz. Transitions from a total of 14 isotopologues were observed and fit using the A-reduced or S-reduced Hamiltonian. Coupled-cluster calculations were performed to obtain a theoretical geometry, as well as rotation-vibration interaction corrections. These calculated vibration-rotation correction terms were applied to the experimental rotational constants to obtain mixed theoretical/experimental equilibrium rotational constants (A{sub e}, B{sub e}, and C{sub e}). These equilibrium rotational constants were then used to obtain an equilibrium (R{sub e}) structure using a least-squares fitting routine. The R{sub e} structural parameters are consistent with a previously published R{sub s} structure, largely falling within the uncertainty limits of that R{sub s} structure. The present R{sub e} geometric parameters of HN{sub 3} are determined with exceptionally high accuracy, as a consequence of the large number of isotopologues measured experimentally and the sophisticated (coupled-cluster theoretical treatment (CCSD(T))/ANO2) of the vibration-rotation interactions. The R{sub e} structure exhibits remarkable agreement with the CCSD(T)/cc-pCV5Z predicted structure, validating both the accuracy of the ab initio method and the claimed uncertainties of the theoretical/experimental structure determination.

  1. A Complication in Determining the Precise Age of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solar nebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materials formed requires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes to Pb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining the ages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. However, my colleagues at Arizona State University, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universitat (Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made. Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before the Solar System began to form.

  2. The precision of a special purpose analog computer in clinical cardiac output determination.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, F J; Mroz, E A; Miller, R E

    1975-01-01

    Three hundred dye-dilution curves taken during our first year of clinical experience with the Waters CO-4 cardiac output computer were analyzed to estimate the errors involved in its use. Provided that calibration is accurate and 5.0 mg of dye are injected for each curve, then the percentage standard deviation of measurement using this computer is about 8.7%. Included in this are the errors inherent in the computer, errors due to baseline drift, errors in the injection of dye and acutal variation of cardiac output over a series of successive determinations. The size of this error is comparable to that involved in manual calculation. The mean value of five successive curves will be within 10% of the real value in 99 cases out of 100. Advances in methodology and equipment are discussed which make calibration simpler and more accurate, and which should also improve the quality of computer determination. A list of suggestions is given to minimize the errors involved in the clinical use of this equipment. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1089394

  3. High Fidelity Non-Gravitational Force Models for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination of TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph

    Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.

  4. DETERMINATION OF INTERSTITIAL CHLORIDE IN SHALES AND CONSOLIDATED ROCKS BY A PRECISION LEACHING TECHNIQUE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Peck, E.E.; Lane, Candice M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have devised a technique for determining chloride in interstitial water of consolidated rocks. Samples of rocks ranging from 5 to 10 g are crushed and sieved under controlled conditions and then ground with distilled water to submicron size in a closed mechanical mill. The chloride concentrations and total pore-water concentrations, obtained earlier from the same samples by low-temperature vacuum desiccation, are used to arrive at the 'original' pore-water chloride concentrations by a simple iteration procedure. Interstitial chlorinity results obtained from Cretaceous and Jurassic strata in the Gulf of Mexico coastal areas ranged from 20 to 100 g/kg Cl with reproducibility approaching plus or minus 1%.

  5. A fingerprinting method for chondroitin/dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lauder, R M; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    2000-04-01

    A previously published method for the analysis of glycosaminoglycan disaccharides by high pH anion exchange chromatography (Midura,R.J., Salustri,A., Calabro,A., Yanagishita,M. and Hascall,V.C. (1994), Glycobiology,4, 333-342) has been modified and calibrated for chondroitin and dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides up to hexasaccharide in size and hyaluronan oligosaccharides up to hexadecasaccharide. For hyaluronan oligosaccharides chain length controls elution position; however, for chondroitin and dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides elution times primarily depend upon the level of sulfation, although chain length and hence charge density plays a role. The sulfation position of GalNAc residues within an oligosaccharide is also important in determining its elution position. Compared to 4-sulfation a reducing terminal 6-sulfate retards elution; however, when present on an internal GalNAc residue it is the 4-sulfate containing oligosaccharide which elutes later. These effects allow discrimination between oligosaccharides differing only in the position of GalNAc sulfation. Using this simple methodology, a Dionex CarboPac PA-1 column with NaOH/NaCl eluents and detection by absorbance at 232 nm, a quantitative analytical fingerprint of a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain may be obtained, allowing a determination of the abundance of chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan along with an analysis of structural features with a linear response to approximately 0.1 nmol. The method may readily be calibrated using either commercial disaccharides or the di- and tetrasaccharide products of a limit digest of commercial chondroitin sulfate by chondroitin ABC endolyase. Commercially available and freshly prepared shark, whale, bovine, and human cartilage chondroitin sulfates have been examined by this methodology and we have confirmed that freshly isolated shark cartilage CS contains significant amounts of the biologically important GlcA2Sbeta(1-3)GalNAc6S structure.

  6. GPS-Based Precision Orbit Determination for a New Era of Altimeter Satellites: Jason-1 and ICESat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate positioning of the satellite center of mass is necessary in meeting an altimeter mission's science goals. The fundamental science observation is an altimetric derived topographic height. Errors in positioning the satellite's center of mass directly impact this fundamental observation. Therefore, orbit error is a critical Component in the error budget of altimeter satellites. With the launch of the Jason-1 radar altimeter (Dec. 2001) and the ICESat laser altimeter (Jan. 2003) a new era of satellite altimetry has begun. Both missions pose several challenges for precision orbit determination (POD). The Jason-1 radial orbit accuracy goal is 1 cm, while ICESat (600 km) at a much lower altitude than Jason-1 (1300 km), has a radial orbit accuracy requirement of less than 5 cm. Fortunately, Jason-1 and ICESat POD can rely on near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver and Satellite Laser Ranging. Analysis of current GPS-based solution performance indicates the l-cm radial orbit accuracy goal is being met for Jason-1, while radial orbit accuracy for ICESat is well below the 54x1 mission requirement. A brief overview of the GPS precision orbit determination methodology and results for both Jason-1 and ICESat are presented.

  7. High precision microseismic source mechanism determined by iterative relative moment tensor inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, K.; Uchide, T.

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in source mechanisms of microearthquakes particularly for induced microseismic events in oil, gas, and geothermal fields. However, their reliable estimate is a difficult task due to low S/N ratio and poor knowledge of the underground structure. Dahm (1996) develop a relative moment tensor inversion (RMTI) method for earthquake source clusters, in which relative body-wave amplitudes for two earthquakes recorded at a common station are used to eliminate the effect of propagation paths. If the source mechanism of one of those earthquakes is known a priori, the other source mechanisms can be determined without a computation of Green's function. A difficulty in this method is that errors in the mechanism of reference events may lead to biased solutions for other events. In order to avoid this problem, we propose a method that iteratively applies the RMTI to source clusters improving each moment tensor. The procedure is as follows: (1) Sample co-located multiple earthquakes. At this time, their source mechanisms are not always accurately determined. (2) Apply the RMTI to estimate the source mechanism of each event relative to those of the other events. (3) Repeat the step 2 for the modified source mechanisms until the total residual becomes almost constant. We conducted numerical tests on synthetic data, where amplitudes were computed assuming double-couple sources, amplifying by factor between 0.3 and 5 as site effects, and adding 10% random noise. Initial solutions were given by adding 20-degree-wide random noises to strike, dip, and rake angles of input mechanisms. In a test with eight sources at 12 stations, the total residual rapidly drops during the first few iterations and settles down afterwards. After the three iterations, the solutions almost reach the input mechanisms. In contrast, both of the original RMTI (i.e., without iteration) and a general MTI (i.e., single-source, absolute MTI) could not reproduce the input mechanisms, where

  8. Accurate and precise determination of critical properties from Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Bai, Peng; Allan, Douglas A.; Siepmann, J. Ilja

    2015-09-21

    Since the seminal paper by Panagiotopoulos [Mol. Phys. 61, 813 (1997)], the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) method has been the most popular particle-based simulation approach for the computation of vapor–liquid phase equilibria. However, the validity of GEMC simulations in the near-critical region has been questioned because rigorous finite-size scaling approaches cannot be applied to simulations with fluctuating volume. Valleau [Mol. Simul. 29, 627 (2003)] has argued that GEMC simulations would lead to a spurious overestimation of the critical temperature. More recently, Patel et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024101 (2011)] opined that the use of analytical tail corrections would be problematic in the near-critical region. To address these issues, we perform extensive GEMC simulations for Lennard-Jones particles in the near-critical region varying the system size, the overall system density, and the cutoff distance. For a system with N = 5500 particles, potential truncation at 8σ and analytical tail corrections, an extrapolation of GEMC simulation data at temperatures in the range from 1.27 to 1.305 yields T{sub c} = 1.3128 ± 0.0016, ρ{sub c} = 0.316 ± 0.004, and p{sub c} = 0.1274 ± 0.0013 in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic limit determined by Potoff and Panagiotopoulos [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 10914 (1998)] using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling. Critical properties estimated using GEMC simulations with different overall system densities (0.296 ≤ ρ{sub t} ≤ 0.336) agree to within the statistical uncertainties. For simulations with tail corrections, data obtained using r{sub cut} = 3.5σ yield T{sub c} and p{sub c} that are higher by 0.2% and 1.4% than simulations with r{sub cut} = 5 and 8σ but still with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. In contrast, GEMC simulations with a truncated and shifted potential show that r{sub cut} = 8σ is insufficient to obtain accurate results. Additional GEMC simulations for hard

  9. Precision of dehydroascorbic acid quantitation with the use of the subtraction method--validation of HPLC-DAD method for determination of total vitamin C in food.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Artur; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2015-04-15

    In food analysis, a method for determination of vitamin C should enable measuring of total content of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) because both chemical forms exhibit biological activity. The aim of the work was to confirm applicability of HPLC-DAD method for analysis of total content of vitamin C (TC) and ascorbic acid in various types of food by determination of validation parameters such as: selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. The results showed that the method applied for determination of TC and AA was selective, linear and precise. Precision of DHAA determination by the subtraction method was also evaluated. It was revealed that the results of DHAA determination obtained by the subtraction method were not precise which resulted directly from the assumption of this method and the principles of uncertainty propagation. The proposed chromatographic method should be recommended for routine determinations of total vitamin C in various food.

  10. High-precision (p,t) reaction measurement to determine Ne18(α,p)Na21 reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matic, A.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Wörtche, H. J.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Fisker, J. L.; Görres, J.; Leblanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Fujita, H.; Wakasa, T.; Hess, P. O.; Brown, B. A.; Schatz, H.

    2009-11-01

    x-ray bursts are identified as thermonuclear explosions in the outer atmosphere of accreting neutron stars. The thermonuclear runaway is fueled by the αp process that describes a sequence of (α,p) reactions triggered by the Ne18(α,p)Na21 breakout reaction from the hot CNO cycles. We studied the level structure of the compound nucleus Mg22 by measuring the Mg24(p,t)Mg22 reaction at the Grand Raiden spectrometer at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. A large number of α-unbound states was identified and precise excitation energies were determined. Based on shell model and α-cluster model calculations we predict the level parameters for determining the stellar reaction rate of Ne18(α,p)Na21 for a wide temperature range. x-ray burst simulations have been performed to study the impact of the reaction on the x-ray burst luminosity.

  11. Assessment of a non-dedicated GPS receiver system for precise airborne attitude determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M.E.; Sun, H.; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The use of a non-dedicated GPS receiver system for attitude determination was assessed in airborne mode through a test conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. Four independent NovAtel GPSCard{trademark} receivers were installed in Sandia`s Twin Engine Otter with two antennas mounted on the fuselage and two on the wing tips at separations of 6 to 18 m. A strapdown INS was also on board the aircraft in order to provide an independent attitude reference at rates between 4 and 10 Hz. During the multi-day test, GPS measurements were recorded between 1 and 10 Hz. Carrier phase measurements were post-processed using a double difference approach developed at The University of Calgary in which integer ambiguities were resolved in seconds using the known antenna separations as constraints. The tracking capability of the system is demonstrated under dynamics consisting of roll and pitch angles up to 45 and 12 degrees, respectively. Comparisons between the GPS and INS attitude angles are presented for two of the test days and show agreement at the several arcminute level. Conclusions are made with respect to system accuracy and performance in an operational airborne environment.

  12. High precision optical measurement of displacement and simultaneous determinations of piezoelectric coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Bryan M.; Malladi, Madhuri; Vadlamani, Ramya; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2016-09-01

    PZT are also well known for their applications in Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS). It is necessary to study the piezoelectric coefficients of the materials accurately in order to design a sensor as an example, which defines their strain dependent applications. Systematic study of the electro mechanic displacement measurement was conducted and compared using a white light fiber optic sensor, a heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometer, and a homodyne laser interferometry setup. Frequency dependent measurement is conducted to evaluate displacement values well below and near the piezoelectric resonances. UHF-120 ultra-high frequency Vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal piezoelectric displacement or x33 and the MTI 2000 FotonicTM Sensor is used to measure the transverse piezoelectric displacement or x11 over 100Hz to 2MHz. A Multiphysics Finite Element Analysis method, COMSOL, is also adopted in the study to generate a three dimensional electromechanical coupled model based on experimentally determined strains x33 and x11 as a function of frequency of the electric field applied. The full family of piezoelectric coefficients of the poled electronic ceramic PZT, d33, d31, and d15, can be then derived, upon satisfactory simulation of the COMSOL. This is achieved without the usual need of preparation of piezoelectric resonators of fundamental longitudinal, transversal, and shear modes respectively.

  13. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu

    2014-04-15

    Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved.

  14. Determining the resolution of scanning microwave impedance microscopy using atomic-precision buried donor structures

    DOE PAGES

    Scrymgeour, D. A.; Baca, A.; Fishgrab, K.; ...

    2017-07-04

    To quantify the resolution limits of scanning microwave impedance microscopy (sMIM), we created scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-patterned donor nanostructures in silicon composed of 10 nm lines of highly conductive silicon buried under a protective top cap of silicon, and imaged them with sMIM. Here, this dopant pattern is an ideal test of the resolution and sensitivity of the sMIM technique, as it is made with nm-resolution and offers minimal complications from topography convolution. It has been determined that typical sMIM tips can resolve lines down to ~80 nm spacing, while resolution is independent of tip geometry as extreme tip wearmore » does not change the resolving power, contrary to traditional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). Going forward, sMIM is an ideal technique for qualifying buried patterned devices, potentially allowing for quantitative post-fabrication characterization of donor structures, which may be an important tool for the study of atomic-scale transistors and state of the art quantum computation schemes.« less

  15. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved. PMID:24733025

  16. Preparative purification of tetraantennary oligosaccharides from human asialyl orosomucoid.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, H J; Shia, M A; Rice, K G

    1997-05-01

    An approach to isolate micromole quantities of tetraantennary oligosaccharides from human orosomucoid is presented. The N-linked oligosaccharides from 500 mg of the glycoprotein were released enzymatically, desialylated, and isolated free of protein using ion exchange chromatography. The pooled oligosaccharides were converted into oligosaccharide glycosylamines by reaction with ammonium bicarbonate then coupled to BOC-tyrosine to prepare tyrosinamide oligosaccharides. These were resolved on semipreparative RP-HPLC to recover micromole quantities of six purified tyrosinamide oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharide structures were elucidated by a combination of high-field proton NMR and matrix-assisted time of flight mass spectrometry and included biantennary, triantennary, monofucosylated triantennary, tetraantennary, monofucosylated tetraantennary, and a tetraantennary containing a single polylactosamine extension. Edman degradation was utilized to reverse the tyrosinamide oligosaccharide derivatization leading to the generation of reducing oligosaccharides. These were used to characterize the elution profile of asialyl orosomucoid oligosaccharides on high pH anion exchange chromatography. This application of tyrosinamide derivatization has allowed for the first time the complete resolution of the complex oligosaccharide mixture from orosomucoid on a semipreparative scale in a single chromatogram and provide the first NMR characterization of polylactosamine tetraantennary oligosaccharide from this substrate. This study demonstrates the broad utility of the tyrosinamide derivatization to develop oligosaccharide libraries useful for probing the biological functions of glycosylation.

  17. Oligosaccharide binding proteins from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveal a preference for host glycans.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Daniel; Kim, Jae Han; German, J Bruce; Raybould, Helen E; Mills, David A

    2011-03-15

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs), part of ABC transporters and associated with the import of oligosaccharides. In this study we have used the Mammalian Glycan Array to determine the specific affinities of these proteins. This was correlated with binding protein expression induced by different prebiotics including HMO. Half of the F1SBPs in B. infantis were determined to bind mammalian oligosaccharides. Their affinities included different blood group structures and mucin oligosaccharides. Related to HMO, other proteins were specific for oligomers of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and polylactosamines with different degrees of fucosylation. Growth on HMO induced the expression of specific binding proteins that import HMO isomers, but also bind blood group and mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting coregulated transport mechanisms. The prebiotic inulin induced other family 1 binding proteins with affinity for intestinal glycans. Most of the host glycan F1SBPs in B. infantis do not have homologs in other bifidobacteria. Finally, some of these proteins were found to be adherent to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study represents further evidence for the particular adaptations of B. infantis to the infant gut environment, and helps to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process.

  18. Oligosaccharide Binding Proteins from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Reveal a Preference for Host Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Daniel; Kim, Jae Han; German, J. Bruce; Raybould, Helen E.; Mills, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs), part of ABC transporters and associated with the import of oligosaccharides. In this study we have used the Mammalian Glycan Array to determine the specific affinities of these proteins. This was correlated with binding protein expression induced by different prebiotics including HMO. Half of the F1SBPs in B. infantis were determined to bind mammalian oligosaccharides. Their affinities included different blood group structures and mucin oligosaccharides. Related to HMO, other proteins were specific for oligomers of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and polylactosamines with different degrees of fucosylation. Growth on HMO induced the expression of specific binding proteins that import HMO isomers, but also bind blood group and mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting coregulated transport mechanisms. The prebiotic inulin induced other family 1 binding proteins with affinity for intestinal glycans. Most of the host glycan F1SBPs in B. infantis do not have homologs in other bifidobacteria. Finally, some of these proteins were found to be adherent to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study represents further evidence for the particular adaptations of B. infantis to the infant gut environment, and helps to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. PMID:21423604

  19. Achieving and Validating the 1-centimeter Orbit: JASON-1 Precision Orbit Determination Using GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. Jason-1 is no exception and has set a 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal, which represents a factor of two improvement over what is currently being achieved for T/P. The challenge to precision orbit determination (POD) is both achieving the 1 cm radial orbit accuracy and evaluating and validating the performance of the 1 cm orbit. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. In addition, to the enhanced GPS receiver, Jason-1 carries significantly improved SLR and DORIS tracking systems along with the altimeter itself. We demonstrate the 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal has been achieved using GPS data alone in a reduced dynamic solution. It is also shown that adding SLR data to the GPS-based solutions improves the orbits even further. In order to assess the performance of these orbits it is necessary to process all of the available tracking data (GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover differences) as either dependent or independent of the orbit solutions. It was also necessary to compute orbit solutions using various combinations of the four available tracking data in order to independently assess the orbit performance. Towards this end, we have greatly improved orbits determined solely from SLR+DORIS data by applying the reduced dynamic solution strategy. In addition, we have computed reduced dynamic orbits based on SLR, DORIS and crossover data that are a significant improvement over the SLR and DORIS based dynamic solutions. These solutions provide the best performing orbits for independent validation of the GPS

  20. Thermospheric density estimation and responses to the March 2013 geomagnetic storm from GRACE GPS-determined precise orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabia, Andres; Jin, Shuanggen

    2017-02-01

    The thermospheric mass density variations and the thermosphere-ionosphere coupling during geomagnetic storms are not clear due to lack of observables and large uncertainty in the models. Although accelerometers on-board Low-Orbit-Earth (LEO) satellites can measure non-gravitational accelerations and derive thermospheric mass density variations with unprecedented details, their measurements are not always available (e.g., for the March 2013 geomagnetic storm). In order to cover accelerometer data gaps of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), we estimate thermospheric mass densities from numerical derivation of GRACE determined precise orbit ephemeris (POE) for the period 2011-2016. Our results show good correlation with accelerometer-based mass densities, and a better estimation than the NRLMSISE00 empirical model. Furthermore, we statistically analyze the differences to accelerometer-based densities, and study the March 2013 geomagnetic storm response. The thermospheric density enhancements at the polar regions on 17 March 2013 are clearly represented by POE-based measurements. Although our results show density variations better correlate with Dst and k-derived geomagnetic indices, the auroral electroject activity index AE as well as the merging electric field Em picture better agreement at high latitude for the March 2013 geomagnetic storm. On the other side, low-latitude variations are better represented with the Dst index. With the increasing resolution and accuracy of Precise Orbit Determination (POD) products and LEO satellites, the straightforward technique of determining non-gravitational accelerations and thermospheric mass densities through numerical differentiation of POE promises potentially good applications for the upper atmosphere research community.

  1. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  2. Human milk oligosaccharides: only the breast.

    PubMed

    McVeagh, P; Miller, J B

    1997-08-01

    Over 100 years ago it was first deduced that a major component of human milk must be an unidentified carbohydrate that was not found in cows milk. At first this was thought to be a form of lactose and was called gynolactose. We now know that this was not a single carbohydrate but a complex mixture of approximately 130 different oligosaccharides. Although small amounts of a few oligosaccharides have been found in the milk of other mammals, this rich diversity of sugars is unique to human milk. The oligosaccharide content of human milk varies with the infant's gestation, the duration of lactation, diurnally and with the genetic makeup of the mother. Milk oligosaccharides have a number of functions that may protect the health of the breast fed infant. As they are not digested in the small intestine, they form the 'soluble' fibre of breast milk and their intact structure is available to act as competitive ligands protecting the breast-fed infant from pathogens. There is a growing list of pathogens for which a specific oligosaccharide ligand has been described in human milk. They are likely to form the model for future therapeutic and prophylactic anti-microbials. They provide substrates for bacteria in the infant colon and thereby contribute to the difference in faecal pH and faecal flora between breast and formula-fed infants. They may also be important as a source of sialic acid, essential for brain development.

  3. Precise Determination of the Direct-Indirect Band Gap Energy Crossover In AlxGa1-xAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluegel, Brian; Beaton, Daniel; Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2014-03-01

    AlxGa1-xAs is a technologically important semiconductor material system for optoelectronic applications due to its type I band alignment with GaAs under nearly lattice-matched conditions. Heterostructure design often relies on exactly controlling the relative positions of the Γ and X conduction band edges, yet despite over three decades of research on this alloy, the precise energy and composition of the direct-indirect band gap crossover is still not well resolved. We report the results of our most recent investigation of AlxGa1-xAs (0.28 < x<0.42) epitaxial films, in which the observation of concurrent photoluminescence (PL) emission peaks from the direct and indirect band gaps combined with time-resolved PL information yields a precise determination of the direct-indirect band gap crossover energy and composition. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Acknowledgement: the samples were provided by John Reno from Sandia National Laboratory.

  4. Centimeter-level precise orbit determination for the HY-2A satellite using DORIS and SLR tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qiaoli; Guo, Jinyun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Chunmei; Chen, Chuanfa

    2017-01-01

    The HY-2A satellite is the first ocean dynamic environment monitoring satellite of China. Centimeter-level radial accuracy is a fundamental requirement for its scientific research and applications. To achieve this goal, we designed the strategies of precise orbit determination (POD) in detail. To achieve the relative optimal orbit for HY-2A, we carried out POD using DORIS-only, SLR-only, and DORIS + SLR tracking data, respectively. POD tests demonstrated that the consistency level of DORIS-only and SLR-only orbits with respect to the CNES orbits were about 1.81 cm and 3.34 cm in radial direction in the dynamic sense, respectively. We designed 6 cases of different weight combinations for DORIS and SLR data, and found that the optimal relative weight group was 0.2 mm/s for DORIS and 15.0 cm for SLR, and RMS of orbit differences with respect to the CNES orbits in radial direction and three-dimensional (3D) were 1.37 cm and 5.87 cm, respectively. These tests indicated that the relative radial and 3D accuracies computed using DORIS + SLR data with the optimal relative weight set were obviously higher than those computed using DORIS-only and SLR-only data, and satisfied the requirement of designed precision. The POD for HY-2A will provide the invaluable experience for the following HY-2B, HY-2C, and HY-2D satellites.

  5. Optimization and application of ICPMS with dynamic reaction cell for precise determination of 44Ca/40Ca isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Klötzli, Urs; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-10-15

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS) was optimized for determining (44)Ca/(40)Ca isotope ratios in aqueous solutions with respect to (i) repeatability, (ii) robustness, and (iii) stability. Ammonia as reaction gas allowed both the removal of (40)Ar+ interference on (40)Ca+ and collisional damping of ion density fluctuations of an ion beam extracted from an ICP. The effect of laboratory conditions as well as ICP-DRC-MS parameters such a nebulizer gas flow rate, rf power, lens potential, dwell time, or DRC parameters on precision and mass bias was studied. Precision (calculated using the "unbiased" or "n - 1" method) of a single isotope ratio measurement of a 60 ng g(-1) calcium solution (analysis time of 6 min) is routinely achievable in the range of 0.03-0.05%, which corresponded to the standard error of the mean value (n = 6) of 0.012-0.020%. These experimentally observed RSDs were close to theoretical precision values given by counting statistics. Accuracy of measured isotope ratios was assessed by comparative measurements of the same samples by ICP-DRC-MS and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) by using isotope dilution with a (43)Ca-(48)Ca double spike. The analysis time in both cases was 1 h per analysis (10 blocks, each 6 min). The delta(44)Ca values measured by TIMS and ICP-DRC-MS with double-spike calibration in two samples (Ca ICP standard solution and digested NIST 1486 bone meal) coincided within the obtained precision. Although the applied isotope dilution with (43)Ca-(48)Ca double-spike compensates for time-dependent deviations of mass bias and allows achieving accurate results, this approach makes it necessary to measure an additional isotope pair, reducing the overall analysis time per isotope or increasing the total analysis time. Further development of external calibration by using a bracketing method would allow a wider use of ICP-DRC-MS for routine calcium isotopic measurements, but it

  6. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, G.J.; Fry, S.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose) and XG9n (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose{sub 2}) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose {center dot} fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10{sup {minus}4} molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of ({sup 3}H)xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products).

  7. Structures and application of oligosaccharides in human milk

    PubMed Central

    KOBATA, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Comparative study of the oligosaccharide profiles of individual human milk revealed the presence of three different patterns. Four oligosaccharides containing the Fucα1-2Gal group were missing in the milk of non-secretor, and three oligosaccharides containing the Fucα1-4GlcNAc group were missing in the milk of Lewis negative individuals. Disappearance of some major oligosaccharides in these samples led to the finding of five novel minor oligosaccharides, which were hidden under the missing oligosaccharides. Following these studies, structures of many novel milk oligosaccharides were elucidated. At least 13 core oligosaccharides were found in these oligosaccharides. By adding α-fucosyl residues and sialic acid residues to these core oligosaccharides, more than one hundred oligosaccharides were formed. All these oligosaccharides contain lactose at their reducing termini. This evidence, together with the deletion phenomena found in the milk oligosaccharides of non-secretor and Lewis negative individuals, suggested that the oligosaccharides are formed from lactose by the concerted action of glycosyltransferases, which are responsible for elongation and branching of the Galβ1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the surface of epithelial cells. Therefore, oligosaccharides in human milk could include many structures, starting from the Galβ1-4GlcNAc group in the sugar chains of various glycoconjugates. Many lines of evidence recently indicated that virulent enteric bacteria and viruses start their infection by binding to particular sugar chains of glycoconjugates on the target cell surfaces. Therefore, milk oligosaccharides could be useful for developing drugs, which inhibit the infection of bacteria and viruses. PMID:20689231

  8. Precise Interferometric Phase Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-30

    01731 J. Borovsky H. Gardiner S.P. Gary P. Kadish AUSTIN RESEARCH ASSOCIATES M. Pongratz 1901 Rutland Avenue D. Sappenfield Austin, TX 78758 G. Smith R...Aylesboro Road MISSION RESEARCH CORPORATION Pittsburg, PA 15217 One Tara Blvd., Ste. 302 N. Zabusky Nashua, NH 03062 R. Amstrong JAYCOR P.O. Box 85154

  9. Precise determination of deep trap signatures and their relative and absolute concentrations in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, M.; Desnica, U. V.

    1998-08-01

    The new analytical method, simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) which comprises simultaneous fitting of whole measured thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectra is presented. The procedure clearly resolves contributions from various overlapping TSC peaks, which results in precise determination of trap parameters (signature) for each trap. In combination with photocurrent temperature dependent measurements, IPC(T), which reflects free carrier lifetime temperature dependence, the estimates of relative and absolute trap concentrations were made as well. The advantage of the SIMPA method in comparison with the single peak approach was demonstrated and analyzed. The SIMPA method was applied to different semi-insulating (SI) GaAs samples, particularly to samples having very high and others having very low deep trap concentrations; and for both extremes excellent fits were achieved. The method also seems very promising for characterization of deep levels and other similar SI materials, like SI InP or SI CdTe.

  10. Measurement of muon capture on the proton to 1% precision and determination of the pseudoscalar coupling gP.

    PubMed

    Andreev, V A; Banks, T I; Carey, R M; Case, T A; Clayton, S M; Crowe, K M; Deutsch, J; Egger, J; Freedman, S J; Ganzha, V A; Gorringe, T; Gray, F E; Hertzog, D W; Hildebrandt, M; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Knaack, S; Kravtsov, P A; Krivshich, A G; Lauss, B; Lynch, K R; Maev, E M; Maev, O E; Mulhauser, F; Petitjean, C; Petrov, G E; Prieels, R; Schapkin, G N; Semenchuk, G G; Soroka, M A; Tishchenko, V; Vasilyev, A A; Vorobyov, A A; Vznuzdaev, M E; Winter, P

    2013-01-04

    The MuCap experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute has measured the rate Λ(S) of muon capture from the singlet state of the muonic hydrogen atom to a precision of 1%. A muon beam was stopped in a time projection chamber filled with 10-bar, ultrapure hydrogen gas. Cylindrical wire chambers and a segmented scintillator barrel detected electrons from muon decay. Λ(S) is determined from the difference between the μ(-) disappearance rate in hydrogen and the free muon decay rate. The result is based on the analysis of 1.2 × 10(10) μ(-) decays, from which we extract the capture rate Λ(S) = (714.9 ± 5.4(stat) ± 5.1(syst)) s(-1) and derive the proton's pseudoscalar coupling g(P)(q(0)(2) = -0.88 m(μ)(2)) = 8.06 ± 0.55.

  11. Evaluation of the precision of drop-size determination in oil/water emulsions by low-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Denkova, Pavletta S; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai D; Danov, Krassimir D; Campbell, Bruce; Shawl, Catherine; Kim, Dennis

    2004-12-21

    The accuracy of the recently reported low-resolution NMR method (Goudappel, G. J. W.; et al. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2001, 239, 535) for the determination of drop-size distribution in oil-in-water emulsions is evaluated by comparing the NMR results with precise data from video-enhanced optical microscopy. A series of 27 soybean-oil-in-water emulsions, differing in their mean drop size, polydispersity, oil volume fraction, and emulsifier, is studied. Soybean oil is selected as a typical component of food emulsions. The experimental error of our optical procedure for drop-size determination is estimated to be around 0.3 microm, which allows us to use the microscopy data as a reference for the mean drop-size and distribution width of the studied emulsions, with known experimental error. The main acquisition parameters in the NMR experiment are varied to find their optimal values and to check how the experimental conditions affect the NMR results. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods shows that the low-resolution NMR method underestimates the mean drop size, d33, by approximately 20%. For most of the samples, NMR measures relatively precisely the distribution width (+/-0.1 to 0.2 dimensionless units), but for approximately 20% of the samples, larger systematic deviation was registered (underestimate by 0.3-0.4 units). No correlation is found between the emulsion properties and the relative difference between the microscopy and NMR data. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancy between NMR and optical microscopy are discussed, and some advantages and limitations of the low-resolution NMR method are considered.

  12. Precise Determination of Hypocenters and Focal Mechanisms of Volcanic Earthquakes by the Volcano Observation Network of NIED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, H.; Kohno, Y.; Nagai, M.; Miyagi, Y.; Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Tanada, T.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic earthquakes are usually observed by a seismometer network on a volcano before and during eruptions, caused by crustal stress changes due to underground magma movements or an accumulation into a magma chamber. Precise hypocentral locations and focal mechanisms of the earthquakes provide information on the magmatic process and allow us to assess and predict the volcanic activity. However, focal mechanisms of volcanic earthquakes are not monitored except for relatively large earthquakes because of small size of volcanic earthquakes (M<3) and heterogeneity of volcanic structures. The obstacles also prevent automatic determination of hypocentral locations which are needed for short term eruption prediction. National Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has been developing the volcano observation networks near the major active volcanos in Japan since 2009. The observation networks are equipped with short period seismometers and pendulum type tiltmeters at the bottom of borehole 200 m deep, and broad band seismometers and GPS antennas on the ground. We developed a monitoring technique for precise determination of hypocenters and focal mechanisms of volcanic earthquakes by using similarity of seismic wave forms and the high quality short period seismometer data of the volcano observation networks. Firstly, we extract earthquake groups which have similar seismic wave forms including P and S waves with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9 on more than three stations. Secondly, we display the wave forms with the similar phases in a row and stack them to reduce noises, and then precisely pick again the phases and first motion polarities of P waves. Thirdly, we relocate the hypocenters by Double-Difference method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000, BSSA) and estimate focal mechanisms by using P wave first motion polarity and S/P amplitude ratios (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2003, BSSA). We applied the technique to earthquake catalogs of Mt. Fuji and

  13. A modified time-of-flight method for precise determination of high speed ratios in molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador Palau, A.; Eder, S. D. Kaltenbacher, T.; Samelin, B.; Holst, B.; Bracco, G.

    2016-02-15

    Time-of-flight (TOF) is a standard experimental technique for determining, among others, the speed ratio S (velocity spread) of a molecular beam. The speed ratio is a measure for the monochromaticity of the beam and an accurate determination of S is crucial for various applications, for example, for characterising chromatic aberrations in focussing experiments related to helium microscopy or for precise measurements of surface phonons and surface structures in molecular beam scattering experiments. For both of these applications, it is desirable to have as high a speed ratio as possible. Molecular beam TOF measurements are typically performed by chopping the beam using a rotating chopper with one or more slit openings. The TOF spectra are evaluated using a standard deconvolution method. However, for higher speed ratios, this method is very sensitive to errors related to the determination of the slit width and the beam diameter. The exact sensitivity depends on the beam diameter, the number of slits, the chopper radius, and the chopper rotation frequency. We present a modified method suitable for the evaluation of TOF measurements of high speed ratio beams. The modified method is based on a systematic variation of the chopper convolution parameters so that a set of independent measurements that can be fitted with an appropriate function are obtained. We show that with this modified method, it is possible to reduce the error by typically one order of magnitude compared to the standard method.

  14. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7,2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason- 1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data, The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  15. JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD) Through the Combination and Comparison of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Crossover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T/P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data. The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  16. Precise determination of the ratio h/m u: a way to link microscopic mass to the new kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cladé, Pierre; Biraben, François; Julien, Lucile; Nez, François; Guellati-Khelifa, Saída

    2016-10-01

    The ratio h/{{m}\\text{u}} between the Planck constant and the unified atomic mass constant should have a special status in the framework of the future international system of units. Currently (before the redefinition), this ratio allowed the comparison between determinations of h (watt balance) and determinations of {{m}\\text{u}} (the XRCD method). In the future SI, as the Planck constant h will be fixed, the ratio h/{{m}\\text{u}} will ensure the realization of the new kilogram (quantum kilogram) at the atomic scale. Furthermore as the Avogadro constant will be fixed, the carbon molar mass M(12C), which will no longer be equal to 12~\\text{g}\\centerdot \\text{mo}{{\\text{l}}-1} , will be determined from m u. This ratio is also key data for the realization of the kilogram at the macroscopic scale using the XRCD method. In this paper we present the state of the art on experiments that provide the most precise value of the ratio h/{{m}\\text{u}} . We focus on the one that is based on the measurement of the atomic recoil due to the photon momentum.

  17. A modified time-of-flight method for precise determination of high speed ratios in molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador Palau, A.; Eder, S. D.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Samelin, B.; Bracco, G.; Holst, B.

    2016-02-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) is a standard experimental technique for determining, among others, the speed ratio S (velocity spread) of a molecular beam. The speed ratio is a measure for the monochromaticity of the beam and an accurate determination of S is crucial for various applications, for example, for characterising chromatic aberrations in focussing experiments related to helium microscopy or for precise measurements of surface phonons and surface structures in molecular beam scattering experiments. For both of these applications, it is desirable to have as high a speed ratio as possible. Molecular beam TOF measurements are typically performed by chopping the beam using a rotating chopper with one or more slit openings. The TOF spectra are evaluated using a standard deconvolution method. However, for higher speed ratios, this method is very sensitive to errors related to the determination of the slit width and the beam diameter. The exact sensitivity depends on the beam diameter, the number of slits, the chopper radius, and the chopper rotation frequency. We present a modified method suitable for the evaluation of TOF measurements of high speed ratio beams. The modified method is based on a systematic variation of the chopper convolution parameters so that a set of independent measurements that can be fitted with an appropriate function are obtained. We show that with this modified method, it is possible to reduce the error by typically one order of magnitude compared to the standard method.

  18. Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in the milk of six species of New and Old world monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kohta; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Kimura, Kazumasa; Glander, Kenneth E.; Hinde, Katie; Dittus, Wolfgang; Milligan, Lauren A.; Power, Michael L.; Oftedal, Olav T.

    2010-01-01

    Human and great ape milks contain a diverse array of milk oligosaccharides, but little is known about the milk oligosaccharides of other primates, and how they differ among taxa. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk of three species of Old World or catarrhine monkeys (Cercopithecidae: rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), toque macaque (Macaca sinica) and Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas)) and three of New World or platyrrhine monkeys (Cebidae: tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) and Bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis); Atelidae: mantled howler (Alouatta palliata)). The milks of these species contained 6–8% total sugar, most of which was lactose: the estimated ratio of oligosaccharides to lactose in Old World monkeys (1:4 to 1:6) was greater than in New World monkeys (1:12 to 1:23). The chemical structures of the oligosaccharides were determined mainly by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc) were found in the milk of the rhesus macaque, toque macaque, Hamadryas baboon and tufted capuchin, but oligosaccharides containing the type I unit (Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc), which have been found in human and many great ape milks, were absent from the milk of all species studied. Oligosaccharides containing Lewis x (Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc) and 3-fucosyl lactose (3-FL, Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc) were found in the milk of the three cercopithecid monkey species, while 2-fucosyl lactose (5'-FL, Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was absent from all species studied. All of these milks contained acidic oligosaccharides that had N-acetylneuraminic acid as part of their structures, but did not contain oligosaccharides that had N-glycolylneuraminic acid, in contrast to the milk or colostrum of great apes which contain both types of acidic oligosaccharides. Two GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides, lactose 3′-O-sulfate and lacto-N-novopentaose I (Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc) were found only in the

  19. Occurrence of glycine in the core oligosaccharides of Hafnia alvei lipopolysaccharides--identification of disubstituted glycoform.

    PubMed

    Gozdziewicz, Tomasz K; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lugowski, Czesław; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta

    2015-05-18

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are the main surface antigens and virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria involved for example in the development of nosocomial infections and sepsis. They consist of three main regions: O-specific polysaccharide, core oligosaccharide, and lipid A. Bacteria modify LPS structure to escape the immune defence, but also to adapt to environmental conditions. LPS's structures are highly diversified in the O-specific polysaccharide region to evade bactericidal factors of immune system, but retain some common epitopes that are potential candidates for therapeutic strategies against bacterial infections. Common occurrence of glycine within the structure of LPS is a known phenomenon and was previously reported for variety of species. Since glycine residue substitutes mainly core oligosaccharide of LPS, especially inner core region, it was also considered as a part of common epitope for broad-reactive antimicrobial antibodies. Herein, we used multiple-stage electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry to identify glycine substitution in core oligosaccharide type characteristic for Hafnia alvei LPS, and isolated from five strains of different O-serotypes: 32, PCM 1190, PCM 1192, PCM 1200, and PCM 1209. The location of glycine in core oligosaccharide was determined in detail for LPS 1190 using ESI-MS(n). Three glycoforms were identified, including two mono-glycinylated and one diglycinylated core oligosaccharides.

  20. [Screening and identification of a bacterium capable of converting agar to neoagaro oligosaccharides].

    PubMed

    Han, Junping; Huang, Yayan; Ye, Jing; Xiao, Meitian

    2015-09-04

    To screen and identify a bacterium capable of converting agar to neoagaro oligosaccharides. We took samples of porphyra haitanensis and nearby seawater, and then used the medium containing 1 per thousand agar to enrich the target bacteria. The target isolates were obtained by dilution-plate method, of which crude enzymes were further obtained by liquid culture. We adopted DNS method to determine the target bacteria which can convert agar to neoagaro oligosaccharides. The phylogenetics was identified by analyzing 16S rDNA sequence and combining the strain's morphological and bacterial colonial physiological biochemical characteristics. We isolated a gram-negative bacterial strain HJPHYXJ-1 capable of transforming agar to neoagaro oligosaccharides. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search of HJPHYXJ-1's 16S rDNA sequence on GenBank suggested that the similarity between this strain and Vibrio natriegens reached 99% . In addition, the morphological and physiological biochemical characteristics of HJPHYXJ-1 also showed highly similarity to Vibrio natriegens. So we identified HJPHYXJ-1 as Vibrio natriegens. The results of HPLC suggested that the metabolite of enzymatic degradation was neoagaro oligosaccharides. HJPHYXJ-1 or the new isolate of Vibrio natriegens was capable of converting agar to neoagaro oligosaccharides.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of caprine cheese whey oligosaccharides in batch culture systems.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diana L; Costabile, Adele; Wilbey, R Andrew; Grandison, Alistair S; Duarte, Luis C; Roseiro, Luisa B

    2012-01-01

    The prebiotic effect of oligosaccharides recovered and purified from caprine whey, was evaluated by in vitro fermentation under anaerobic conditions using batch cultures at 37°C with human faeces. Effects on key gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which was used to determine a quantitative prebiotic index score. Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as fermentation end products was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Growth of Bifidobacterium spp was significantly higher (P ≥ 0.05) with the purified oligosaccharides compared to the negative control. Lactic and propionic acids were the main SCFAs produced. Antimicrobial activity of the oligosaccharides was also tested, revealing no inhibition though a decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli growth. These findings indicate that naturally extracted oligosaccharides from caprine whey could be used as new and valuable source of prebiotics.

  2. The Precise Determination of Cd Isotope Ratio in Geological Samples by MC-ICP-MS with Ion Exchange Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, C.; Hu, S.; Wang, D.; Jin, L.; Guo, W.

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element which occurs at μg g-1 level abundances in the crust. Cd isotopes have great prospects in the study of the cosmogony, the trace of anthropogenic sources, the micronutrient cycling and the ocean productivity. This study develops an optimized technique for the precise and accurate determination of Cd isotopic compositions. Cd was separated from the matrix by elution with AG-MP-1 anionic exchange chromatographic resin. The matrix elements (K, Na, Ca, Al, Fe, and Mg etc.), polyatomic interfered elements (Ge, Ga, Zr, Nb, Ru, and Mo), and isobaric interfered elements (In, Pd and most of Sn) were eluted using HCl with gradient descent concentrations (2, 0.3, 0.06, 0.012 and 0.0012 mol L-1). The same elution procedure was repeated to eliminate the residuel Sn (Sn/Cd < 0.018). The collected Cd was analyzed using MC-ICP-MS, in which the instrumental mass fractionation was controlled by a "sample-standard bracketing" technique. The recovery of Cd larger than 96.85%, and the δ114/110Cd are in the range of -1.43~+0.20‰ for ten geological reference materials (GSD-3a, GSD-5a, GSD-7a, GSD-6, GSD-9, GSD-10, GSD-11, GSD-12, GSD-23, and GSS-1). The δ114/110Cd obtained for GSS-1 soil sample relative to the NIST SRM 3108 Cd solution was 0.20, which was coherent with the literature values (0.08±0.23). This method had a precision of 0.001~0.002% (RSD), an error range of 0.06~0.14 (δ114/110Cd, 2σ), and a long-term reproducibility of 0.12 (δ114/110Cd, 2σ).

  3. Rapid characterization of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides isolated from glycoproteins using a carbohydrate analyzer.

    PubMed

    Anumula, K R; Taylor, P B

    1991-01-01

    -mannosidase resulted in a decrease of the oligosaccharide elution times corresponding to the number of sugar residues lost, the profile of changes was highly reproducible. In contrast, treatment with alpha-L-fucosidase, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F and endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H resulted in an increase in their corresponding oligosaccharide retention times similar to the presence of an additional sugar residue. Conditions developed for separation of the reduced oligosaccharides and also a mixture of monosaccharide to oligosaccharide containing about 15 sugar residues within 30 min were useful in determining the effect of endo- and exo-glycosidases on porcine thyroglobulin oligosaccharides. Changes in elution time of the oligosaccharides following specific glycosidase digestions combined with methylation analysis provided a rapid and sensitive tool for confirmation of the carbohydrate primary structures present in thyroglobulin.

  4. Influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of chito-oligosaccharides (COS) on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Mengíbar, Marian; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Miralles, Beatriz; Heras, Angeles

    2013-09-12

    Chito-oligosaccharides (COS) are being used as important functional materials for many applications due to their bioactivities. The aim of this research has been to assess the relationship between the physico-chemical characteristics, average molecular weight (Mw), acetylation degree (DA), polymerization degree (DP) and specially sequence composition determined by MALDI-TOF MS and the antioxidant properties of COS. These oligosaccharides were obtained by enzymatic depolymerization with chitosanase and lysozyme using a specific chitosan and its reacetylated product. The COS fraction below 5 kDa obtained from chitosanase depolymerization showed the highest capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and to reduce Fe(3+). A correlation was found between the relative amount of molecules with a given A/D (acetylated vs deacetylated units) ratio within the COS and their antioxidant activity, which could be used to predict the antioxidant behavior of a fraction of chito-oligosaccharides.

  5. Optimizing the fluorometric β-glucuronidase assay in ruminant milk for a more precise determination of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Aulrich, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Activity of the enzyme β-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) is found in milk from ruminants with mastitis. However, the use of this enzymic activity as an indicator of mastitis has gained little attention possibly because of its low activity when compared with other mastitis indicators. The determination may therefore be less precise and the analytical procedure very time consuming and labour intensive. The present study optimized the fluorometric determination of the β-glucuronidase activity with respect to substrate concentration, pH, incubation time etc., validated the assay, and developed it into large scale analyses. The assay performance is satisfactory regarding precision, linearity etc., and it appears comparable to analogous fluorometric assays for mastitis indicators in milk. From a local dairy herd, 825 milk samples were analysed for potential mastitis indicators, i.e. β-glucuronidase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity, and for somatic cell counts (SCC) and the variables were compared. Activity of β-glucuronidase was moderately but significantly correlated to SCC (r=0·21; n=768) as well as the other mentioned variables (r=0·25-0·43; n=825). Simple indices based on β-glucuronidase and LDH or NAGase activity were tested as indicators of mastitis (SCC), but were not found to improve the diagnostic value. Future studies may further verify whether β-glucuronidase can compete with well-established indicators of mastitis in cows such as LDH or NAGase as well as determine whether β-glucuronidase activity, in combination with other indicators of mastitis, has an advantage. Nineteen milk samples from subclinical and latent cases of mastitis (individual quarters) were identified for specific pathogens (PCR method) and measured for β-glucuronidase activity. The activity was tested at four different pH levels (5·5, 6·0, 6·5 and 7·0) in order to investigate the possibility of

  6. Precise Orbit Determination for GEOSAT Follow-On Using Satellite Laser Ranging Data and Intermission Altimeter Crossovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Pavlis, Despina E.; Marr, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On Spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 with the primary objective of the mission to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Following an extensive set of calibration campaigns in 1999 and 2000, the US Navy formally accepted delivery of the satellite on November 29, 2000. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler (Tranet-style) beacons track the spacecraft. Although limited amounts of GPS data were obtained, the primary mode of tracking remains satellite laser ranging. The GFO altimeter measurements are highly precise, with orbit error the largest component in the error budget. We have tuned the non-conservative force model for GFO and the gravity model using SLR, Doppler and altimeter crossover data sampled over one year. Gravity covariance projections to 70x70 show the radial orbit error on GEOSAT was reduced from 2.6 cm in EGM96 to 1.3 cm with the addition of SLR, GFO/GFO and TOPEX/GFO crossover data. Evaluation of the gravity fields using SLR and crossover data support the covariance projections and also show a dramatic reduction in geographically-correlated error for the tuned fields. In this paper, we report on progress in orbit determination for GFO using GFO/GFO and TOPEX/GFO altimeter crossovers. We will discuss improvements in satellite force modeling and orbit determination strategy, which allows reduction in GFO radial orbit error from 10-15 cm to better than 5 cm.

  7. High-precision (p,t) reaction to determine {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction rates

    SciTech Connect

    Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Since the identification of ongoing {sup 26}Al production in the universe, the reaction sequence {sup 24}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 25}Al({beta}{sup +{nu}}){sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Al has been studied intensively. At temperatures where the radiative capture on {sup 25}Al (t{sub 1/2}=7.2 s) becomes faster than the {beta}{sup +} decay, the production of {sup 26}Al can be reduced due to the depletion of {sup 25}Al. To determine the resonances relevant for the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si bypass reaction, we measured the {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction with high-energy precision using the Grand Raiden spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. Several new energy levels were found above the p threshold and for known states excitation energies were determined with smaller uncertainties. The calculated stellar rates of the bypass reaction agree well with previous results, suggesting that these rates are well established.

  8. Study on preparation and separation of Konjac oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wenjie; Sun, Yuanming; Huang, Huan; Yang, Youhui; Peng, Shuhui; Xiong, Bo; Pan, Tingtiao; Xu, Zhenlin; He, Mingxiang; Pang, Jie

    2013-02-15

    To study the preparation and separation of Konjac oligosaccharides, Konjac Glucomannan was degraded by the combination of γ-irradiation and β-mannanase, and then the degradation product was separated by ultrafiltration. To our interest, for most of Konjac oligosaccharides obtained by this method, the molecular mass was lower than 2200 Da. In addition, the 1000 Da molecular weight cut off membrane could effectively separate the Konjac oligosaccharides. In conclusion, the combination of γ-irradiation and β-mannanase was an efficient method to obtain Konjac oligosaccharides, and the oligosaccharides of molecular mass lower than 1000 Da could be effectively separated by ultrafiltration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploration of conformational spaces of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides by an NMR-validated simulation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takumi; Sakae, Yoshitake; Zhang, Ying; Yamamoto, Sayoko; Okamoto, Yuko; Kato, Koichi

    2014-10-06

    Exploration of the conformational spaces of flexible biomacromolecules is essential for quantitatively understanding the energetics of their molecular recognition processes. We employed stable isotope- and lanthanide-assisted NMR approaches in conjunction with replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations to obtain atomic descriptions of the conformational dynamics of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides, which harbor intracellular glycoprotein-fate determinants in their triantennary structures. The experimentally validated REMD simulation provided quantitative views of the dynamic conformational ensembles of the complicated, branched oligosaccharides, and indicated significant expansion of the conformational space upon removal of a terminal mannose residue during the functional glycan-processing pathway.

  10. Two dimensional rate gyro bias estimation for precise pitch and roll attitude determination utilizing a dual arc accelerometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorse, William T.

    method and system configuration for two-dimensional attitude determination. The end goal of this work is to produce a precise and reliable longitudinal and transverse attitude estimation array capable of measuring rate senor and gyro bias online so as to produce highly accurate and reliable pitch and roll angle tracking in real-time while under subjection to simulated flight conditions and scenarios. While this thesis is an expansion of a previously developed device and method, it is a departure from past works in that a new, two-dimensional accelerometer array arc is utilized and additional rotational dimensions are being included in the simulated analysis.

  11. Detection and Quantitation of Afucosylated N-Linked Oligosaccharides in Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies Using Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi; May, Kimberly; Xu, Wei; Liu, Hongcheng

    2012-07-01

    The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides in the CH2 domain has a significant impact on the structure, stability, and biological functions of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. The impact is also highly dependent on the specific oligosaccharide structures. The absence of core-fucose has been demonstrated to result in increased binding affinity to Fcγ receptors and, thus, enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Therefore, a method that can specifically determine the level of oligosaccharides without the core-fucose (afucosylation) is highly desired. In the current study, recombinant monoclonal antibodies and tryptic peptides from the antibodies were digested using endoglycosidases F2 and H, which cleaves the glycosidic bond between the two primary GlcNAc residues. As a result, various oligosaccharides of either complex type or high mannose type that are commonly observed for recombinant monoclonal antibodies are converted to either GlcNAc residue only or GlcNAc with the core-fucose. The level of GlcNAc represents the sum of all afucosylated oligosaccharides, whereas the level of GlcNAc with the core-fucose represents the sum of all fucosylated oligosaccharides. LC-MS analysis of the enzymatically digested antibodies after reduction provided a quick estimate of the levels of afucosylation. An accurate determination of the level of afucosylation was obtained by LC-MS analysis of glycopeptides after trypsin digestion.

  12. New Food Oligosaccharides via Alternansucrase Acceptor Reactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternansucrase [EC 2.4.1.140] is a glycosyltransferase from food-grade bacteria that is capable of synthesizing unique polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from sucrose. The enzyme typically produces the high-molecular weight polysaccharide alternan. However, in the presence of low-molecular weig...

  13. The phosphorylation pattern of oligosaccharides in secreted procathepsin D is glycosylation site-specific and independent of the expression of mannose 6-phosphate receptors.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, F; Pohlmann, R; von Figura, K

    1997-01-10

    Mammalian cells contain two types of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPR), MPRs 46 and 300, that contribute with variable efficiency to the sorting of individual lysosomal proteins. To evaluate the role of phosphorylated oligosaccharides for the sorting efficiency by either of the two receptors, the structure of phosphorylated oligosaccharides on lysosomal proteins escaping sorting in cells lacking MPR 46 and/or MPR 300 was analyzed. Procathepsin D was chosen as a model because it is sorted efficiently via MPR 300 and poorly via MPR 46 and contains a distinct and highly heterogenous mixture of phosphorylated oligosaccharides at either of its two N-glycosylation sites. Both MPRs 46 and 300 were found to have a minor but distinct preference for forms of procathepsin D and other lysosomal proteins containing oligosaccharides with two phosphomonoesters. However, the phosphorylation of oligosaccharides in procathepsin D and other lysosomal proteins that escape sorting in control cells or in cells lacking MPR 46 and/or MPR 300 was strikingly similar, and oligosaccharides with two phosphomonoesters represented the major oligosaccharide species. We conclude from these results that the position of the position of the phosphate groups, the structure of the underlying oligosaccharide, and/or the polypeptide backbone of lysosomal proteins have major roles in determining the affinity to MPRs.

  14. Variations in prebiotic oligosaccharide fermentation by intestinal lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Nakamura, Saki; Konishi, Kenta; Nakagawa, Junichi; Tochio, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides confer health benefits on the host by modulating the gut microbiota. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are potential targets of prebiotics; however, the metabolism of oligosaccharides by LAB has not been fully characterized. Here, we studied the metabolism of eight oligosaccharides by 19 strains of intestinal LAB. Among the eight oligosaccharides used, 1-kestose, lactosucrose and galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) led to the greatest increases in the numbers of the strains tested. However, mono- and disaccharides accounted for more than half of the GOSs used, and several strains only metabolized the mono- and di-saccharides in GOSs. End product profiles indicated that the amounts of lactate produced were generally consistent with the bacterial growth recorded. Oligosaccharide profiling revealed the interesting metabolic manner in Lactobacillus paracasei strains, which metabolized all oligosaccharides, but left sucrose when cultured with fructooligosaccharides. The present study clearly indicated that the prebiotic potential of each oligosaccharide differs.

  15. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination solutions obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Division and Precision Orbit Determination Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, C.; Mistretta, G.; Hart, R.; Oza, D.; Cox, C.; Nemesure, M.; Bolvin, D.; Samii, Mina V.

    Orbit determination results are obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and a real-time extended Kalman filter estimation system to process Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) measurements in support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft navigation and health and safety operations. GTDS is the operational orbit determination system used by the FDD, and the extended Kalman fliter was implemented in an analysis prototype system, the Real-Time Orbit Determination System/Enhanced (RTOD/E). The Precision Orbit Determination (POD) team within the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch generates an independent set of high-accuracy trajectories to support the TOPEX/Poseidon scientific data. These latter solutions use the Geodynamics (GEODYN) orbit determination system with laser ranging tracking data. The TOPEX/Poseidon trajectories were estimated for the October 22 - November 1, 1992, timeframe, for which the latest preliminary POD results were available. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The batch cases were assessed using overlap comparisons, while the sequential cases were assessed with covariances and the first measurement residuals. The batch least-squares and forward-filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions were compared with the definitive POD orbit solutions. The solution differences were generally less than 10 meters (m) for the batch least squares and less than 18 m for the sequential estimation solutions. The differences among the POD, GTDS, and RTOD/E solutions can be traced to differences in modeling and tracking data types, which are being analyzed in detail.

  16. Bracketing method with certified reference materials for high precision and accuracy determination of trace cadmium in drinking water by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketrin, Rosi; Handayani, Eka Mardika; Komalasari, Isna

    2017-01-01

    Two significant parameters to evaluate the measurement results are known as precision and accuracy. Both are associated with indeterminate and determinate error, respectively, that normally happen in such spectrometric measurement method as Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These errors must be eliminated or suppressed to get high precision and accuracy of the method. Decreasing the errors thus increasing the precision and accuracy of the method. In this study, bracketing method using two-point standard calibration was proposed in order to suppress the indeterminate error caused by instrumental drift thus increasing the result precision, and applied for measuring cadmium in drinking water samples. Certified reference material of ERM CA011b-Hard drinking water UK-metals was used to know the determinate error or measurement bias. When bias is obtained, some corrections are needed to get the accurate measurement result. The result was compared to that by external calibration method.

  17. High precision electronic charge density determination for L10-ordered γ-TiAl by quantitative convergent beam electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Xiahan; Kulovits, Andreas; Wang, Guofeng; Wiezorek, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    Low order structure and Debye-Waller (DW) factors for tetragonal L10-ordered γ-TiAl were measured simultaneously using quantitative convergent beam electron diffraction. The high precision and accuracy (largest error <0.5%) measurements allowed the construction of charge density difference maps from full sets of structure and DW factors, suitable for validation of first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculation results. Comparison of the experimentally determined charge density distribution with theoretical DFT predictions shows excellent qualitative agreement in this study. The three-dimensional charge density representations indicate a large electron charge localisation centred about the tetrahedral site at ¼, ¼, ¼, which is coordinated by two Ti atoms at 0, 0, 0 and ½, ½, 0 and two Al atoms at ½, 0, ½ and 0, ½, ½, respectively. Compared to experimental data, the DFT calculations based on full-potential linearised augmented plane wave (LAPW) method (implemented in WIEN2K) were found to quantitatively overestimate charge density between Ti-Ti second nearest neighbour atoms. Moreover, the results from the DFT method based on the projector-augmented wave (PAW) method and a plane wave basis set (implemented in VASP) were found to differ appreciably from both the experimental and LAPW-DFT results, implying that the PAW approach may not accurately describe the bonding in the intermetallic systems with 3 d electrons, such as γ-TiAl.

  18. Precise Determination of the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror without Gravity-Sag Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, V. Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

    2007-01-01

    The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA.

  19. Determination of volume and surface scattering from saline ice using ice sheets with precisely controlled roughness parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bredow, J.W.; Porco, R.L.; Fung, A.K.; Tjuatja, S.; Jezek, K.C.; Gogineni, S.; Gow, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    Experiments were performed at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH, to precisely determine the relative contributions of surface and volume scattering from saline ice that has well-known surface roughness characteristics. The ice growth phase of the experiment made use of two 6-ft diameter tanks and a 6-ft diameter mold with known roughness statistical parameters of rms height = 0.25 cm and Gaussian correlation (correlation length = 2.0 cm). One tank was used for growing a moderately thick saline ice sheet with very smooth surface, and the other was used for growing a thin layer of freshwater ice over the surface mold. The latter resulted in a layer with one statistically known rough boundary and one smooth boundary. Wide-bandwidth, multiple incidence angle backscattering measurements were performed, first on the bare saline ice sheet and then on the same sheet after the thin freshwater ice sheet was placed on top of it. Results indicate that the surface scattering dominates over saline ice volume scattering at all frequencies for low incidence angles for both the very smooth and Gaussian rough surfaces. The significance of volume scattering depends strongly on angle of incidence, frequency, volume scattering albedo, surface roughness, and surface correlation function.

  20. Accuracy and precision of hind limb foot contact timings of horses determined using a pelvis-mounted inertial measurement unit.

    PubMed

    Starke, Sandra D; Witte, Thomas H; May, Stephen A; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-05-11

    Gait analysis using small sensor units is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical context. In order to segment continuous movement from a defined point of the stride cycle, knowledge about footfall timings is essential. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of foot contact timings of a defined limb determined using an inertial sensor mounted on the pelvis of ten horses during walk and trot at different speeds and in different directions. Foot contact was estimated from vertical velocity events occurring before maximum sensor roll towards the contralateral limb. Foot contact timings matched data from a synchronised hoof mounted accelerometer well when velocity minimum was used for walk (mean (SD) difference of 15 (18)ms across horses) and velocity zero-crossing for trot (mean (SD) difference from -4 (14) to 12 (7)ms depending on the condition). The stride segmentation method also remained robust when applied to movement data of hind limb lame horses. In future, this method may find application in segmenting overground sensor data of various species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of DTRF2014, ITRF2014 and JTRF2014 by precise orbit determination of SLR and altimetry satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Sergei; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Müller, Horst; Dettmering, Denise; Angermann, Detlef; Kehm, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Recently, three new realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) have been released. They are DTRF2014 developed by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) ITRS Combination Centre at Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut of the Technische Universität München, ITRF2014 elaborated at the IERS ITRS Product Center at the Laboratoire de Recherches en Géodésie of the Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN LAREG, France) and JTRF2014 created at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, USA). In this paper, we validate these three ITRS realisations by precise orbit determination of high-orbit geodetic satellites Lageos-1 and Lageos-2 and some low-orbit satellites like Jason-2 and some others using SLR observations. We investigate the impact on the residuals of observations, estimated range biases, empirical accelerations and other parameters. For altimetry satellites, we study the impact of each ITRS realization on radial and geographically correlated errors as well as on the global and regional mean sea level trends estimated using the satellite orbits computed using these ITRS realizations.

  2. Precise orbit and attitude determination using redundant low-cost single-frequency GNSS receivers on a CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willi, Daniel; Fisler, Michael; Hollenstein, Christine; Männel, Benjamin; Meindl, Michael; Xu, Hui; Rothacher, Markus

    2016-07-01

    CubETH is a technology demonstration mission aimed at using low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf GNSS receivers for space applications. Precise orbit and attitude determination, on-board as well as in post-processing, are the main mission goals. The one unit cube-satellite is equipped with five GNSS antennas, each of them connected to two u-blox multi-GNSS receivers. The position estimation on the satellite is based on the receiver navigation solution. We show that (1) the proper correction of the ionospheric path delay and (2) the position propagation in the Kalman filter are of uppermost importance. Based on available data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, we show how an adapted Klobuchar model leads to a better estimation of the path delay in low Earth orbits. Based on recent signal-simulator tests, we illustrate how the linear propagation in the receiver Kalman filter leads to systematic errors and exhibit a method for improvement.

  3. Production of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum).

    PubMed

    Guilloux, Karine; Gaillard, Isabelle; Courtois, Josiane; Courtois, Bernard; Petit, Emmanuel

    2009-12-09

    Flaxseed mucilage from Linum usitatissimum L. species was constituted by arabinoxylan (about 75%) and pectin (about 25%). A new procedure was developed to obtain only arabinoxylans which implicated treatment of the pectin fraction by enzymatic hydrolysis with pectinase. Then three processes of depolymerization were evaluated on arabinoxylans. First, a thermic hydrolysis in mild acid conditions was performed and an ultrafiltration process was used as purification method. Second, the potential of xylanases from different glycoside hydrolase families for arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) production was tested, and finally a radical depolymerization was conducted. Average molecular weights were determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS), and carbohydrate compositions were determined by high pH anion exchange chromatography pulse amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD). Both chemical and enzymatic treatments were inefficient to convert arabinoxylans from flaxseed mucilage into AXOS. Only radical depolymerization process was allowed to obtain arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides presenting different molecular weights (11.9 x 10(3) to 1.9 x 10(3) g mol(-1)) with satisfactory yields (75% to 35%).

  4. Determining storm sampling requirements for improving precision of annual load estimates of nutrients from a small forested watershed.

    PubMed

    Ide, Jun'ichiro; Chiwa, Masaaki; Higashi, Naoko; Maruno, Ryoko; Mori, Yasushi; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to determine the lowest number of storm events required for adequate estimation of annual nutrient loads from a forested watershed using the regression equation between cumulative load (∑L) and cumulative stream discharge (∑Q). Hydrological surveys were conducted for 4 years, and stream water was sampled sequentially at 15-60-min intervals during 24 h in 20 events, as well as weekly in a small forested watershed. The bootstrap sampling technique was used to determine the regression (∑L-∑Q) equations of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and phosphorus (DP), particulate nitrogen (PN) and phosphorus (PP), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and suspended solid (SS) for each dataset of ∑L and ∑Q. For dissolved nutrients (DN, DP, DIN), the coefficient of variance (CV) in 100 replicates of 4-year average annual load estimates was below 20% with datasets composed of five storm events. For particulate nutrients (PN, PP, SS), the CV exceeded 20%, even with datasets composed of more than ten storm events. The differences in the number of storm events required for precise load estimates between dissolved and particulate nutrients were attributed to the goodness of fit of the ∑L-∑Q equations. Bootstrap simulation based on flow-stratified sampling resulted in fewer storm events than the simulation based on random sampling and showed that only three storm events were required to give a CV below 20% for dissolved nutrients. These results indicate that a sampling design considering discharge levels reduces the frequency of laborious chemical analyses of water samples required throughout the year.

  5. A slope-ratio precision-fed rooster assay for determination of relative metabolizable energy values for fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Aardsma, M P; Parsons, C M

    2017-01-01

    The precision-fed rooster assay (PFRA) frequently yields TMEn values for fats and oils in excess of their gross energies. Six experiments were conducted to determine if the PFRA could be combined with a slope-ratio type assay to yield more useful lipid TMEn values. In experiment (EXP) 1, refined corn oil (RCO) was fed to conventional and cecectomized roosters at zero, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of a ground corn diet. In EXP 2 through 6, lipids were fed to conventional roosters at zero, 5, and 10% in a ground corn diet. Palomys (a novel lipid), high stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO), 2 animal-vegetable blends (AV1, AV2), a vegetable-based oil blend (VB), and corn oil from an ethanol plant (DDGSCO) were evaluated and compared to refined soybean oil (RSO) or RCO as the reference lipid. Multiple linear regression of diet TMEn on supplemental lipid level generated regression coefficients that were used to calculate relative bioavailability values (RBV). In EXP 1, RCO was a suitable reference material as TMEn linearly increased up to 20% RCO inclusion. There were some minor differences in TMEn of RCO between conventional and cecetomized bird types. In EXP 2, Palomys was found to have a lower (P < 0.05) RBV (87%) than RCO. In EXP 3, there were no significant differences between SDASO and RSO. In EXP 4, the RBV of AV2 (79%) was lower (P < 0.05) than RCO, while the RBV of AV1 was not different from RCO. The RBV of DDGSCO (116%) was higher (P < 0.05) than RCO in EXP 5. The RBV of VB (84%) was lower (P < 0.001) than RCO in EXP 6; however, this may be an underestimation for low levels of VB, as there was an interaction (P < 0.01) between lipid type and lipid supplementation level. These results indicate that the precision-fed slope-ratio rooster assay can detect differences among lipids and yields practically useful lipid TMEn values. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Structural Characterization of Neutral Oligosaccharides by Laser-Enhanced In-Source Decay of MALDI-FTICR MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Yingning; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Shuying

    2011-05-01

    MALDI in-source decay (ISD) technique described to date has proven to be a convenient and rapid method for sequencing purified peptides and proteins. However, the general ISD still can not produce adequate fragments for the detailed structural elucidation of oligosaccharides. In this study, an efficient and practical method termed the laser-enhanced ISD (LEISD) technique of MALDI-FTICR MS allows highly reliable and abundant fragmentation of the neutral oligosaccharides, which was attributed to the ultrahigh irradiation laser of mJ level. The yield of ISD fragmentation was evaluated under different laser powers for 7 neutral oligosaccharides using DHB as matrix. Better quality ISD spectra including fragment ions in low-mass region were obtained at higher laser power. Results from the LEISD of oligosaccharides demonstrated that a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and more structural information could be obtained in comparison to the conventional CID. It was also suggested that the valuable A ions derived from cross-ring cleavage of the linear oligosaccharides allowed the distinction among α(1 → 4)-, α(1 → 6)-, β(1 → 4)-, and β(1 → 3)-linked isobaric structures according to fragment types and intensities. In addition, ideal fragmentation ions observed by LEISD method facilitated the determination of the sequences and branched points of complex oligosaccharides from human milk.

  7. Synthesis of high-mannose oligosaccharide analogues through click chemistry: true functional mimics of their natural counterparts against lectins?

    PubMed

    François-Heude, Marc; Méndez-Ardoy, Alejandro; Cendret, Virginie; Lafite, Pierre; Daniellou, Richard; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José M; Moreau, Vincent; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence

    2015-01-26

    Terminal "high-mannose oligosaccharides" are involved in a broad range of biological and pathological processes, from sperm-egg fusion to influenza and human immunodeficiency virus infections. In spite of many efforts, their synthesis continues to be very challenging and actually represents a major bottleneck in the field. Whereas multivalent presentation of mannopyranosyl motifs onto a variety of scaffolds has proven to be a successful way to interfere in recognition processes involving high-mannose oligosaccharides, such constructs fail at reproducing the subtle differences in affinity towards the variety of protein receptors (lectins) and antibodies susceptible to binding to the natural ligands. Here we report a family of functional high-mannose oligosaccharide mimics that reproduce not only the terminal mannopyranosyl display, but also the core structure and the branching pattern, by replacing some inner mannopyranosyl units with triazole rings. Such molecular design can be implemented by exploiting "click" ligation strategies, resulting in a substantial reduction of synthetic cost. The binding affinities of the new "click" high-mannose oligosaccharide mimics towards two mannose specific lectins, namely the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and the human macrophage mannose receptor (rhMMR), have been studied by enzyme-linked lectin assays and found to follow identical trends to those observed for the natural oligosaccharide counterparts. Calorimetric determinations against ConA, and X-ray structural data support the conclusion that these compounds are not just another family of multivalent mannosides, but real "structural mimics" of the high-mannose oligosaccharides.

  8. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers.

  9. Three Decades of Precision Orbit Determination Progress, Achievements, Future Challenges and its Vital Contribution to Oceanography and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Although satellite altimetry has been around for thirty years, the last fifteen beginning with the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon (TP) have yielded an abundance of significant results including: monitoring of ENS0 events, detection of internal tides, determination of accurate global tides, unambiguous delineation of Rossby waves and their propagation characteristics, accurate determination of geostrophic currents, and a multi-decadal time series of mean sea level trend and dynamic ocean topography variability. While the high level of accuracy being achieved is a result of both instrument maturity and the quality of models and correction algorithms applied to the data, improving the quality of the Climate Data Records produced from altimetry is highly dependent on concurrent progress being made in fields such as orbit determination. The precision orbits form the reference frame from which the radar altimeter observations are made. Therefore, the accuracy of the altimetric mapping is limited to a great extent by the accuracy to which a satellite orbit can be computed. The TP mission represents the first time that the radial component of an altimeter orbit was routinely computed with an accuracy of 2-cm. Recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to compute the radial component of Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm. Additionally, still further improvements in TP orbits are being achieved with new techniques and algorithms largely developed from combined Jason and TP data analysis. While these recent POD achievements are impressive, the new accuracies are now revealing subtle systematic orbit error that manifest as both intra and inter annual ocean topography errors. Additionally the construction of inter-decadal time series of climate data records requires the removal of systematic differences across multiple missions. Current and future efforts must focus on the understanding and reduction of these errors in order to generate a complete and

  10. Three Decades of Precision Orbit Determination Progress, Achievements, Future Challenges and its Vital Contribution to Oceanography and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Although satellite altimetry has been around for thirty years, the last fifteen beginning with the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon (TP) have yielded an abundance of significant results including: monitoring of ENS0 events, detection of internal tides, determination of accurate global tides, unambiguous delineation of Rossby waves and their propagation characteristics, accurate determination of geostrophic currents, and a multi-decadal time series of mean sea level trend and dynamic ocean topography variability. While the high level of accuracy being achieved is a result of both instrument maturity and the quality of models and correction algorithms applied to the data, improving the quality of the Climate Data Records produced from altimetry is highly dependent on concurrent progress being made in fields such as orbit determination. The precision orbits form the reference frame from which the radar altimeter observations are made. Therefore, the accuracy of the altimetric mapping is limited to a great extent by the accuracy to which a satellite orbit can be computed. The TP mission represents the first time that the radial component of an altimeter orbit was routinely computed with an accuracy of 2-cm. Recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to compute the radial component of Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm. Additionally, still further improvements in TP orbits are being achieved with new techniques and algorithms largely developed from combined Jason and TP data analysis. While these recent POD achievements are impressive, the new accuracies are now revealing subtle systematic orbit error that manifest as both intra and inter annual ocean topography errors. Additionally the construction of inter-decadal time series of climate data records requires the removal of systematic differences across multiple missions. Current and future efforts must focus on the understanding and reduction of these errors in order to generate a complete and

  11. The application of the ITRF2014 Product Center solutions with respect to Altimeter Satellite Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Couhert, Alexandre; Jalabert, Eva; Chinn, Douglas S.

    2016-04-01

    The IERS product centers, IGN, DGFI, and JPL, have prepared new solution realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), based on the analysis and the combination SINEX solutions submitted by the individual geodetic techniques: Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). We evaluate these solutions with respect to their orbit determination performance, including RMS of fit, and other orbit metrics, including altimeter crossovers, focusing on the altimeter satellites, in particular TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2, but also Cryosat-2 and Envisat. We also evaluate the POD performance using the Jason-2 JPL/reduced-dynamic orbits as a reference. We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the new solutions so far released, ITRF2014P (IGN), and DTRF2014 (DGFI) with respect to the Jason-2 satellite, and find a significant improvement in the DORIS satellite RMS of fit for DORIS-only orbit computations. Over 260 orbit cycles (July 2008 to August 2015) the RMS of fit improves from 0.3667 mm/s for DPOD2008 to 0.3646 and 0.3645 mm/s for the two new ITRF2014 realizations. The following stations show improvements in RMS of fit of more than 0.02 mm/s, which is significant for DORIS data: KRUB/KRWB (Kourou), CIDB (Cibinong), JIUB (Jiufeng), YEMB (Yellowknife), MATB (Marion Island), FUTB (Futuna), and ARFB (Arequipa). In this paper we also focus on the SLR performance, and we evaluate how the new ITRF2014 reference frame realization can be integrated into the next generation of precision orbit improvements for the Jason series of satellites.

  12. Reliable and integrated technique for determining resonant frequency in radio frequency resonators. Application to a high-precision resonant cavity-based displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Rigoberto; Asua, Estibaliz; Portilla, Joaquin; Etxebarria, Victor

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a reliable and integrated technique for determining the resonant frequency of radio frequency resonators, which can be of interest for different purposes. The approach uses a heterodyne scheme as phase detector coupled to a voltage-controlled oscillator. The system seeks the oscillator frequency that produces a phase null in the resonator, which corresponds to the resonant frequency. A complete explanation of the technique to determine the resonant frequency is presented and experimentally tested. The method has been applied to a high-precision displacement sensor based on resonant cavity, obtaining a theoretical nanometric precision.

  13. Active Site Mapping of Xylan-Deconstructing Enzymes with Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharides Produced by Automated Glycan Assembly.

    PubMed

    Senf, Deborah; Ruprecht, Colin; de Kruijff, Goswinus H M; Simonetti, Sebastian O; Schuhmacher, Frank; Seeberger, Peter H; Pfrengle, Fabian

    2017-03-02

    Xylan-degrading enzymes are crucial for the deconstruction of hemicellulosic biomass, making the hydrolysis products available for various industrial applications such as the production of biofuel. To determine the substrate specificities of these enzymes, we prepared a collection of complex xylan oligosaccharides by automated glycan assembly. Seven differentially protected building blocks provided the basis for the modular assembly of 2-substituted, 3-substituted, and 2-/3-substituted arabino- and glucuronoxylan oligosaccharides. Elongation of the xylan backbone relied on iterative additions of C4-fluorenylmethoxylcarbonyl (Fmoc) protected xylose building blocks to a linker-functionalized resin. Arabinofuranose and glucuronic acid residues have been selectively attached to the backbone using fully orthogonal 2-(methyl)naphthyl (Nap) and 2-(azidomethyl)benzoyl (Azmb) protecting groups at the C2 and C3 hydroxyls of the xylose building blocks. The arabinoxylan oligosaccharides are excellent tools to map the active site of glycosyl hydrolases involved in xylan deconstruction. The substrate specificities of several xylanases and arabinofuranosidases were determined by analyzing the digestion products after incubation of the oligosaccharides with glycosyl hydrolases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles.

  15. Enzymatic production of specifically distributed hyaluronan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Panhong; Lv, Mengxian; Jin, Peng; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2015-09-20

    High-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA) was controllably depolymerized in pure aqueous solution with recombinant leech hyaluronidase (HAase). The HAase concentration per unit HA and hydrolysis time played important roles in molecular mass distribution. By modulating the concentrations of HAase and controlling the hydrolysis time, any molar-mass-defined HA oligomers could be efficiently and specifically produced on a large scale (40 g/L), such as HA oligosaccharides with weight-average molar mass of 4000, 10,000, and 30,000Da and end hydrolysates containing only HA6 and HA4. High performance liquid chromatography-size exclusion chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, capillary zone electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed low polydispersity of the produced molar-mass-defined HA oligosaccharides. Therefore, large-scale production of defined HA oligosaccharides with narrow molecular mass distribution will significantly promote progress in related research and its potential applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  17. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-16

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of polymerization 4-7 were depleted within 12 h of fermentation, whereas fucosylated and phosphorylated PMOs were partially resistant to fermentation. GOS structures containing β1-3 and β1-2 linkages were preferably fermented over GOS containing β1-4 and β1-6 linkages. Upon in vitro fermentation, acetate and butyrate were produced as the main organic acids. GOS fermentation by piglet inoculum showed a unique fermentation pattern with respect to preference of GOS size and organic acids production.

  18. Determining the precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectric impedance spectroscopy in the assessment of breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne L; Rosenthall, Leonard; Towers, Anna; Hodgson, Pamela; Shay, Carol A; Tidhar, Dorit; Vigano, Antonio; Kilgour, Robert D

    2013-06-01

    The composition of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) has been shown to evolve from the initial accumulation of fluid to the development of fibrotic lesions and abnormal fat deposition. Therefore, precise and reliable assessments of BCRL are required to develop accurate staging and management. Although dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) have been used to assess BCRL, no study has evaluated the precision of these two modalities in the same cohort. We determined the precision of DXA and BIS in lymphedematous (LE) and nonaffected (NA) arms of 24 women with Stage II unilateral BCRL. Precision was calculated from the results of paired bilateral arm measurements obtained from DXA scans measuring fat, lean, and bone mineral masses, BIS measuring extracellular fluid (ECF) and total fluid volume, and circumferential tape measurements (CM) of the arms to calculate the anatomic volume. Precision error was expressed as the root mean square (RMS) of the coefficients of variation (%CV) and standard deviations (SD). The precisions of DXA and BIS varied from 1.16% (DXA measurements of LE arm total volume) to 1.86% (BIS LE arm total fluid volume) and from 0.95% (DXA lean mass of NA arm) to 1.72% (DXA BMC of NA arm). Precision of CM measures of arm volume were 1.71% CV for LE arm and 2.51% CV for NA arm. The fat and lean masses of the LE arm exceeded the NA arm by about 15% (p<0.0001). ECF and total fluid volume of LE arm was 22.6% and 19% greater than the NA arm (p<0.0001), respectively. For BCRL, these findings suggest that DXA and BIS are two measurement instruments that provide acceptable levels of precision for the measurement of arm lean mass, fat mass and ECF volume, respectively.

  19. Change in oligosaccharides during processing of soybean sheet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiushuang; Ke, Leqin; Yang, Dongmei; Bao, Bili; Jiang, Jianmei; Ying, Tiejin

    2007-01-01

    Oligosaccharides have been credited with many health-promoting functions, which had been identified in many clinical studies, such as promoting the growth of Bifidobacterium in human intestine and balance of intestinal bacteria, modulating the immune response, inhibition of cancer and tumor, stimulation of mineral absorption. In this study the effect of processing unit operations on the levels of soybean oligosaccharides during production of soybean sheet were investigated. The concentrations of oligosaccharide in initial raw soybean were: sucrose 43.05 g/kg, raffinose 7.52 g/kg and stachyose 41.32 g/kg (in dry matter). Oligosaccharide losses in the soaking water, in the first filtrating stage, in the second filtrating stage and finally in the sheet formation stage were 0.68, 10.3, 8.15 and 47.22 g/kg (initial dry soybean) respectively, representing 0.74, 11.21, 8.87 and 51.39% of the total oligosaccharides present in the initial soybeans. The recovery of oligosaccharides in the final soybean sheet from the initial soybean was 27.92%. The loss of soybean oligosaccharides in different processing stages, especially in the by-product, the sweet slurry, was considerable. The loss of oligosaccharides was mainly associated with water/matter removal in production process. The analysis of loss profile implied possible ways to improve the technology for production of oligosaccharides-enriched soy-sheets.

  20. Structure analysis and laxative effects of oligosaccharides isolated from bananas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Hui Hua; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2012-10-01

    Banana oligosaccharides (BOS) were extracted with water, and then separated and purified using column chromatography. Gel penetration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weights. Thin layer chromatogram and capillary electrophoresis were employed to analyze the monosaccharide composition. The indican bond and structure of the BOS molecule were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Results showed that BOS were probably composed of eight β-D-pyran glucose units linked with 1→6 indican bonds. The laxative effects of BOS were investigated in mice using the method described in "Handbook of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in China." The length of the small intestine over which a carbon suspension solution advanced in mice treated with low-, middle-, and high-dose BOS was significantly greater than that in the model group, suggesting that BOS are effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine.

  1. Relationships Among Microbial Communities, Maternal Cells, Oligosaccharides, and Macronutrients in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet E; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Yahvah, Katherine M; Bode, Lars; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-08-01

    Human milk provides all essential nutrients necessary for early life and is rich in nonnutrients, maternally derived (host) cells, and bacteria, but almost nothing is known about the interplay among these components. Research aim: The primary objective of this research was to characterize relationships among macronutrients, maternal cells, and bacteria in milk. Milk samples were collected from 16 women and analyzed for protein, lipid, fatty acid, lactose, and human milk oligosaccharide concentrations. Concentrations of maternal cells were determined using microscopy, and somatic cell counts were enumerated. Microbial ecologies were characterized using culture-independent methods. Absolute and relative concentrations of maternal cells were mostly consistent within each woman as were relative abundances of bacterial genera, and there were many apparent relationships between these factors. For instance, relative abundance of Serratia was negatively associated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.47, p < .0001) and neutrophil concentration ( r = -.38, p < .0006). Concentrations of several oligosaccharides were correlated with maternally derived cell types as well as somatic cell counts; for example, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose were inversely correlated with somatic cell counts ( r = -.64, p = .0082; r = -.52, p = .0387, respectively), and relative abundance of Staphylococcus was positively associated with total oligosaccharide concentration ( r = .69, p = .0034). Complex relationships between milk nutrients and bacterial community profile, maternal cells, and milk oligosaccharides were also apparent. These data support the possibility that profiles of maternally derived cells, nutrient concentrations, and the microbiome of human milk might be interrelated.

  2. Structure of a sialo-oligosaccharide from glycophorin in carp red blood cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Sugiura, Hikaru; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-11-13

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes and prepared the oligosaccharide fraction from glycophorin by β-elimination [1]. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. These O-linked oligosaccharides (P-1 and P-2) were composed of glucose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc). The P-1 and P-2 contained one and two NeuGc residues, respectively, and the P-1 exhibited bacteriostatic activity [1]. Using NMR and GC-MS, we determined that the structure of the bacteriostatic P-1 was NeuGcα2→6 (Fucα1→4) (Glcα1→3) Galβ1→4GalNAc-ol. This O-linked oligosaccharide was unique for a vertebrate with respect to the hexosamine and hexose linkages and its non-chain structure.

  3. 40 CFR 80.584 - What are the precision and accuracy criteria for approval of test methods for determining the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.584 Section 80.584 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Sampling and Testing § 80... sulfur content of motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Precision....

  4. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate hypertension and associated kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Tamura, Yuki; Toda, Natsuko; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Murota, Itsuki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the antihypertensive effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides, enzymatic products of high molecular natural alginate from sea weeds, in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats were investigated. Dahl S rats fed a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet were treated with sodium alginate oligosaccharides (4% or 8% w/w) for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by the tail-cuff method, and hypertensive cardiovascular benefits and kidney damage were assessed. Glomerular function and morphological sclerosis were determined. SBP increased in an age-dependent manner in the untreated Dahl S rats. Sodium alginate oligosaccharide treatment attenuated the increase in SBP in a dose-dependent manner. The heart and aortic walls weighed less in the rats treated with sodium alginate oligosaccharides than in the untreated rats. The SBP reduction was associated with a decrease in urinary protein excretion and an increase in the creatinine clearance rate. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides significantly attenuated hypertensive glomerular sclerosis and arterial injury in the kidney. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) decreased in low-salt Dahl S rats and increased with a salt challenge. The alginate oligosaccharides decreased FENa in high-salt Dahl S rats. The results of this study suggest that sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate salt-induced hypertension in Dahl S rats. This reduction is associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage.

  5. Spatial distribution of precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms in the Izu-Honshu collision zone, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Y.; Takeda, T.; Honda, R.; Yoshida, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Tanzawa region, central Japan, where the Izu-Bonin arc collides into the Honshu crust, the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts intricately and the seismicity is particularly high. The configuration of the PHS plate in the region has been estimated based on the hypocenter distribution, seismic velocity tomography, and seismic profile (e.g. Ishida, 1992; Matsubara et al., 2005; Sato et al., 2005). However, the relationship between the structure of the PHP and the seismicity in the collision zone is still not clearly understood. To elucidate the seismotectonics, it is essential to get precisely determined hypocenters and focal mechanisms. We used data from 107 permanent online stations operated by Hot Springs Research Institute of Kanagawa Prefecture, NIED Hi-net and JMA, which are located within 80-km from the epicenters. We relocated hypocenters of 4351 events that occurred in and around the Tanzawa region with the double-difference relocation algorithm (DD method) (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000), using the differential arrival time obtained by both manual picking and waveform cross-correlation analysis. Then, we determined the focal mechanisms of 420 events using the absolute P- and SH-wave amplitudes by adding the P-wave polarities. We found that the earthquakes in the eastern Tanzawa region are distributed along the planar zone slightly dipping toward east. On the other hand, the earthquakes in the western region spread out in the volume of approximately 10 km × 10 km × 10 km. We examined similarity between the focal mechanisms of earthquakes and a reference of focal mechanism that is inferred from the configuration and relative motion of the PHP. We assumed the fault plane direction of the reference focal mechanism based on the fault model of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake (Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The slip direction is assumed so as to be consistent with the relative motion of the PHP with respect to the Eurasian plate in the Kanto region (Seno, 1993). The

  6. Improved thickness estimation of liquid water using Kramers-Kronig relations for determination of precise optical parameters in terahertz transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Son, Heyjin; Choi, Da-Hye; Park, Gun-Sik

    2017-02-20

    In terahertz transmission spectroscopy, there is a typical problem of thickness uncertainty, which hampers to determine precise optical parameters of samples. In order to resolve this experimental problem, a method optimizing sample thickness using singly subtractive Kramers-Kronig relations is proposed. For tens of micrometers thick water samples, we improved the accuracy of sample thickness by an order of magnitude (up to sub-micrometer) using the algorithm leading to obtain precise optical parameters of water. The broad applicability of the method is demonstrated for measuring various materials in addition to highly absorbing liquid water in the spectral range from 0.3 to 1.6 THz.

  7. High-precision half-life determination for the superallowed {beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 62}Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyer, G. F.; Finlay, P.; Svensson, C. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Hyland, B.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Wong, J.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Savajols, H.; Leslie, J. R.; Austin, R. A. E.; Chaffey, A.; Garrett, P. E.

    2008-01-15

    The half-life of the superallowed {beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 62}Ga has been measured at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility using a fast-tape-transport system and 4{pi} continuous-flow gas proportional counter to detect the positrons from the decay of {sup 62}Ga to the daughter {sup 62}Zn. The result, T{sub 1/2}=116.100{+-}0.025 ms, represents the most precise measurement to date (0.022%) for any superallowed {beta}-decay half-life. When combined with six previous measurements of the {sup 62}Ga half-life, a new world average of T{sub 1/2}=116.121{+-}0.021 ms is obtained. This new half-life measurement results in a 20% improvement in the precision of the {sup 62}Ga superallowed ft value while reducing its mean by 0.9{sigma} to ft=3074.3(12) s. The impact of this half-life measurement on precision tests of the CVC hypothesis and isospin symmetry breaking corrections for A{>=}62 superallowed decays is discussed.

  8. Rapid and precise determination of natural carbonate rare earth elements in femtogram quantities by ICP-SF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Liu, Y.; Shen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A rapid and precise technique for measuring of femtogram quantity rare earth elements (REE) levels in natural carbonate samples by ICP-SF-MS has been developed at the Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University. REE/Ca ratios are calculated directly from the intensities of the ion beams of 46Ca, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 146Nd, 147Sm, 153Eu, 160Gd, 159Tb, 163Dy, 165Ho, 166Er, 169Tm, 172Yb, and 175Lu using external matrix-matched synthetic standards to correct for instrumental ratio drifting and mass discrimination. A routine measurement time of 3 minutes is typical for one sample containing 20-40-ppm [Ca]. Replicate measurements made on natural coral and foraminiferal samples with REE/Ca ratios of 2-242 nmol/mol show external precisions of 1.9-6.5% (2RSD) can be achieved with only 10-1000 femtogram REEs in 10-20 μg carbonate consumed. The key advantages of this established technique are (1) to provide a possibility of directly analyzing REE isotopic composition in femtogram quantities without chemical separation steps, and (2) to potentially offer high precision and high temporal resolution REE records for diverse carbonates, such as corals, foraminifera, sclerosponges, tufa, and speleothems.

  9. Nitric oxide-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Slomberg, Danielle L; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2014-02-01

    Secondary amine-functionalized chitosan oligosaccharides of different molecular weights (i.e., ~2500, 5000, 10,000) were synthesized by grafting 2-methyl aziridine from the primary amines on chitosan oligosaccharides, followed by reaction with nitric oxide (NO) gas under basic conditions to yield N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. The total NO storage, maximum NO flux, and half-life of the resulting NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides were controlled by the molar ratio of 2-methyl aziridine to primary amines (e.g., 1:1, 2:1) and the functional group surrounding the N-diazeniumdiolates (e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains), respectively. The secondary amine-modified chitosan oligosaccharides greatly increased the NO payload over existing biodegradable macromolecular NO donors. In addition, the water-solubility of the chitosan oligosaccharides enabled their penetration across the extracellular polysaccharides matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and association with embedded bacteria. The effectiveness of these chitosan oligosaccharides at biofilm eradication was shown to depend on both the molecular weight and ionic characteristics. Low molecular weight and cationic chitosan oligosaccharides exhibited rapid association with bacteria throughout the entire biofilm, leading to enhanced biofilm killing. At concentrations resulting in 5-log killing of bacteria in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) biofilms, the NO-releasing and control chitosan oligosaccharides elicited no significant cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast L929 cells in vitro. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Chitosan Oligosaccharides as Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary amine-functionalized chitosan oligosaccharides of different molecular weights (i.e., ~2500, 5000, 10000) were synthesized by grafting 2-methyl aziridine from the primary amines on chitosan oligosaccharides, followed by reaction with nitric oxide (NO) gas under basic conditions to yield N-diazeniumdiolate NO donors. The total NO storage, maximum NO flux, and half-life of the resulting NO-releasing chitosan oligosaccharides were controlled by the molar ratio of 2-methyl aziridine to primary amines (e.g., 1:1, 2:1) and the functional group surrounding the N-diazeniumdiolates (e.g., polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains), respectively. The secondary amine-modified chitosan oligosaccharides greatly increased the NO payload over existing biodegradable macromolecular NO donors. In addition, the water-solubility of the chitosan oligosaccharides enabled their penetration across the extracellular polysaccharides matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and association with embedded bacteria. The effectiveness of these chitosan oligosaccharides at biofilm eradication was shown to depend on both the molecular weight and ionic characteristics. Low molecular weight and cationic chitosan oligosaccharides exhibited rapid association with bacteria throughout the entire biofilm, leading to enhanced biofilm killing. At concentrations resulting in 5-log killing of bacteria in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, the NO-releasing and control chitosan oligosaccharides elicited no significant cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast L929 cells in vitro. PMID:24268196

  11. Consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by gut-related microbes.

    PubMed

    Marcobal, Angela; Barboza, Mariana; Froehlich, John W; Block, David E; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2010-05-12

    Human milk contains large amounts of complex oligosaccharides that putatively modulate the intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants by acting as decoy binding sites for pathogens and as prebiotics for enrichment of beneficial bacteria. Several bifidobacterial species have been shown to grow well on human milk oligosaccharides. However, few data exist on other bacterial species. This work examined 16 bacterial strains belonging to 10 different genera for growth on human milk oligosaccharides. For this propose, a chemically defined medium, ZMB1, was used, which allows vigorous growth of a number of gut-related microorganisms in a fashion similar to complex media. Interestingly, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bacteroides fragilis , and Bacteroides vulgatus strains were able to metabolize milk oligosaccharides with high efficiency, whereas Enterococcus , Streptococcus , Veillonella , Eubacterium , Clostridium , and Escherichia coli strains grew less well or not at all. Mass spectrometry-based glycoprofiling of the oligosaccharide consumption behavior revealed a specific preference for fucosylated oligosaccharides by Bi. longum subsp. infantis and Ba. vulgatus. This work expands the current knowledge of human milk oligosaccharide consumption by gut microbes, revealing bacteroides as avid consumers of this substrate. These results provide insight on how human milk oligosaccharides shape the infant intestinal microbiota.

  12. Oligosaccharides in human milk: structural, functional, and metabolic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kunz, C; Rudloff, S; Baier, W; Klein, N; Strobel, S

    2000-01-01

    Research on human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) has received much attention in recent years. However, it started about a century ago with the observation that oligosaccharides might be growth factors for a so-called bifidus flora in breast-fed infants and extends to the recent finding of cell adhesion molecules in human milk. The latter are involved in inflammatory events recognizing carbohydrate sequences that also can be found in human milk. The similarities between epithelial cell surface carbohydrates and oligosaccharides in human milk strengthen the idea that specific interactions of those oligosaccharides with pathogenic microorganisms do occur preventing the attachment of microbes to epithelial cells. HMOs may act as soluble receptors for different pathogens, thus increasing the resistance of breast-fed infants. However, we need to know more about the metabolism of oligosaccharides in the gastrointestinal tract. How far are oligosaccharides degraded by intestinal enzymes and does oligosaccharide processing (e.g. degradation, synthesis, and elongation of core structures) occur in intestinal epithelial cells? Further research on HMOs is certainly needed to increase our knowledge of infant nutrition as it is affected by complex oligosaccharides.

  13. Consumption of Human Milk Oligosaccharides by Gut-related Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, Angela; Barboza, Mariana; Froehlich, John W.; Block, David E.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Human milk contains large amounts of complex oligosaccharides that putatively modulate the intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants by acting as decoy binding sites for pathogens and as prebiotics for enrichment of beneficial bacteria. Several bifidobacterial species have been shown to grow well on human milk oligosaccharides. However, little data exists on other bacterial species. In this work we examined 16 bacterial strains belonging to 10 different genera for growth on human milk oligosaccharides. For this propose, we used a chemically-defined medium, ZMB1, which allows vigorous growth of a number gut–related microorganisms in a fashion similar to complex media. Interestingly, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides vulgatus strains were able to metabolize milk oligosaccharides with high efficiency, while Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Eubacterium, Clostridium, and Escherichia coli strains grew less well or not at all. Mass spectrometry-based glycoprofiling of the oligosaccharide consumption behavior revealed a specific preference for fucosylated oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bacteroides vulgatus. This work expands the current knowledge of human milk oligosaccharides consumption by gut microbes, revealing bacteroides as avid consumer of this substrate. These results provide insight on how human milk oligosaccharides shape the infant intestinal microbiota. PMID:20394371

  14. Metabolism and biological functions of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Bertino, E; Peila, C; Giuliani, F; Martano, C; Cresi, F; Di Nicola, P; Occhi, L; Sabatino, G; Fabris, C

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that breastfeeding is beneficial both for its nutritional properties and for the presence of biologically active compounds. Among these, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), representing the third largest fraction of human milk, have been assigned important biological functions, such as prebiotic and immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects. HMOs are synthesized in the mammary gland by glycosyltransferase enzymes and can be divided in core-oligosaccharides, sialo-oligosaccharides, fucosyl-oligosaccharides and sialo-fucosyl-oligosaccharides on the basis of their chemical structure. Glycosyltransferases enzymes are partially regulated by genetic mechanisms; according to the expression of secretory and Lewis' genes, it is possible to classify human milk in 4 different secretory groups. We hereby present a review of the current knowledge concerning HMOs, their metabolism and main biological functions.

  15. Structural analysis of oligosaccharide-alditols released by reductive beta-elimination from oviducal mucins of Rana dalmatina.

    PubMed

    Morelle, W; Guyétant, R; Strecker, G

    1998-01-01

    The O-linked oligosaccharides of the jelly coat surrounding the eggs of Rana dalmantina were released by alkaline borohydride treatment. Low-molecular-mass, monosialyl oligosaccharide-alditols were isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and fractionated by consecutive normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a silica-based alkylamine column. The structures of the oligosaccharide-alditols were determined by 400-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis. The five structures were identified range in size from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides, possessing a core consisting of Gal(beta 1-3)GalNAc-ol (core type 1). Novel oligosaccharide-alditols are: [formula: see text] The carbohydrate chains isolated from Rana dalmatina are different from those found in other amphibian species, in which the presence of species-specific material has been characterized. Since the role of carbohydrates appears more and more apparent during the fertilization process, the biodiversity of the O-linked oligosaccharides could support such a biological role.

  16. Subcutaneous administration of sodium alginate oligosaccharides prevents salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chikako; Shida, Yui; Yamane, Yuki; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Midori; Huse, Naomi; Ebisawa, Kaori; Kameda, Yuki; Nishi, Ayaka; Du, DongDong; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Murota, Itsuki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of antihypertensive effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides, which are enzymatic products of high-molecular-weight natural alginate from seaweeds, in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Dahl S rats fed a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet were subcutaneously administered sodium alginate oligosaccharides (60 mg/day using a continuous osmotic mini-pump) for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using the tail-cuff method, and we determined the influence of the alginate treatment on the metabolism of sodium by measuring sodium excretions in the feces and urine. SBP increased in an age-dependent manner in the untreated Dahl S rats. Sodium alginate oligosaccharide treatment via the subcutaneous route almost completely abolished salt-induced hypertension in Dahl S rats fed a high-salt diet. The level of fecal or urinary sodium excretion did not significantly change during the treatment period with the alginate oligosaccharides. The reduction in SBP rapidly recovered after cessation of the treatment. Moreover, the level of urinary protein excretion was lower in the treated Dahl S rats than in the untreated rats during the experimental period. Our results suggest that sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate salt-induced hypertension in Dahl S rats not through reducing salt absorption, but probably through a direct action on vascular vessels.

  17. Separation of anionic oligosaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1986-10-01

    The authors have developed methods for rapid fractionation of anionic oligosaccharides containing sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ion-exchange HPLC on amine-bearing columns (Micropak AX-10 and AX-5) at pH 4.0 is utilized to separate anionic oligosaccharides bearing zero, one, two, three, or four charges, independent of the identity of the anionic moieties (sulfate and/or sialic acid). Ion-exchange HPLC at pH 1.7 allows separation of neutral, mono-, di-, and tetrasialylated, monosulfated, and disulfated oligosaccharides. Oligosaccharides containing three sialic acid residues and those bearing one each of sulfate and sialic acid, however, coelute at pH 1.7. Since the latter two oligosaccharide species separate at pH 4.0, analysis at pH 4.0 followed by analysis at pH 1.7 can be utilized to completely fractionate complex mixtures of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides. Ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC has previously been shown to separate anionic oligosaccharides on the basis of net carbohydrate content (size). In this study they demonstrate the utility of ion-suppression amine adsorption HPLC for resolving sialylated oligosaccharide isomers which differ only in the linkages of sialic acid residues (..cap alpha..2,3 vs ..cap alpha..2,6) and/or location of ..cap alpha..2,3- and ..cap alpha..2,6-linked sialic acid moieties on the peripheral branches of oligosaccharides. These two methods can be used in tandem to separate oligosaccharides, both analytically and preparatively, based on their number, types, and linkages of anionic moieties.

  18. Accuracy and precision of thickness determination from position-averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns using a single-parameter metric.

    PubMed

    Pollock, J A; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-10-01

    Position-averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns are formed by averaging the transmission diffraction pattern while scanning an atomically-fine electron probe across a sample. Visual comparison between experimental and simulated patterns is increasingly being used for sample thickness determination. We explore automating the comparison via a simple sum square difference metric. The thickness determination is shown to be accurate (i.e. the best-guess deduced thickness generally concurs with the true thickness), though factors such as noise, mistilt and inelastic scattering reduce the precision (i.e. increase the uncertainty range). Notably, the precision tends to be higher for smaller probe-forming aperture angles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards a bias-free filter routine to determine precipitation and evapotranspiration from high precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ande; Durner, Wolfgang; Schrader, Frederik; Groh, Jannis; Pütz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Weighing lysimeters are known to be the best means for a precise and unbiased measurement of water fluxes at the interface between the soil-plant system and the atmosphere. The measured data need to be filtered to separate evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation (P) from noise. Such filter routines apply typically two steps: (i) a low pass filter, like moving average, which is used to smooth noisy data, and (ii) a threshold filter to separate significant from insignificant mass changes. Recent developments of these filters have revealed and solved many problems regarding bias in the data processing. A remaining problem is that each change in flow direction is accompanied with a systematic flow underestimation due to the threshold scheme. In this contribution we show and analyze this systematic effect and propose a heuristic solution by introducing a so-called snap routine. The routine is calibrated and tested with synthetic flux data and applied to real data from a precision lysimeter for a 10-month period. We show that the absolute systematic effect is independent of the magnitude of a certain flux event. Thus, for small events, like dew or rime formation, the relative error is highest and can be in the same order of magnitude as the flux itself. The heuristic snap routine effectively overcomes these problems and yields an almost unbiased representation of the real signal.

  20. High-precision atmospheric parameter and abundance determination of massive stars, and consequences for stellar and Galactic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert; Irrgang, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The derivation of high precision/accuracy parameters and chemical abundances of massive stars is of utmost importance to the fields of stellar evolution and Galactic chemical evolution. We concentrate on the study of OB-type stars near the main sequence and their evolved progeny, the BA-type supergiants, covering masses of ~6 to 25 solar masses and a range in effective temperature from ~8000 to 35 000 K. The minimization of the main sources of systematic errors in the atmospheric model computation, the observed spectra and the quantitative spectral analysis play a critical role in the final results. Our self-consistent spectrum analysis technique employing a robust non-LTE line formation allows precise atmospheric parameters of massive stars to be derived, achieving 1σ-uncertainties as low as 1% in effective temperature and ~0.05-0.10 dex in surface gravity. Consequences on the behaviour of the chemical elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are discussed here in the context of massive star evolution and Galactic chemical evolution, showing tight relations covered in previous work by too large statistical and systematic uncertainties. The spectral analysis of larger star samples, like from the upcoming Gaia-ESO survey, may benefit from these findings.

  1. Multifunctional fructans and raffinose family oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    den Ende, Wim Van

    2013-01-01

    Fructans and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are the two most important classes of water-soluble carbohydrates in plants. Recent progress is summarized on their metabolism (and regulation) and on their functions in plants and in food (prebiotics, antioxidants). Interest has shifted from the classic inulin-type fructans to more complex fructans. Similarly, alternative RFOs were discovered next to the classic RFOs. Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of structure–function relationships among different kinds of plant fructan metabolizing enzymes. This helps to understand their evolution from (invertase) ancestors, and the evolution and role of so-called “defective invertases.” Both fructans and RFOs can act as reserve carbohydrates, membrane stabilizers and stress tolerance mediators. Fructan metabolism can also play a role in osmoregulation (e.g., flower opening) and source–sink relationships. Here, two novel emerging roles are highlighted. First, fructans and RFOs may contribute to overall cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by specific ROS scavenging processes in the vicinity of organellar membranes (e.g., vacuole, chloroplasts). Second, it is hypothesized that small fructans and RFOs act as phloem-mobile signaling compounds under stress. It is speculated that such underlying antioxidant and oligosaccharide signaling mechanisms contribute to disease prevention in plants as well as in animals and in humans. PMID:23882273

  2. Analysis of Milk Oligosaccharides by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lauren D; Ruhaak, L Renee; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a highly abundant constituent in human milk, and its protective and prebiotic properties have attracted considerable attention. HMOs have been shown to directly and indirectly benefit the overall health of the infant due to a number of functions including serving as a beneficial food for gut bacteria, block to pathogens, and aiding in brain development. Researchers are currently exploring whether these structures may act as possible disease and nutrition biomarkers. Because of this, rapid-throughput methods are desired to investigate biological activity in large patient sets. We have optimized a rapid-throughput protocol to analyze human milk oligosaccharides using micro-volumes of human breast milk for nutritional biomarkers. This method may additionally be applied to other biological fluid substrates such as plasma, urine, and feces. The protocol involves lipid separation via centrifugation, protein precipitation using ethanol, alditol reduction with sodium borohydride, and a final solid-phase extraction purification step using graphitized carbon cartridges. Samples are analyzed using HPLC-Chip/TOF-MS and data filtered on Agilent MassHunter using an in-house library. Individual structural identification is matched against a previously developed HMO library using accurate mass and retention time. Using this method will allow in-depth characterization and profiling of HMOs in large patient sets, and will ease the process of discovering significant nutritional biomarkers in human milk.

  3. A rationally engineered yeast pyruvyltransferase Pvg1p introduces sialylation-like properties in neo-human-type complex oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Yoshinaga, Sho; Yoritsune, Ken-Ichi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Nakakita, Shin-Ichi; Kanekiyo, Miho; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2016-05-19

    Pyruvylation onto the terminus of oligosaccharide, widely seen from prokaryote to eukaryote, confers negative charges on the cell surface and seems to be functionally similar to sialylation, which is found at the end of human-type complex oligosaccharide. However, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying pyruvylation have not been clarified well. Here, we first determined the crystal structure of fission yeast pyruvyltransferase Pvg1p at a resolution of 2.46 Å. Subsequently, by combining molecular modeling with mutational analysis of active site residues, we obtained a Pvg1p mutant (Pvg1p(H168C)) that efficiently transferred pyruvyl moiety onto a human-type complex glycopeptide. The resultant pyruvylated human-type complex glycopeptide recognized similar lectins on lectin arrays as the α2,6-sialyl glycopeptides. This newly-generated pyruvylation of human-type complex oligosaccharides would provide a novel method for glyco-bioengineering.

  4. A rationally engineered yeast pyruvyltransferase Pvg1p introduces sialylation-like properties in neo-human-type complex oligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Yoshinaga, Sho; Yoritsune, Ken-ichi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Kanekiyo, Miho; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvylation onto the terminus of oligosaccharide, widely seen from prokaryote to eukaryote, confers negative charges on the cell surface and seems to be functionally similar to sialylation, which is found at the end of human-type complex oligosaccharide. However, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying pyruvylation have not been clarified well. Here, we first determined the crystal structure of fission yeast pyruvyltransferase Pvg1p at a resolution of 2.46 Å. Subsequently, by combining molecular modeling with mutational analysis of active site residues, we obtained a Pvg1p mutant (Pvg1pH168C) that efficiently transferred pyruvyl moiety onto a human-type complex glycopeptide. The resultant pyruvylated human-type complex glycopeptide recognized similar lectins on lectin arrays as the α2,6-sialyl glycopeptides. This newly-generated pyruvylation of human-type complex oligosaccharides would provide a novel method for glyco-bioengineering. PMID:27194449

  5. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (< 1mm/a), but an extensive use of its geopotentials (mining, groundwater usage, oil extraction, geothermal energy) inducing larger surface displacements. To assess the geohazards in the URG area, we aim to provide a map of the current 3D surface displacements with high precision and high spatial resolution. The InSAR and leveling data, and the location of permanent GNSS sites primarily analyzed for the horizontal velocity field, are displayed in Fig. 1. Precise levelings have been carried out by the surveying authorities of Germany, France and Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in

  6. Precision Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radius, Marcie; And Others

    The manual provides information for precision measurement (counting of movements per minute of a chosen activity) of achievement in special education students. Initial sections give guidelines for the teacher, parent, and student to follow for various methods of charting behavior. It is explained that precision measurement is a way to measure the…

  7. Inhibition of N-linked oligosaccharide trimming does not interfere with surface expression of certain integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, B; Matlin, K; Bause, E; Legler, G; Peyrieras, N; Ploegh, H

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 1-deoxynojirimycin (dNM) and 1-deoxymannojirimycin (dMM), inhibitors of oligosaccharide trimming glucosidase I and mannosidase I, respectively, on the biosynthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, influenza virus hemagglutinin, and human class I histocompatibility antigens were investigated. Although the oligosaccharides of these membrane glycoproteins were greatly altered, neither dNM nor dMM interferred with their surface expression, as determined by a variety of assays, including accessibility to proteases and antibodies; neither did these drugs inhibit production of infectious virus particles. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6232135

  8. Precise and direct determination of the elastic constants of a cylinder with a length equal to its diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, F. J.; Gascón, F.; Bayón, A.

    2000-06-01

    A cylinder made of a homogeneous isotropic material and with a length equal to its diameter is excited by axial percussion. Its axial displacement is detected by speckle interferometry. The two lowest frequencies, the first symmetric mode and first antisymmetric mode, are compared with the corresponding nondimensional natural frequencies, calculated to six significant figures using the Ritz method for 51 values of Poisson's ratio. The values of both dynamic elastic constants (shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) are found based on the quotient of the measured frequencies by using a table that is given. The method requires only one experiment and a simple calculator. The origin of the uncertainties is analyzed to improve the method's precision. The systematic uncertainty of the results shows relative values of 0.23% for shear modulus and 0.59% for Poisson's ratio. The values of the elastic constants calculated for a stainless steel test piece are compared with the values obtained by other methods.

  9. Precision determination of the πN scattering lengths and the charged πNN coupling constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, T. E. O.; Loiseau, B.; Thomas, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    We critically evaluate the isovector GMO sumrule for the charged πNN coupling constant using recent precision data from π-p and π-d atoms and with careful attention to systematic errors. From the π-d scattering length we deduce the pion-proton scattering lengths 1/2(aπ-p + aπ-n) = (-20 +/- 6(statistic)+/-10 (systematic) .10-4m-1πc and 1/2(aπ-p - aπ-n) = (903 +/- 14) . 10-4m-1πc. From this a direct evaluation gives g2c(GMO)/4π = 14.20 +/- 0.07 (statistic)+/-0.13(systematic) or f2c/4π = 0.0786 +/- 0.0008.

  10. Phospho-oligosaccharide dependent phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Puerta, J; Mato, J M; Alemany, S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of insulin on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation has been shown to be mimicked by a phospho-oligosaccharide in intact adipocytes. We demonstrate that the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to intact adipocytes enhances the phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase in the same tryptic peptide as insulin does. The addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to an adipocyte extract also results in an increase in ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation but in a different site than that observed in intact cells. The phospho-oligosaccharide-dependent incorporation of phosphate into ATP citrate lyase in intact cells is resistant to isopropanol and acetic acid, but the phosphoenzyme phosphorylated in cell extracts is acid labile. In cell extracts, the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide markedly inhibits ATP hydrolysis, which may explain the effect of this molecule on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation in broken cells. These results support the hypothesis that this phospho-oligosaccharide mediates some of the effects of insulin on protein phosphorylation. They also indicate that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results obtained by adding phospho-oligosaccharide to broken cell preparations.

  11. Structural analysis of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of cholinesterases. N-linked carbohydrates of cholinesterases

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Doctor, B.P.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases are serine esterases that hydrolyse choline esters faster than other substrates. They are highly glycosylated proteins with up to 24% of their molecular weight constituted of carbohydrates. Here we report the results of our studies on the glycosylation of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase (FBS AChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (Eq BChE). Analysis of the monosaccharide content of the two enzymes indicated that Eq BChE contained 520 nmoles of monosaccharide/mg protein, as compared to 1290 nmoles/mg protein for Eq BChE. Both enzymes contained mannose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid. Fucose was present in Eq BChE only. The structures of the two major oligosaccharides from FBS AChE and one major oligosaccharide from Eq BChE were determined and found to be very similar except that one of the oligosaccharides from FBS AChE contained a galactose alphal-3 galactose betal-4-determinant which has been identified as a potentially immunogenic determinant.

  12. Breakthrough in orbit determination of a binary. - In expectation of astrometric observations with high precision such as VERA and JASMINE -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Hideki

    2006-11-01

    There exists a very classical inverse problem regarding orbit determination of a binary system: "when an orbital plane of two bodies is inclined with respect to the line of sight, observables are their positions projected onto a celestial sphere. How do we determine the orbital elements from observations?" A "complete exact solution" has been found. It is reviewed with some related topics.

  13. Precise Tracking of the Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiters by Same-Beam Interferometry. Part 2: Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Border, J. S.; Nandi, S.; Zukor, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    A new radio metric positioning technique has demonstrated improved orbit determination accuracy for the Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiter orbiters. The new technique, known as Same-Beam Interferometry (SBI), is applicable to the positioning of multiple planetary rovers, landers, and orbiters which may simultaneously be observed in the same beamwidth of Earth-based radio antennas. Measurements of carrier phase are differenced between spacecraft and between receiving stations to determine the plane-of-sky components of the separation vector(s) between the spacecraft. The SBI measurements complement the information contained in line-of-sight Doppler measurements, leading to improved orbit determination accuracy. Orbit determination solutions have been obtained for a number of 48-hour data arcs using combinations of Doppler, differenced-Doppler, and SBI data acquired in the spring of 1991. Orbit determination accuracy is assessed by comparing orbit solutions from adjacent data arcs. The orbit solution differences are shown to agree with expected orbit determination uncertainties. The results from this demonstration show that the orbit determination accuracy for Magellan obtained by using Doppler plus SBI data is better than the accuracy achieved using Doppler plus differenced-Doppler by a factor of four and better than the accuracy achieved using only Doppler by a factor of eighteen. The orbit determination accuracy for Pioneer Venus Orbiter using Doppler plus SBI data is better than the accuracy using only Doppler data by 30 percent.

  14. Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, N. S.; Bouman, C.; Horstwood, M. S.; Parrish, R. R.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate (‰) uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 µm diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), and more recently using secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS). Multicollector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can offer higher productivity compared to these techniques, but is traditionally limited by low efficiency of analyte utilisation (sample through to ion detection). Samples can either be introduced as a solution, or sampled directly from solid using laser ablation. Large multi-isotope ratio datasets can help identify provenance and intended use of anthropogenic uranium and other nuclear materials [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus (Bremen, Germany) with ‘Jet Interface’ option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity. An analyte utilisation of c. 4% has previously been reported for uranium [2]. This high-sensitivity configuration utilises a dry high-capacity (100 m3/h) interface pump, special skimmer and sampler cones and a desolvating nebuliser system. Coupled with new acquisition methodologies, this sensitivity enhancement makes possible the analysis of micro-particles and small sample volumes at higher precision levels than previously achieved. New, high-performance, full-size and compact discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEM) exhibit excellent stability and linearity over a large dynamic range and can be configured to simultaneously measure all of the uranium isotopes. Options for high abundance-sensitivity filters on two ion beams are also available, e.g. for 236U and 234U. Additionally, amplifiers with high ohm (1012 - 1013) feedback resistors have been developed to

  15. Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cholerton, Brenna; Larson, Eric B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Mata, Ignacio F.; Keene, C. Dirk; Flanagan, Margaret; Crane, Paul K.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Three key elements to precision medicine are stratification by risk, detection of pathophysiological processes as early as possible (even before clinical presentation), and alignment of mechanism of action of intervention(s) with an individual's molecular driver(s) of disease. Used for decades in the management of some rare diseases and now gaining broad currency in cancer care, a precision medicine approach is beginning to be adapted to cognitive impairment and dementia. This review focuses on the application of precision medicine to address the clinical and biological complexity of two common neurodegenerative causes of dementia: Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:26724389

  16. The importance of precision radar tracking data for the determination of density and winds from the high-altitude inflatable sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Michel, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of inflatable sphere measurements obtained during the Energy Budget and MAP/WINE campaigns led to questions concerning the precision of the MPS-36 radar used for tracking the spheres; the compatibility of the sphere program with the MPS-36 radar tracking data; and the oversmoothing of derived parameters at high altitudes. Simulations, with winds having sinusoidal vertical wavelengths, were done with the sphere program (HIROBIN) to determine the resolving capability of various filters. It is concluded that given a precision radar and a perfectly performing sphere, the HIROBIN filters can be adjusted to provide small-scale perturbation information to 70 km (i.e., sinusoidal wavelengths of 2 km). It is recommended that the HIROBIN program be modified to enable it to use a variable length filter, that adjusts to fall velocity and accelerations to provide wind data with small perturbations.

  17. Precise determination of nonlinear function of ion mobility for explosives and drugs at high electric fields for microchip FAIMS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dapeng; Wang, Yonghuan; Li, Lingfeng; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2015-01-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) separates ions by utilizing the characteristics of nonlinear ion mobility at high and low electric fields. Accurate ion discrimination depends on the precise solution of nonlinear relationships and is essential for accurate identification of ion species for applications. So far, all the nonlinear relationships of ion mobility obtained are based at low electric fields (E/N <65 Td). Microchip FAIMS (μ-FAIMS) with small dimensions has high electric field up to E/N = 250 Td, making the approximation methods and conclusions for nonlinear relationships inappropriate for these systems. In this paper, we deduced nonlinear functions based on the first principle and a general model. Furthermore we considered the hydrodynamics of gas flow through microchannels. We then calculated the specific alpha coefficients for cocaine, morphine, HMX, TNT and RDX, respectively, based on their FAIMS spectra measured by μ-FAIMS system at ultra-high fields up to 250 Td. The results show that there is no difference in nonlinear alpha functions obtained by the approximation and new method at low field (<120 Td), but the error induced by using approximation method increases monotonically with the increase in field, and could be as much as 30% at a field of 250 Td.

  18. Double-resonance spectroscopy of the high Rydberg states of HCO. I. A precise determination of the adiabatic ionization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Eric; Grant, Edward R.

    1995-12-01

    We report the first spectroscopic observation of the high Rydberg states of HCO. Individual lines in a system of vibrationally autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the (010) state of HCO+ are rotationally labeled in a double-resonance excitation scheme that uses resolved levels in the (010) A' vibronic component of the 3pπ 2Π Rydberg state as intermediates. Observed high-Rydberg structure extends from the adiabatic ionization threshold—which falls just below the principal quantum number of 12 in the vibrationally excited series—to the (010) vertical threshold. Elements of a single series extending from n=12 to 50, for which the total angular momentumless spin can be assigned as N=1, are extrapolated to obtain a vertical convergence limit with respect to the 3pπ 2Π(010)A' N'=0 intermediate state of 20 296.9±0.3 cm-1. Referring this transition energy to the ground state, and subtracting the precisely known fundamental bending frequency of the cation, establishes the adiabatic ionization potential corresponding to the transition from HCO 2A'(000) J″=0, K″=0 to HCO+ J+=0 1Σ+(000). The result is 65 735.9±0.5 cm-1 or 8.150 22±0.000 06 eV.

  19. Precisely determined the surface displacement by the ionospheric mitigation using the L-band SAR Interferometry over Mt.Baekdu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Jin; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Park, Sun-Cheon; Lee, Duk Kee

    2016-04-01

    Mt. Baekdu (Changbaishan in Chinese) is located on the border between China and North Korea. It has recently attracted the attention of volcanic unrest during 2002-2005. Many researchers have applied geophysical approaches to detect magma system of beneath Mt.Baekdu such as leveling, Global Positioning System (GPS), gases analysis, seismic analysis, etc. Among them, deformation measuring instruments are important tool to evaluate for volcanism. In contrast to GPS or other deformation measuring instruments, Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has provided high resolution of 2-D surface displacement from remote sensed data. However, Mt. Baekdu area has disturbed by decorrelation on interferogram because of wide vegetation coverage. To overcome this limitation, L-band system of long wavelength is more effective to detect surface deformation. In spite of this advantage, L-band can surfer from more severe ionospheric phase distortions than X- or C- band system because ionospheric phase distortions are inverse proportion to the radar frequency. Recently, Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI) based ionospheric phase distortions mitigation method have proposed and investigated. We have applied this technique to the Mt.Baekdu area to measure surface deformation precisely using L-band Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1(ALOS-1) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar(PALSAR) data acquiring from 2006 to 2011.

  20. Quantitative Thin-Film X-ray Microanalysis by STEM/HAADF: Statistical Analysis for Precision and Accuracy Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, Aldo; Balboni, Roberto; Rosa, Rodolfo

    2006-07-01

    Silicon-germanium thin films have been analyzed by EDS microanalysis in a field emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM) equipped with a high angular dark-field detector (STEM/HAADF). Several spectra have been acquired in the same homogeneous area of the cross-sectioned sample by drift-corrected linescan acquisitions. The Ge concentrations and the local film thickness have been obtained by using a previously described Monte Carlo based “two tilt angles” method. Although the concentrations are in excellent agreement with the known values, the resulting confidence intervals are not as good as expected from the precision in beam positioning and tilt angle position and readout offered by our state-of-the-art microscope. The Gaussian shape of the SiK[alpha] and GeK[alpha] X-ray intensities allows one to use the parametric bootstrap method of statistics, whereby it becomes possible to perform the same quantitative analysis in sample regions of different compositions and thicknesses, but by doing only one measurement at the two angles.

  1. Quantitative thin-film x-ray microanalysis by STEM/HAADF: statistical analysis for precision and accuracy determination.

    PubMed

    Armigliato, Aldo; Balboni, Roberto; Rosa, Rodolfo

    2006-08-01

    Silicon-germanium thin films have been analyzed by EDS microanalysis in a field emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM) equipped with a high angular dark-field detector (STEM/HAADF). Several spectra have been acquired in the same homogeneous area of the cross-sectioned sample by drift-corrected linescan acquisitions. The Ge concentrations and the local film thickness have been obtained by using a previously described Monte Carlo based "two tilt angles" method. Although the concentrations are in excellent agreement with the known values, the resulting confidence intervals are not as good as expected from the precision in beam positioning and tilt angle position and readout offered by our state-of-the-art microscope. The Gaussian shape of the SiKalpha and GeKalpha X-ray intensities allows one to use the parametric bootstrap method of statistics, whereby it becomes possible to perform the same quantitative analysis in sample regions of different compositions and thicknesses, but by doing only one measurement at the two angles.

  2. Micrometer-Precise Determination of the Thin Electrolyte Layer of a Spectroelectrochemical Cell by Microelectrode Approach Curves.

    PubMed

    Hiltrop, Dennis; Masa, Justus; Botz, Alexander J R; Lindner, Armin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin

    2017-03-31

    A spectroelectrochemical cell is presented that allows investigations of electrochemical reactions by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The electrode holder for the working (WE), counter and reference electrode as mounted in the IR spectrometer cause the formation of a thin electrolyte layer between the internal reflection element (IRE) and the surface of the WE. The thickness of this thin electrolyte layer (dTL) was estimated by performing a scanning electrochemical microscopy-(SECM) like approach of a Pt microelectrode (ME), which was leveled with the WE toward the IRE surface. The precise lowering of the ME/WE plane toward the IRE was enabled by a micrometer screw. The approach curve was recorded in negative feedback mode of SECM and revealed the contact point of the ME and WE on the IRE, which was used as reference point to perform the electro-oxidation of ethanol over a drop-casted Pd/NCNT catalyst on the WE at different thin-layer thicknesses by cyclic voltammetry. The reaction products were detected in the liquid electrolyte by IR spectroscopy, and the effect of variations in dTL on the current densities and IR spectra were analyzed and discussed. The obtained data identify dTL as an important variable in thin-layer experiments with electrochemical reactions and FTIR readout.

  3. Branching N-linked oligosaccharides in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Korczak, B; Goss, P; Fernandez, B; Baker, M; Dennis, J W

    1994-01-01

    Tumor progression in rodent and human tumors is commonly associated with changes in glycoprotein glycosylation, in particular increased beta 1-6GlcNAc-branching, a regulatory step in expression of polylactosamine and extended-chain Lewis antigens. Loss of the branched oligosaccharides in murine tumor cells either due to somatic mutation, or treatment of the cells with the oligosaccharide processing inhibitor swainsonine, blocks tumor cells invasion in vitro and reduces solid tumor growth in vivo. Swainsonine and other inhibitors of N-linked oligosaccharide processing may be useful anti-cancer drugs, a premise which has begun to be tested in humans.

  4. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Typing of blood-group antigens on neutral oligosaccharides by negative-ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Yibing; Mulloy, Barbara; Zhan, Xiaobei; Chai, Wengang

    2013-06-18

    Blood-group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, for example, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report, we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B-, and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2 and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Le(a), Le(x), Le(b), and Le(y) determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established, we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and (0,2)A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions.

  6. Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides with blood-group A and H activity isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A V; D'Arcy, S M; Donoghue, C M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated the structures of 11 neutral oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin by alkaline borohydride treatment and isolated by h.p.l.c. One hexa-, one penta-, three tetra-, four tri- and two di-saccharides containing core types 1, 2, 3 or 4 were obtained. We report their structures, determined by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., along with their approximate molar ratios. Only three of these oligosaccharides have previously been reported in this source. Of the new oligosaccharides, one contains the blood-group-A antigenic determinant, two contain the blood-group-H type 2 determinant, while another contains the blood-group-H type 3 determinant. The oligosaccharide GlcNAc beta (1----6)[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAcol, although previously found as a core structure, has been isolated here as a novel trisaccharide. PMID:1718265

  7. Precise determination of the 1s Lamb shift in hydrogen-like lead and gold using microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kiselev, O.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.; Meier, J. P.; Scholz, P.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields is one scope which has not yet been tested experimentally with sufficient accuracy to really determine whether the perturbative approach is valid. One sensitive test is the determination of the 1s Lamb shift in highly-charged very heavy ions. The 1s Lamb shift of hydrogen-like lead (Pb81+) and gold (Au78+) has been determined using the novel detector concept of silicon microcalorimeters for the detection of hard x-rays. The results of (260+/- 53) eV for lead and (211+/- 42) eV for gold are within the error bars in good agreement with theoretical predictions. To our knowledge, for hydrogen-like lead, this represents the most accurate determination of the 1s Lamb shift.

  8. Precise Determination of the 1s Lamb Shift in Hydrogen-Like Lead and Gold Using Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kiselev, O.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields is one scope which has not yet been tested experimentally with sufficient accuracy to really determine whether the perturbative approach is valid. One sensitive test is the determination of the 1s Lamb shift in highly-charged very heavy ions. The 1s Lamb shift of hydrogen-like lead (Pb81+) and gold (Au78+) has been determined using the novel detector concept of silicon microcalorimeters for the detection of hard x-rays. The results of (260 +/- 53) eV for lead and (211 +/- 42) eV for gold are within the error bars in good agreement with theoretical predictions. To our knowledge, for hydrogen-like lead, this represents the most accurate determination of the 1s Lamb shift.

  9. An improved method of high-precision determination of Δ(17)O of CO2 by catalyzed exchange with O2 using hot platinum.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Sasadhar; Bhattacharya, S K; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2016-01-15

    CO2 and O2 can exchange their oxygen isotopes rapidly in the presence of hot (~670 °C) platinum and this has led to a method for determining the δ(17)O value of a CO2 sample. We have improved the method to achieve a precision of 0.008 ‰ (1-σ standard deviation) in the determination of δ(17)O values. Such high precision is essential to identify the stratospheric component in tropospheric CO2 and use it for global carbon flux studies. The crucial issue in the accurate determination of the δ(17)O value is estimation of a correction factor, which depends on the amount ratio CO2/O2. An attempt was also made to investigate the mechanism of exchange with their controlling parameters. The oxygen isotopes of a CO2 sample gas are exchanged with those of an appropriate amount of tank O2 in the presence of hot platinum. The pre-exchange CO2 and O2 gas samples as well as the post-exchange O2 sample are analyzed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A mixing model was developed involving the δ(18)O value of the CO2 and δ(17)O and δ(18)O values of pre- and post-exchange O2 to obtain the δ(17)O value of the CO2 sample. A correction to the measured value was determined to obtain the actual value with high accuracy and precision. To obtain a precision better than 0.01 ‰ requires the amount ratio CO2/O2 to be controlled to better than ~15 %. We also find that the oxygen isotopes are nearly homogeneously distributed between the O2 and the CO2 molecules. In addition, determination of the (16) O(13)C(18)O/(16)O(12)C(16)O isotopologue ratio in the CO2 shows that the abundance of (16)O(13)C(18)O is close to that expected for random partitioning of the isotopes among the CO2 isotopologues. The isotopic scrambling between O2 and CO2 that occurs on hot platinum allows one to accurately determine the δ(17)O values of CO2 through isotopic analysis of O2. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Automated synthesis of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides enables characterization of antibodies that recognize plant cell wall glycans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Deborah; Schuhmacher, Frank; Geissner, Andreas; Seeberger, Peter H; Pfrengle, Fabian

    2015-04-07

    Monoclonal antibodies that recognize plant cell wall glycans are used for high-resolution imaging, providing important information about the structure and function of cell wall polysaccharides. To characterize the binding epitopes of these powerful molecular probes a library of eleven plant arabinoxylan oligosaccharides was produced by automated solid-phase synthesis. Modular assembly of oligoarabinoxylans from few building blocks was enabled by adding (2-naphthyl)methyl (Nap) to the toolbox of orthogonal protecting groups for solid-phase synthesis. Conjugation-ready oligosaccharides were obtained and the binding specificities of xylan-directed antibodies were determined on microarrays. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bacteroides in the Infant Gut Consume Milk Oligosaccharides via Mucus-Utilization Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, A.; Barboza, M.; Sonnenburg, E.D.; Pudlo, N.; Martens, E.C.; Desai, P.; Lebrilla, C.B.; Weimer, B.C.; Mills, D.A.; German, J.B.; Sonnenburg, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Newborns are colonized with an intestinal microbiota shortly after birth but the factors governing the retention and abundance of specific microbial lineages are unknown. Nursing infants consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) that pass undigested to the distal gut where they may be digested by microbes. We determined that the prominent neonate gut residents, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides fragilis, induce the same genes during HMO consumption that are used to harvest host mucus glycans, which are structurally similar to HMOs. Lacto-N-neotetraose, a specific HMO component, selects for HMO-adapted species such as Bifidobacterium infantis, which cannot use mucus, and provides a selective advantage to B. infantis in vivo when bi-associated with B. thetaiotaomicron in the gnotobiotic mouse gut. This indicates that the complex oligosaccharide mixture within HMOs attracts both mutualistic mucus-adapted species and HMO-adapted bifidobacteria to the infant intestine that likely facilitate both milk and future solid food digestion. PMID:22036470

  12. Chemical characterization of the oligosaccharides in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) milk.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Sato, Harumi; Munakata, Jiro; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Saito, Tadao; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M

    2002-07-01

    Carbohydrates were extracted from the milk of a beluga, Delphinopterus leucas (family Odontoceti), and two Minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Family Mysticeti), sampled late in their respective lactation periods. Free oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration and then neutral oligosaccharides were purified by preparative thin layer chromatography and gel filtration, while acidic oligosaccharides were purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were determined by 1H-NMR. In one of the Minke whale milk samples, lactose was a dominant saccharide, with Fuc(alpha1-2)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(2'-fucosyllactose), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(lacto-N-neotetraose), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(A-tetrasaccharide), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (para lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (LST c) and Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose) also being found in the milk. The second Minke whale sample contained similar amounts of lactose, 2'-fucosyllactose and A-tetrasaccharide, but no free sialyl oligosaccharides. Sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose and sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose are novel oligosaccharides which have not been previously reported from any mammalian milk or colostrum. These and other oligosaccharides of Minke whale milk may have biological significance as anti-infection factors, protecting the suckling young against bacteria and viruses. The lactose of Minke whale milk could be a source of energy for them. The beluga whale milk contained trace amounts of Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), but the question of whether it contained free lactose could not be clarified. Therefore

  13. [Algal oligosaccharides ameliorate osteoporosis via up-regulation of parathyroid hormone 1-84 and vascular endothelial growth factor].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Haiya; Fang, Ningyuan

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether algal oligosac- charide~ affects the levels of parathyroid hormone 1-84 (PTH1-84) and vascular endothelial growth fac- tor (VEGF). An osteoporosis rat model was estab- lished via bilateral ovariectomy. The model rats were fed algal oligosaccharides (molecular weights: 600-1, 200 Da) for 4 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was then measured. MG-63 human osteo- blastic cells were treated with algal oligosaccha- rides. The expression of PTH1-84 and VEGF was then examined. Oligosaccharide-treated cells were transfected with PTH1-84 short hairpin RNA (shR- NA), VEGF shRNA, and PTH1-84-VEGF small interfer- ing RNA (siRNA). The growth rates were then com- pared between transfected and non-transfected Algal oligosaccharides increased the BMD of the osteoporosis rat model compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05). When MG-63 cells were treated with algal oligosaccharides, the growth rate increased by 25% compared with the control group at day 3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the ex- pression of P.TH84 and VEGF was. enhanced. Con- versey w hen tecells were tranfected with PTH84 shRNA, VEGF shRNA, or PTH1-84-VEGF siR- NA, the growth rate was decreased by 17%, 35% and 70%, respectively, compared with controls at day 3 (P < 0.05). Algal oligosaccharides ameliorate osteoporosis via up-regulation of PTH1-84 and VEGF. Algal oligosaccharides should be developed as a potential drug for osteoporosis treatment.

  14. Precise determination of the 1s Lamb Shift in hydrogen-like heavy ions at the ESR storage ring using microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kiselev, O.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.; Meier, J. P.; Scholz, P.

    2015-11-01

    The precise determination of the energy of the Lyman α1 and α2 lines in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. To improve the precision of such experiments, the new detector concept of microcalorimeters, which detect the temperature change of an absorber after an incoming particle or photon has deposited its energy as heat, is now exploited. The microcalorimeters for x-rays used in these experiments consist of arrays of silicon thermometers and x-ray absorbers made of high-Z material. With such detectors, a relative energy resolution of about 1 per mille is obtained in the energy regime of 50-100 keV. Two successful measurement campaigns to determine the 1s Lamb Shift in Pb81+ and Au78+ have been completed: a prototype array has been applied successfully for the determination of the 1s Lamb Shift of Pb81+ at the ESR storage ring at GSI in a first test experiment. Based on the results of this test, a full array with 32 pixels has been equipped and has recently been applied to determine the 1s Lamb Shift in Au78+ ions. The energy of the Lyman-α1 line agrees within error bars well with theoretical predictions. The obtained accuracy is already comparable to the best accuracy obtained with conventional germanium detectors for hydrogen-like uranium.

  15. Enhancing real-time precise point positioning with zenith troposphere delay products and the determination of corresponding tropospheric stochastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yibin; Peng, Wenjie; Xu, Chaoqian; Cheng, Shuyang

    2017-02-01

    By introducing two types of zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) products in precise point positioning (PPP), we developed the ZTD-corrected PPP and the ZTD-constrained PPP, both of them reduced the PPP convergence time. Both enhanced PPP methods are examined by global empirical ZTD models and regional ZTD corrections. For global ZTD models, we verified that ZTD-corrected PPP will deviate the positioning results, while ZTD-constrained PPP could produce unbiased estimations. Therefore, the latter is utilized to study the performance of global ZTD models (ITG, GPT2w, GZTD and UNB3m). After numerous experiments, we found that the performance of ZTD models was positively related to the real ZTD accuracy, and we proposed a universal tropospheric stochastic model 2SQR(9rms) which denotes double the square of nine times ZTD rms, to constrain ZTD in PPP. The proposed model subsequently was validated by real-time static and kinematic ZTD-constrained PPP on the premise that the ZTD rms on every station was known. Compared with traditional PPP, in static PPP, the number of improved stations is increased by 15.5 per cent (ITG), 14.4 per cent (GPT2w), 11.1 per cent (GZTD) and 8.3 per cent (UNB3m). For kinematic PPP, PPP constrained by ITG model still had the best performance, the number of improved stations is increased by 14.4 per cent, after 30 min of initialization time, 13.4 cm east, 13.4 cm north and 11.7 cm up positioning accuracy was obtained, compared with 15.3 cm east, 15.3 cm north and 14.3 cm up accuracy by traditional PPP. In addition, experiments using regional ZTD corrections to enhance real-time PPP showed that both ZTD-corrected PPP and ZTD-constrained PPP can notably reduce the convergence time on the vertical component (within 15 cm).

  16. New precise determination of the high temperature unusual temperature dependent thermopower of liquid divalent cadmium and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordanengo, B.; Ben Moussa, A.; Makradi, A.; Chaaba, H.; Gasser, J.-G.

    2000-04-01

    We do not know any precise measurement of the absolute thermopower (ATP) of liquid cadmium and zinc at high temperatures. For liquid cadmium, there are, in the literature, apparent contradictory results. Bath and Kliem and North and Wagner observed that the ATP increases with temperature between 350 °C and 650 °C, but Bradley observed the opposite behaviour between 600 °C and 750 °C. In this work we measured accurately the absolute thermopower of liquid cadmium from the melting point up to 900 °C. We find a maximum around 520 °C, and then the thermopower decreases down to a surprising negative value. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such an unusual behaviour is reported. Nevertheless, it is qualitatively consistent with all the authors mentioned and the apparent contradictory results should only be due to the different temperature ranges of measurements. Using the ATP expression from the Faber-Ziman formalism, we can fit very well the experimental absolute thermopower versus temperature curve with only one adjustable parameter. For this, we have considered that the temperature dependence of the ATP is dominated by the resistivity, and we have introduced the experimental resistivity temperature dependence in the ATP expression. The very good fitting quality demonstrates that our hypothesis is consistent. In contrast, the liquid zinc ATP only increases with temperature. Nevertheless, near 1100 °C, the highest temperature achieved, it shows saturation that may be an indication of a decrease at higher temperature. The same type of fitting gives also quite good results.

  17. Precise oxygen and hydrogen isotope determination in nanoliter quantities of speleothem inclusion water by cavity ring-down spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Ryu; Nakamoto, Masashi; Asami, Ryuji; Mishima, Satoru; Gibo, Masakazu; Masaka, Kosuke; Jin-Ping, Chen; Wu, Chung-Che; Chang, Yu-Wei; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Speleothem inclusion-water isotope compositions are a promising new climatic proxy, but their applicability is limited by their low content in water and by analytical challenges. We have developed a precise and accurate isotopic technique that is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). This method features a newly developed crushing apparatus, a refined sample extraction line, careful evaluation of the water/carbonate adsorption effect. After crushing chipped speleothem in a newly-developed crushing device, released inclusion water is purified and mixed with a limited amount of nitrogen gas in the extraction line for CRDS measurement. We have measured 50-260 nL of inclusion water from 77 to 286 mg of stalagmite deposits sampled from Gyokusen Cave, Okinawa Island, Japan. The small sample size requirement demonstrates that our analytical technique can offer high-resolution inclusion water-based paleoclimate reconstructions. The 1σ reproducibility for different stalagmites ranges from ±0.05 to 0.61‰ for δ18O and ±0.0 to 2.9‰ for δD. The δD vs. δ18O plot for inclusion water from modern stalagmites is consistent with the local meteoric water line. The 1000 ln α values based on calcite and fluid inclusion measurements from decades-old stalagmites are in agreement with the data from present-day farmed calcite experiment. Combination of coeval carbonate and fluid inclusion data suggests that past temperatures at 9-10 thousand years ago (ka) and 26 ka were 3.4 ± 0.7 °C and 8.2 ± 2.4 °C colder than at present, respectively.

  18. LC-MSn Analysis of Isomeric Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides Using a Chemical Derivatization Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rongrong; Pomin, Vitor H.; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2011-01-01

    Improved methods for structural analyses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are required to understand their functional roles in various biological processes. Major challenges in structural characterization of complex GAG oligosaccharides using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) include the accurate determination of the patterns of sulfation due to gas-phase losses of the sulfate groups upon collisional activation and inefficient on-line separation of positional sulfation isomers prior to MS/MS analyses. Here, a sequential chemical derivatization procedure including permethylation, desulfation, and acetylation was demonstrated to enable both on-line LC separation of isomeric mixtures of chondroitin sulfate (CS) oligosaccharides and accurate determination of sites of sulfation by MSn. The derivatized oligosaccharides have sulfate groups replaced with acetyl groups, which are sufficiently stable to survive MSn fragmentation and reflect the original sulfation patterns. A standard reversed-phase LC-MS system with a capillary C18 column was used for separation, and MSn experiments using collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed. Our results indicate that the combination of this derivatization strategy and MSn methodology enables accurate identification of the sulfation isomers of CS hexasaccharides with either saturated or unsaturated nonreducing ends. Moreover, derivatized CS hexasaccharide isomer mixtures become separable by LC-MS method due to different positions of acetyl modifications. PMID:21953261

  19. Primary structure determination of seven novel N-linked carbohydrate chains derived from hemocyanin of Lymnaea stagnalis. 3-O-methyl-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine as constituents of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides in an animal glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Van Kuik, J A; Sijbesma, R P; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Wood, E J

    1987-12-01

    Hemocyanin from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis is a high-molecular-mass copper-containing glyco-protein which functions as oxygen carrier in the hemolymph. To release the carbohydrate chains, the protein was digested by pronase followed by hydrazinolysis and reduction. The oligosaccharide-alditols were purified by gel permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel P-4, followed by HPLC on a Lichrosorb-NH2 column. Using 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy, in conjunction with sugar, methylation and deamination analysis, the following seven novel primary oligosaccharide structures could be unravelled. (Formula: see text).

  20. Verification on the use of the Inoue method for precisely determining glomerular filtration rate in Philippine pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magcase, M. J. D. J.; Duyan, A. Q.; Carpio, J.; Carbonell, C. A.; Trono, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to validate the Inoue method so that it would be the preferential choice in determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in Philippine pediatrics. The study consisted of 36 patients ranging from ages 2 months to 19 years old. The subjects used were those who were previously subjected to in-vitro method. The scintigrams of the invitro method was obtained and processed for split percentage uptake and for parameters needed to obtain Inoue GFR. The result of this paper correlates the Inoue GFR and In-vitro method (r = 0.926). Thus, Inoue method is a viable, simple, and practical technique in determining GFR in pediatric patients.

  1. High mannose oligosaccharide of phytohemagglutinin is attached to asparagine 12 and the modified oligosaccharide to asparagine 60. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, A.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    Phytohemagglutinin, the lectin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris, has a high mannose and a modified (fucosylated) oligosaccharide on each polypeptide. Fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography of tryptic digests of (/sup 3/H)fucose or (/sup 3/H)glucosamine labeled phytohemagglutinin, followed by amino acid sequencing of the isolated glycopeptides, shows that the high mannose oligosaccharide is attached to Asn/sup 12/ and the modified oligosaccharide to Asn /sup 60/ of the protein. In animal glycoproteins, high mannose chains are rarely found at the N-terminal side of complex chains.

  2. Determination of and compensation for wafer bow and warp in a scanning electron microscope requiring precise feature locating and variable tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Duane C.

    1990-06-01

    Precise and accurate feature positioning in SEMs is becoming more critical. Moving the stage to a predetermined location must be done with accuracy and precision that put the feature ofinterest in the field ofview at a magnification high enough to detect orrecognize the same feature. Ifthis is notdone, some sort ofsearch, either automatic ormanual must be performed. This may not only be bothersome, but detrimental to inspection or measurement throughput performance. Ultra precise stages - for example, those using laser interferometers or linear encoders - are capable of positioning precisions, if not accuracies, to 0. 1 micron. In both optical and SEM systems where inspection is normal to the plane ofthe waler(cailed zero tilt), precise locating of features is possible without serious attention being paid to the bow or warp of a wafer. From the SEMI Standards Manuals, it is seen that a 200 mm wafer may have up to 65 microns of bow. In optical lithography tools and optical inspection or measurement systems, a vacuum chuck may alter or reduce the bow. However, in the vacuum chamber of the SEM this technique does not work. The bow or warp remains. The problem occurs in going to a particular numerical address whenthe waferis tilted, ifthat numerical address was determined at some different tilt -themost probable, of course, being zero iilt. Tilting of the wafer will cause the initially observed feature to move through an arc of "unknown" extent (unknown because it is a function of the bow and the bow is not known at that point). A 60 degree tilt of awafer with 40 microns of bow can cause about 35 microns oflaten.l displacement of a feature from where it would be expected for a wafer with no bow. The effect of this displacement on detectability is discussed. Actual displacement measurements on a 125 mm wafer ait plotted. These plots are compared with those derived from measurements made by optical and SEM systems specially set up to measure bow magnitudes. Bow

  3. Applications of Mass Spectrometry to Structural Analysis of Marine Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Yinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Lili; Yu, Guangli

    2014-01-01

    Marine oligosaccharides have attracted increasing attention recently in developing potential drugs and biomaterials for their particular physical and chemical properties. However, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are very challenging for their structural complexity and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important technique for carbohydrate analysis by providing more detailed structural information, including molecular mass, sugar constituent, sequence, inter-residue linkage position and substitution pattern. This paper provides an overview of the structural analysis based on MS approaches in marine oligosaccharides, which are derived from some biologically important marine polysaccharides, including agaran, carrageenan, alginate, sulfated fucan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and GAG-like polysaccharides. Applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are mainly presented and the general applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are also outlined. Some technical challenges in the structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides by MS have also been pointed out. PMID:24983643

  4. Applications of mass spectrometry to structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lang, Yinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Lili; Yu, Guangli

    2014-06-30

    Marine oligosaccharides have attracted increasing attention recently in developing potential drugs and biomaterials for their particular physical and chemical properties. However, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are very challenging for their structural complexity and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important technique for carbohydrate analysis by providing more detailed structural information, including molecular mass, sugar constituent, sequence, inter-residue linkage position and substitution pattern. This paper provides an overview of the structural analysis based on MS approaches in marine oligosaccharides, which are derived from some biologically important marine polysaccharides, including agaran, carrageenan, alginate, sulfated fucan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and GAG-like polysaccharides. Applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are mainly presented and the general applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are also outlined. Some technical challenges in the structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides by MS have also been pointed out.

  5. Synbiotic matrices derived from plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A porous synbiotic matrix was prepared by lyophilization of alginate and pectin or fructan oligosaccharides and polysaccharides cross-linked with calcium. These synbiotic matrices were excellent physical structures to support the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (1426) and Lactobacillus reuteri (...

  6. Automated gravimetric sample pretreatment using an industrial robot for the high-precision determination of plutonium by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Watahiki, Masaru

    2008-06-01

    A robotized sample-preparation method for the determination of Pu, which is recovered by extraction reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is described. The automated system uses a six-axis industrial robot, whose motility is very fast, accurate, and flexible, installed in a glove box. The automation of the weighing and dilution steps enables operator-unattended sample pretreatment for the high-precision analysis of Pu in aqueous solutions. Using the developed system, the Pu concentration in a HNO(3) medium was successfully determined using a set of subsequent mass spectrometric measurements. The relative uncertainty in determining the Pu concentration by IDMS using this system was estimated to be less than 0.1% (k = 2), which is equal to that expected of a talented analyst. The operation time required was the same as that for a skilled operator.

  7. New Method for Determining Isotopic Values of Glutamic Acid and Phenylalanine for Estimation of Precise Trophic Position in Food Web Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, T.; Broek, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Amino Acids (CSI-AA) has emerged as a highly precise new method of determining trophic levels of both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Multiple studies have now shown that δ15N values for glutamic acid (Glu) and phenylalanine (Phe) can be coupled to provide extremely precise estimates of trophic position in diverse food web studies. The standard gas chromatography—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) approach is presently limited to a select number of labs since necessary equipment is both expensive and not widely accessible. Furthermore, typical GC-IRMS δ15N precision (±1‰) is significantly lower than usual bulk δ15N values (±0.1‰), thus presenting a considerable setback for precise trophic level calculations. In this study, we develop a new dual-column method to purify Glu and Phe using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phe is purified using an analytical scale reverse phase column embedded with anionic ion-pairing reagents and collected using automated fraction collection. Glu is separated from the non-polar amino acids using the same column and further purified using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) cation and anion-exchange column and collected via automated fraction collection. Isotopic analysis of the purified AAs is then conducted on an elemental analyzer—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). As a test of this method, we present and compare the trophic position of five marine organisms—cyanobacteria, deep-sea bamboo coral, juvenile and adult white sea bass, and harbor seal, calculated using Glu and Phe δ15N values produced by both GC-IRMS and our HPLC-EA-IRMS approach. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the HPLC-EA-IRMS method is a viable alternative to GC-IRMS, which should allow accurate trophic position estimates to be made by more researchers using more readily available instrumentation.

  8. Short communication: Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in fluid- and particle-associated rumen bacteria determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A C; Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Shaver, R D

    2014-01-01

    Microbial protein represents the majority of metabolizable protein absorbed by ruminant animals. Enhanced understanding of the AA digestibility of rumen microbes will improve estimates of metabolizable protein. The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestibility of AA in fluid- (FAB) and particle-associated bacteria (PAB) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay. Bacteria were isolated from 4 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows by differential centrifugation, including particle suspension in 0.1% Tween-80 for increased removal of PAB from ruminal digesta. Samples of FAB and PAB were fed to 9 cecectomized roosters to determine standardized digestibility of AA. Total AA digestibility was 76.8 and 75.5% for FAB and PAB, respectively, but did not differ. Differences existed in AA digestibilities within bacterial type when compared with the mean essential AA digestibility value. Compared with previous literature estimates of AA digestibility in microbes (mean = 76%; range = 57-87%) and relative to National Research Council estimates of total AA from rumen bacteria (80%), the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay is an acceptable in vivo model to determine AA digestibility of rumen bacteria. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the charge radii of several light nuclei from precision, high-energy electron elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, Al Amin

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high-energy electron scattering has been used to determine the charge radii of nuclei for several decades. Recent analysis of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen found an r.m.s. radius significantly different than the electron scattering result. To understand this puzzle we have analyzed the "LEDEX" data for the (e, e'p) reaction. This experiment includes measurements on several light nuclei, hydrogen, deuterium, lithium, boron, and carbon. To test our ability to measure absolute cross sections, as well as our ability to extract the charge radius, we tested our technique against the extremely well-measured carbon case and found excellent agreement using the Fourier-Bessel parametrization. We then extended the procedure to boron and lithium, which show nice agreement with the latest theoretical calculations. For hydrogen, we see clearly the limits of this technique and therefore, the charge radius is determined from the traditional extrapolation to q2 = 0. We will show that there is a model dependence in extracting the charge radius of hydrogen and its unambiguous determination is very difficult with available electron-scattering measurements.

  10. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of C-oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuejun; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the synthesis of catabolically stable sugar mimetics, C-oligosaccharides. These compounds are synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring O-oligosaccharides, in which the interglycosidic oxygen has been replaced by a methylene group. This review is organized in terms of chemistry used to assemble C-oligosaccarides under the sub-headings: anionic approaches, cationic methods, reductive glycosyl samarium chemistry, cyclization methodology, and free radical chemistry. PMID:16305537

  11. Fluorographic detection of tritiated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides separated on polyacrylamide gels: analysis of glycans from Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Prem Das, O.; Henderson, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Previous workers have shown that oligosaccharides and glycopeptides can be separated by electrophoresis in buffers containing borate ions. However, normal fluorography of tritium-labeled structures cannot be performed because the glycans are soluble and can diffuse during equilibration with scintillants. This problem has been circumvented by equilibration of the gel with 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) prior to electrophoresis. The presence of PPO in the gel during electrophoresis does not alter mobility of the glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. After electrophoresis, the gel is simply dried and fluorography performed. This allows sensitive and precise comparisons of labeled samples in parallel lanes of a slab gel and, since mobilities are highly reproducible, between different gels. The procedure is preparative in that after fluorography the gel bands can be quantitatively eluted for further study, without any apparent modification by the procedure. In this report, the procedure is illustrated by fractionation of both neutral and anionic glycopeptides produced by the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  12. Precision metrology.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Whitehouse, D J

    2012-08-28

    This article is a summary of the Satellite Meeting, which followed on from the Discussion Meeting at the Royal Society on 'Ultra-precision engineering: from physics to manufacture', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire, UK. The meeting was restricted to 18 invited experts in various aspects of precision metrology from academics from the UK and Sweden, Government Institutes from the UK and Germany and global aerospace industries. It examined and identified metrology problem areas that are, or may be, limiting future developments in precision engineering and, in particular, metrology. The Satellite Meeting was intended to produce a vision that will inspire academia and industry to address the solutions of those open-ended problems identified. The discussion covered three areas, namely the function of engineering parts, their measurement and their manufacture, as well as their interactions.

  13. Large-scale production of highly enriched 28Si for the precise determination of the Avogadro constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; Schiel, D.; Pohl, H.-J.; Kaliteevski, A. K.; Godisov, O. N.; Churbanov, M. F.; Devyatykh, G. G.; Gusev, A. V.; Bulanov, A. D.; Adamchik, S. A.; Gavva, V. A.; Kovalev, I. D.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Hallmann-Seiffert, B.; Riemann, H.; Valkiers, S.; Taylor, P.; DeBièvre, P.; Dianov, E. M.

    2006-07-01

    An attempt is described to replace the present definition of the kilogram with the mass of a certain number of silicon atoms. A prerequisite for this is that the Avogadro constant, NA, is determined with a relative uncertainty of better than 2 × 10-8. For the determination, silicon crystals are used. However, the difficulty arising thereby is the measurement of the average molar mass of natural Si. Consequently, a worldwide collaboration has been launched to produce approximately a 5 kg 28Si single crystal with an enrichment factor greater than 99.985% and of sufficient chemical purity so that it can be used to determine NA with the targeted relative measurement uncertainty mentioned above. In the following, the first successful tests of all technological steps will be reported (enrichment of SiF4, distillation into silane and chemical purification, chemical vapour deposition of polycrystalline 28Si, floating zone growth of a dislocation-free single crystal) and new equipment for the production of high-purity 28Si with an enrichment of not less than 99.99% will be described. All steps are well defined by a Technical Road Map (TRM28) and all key results are measured by new mass spectrometric, IR spectroscopic and other chemical and physical methods, such as Hall effect, photoluminescence, laser scattering and x-ray topographic methods (TRM for Analytical Monitoring and Certification, TRM28-AMC). The initial enrichment of the gas is >0.999 95 and the depletion during the entire process is <0.000 05. The isotopic homogeneity is checked by natural Si crystal growth and does, in the enriched sphere, not exceed 5 × 10-10, relatively. The C content of the final material is less than 1015 atoms cm-3 and the specific resistance is 400-1000 Ω cm.

  14. A Precision Determination of the Effect of Metallicity on Cepheid Absolute Magnitudes in VIJHK Bands from Magellanic Cloud Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgórski, Piotr; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Górski, Marek; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Zgirski, Bartłomiej; Bresolin, Fabio; Storm, Jesper; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Graczyk, Dariusz; Soszyński, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Using high-quality observed period-luminosity (P-L) relations in both Magellanic Clouds in the VIJHK s bands and optical and near-infrared Wesenheit indices, we determine the effect of metallicity on Cepheid P-L relations by comparing the relative distance between the LMC and SMC as determined from the Cepheids to the difference in distance between the Clouds that has been derived with very high accuracy from late-type eclipsing binary systems. Within an uncertainty of 3%, which is dominated by the uncertainty on the mean difference in metallicity between the Cepheid populations in the LMC and SMC, we find metallicity effects smaller than 2% in all bands and in the Wesenheit indices, consistent with a zero metallicity effect. This result is valid for the metallicity range from -0.35 dex to -0.75 dex corresponding to the mean [Fe/H] values for classical Cepheids in the LMC and SMC, respectively. Yet most Cepheids in galaxies beyond the Local Group and located in the less crowded outer regions of these galaxies do fall into this metallicity regime, making our result important for applications to determine the distances to spiral galaxies well beyond the Local Group. Our result supports previous findings that indicated a very small metallicity effect on the near-infrared absolute magnitudes of classical Cepheids, and resolves the dispute about the size and sign of the metallicity effect in the optical spectral range. It also resolves one of the most pressing problems in the quest toward a measurement of the Hubble constant with an accuracy of 1% from the Cepheid-supernova Ia method.

  15. Beneficial effects of human milk oligosaccharides on gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Musilova, S; Rada, V; Vlkova, E; Bunesova, V

    2014-09-01

    Human milk is the gold standard for nourishment of early infants because it contains a number of bioactive components, such as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The high concentration and structural diversity of HMOs are unique to humans. HMOs are a group of complex and diverse glycans that are resistant to gastrointestinal digestion and reach the infant colon as the first prebiotics. N-acetyl-glucosamine containing oligosaccharides were first identified 50 years ago as the 'bifidus factor', a selective growth substrate for intestinal bifidobacteria, thus providing a conceptual basis for HMO-specific bifidogenic activity. Bifidobacterial species are the main utilisers of HMOs in the gastrointestinal tract and represent the dominant microbiota of breast-fed infants, and they may play an important role in maintaining the general health of newborn children. Oligosaccharides are also known to directly interact with the surface of pathogenic bacteria, and various oligosaccharides in milk are believed to inhibit the binding of pathogens and toxins to host cell receptors. Furthermore, HMOs are thought to contribute to the development of infant intestine and brain. Oligosaccharides currently added to infant formula are structurally different from the oligosaccharides naturally occurring in human milk and, therefore, they are unlikely to mimic some of the structure-specific effects. In this review, we describe how HMOs can modulate gut microbiota. This article summarises information up to date about the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and HMOs, and other possible indirect effects of HMOs on intestinal environment.

  16. [Structural and functional aspects of oligosaccharides in human milk].

    PubMed

    Kunz, C; Rudloff, S

    1996-03-01

    About a century ago, pediatricians observed that in feces of breast-fed infants, compared to those of bottle-fed infants, Bifidobacterium bifidum was the predominant microorganism. It was shown the