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Sample records for deu parenhimatozo orgnu

  1. A novel non-thermostable deuterolysin from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Katase, Toru; Sakai, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Abe, Keietsu; Yamagata, Youhei

    2016-09-01

    Three putative deuterolysin (EC 3.4.24.29) genes (deuA, deuB, and deuC) were found in the Aspergillus oryzae genome database ( http://www.bio.nite.go.jp/dogan/project/view/AO ). One of these genes, deuA, was corresponding to NpII gene, previously reported. DeuA and DeuB were overexpressed by recombinant A. oryzae and were purified. The degradation profiles against protein substrates of both enzymes were similar, but DeuB showed wider substrate specificity against peptidyl MCA-substrates compared with DeuA. Enzymatic profiles of DeuB except for thermostability also resembled those of DeuA. DeuB was inactivated by heat treatment above 80° C, different from thermostable DeuA. Transcription analysis in wild type A. oryzae showed only deuB was expressed in liquid culture, and the addition of the proteinous substrate upregulated the transcription. Furthermore, the NaNO3 addition seems to eliminate the effect of proteinous substrate for the transcription of deuB. PMID:27050120

  2. Systematic and deliberate orientation and instruction for dedicated education unit staff.

    PubMed

    Smyer, Tish; Tejada, Marianne Bundalian; Tan, Rhigel Alforque

    2015-03-01

    On the basis of increasing complexity of the health care environment and recommended changes in how nurses are educated to meet these challenges, the University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Nursing established an academic-practice partnership with Summerlin Hospital Medical Center to develop a dedicated education unit (DEU). When the DEU model was implemented, variables that were not discussed in the literature needed to be addressed. One such challenge was how to impart pedagogy related to clinical teaching to the DEU nursing staff who would be acting as clinical dedicated unit instructors (CDIs). Of chief concern was the evaluation and monitoring of the quality of CDI-student interactions to ensure optimal student learning outcomes. This article addresses the development of a deliberate, systematic approach to the orientation and continued education of CDIs in the DEU. This information will assist other nursing programs as they begin to implement DEUs.

  3. Using quality and safety education for nurses to guide clinical teaching on a new dedicated education unit.

    PubMed

    McKown, Terri; McKeon, Leslie; McKown, Leslie; Webb, Sherry

    2011-12-01

    Gaps exist in health professional education versus the demands of current practice. Leveraging front-line nurses to teach students exemplary practice in a Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) may narrow this gap. The DEU is an innovative model for experiential learning, capitalizing on the expertise of staff nurses as clinical teachers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new academic-practice DEU in facilitating quality and safety competency achievement among students. Six clinical teachers received education in clinical teaching and use of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies to guide acquisition of essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes for continuous health care improvement. Twelve students assigned to the six teachers completed daily logs for the 10-week practicum. Findings suggest that DEU students achieved QSEN competencies through clinical teacher mentoring in interdisciplinary collaboration, using electronic information for best practice and patient teaching, patient/family decision making, quality improvement, and resolution of safety issues.

  4. Academic Outcome Measures of a Dedicated Education Unit Over Time: Help or Hinder?

    PubMed

    Smyer, Tish; Gatlin, Tricia; Tan, Rhigel; Tejada, Marianne; Feng, Du

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking, nursing process, quality and safety measures, and standardized RN exit examination scores were compared between students (n = 144) placed in a dedicated education unit (DEU) and those in a traditional clinical model. Standardized test scores showed that differences between the clinical groups were not statistically significant. This study shows that the DEU model is 1 approach to clinical education that can enhance students' academic outcomes.

  5. Dedicated education unit: implementing an innovation in replication sites.

    PubMed

    Moscato, Susan R; Nishioka, Vicki M; Coe, Michael T

    2013-05-01

    An important measure of an innovation is the ease of replication and achievement of the same positive outcomes. The dedicated education unit (DEU) clinical education model uses a collaborative academic-service partnership to develop an optimal learning environment for students. The University of Portland adapted this model from Flinders University, Australia, to increase the teaching capacity and quality of nursing education. This article identifies DEU implementation essentials and reports on the outcomes of two replication sites that received consultation support from the University of Portland. Program operation information, including education requirements for clinician instructors, types of patient care units, and clinical faculty-to-student ratios is presented. Case studies of the three programs suggest the DEU model is adaptable to a range of different clinical settings and continues to show promise as one strategy for addressing the nurse faculty shortage and strengthening academic-clinical collaborations while maintaining quality clinical education for students.

  6. An analysis of partnership performance: the St. Johns Mercy Medical Center-Saint Louis University School of Nursing dedicated education unit project.

    PubMed

    Murray, Teri A; Macintyre, Richard C; Teel, Cynthia S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the St. Johns Mercy Medical Center (SJMMC)-Saint Louis University School of Nursing (SLUSON) dedicated education unit (DEU) project for partnership effectiveness. The DEU, an innovative and collaborative academic-service partnership, reconceptualizes the role of the faculty and staff nurse in the clinical educational process. In a DEU, the staff nurse provides the clinical instruction to the student, and the faculty member coaches the staff nurse on the teaching-learning process. Rather than explore the effectiveness of the DEU as an innovative clinical pedagogy, this article analyzes the relationship between the academic and service institutions for strategic effectiveness. The analysis is based on themes found across three successful and distinct academic partnerships and other evaluative models from business, government, and alliance research. The themes and models provide the frameworks needed to analyze the SJMMC-SLUSON academic-service partnership for structure, process, and outcomes. This analysis can serve as a guide for the development of academic-service partnership practices to facilitate successful, sustainable, and replicable partnerships that benefit both institutions. PMID:22142928

  7. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Hüsamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  8. CSF Amino Acids, Pterins and Mechanism of the Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Investigators from Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain, studied the relationship between the etiology of refractory childhood epilepsy, CSF neurotransmitters, pterins, and amino acids, and response to a ketogenic diet in 60 patients with refractory epilepsy, 83% focal and 52% idiopathic. PMID:26933537

  9. Evaluation of an academic service partnership using a strategic alliance framework.

    PubMed

    Murray, Teri A; James, Dorothy C

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alliances involve the sharing of resources to achieve mutually relevant benefits and they are flexible ways to access resources outside of one's own institution. The recent landmark report from the Institute of Medicine, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, called for academic and health care organizations to strategically align around the future registered nurse workforce to improve the quality and safety of patient care. The dedicated education unit (DEU) is one practical way for 2 entities to align so that students can learn to administer safe, quality care. Because DEUs have great potential, it is critical to evaluate the alignment between the academic and service partner for appropriate fit, mutual benefit, and long-term success. In this article, we analyze the effectiveness of the Saint Louis University School of Nursing (SLUSON) and Mercy Hospital, St. Louis (MHSL) DEU project, an alliance between a medical center and school of nursing, using the Single Alliance Key Success Model. PMID:22177471

  10. Payload specialist station study: Volume 2, part 3: Program analysis and planning for phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The controls and displays (C&D) required at the Orbiter aft-flight deck (AFD) and the core C&D required at the Payload Specialist Station (PSS) are identified in this document. The AFD C&D Concept consists of a multifunction display system (MFDS) and elements of multiuse mission support equipment (MMSE). The MFDS consists of two CRTs, a display electronics unit (DEU), and a keyboard. The MMSE consists of a manual pointing controller (MPC), five digit numeric displays, 10 character alphanumeric legends, event timers, analog meters, rotary and toggle switches. The MMSE may be hardwired to the experiment, or interface with a data bus at the PSS for signal processing. The MFDS has video capability, with alphanumeric and graphic overlay features, on one CRT and alphanumeric and graphic (tricolor) capability on a second CRT. The DEU will have the capability to communicate, via redundant data buses, with both the spacelab experiment and subsystem computers.

  11. Evaluation of an academic service partnership using a strategic alliance framework.

    PubMed

    Murray, Teri A; James, Dorothy C

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alliances involve the sharing of resources to achieve mutually relevant benefits and they are flexible ways to access resources outside of one's own institution. The recent landmark report from the Institute of Medicine, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, called for academic and health care organizations to strategically align around the future registered nurse workforce to improve the quality and safety of patient care. The dedicated education unit (DEU) is one practical way for 2 entities to align so that students can learn to administer safe, quality care. Because DEUs have great potential, it is critical to evaluate the alignment between the academic and service partner for appropriate fit, mutual benefit, and long-term success. In this article, we analyze the effectiveness of the Saint Louis University School of Nursing (SLUSON) and Mercy Hospital, St. Louis (MHSL) DEU project, an alliance between a medical center and school of nursing, using the Single Alliance Key Success Model.

  12. Transcriptomic Changes in Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae Following Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiefan; Corrales, Jone; Thornton, Cammi; Clerk, Tracy; Scheffler, Brian E.; Willett, Kristine L.

    2015-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmentally relevant carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting compound that causes immediate, long-term, and multigenerational health deficits in mammals and fish. Previously, we found that BaP alters DNA methylation patterns in developing zebrafish, which may affect gene expression. Herein, we performed a genome-wide transcriptional analysis and discovered differential gene expression and splicing in developing zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to control or 42.0 ± 1.9 µg/l BaP for 7 days. Eggs were collected and raised in control conditions or continuously exposed to BaP until 3.3 and 96 h post–fertilization (hpf). RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was conducted on zebrafish embryos and larvae. Data were analyzed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes (changed at the gene or transcript variant level) and genes with differential exon usage (DEU; changed at the exon level). At 3.3 hpf, BaP exposure resulted in 8 DE genes and 51 DEU genes. At 96 hpf, BaP exposure altered expression in 1153 DE genes and 159 DEU genes. Functional ontology analysis by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many disease pathways, including organismal death, growth failure, abnormal morphology of embryonic tissue, congenital heart disease, and adverse neuritogenesis, were significantly enriched for the DE and DEU genes, providing novel insights on the mechanisms of action of BaP-induced developmental toxicities. Collectively, we discovered substantial transcriptomic changes at the gene, transcript variant, and exon levels in developing zebrafish after early life BaP waterborne exposure, and these changes may lead to long-term adverse physiological consequences. PMID:26001963

  13. Rural model dedicated education unit: partnership between college and hospital.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the pilot project development of a rural model Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) by a rural college nursing program and a rural hospital to increase student nurses' confidence and proficiency and improve recruitment of prepared rural staff nurses. Traditionally, for economies of scale, most student clinical rotations occurred in urban settings with the number of students per clinical instructor allowed by the state board of nursing. College budget constraints negated the placement of fewer than this mandated maximum number of students in a rural hospital with a clinical instructor; moreover, rural hospitals could not accommodate 10 students at one time. Rural nursing students were anxious in the urban settings, and this anxiety precluded learning in many instances. Rural hospitals face higher registered nurse vacancies than urban centers. Of the nurses applying for open positions, many were not prepared for the demands of rural nursing, resulting in increased turnover and high orientation costs. The rural model DEU addressed issues of both the nursing program and the hospital. The design and development of the rural model DEU and the advantages of the partnership for the college nursing program and the hospital are discussed. Initial outcomes and serendipitous findings from the pilot project are also discussed.

  14. IRAS16293E revisited: a new understanding of a prestellar core in interaction with an outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Lefèvre, C.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K.; Parise, B.; Güsten, R.

    2016-05-01

    The study of prestellar cores starts with establishing their density and temperature structures. To explore the densest part, deu-terated species, N-bearing molecules, or dust are usually considered. Among prestellar cores, IRAS16293E is a rare case of a core being perturbed by the outflow of a nearby protostar (IRAS16293-2422 A/B). A part of the outflow hits the core and heats it, introducing a temperature gradient that makes the analysis difficult. It is only after having gathered observations from Spitzer, Herschel, SCUBA, MAMBO, and of various molecular lines from CSO, APEX, JCMT and IRAM that a clearer picture of this core has finally arisen.

  15. Planar UWB Filter with Multiple Notched Band and Stopband with Improved Rejection Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Abu Nasar; Pal, Srikanta

    2015-05-01

    Analysis and realization of a microstrip-based planar ultra-wideband (UWB) filter with integrated multiple notch elimination property and simultaneously extended upper stopband is proposed. Initially, a UWB filter based on back-to-back microstrip-to-CPW technology is designed. Later, multiple spiral defected ground structures (DGS) are embedded to obtain multiple passband notches. Further, double equilateral U (DEU)-type DGS are used to improve upon the rejection level in upper stopband. The multiple passband notches are results of embedded spiral-shaped DGS (SDGS), while extended upper stopband is the outcome of suppressed higher-order spurious harmonics. The flexible dual-attenuation poles of DEU-shaped DGS suppress the stopband harmonics and widen the stopband. An approximate lumped equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is modelled. The filter is compact and its layout measures 25.26 mm × 11.01 mm. The measured result is in good agreement with the full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulation and circuit simulation.

  16. Can histologic changes of the upper pole justify a conservative approach in neonatal duplex ectopic ureterocele?

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper-pole segment in patients with duplex-system ectopic ureterocele (DEU) to determine if less aggressive surgery is justified in prenatally-diagnosed cases. The study included 15 consecutive patients with DEU treated between 1991 and 1999. The diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory, and obstructive changes. All 15 patients were surgically treated by heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine cases were diagnosed prenatally; the histology of the upper-pole segment in these patients showed segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands, and an inflammatory tubulointerstitial nephropathy in 6 (66.6%) and nephroblastomatosis in 2 (22.2%). The histology of the 6 postnatally-diagnosed patients showed segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy, and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper-pole histology of the prenatally-diagnosed patients did not show any evidence of reversible histologic changes. Considering this findings and the good outcome of patients treated with upper-pole nephroureterectomy, less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified.

  17. Effects of specific multi-nutrient enriched diets on cerebral metabolism, cognition and neuropathology in AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Diane; Zerbi, Valerio; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Rijpma, Anne; Fang, Xiaotian T; Dederen, Pieter J; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Broersen, Laus M; Lütjohann, Dieter; Miller, Malgorzata; Joosten, Leo A B; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the use of multi-nutrient dietary interventions in search of alternatives for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we investigated to which extent long-term consumption of two specific multi-nutrient diets can modulate AD-related etiopathogenic mechanisms and behavior in 11-12-month-old AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice. Starting from 2 months of age, male AβPP-PS1 mice and wild-type littermates were fed either a control diet, the DHA+EPA+UMP (DEU) diet enriched with uridine monophosphate (UMP) and the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or the Fortasyn® Connect (FC) diet enriched with the DEU diet plus phospholipids, choline, folic acid, vitamins and antioxidants. We performed behavioral testing, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, immunohistochemistry, biochemical analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to gain a better understanding of the potential mechanisms by which these multi-nutrient diets exert protective properties against AD. Our results show that both diets were equally effective in changing brain fatty acid and cholesterol profiles. However, the diets differentially affected AD-related pathologies and behavioral measures, suggesting that the effectiveness of specific nutrients may depend on the dietary context in which they are provided. The FC diet was more effective than the DEU diet in counteracting neurodegenerative aspects of AD and enhancing processes involved in neuronal maintenance and repair. Both diets elevated interleukin-1β mRNA levels in AβPP-PS1 and wild-type mice. The FC diet additionally restored neurogenesis in AβPP-PS1 mice, decreased hippocampal levels of unbound choline-containing compounds in wild-type and AβPP-PS1 animals, suggesting diminished membrane turnover, and decreased anxiety-related behavior in the open field behavior. In conclusion, the current data indicate that specific multi-nutrient diets can influence AD

  18. Effects of specific multi-nutrient enriched diets on cerebral metabolism, cognition and neuropathology in AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Diane; Zerbi, Valerio; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Rijpma, Anne; Fang, Xiaotian T; Dederen, Pieter J; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Broersen, Laus M; Lütjohann, Dieter; Miller, Malgorzata; Joosten, Leo A B; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the use of multi-nutrient dietary interventions in search of alternatives for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we investigated to which extent long-term consumption of two specific multi-nutrient diets can modulate AD-related etiopathogenic mechanisms and behavior in 11-12-month-old AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice. Starting from 2 months of age, male AβPP-PS1 mice and wild-type littermates were fed either a control diet, the DHA+EPA+UMP (DEU) diet enriched with uridine monophosphate (UMP) and the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or the Fortasyn® Connect (FC) diet enriched with the DEU diet plus phospholipids, choline, folic acid, vitamins and antioxidants. We performed behavioral testing, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, immunohistochemistry, biochemical analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to gain a better understanding of the potential mechanisms by which these multi-nutrient diets exert protective properties against AD. Our results show that both diets were equally effective in changing brain fatty acid and cholesterol profiles. However, the diets differentially affected AD-related pathologies and behavioral measures, suggesting that the effectiveness of specific nutrients may depend on the dietary context in which they are provided. The FC diet was more effective than the DEU diet in counteracting neurodegenerative aspects of AD and enhancing processes involved in neuronal maintenance and repair. Both diets elevated interleukin-1β mRNA levels in AβPP-PS1 and wild-type mice. The FC diet additionally restored neurogenesis in AβPP-PS1 mice, decreased hippocampal levels of unbound choline-containing compounds in wild-type and AβPP-PS1 animals, suggesting diminished membrane turnover, and decreased anxiety-related behavior in the open field behavior. In conclusion, the current data indicate that specific multi-nutrient diets can influence AD

  19. Single-event effects in avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.

    1996-04-01

    The occurrence of single-event upset (SEU) in aircraft electronics has evolved from a series of interesting anecdotal incidents to accepted fact. A study completed in 1992 demonstrated that SEU`s are real, that the measured in-flight rates correlate with the atmospheric neutron flux, and that the rates can be calculated using laboratory SEU data. Once avionics DEU was shown to be an actual effect, it had to be dealt with in avionics designs. The major concern is in random access memories (RAM`s), both static (SRAM`s) and dynamic (DRAM`s), because these microelectronic devices contain the largest number of bits, but other parts, such as microprocessors, are also potentially susceptible to upset. In addition, other single-event effects (SEE`s), specifically latch-up and burnout, can also be induced by atmospheric neutrons.

  20. Genetics of osteochondral disease and its relationship with meat quality and quantity, growth, and feed conversion traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kadarmideen, H N; Schwörer, D; Ilahi, H; Malek, M; Hofer, A

    2004-11-01

    The main objective of this research was to estimate heritabilities of seven osteochondrosis (OC) lesions in station-tested pigs and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with four meat quality (MQ) traits, the percentage of premium cuts (PPC), daily weight gain (DWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Observed OC lesions were on the head of humerus (HK), condylus medialis humeri (CMH), condylus lateralis humeri (CLH), radius and ulna proximal (RUP), distal epiphyseal cartilage of ulna (DEU), head of femur (FK), and condylus medialis femoris (CMF). Meat quality traits were i.m. fat (IMF), muscle pH at 1 h after slaughter (pH1), muscle pH at 30 h after slaughter (pH30), and light reflectance on muscle (H30). The data set comprised 2,710 animals, of which 1,291 animals had OC records. All traits were analyzed by multiple-trait linear mixed model, with the animal's genetic and common litter effects as random. Fixed effects in the model varied between traits. Each OC lesion was further analyzed by a univariate generalized linear mixed model or, equivalently, "threshold models," assuming logistic, probit (normal), and Poisson distributions of the underlying "liability" to the disease. For OC lesions, estimates of heritability were low on the original "incidence" scale (0.06 for HK to 0.16 for CLH) and moderate to high on the liability scale (0.08 to 0.42). Genetic correlations (r(g)) between OC lesions and most MQ traits and PPC were generally unfavorable. Significant r(g) were -0.44 for DWG-CMH, 0.31 for DWG-CMF, 0.40 for FCR-HK, 0.21 for PPC-CLH, 0.32 for PPC-RUP, 0.30 for PPC-CMF, -0.54 for pH1-CLH, 0.47 for pH1-DEU, -0.34 for pH30-CMH, 0.58 for pH30-DEU, -0.50 for H30-HK, -0.31 for H30-DEU, and 0.31 for H30-CMF. Genetic susceptibilities to some OC lesions within the front leg were positively related to each other (r(g) range = 0.57 to 0.69), but r(g) between front and hind leg OC lesions were mostly negative (range = -0.21 to -0.40). Estimated h2 was 0.60 for PPC

  1. ADRON Instrument for Luna-Resource and Luna-Glob Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, D.; Mitrofanov, I.; Barmakov, Y.; Bogolubov, E.; Litvak, M.; Sanin, A.; Kozyrev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Schatzkij, V.; Smirnov, G.; Ryzhkov, V.; Kurdumov, I.; Shvetsov, V.; Tretyakov, V.; Varenikov, A.; Vostrukhin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The interest to Moon investigations was increasing last decade. Many scientific and exploration missions were developed and about ten spacecrafts reached our nearest cosmic neighbor for detailed studying. Russian instrument LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) received new interesting data about global lunar surface and distribution of hydrogen (water) enriched regions near poles in particular using collimation technique. Two of these regions are now landing sites of Russian-Indian project Luna-Resource and Russian lander Luna-Glob with planned launches in 2014 and 2015 respectively. One of scientific instruments onboard landers of both missions is ADRON (Active Detector of gamma Rays and Neutrons). The main tasks of the experiment are: 1) Definition of composition of the soil in the landing site; 2) Hydrogen content and distribution along depth; 3) Radiation background measurement; 4) Registering of Gamma-Ray Bursts. ADRON instrument is based on available heritage of design of DAN (MSL 2011, NASA) and MGNS (BepiColombo 2014, ESA). The concept ADRON is based on is the well-known method of nuclear well neutron logging for geological applications when detectors measure flux of scattered and moderated neutrons emitted by generator. Using scintillator one can detect spectrum of gamma-rays from soil and the lines intensities of this spectrum will indicate amount of a corresponding element in the subsurface up to 1 m depth during experiment on lunar surface. Instrument consists of two separate units: Pulse Neutron Generator (PNG) and Detectors and Electronic Unit (DEU). DEU (weight 3.8 kg, size 260×217×127 mm), besides of electronic for instrument control, contains LaBr3 crystal for measuring spectra of gamma rays and He3 proportional counters to detect thermal and epithermal neutrons. Fast electronics allow to get time profiles of gamma and neutrons flux with time resolution of up to 1 microsecond. PNG unit (weight 2.6 kg, size 331×125×45 mm) is connected to

  2. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3′ tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. PMID:26872770

  3. Dependence of M13 major coat protein oligomerization and lateral segregation on bilayer composition.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fábio; Loura, Luís M S; Prieto, Manuel; Koehorst, Rob; Spruijt, Ruud B; Hemminga, Marcus A

    2003-10-01

    M13 major coat protein was derivatized with BODIPY (n-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-yl)methyl iodoacetamide), and its aggregation was studied in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and DOPC/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DOPG) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE)/DOPG (model systems of membranes with hydrophobic thickness matching that of the protein) using photophysical methodologies (time-resolved and steady-state self-quenching, absorption, and emission spectra). It was concluded that the protein is essentially monomeric, even in the absence of anionic phospholipids. The protein was also incorporated in pure bilayers of lipids with a strong mismatch with the protein transmembrane length, 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DEuPC, longer lipid) and 1,2-dimyristoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMoPC, shorter lipid), and in lipidic mixtures containing DOPC and one of these lipids. The protein was aggregated in the pure vesicles of mismatching lipid but remained essentially monomeric in the mixtures as detected from BODIPY fluorescence emission self-quenching. From fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements (donor-n-(iodoacetyl)aminoethyl-1-sulfonaphthylamine (IAEDANS)-labeled protein; acceptor-BODIPY labeled protein), it was concluded that in the DEuPC/DOPC and DMoPC/DOPC lipid mixtures, domains enriched in the protein and the matching lipid (DOPC) are formed.

  4. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses. PMID:25401309

  5. Evolutionary active transposable elements in the genome of the coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Simakov, Oleg; Meyer, Axel; Schartl, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The apparent morphological stasis in the lineage of the coelacanth, which has been called a "living fossil" by many, has been suggested to be causally related to a slow evolution of its genome, with strongly reduced activity of transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of the African coelacanth showed that at least 25% of its genome is constituted of transposable elements including retrotransposons, endogenous retroviruses and DNA transposons, with a strong predominance of non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. The coelacanth genome has been shaped by four major general bursts of transposition during evolution, with major contributions of LINE1, LINE2, CR1, and Deu non-LTR retrotransposons. Many transposable elements are expressed in different tissues and might be active. The number of TE families in coelacanth, but also in lungfish, is lower than in teleost fish, but is higher than in chicken and human. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis of a sequential elimination of many TE families in the sarcopterygian lineage during evolution. Taken together, our analysis indicates that the coelacanth contains more TE families than birds and mammals, and that these elements have been active during the evolution of the coelacanth lineage. Hence, at the level of transposable element activity, the coelacanth genome does not appear to evolve particularly slowly.

  6. Multinutrient diets improve cerebral perfusion and neuroprotection in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zerbi, Valerio; Jansen, Diane; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Fang, Xiaotian; Broersen, Laus M; Veltien, Andor; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-03-01

    Nutritional intervention may retard the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we tested the effects of 2 multi-nutrient diets in an AD mouse model (APPswe/PS1dE9). One diet contained membrane precursors such as omega-3 fatty acids and uridine monophosphate (DEU), whereas another diet contained cofactors for membrane synthesis as well (Fortasyn); the diets were developed to enhance synaptic membranes synthesis, and contain components that may improve vascular health. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and water diffusivity with ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging, as alterations in these parameters correlate with clinical symptoms of the disease. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice on control diet showed decreased CBF and changes in brain water diffusion, in accordance with findings of hypoperfusion, axonal disconnection and neuronal loss in patients with AD. Both multinutrient diets were able to increase cortical CBF in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and Fortasyn reduced water diffusivity, particularly in the dentate gyrus and in cortical regions. We suggest that a specific diet intervention has the potential to slow AD progression, by simultaneously improving cerebrovascular health and enhancing neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:24210253

  7. Evolutionary active transposable elements in the genome of the coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Simakov, Oleg; Meyer, Axel; Schartl, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The apparent morphological stasis in the lineage of the coelacanth, which has been called a "living fossil" by many, has been suggested to be causally related to a slow evolution of its genome, with strongly reduced activity of transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of the African coelacanth showed that at least 25% of its genome is constituted of transposable elements including retrotransposons, endogenous retroviruses and DNA transposons, with a strong predominance of non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. The coelacanth genome has been shaped by four major general bursts of transposition during evolution, with major contributions of LINE1, LINE2, CR1, and Deu non-LTR retrotransposons. Many transposable elements are expressed in different tissues and might be active. The number of TE families in coelacanth, but also in lungfish, is lower than in teleost fish, but is higher than in chicken and human. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis of a sequential elimination of many TE families in the sarcopterygian lineage during evolution. Taken together, our analysis indicates that the coelacanth contains more TE families than birds and mammals, and that these elements have been active during the evolution of the coelacanth lineage. Hence, at the level of transposable element activity, the coelacanth genome does not appear to evolve particularly slowly. PMID:23908136

  8. Design, synthesis and extraction studies of a new class of conformationally constrained (N,N,N',N'-tetraalkyl)7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxamides.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Panja, Surajit; Bhattachariya, Arunasis; Dhami, Prem S; Gandhi, Preetam M; Ghosh, Sunil K

    2015-07-28

    A new class of conformationally constrained 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3-dicarboxamides (OBDA) of three secondary amines was synthesized, and their extraction behavior for trivalent and tetravalent actinides in HNO3 medium was studied. Amongst the diamides, N,N-bis-2-ethylhexyl substituted diamide showed the best results for actinide extraction. This diamide also exhibited a very low level of extraction for Sr(ii) and Ru(iii) which is desirable, thus providing higher selectivity for actinides. The stripping of extracted metal ions was achieved using 0.1 M oxalic acid for Pu(iv) or pH ∼ 2 solution for Am(iii). Third phase formation was not observed for the OBDA ligand even for a higher concentration of Eu up to 5 g L(-1) with retention of good DEu. The tridentate nature of the OBDA ligand was ascertained by studying the IR and NMR spectra of the Eu(iii) complex with the ligand. The OBDA showed the formation of a mixture of mono- and di-solvated species of Eu(iii) as indicated by the slope analysis method and ESI-MS. Density functional theoretical (DFT) study was carried out to determine the energy optimized structure of the free ligand and its Am(3+) complex.

  9. Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of rat hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Haga, Kei; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ochiai, Susumu; Takaji, Wakita; Johne, Reimar

    2015-06-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is related to human HEV and has been detected in wild rats worldwide. Here, the complete genome of rat HEV strain R63/DEU/2009 was cloned downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and capped genomic RNA generated by in vitro transcription was injected into nude rats. Rat HEV RNA could be detected in serum and faeces of rats injected intrahepatically, but not in those injected intravenously. Rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension was intravenously inoculated into nude rats and Wistar rats leading to rat HEV RNA detection in serum and faeces of nude rats, and to seroconversion in Wistar rats. In addition, rat HEV was isolated in PLC/PRF/5 cells from the rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension of nude rats and then passaged. The cell culture supernatant was infectious for nude rats. Genome analysis identified nine point mutations of the cell-culture-passaged virus in comparison with the originally cloned rat HEV genome. The results indicated that infectious rat HEV could be generated from the cDNA clone. As rats are widely used and well-characterized laboratory animals, studies on genetically engineered rat HEV may provide novel insights into organ tropism, replication and excretion kinetics as well as immunological changes induced by hepeviruses.

  10. Crystal Structures of SlyA Protein, a Master Virulence Regulator of Salmonella, in Free and DNA-bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Kyle T.; Duguid, Erica M.; He, Chuan

    2011-11-17

    SlyA is a master virulence regulator that controls the transcription of numerous genes in Salmonella enterica. We present here crystal structures of SlyA by itself and bound to a high-affinity DNA operator sequence in the slyA gene. SlyA interacts with DNA through direct recognition of a guanine base by Arg-65, as well as interactions between conserved Arg-86 and the minor groove and a large network of non-base-specific contacts with the sugar phosphate backbone. Our structures, together with an unpublished structure of SlyA bound to the small molecule effector salicylate (Protein Data Bank code 3DEU), reveal that, unlike many other MarR family proteins, SlyA dissociates from DNA without large conformational changes when bound to this effector. We propose that SlyA and other MarR global regulators rely more on indirect readout of DNA sequence to exert control over many genes, in contrast to proteins (such as OhrR) that recognize a single operator.

  11. Construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of rat hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Haga, Kei; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ochiai, Susumu; Takaji, Wakita; Johne, Reimar

    2015-06-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is related to human HEV and has been detected in wild rats worldwide. Here, the complete genome of rat HEV strain R63/DEU/2009 was cloned downstream of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and capped genomic RNA generated by in vitro transcription was injected into nude rats. Rat HEV RNA could be detected in serum and faeces of rats injected intrahepatically, but not in those injected intravenously. Rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension was intravenously inoculated into nude rats and Wistar rats leading to rat HEV RNA detection in serum and faeces of nude rats, and to seroconversion in Wistar rats. In addition, rat HEV was isolated in PLC/PRF/5 cells from the rat HEV RNA-positive faecal suspension of nude rats and then passaged. The cell culture supernatant was infectious for nude rats. Genome analysis identified nine point mutations of the cell-culture-passaged virus in comparison with the originally cloned rat HEV genome. The results indicated that infectious rat HEV could be generated from the cDNA clone. As rats are widely used and well-characterized laboratory animals, studies on genetically engineered rat HEV may provide novel insights into organ tropism, replication and excretion kinetics as well as immunological changes induced by hepeviruses. PMID:25634930

  12. A comparative life-table analysis of Sipha flava (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on two biofuel hosts, Miscanthus x giganteus and Saccharum spp.

    PubMed

    Pallipparambil, G R; Cha, G; Gray, M E

    2014-06-01

    Among the insects reported in biofuel crops, the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes), is a potential pest of giant miscanthus, Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deu ex Hodkinson et Renvoize (M x g) and energy cane 'L79-1002', Saccharum spp. L. We studied the biology of S. flava on M x g and energy cane and estimated the development period, fecundity, longevity, intrinsic rate of increase, doubling time, reproductive value, and survivorship curves. To demonstrate the host suitability in a susceptible species, we studied the aphid life table on sorghum 'PL 18200,' Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Life-table information was recorded under greenhouse conditions on the host plants. Our results suggested that both M x g and energy cane are suitable hosts for S. flava. We observed similar aphid development period on both hosts. Life-table estimates including longevity and fecundity suggested that M x g is a more suitable host for the aphid than energy cane. The intrinsic rate of increase for S. flava was lower on energy cane (0.231) than on M x g (0.258). PMID:25026666

  13. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses.

  14. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge. PMID:26841773

  15. The use of reed canary grass and giant miscanthus in the phytoremediation of municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2016-05-01

    The application of municipal sewage sludge on energy crops is an alternative form of recycling nutrients, food materials, and organic matter from waste. Municipal sewage sludge constitutes a potential source of heavy metals in soil, which can be partially removed by the cultivation of energy crops. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of municipal sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by monocotyledonous energy crops. Sewage sludge was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM · ha(-1) once, before the sowing of plants. In a 6-year field experiment, the effect of four levels of fertilisation with sewage sludge on the uptake of heavy metals by two species of energy crops, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) of 'Bamse' cultivar and giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus GREEF et DEU), was analysed. It was established that the increasing doses of sewage sludge had a considerable effect on the increase in biomass yield from the tested plants. Due to the increasing doses of sewage sludge, a significant increase in heavy metals content in the energy crops was recorded. The heavy metal uptake with the miscanthus yield was the highest at a dose of 20 Mg DM · ha(-1), and at a dose of 40 Mg DM · ha(-1) in the case of reed canary grass. Research results indicate that on account of higher yields, higher bioaccumulation, and higher heavy metal uptake, miscanthus can be selected for the remediation of sewage sludge.

  16. StatXFinder: a web-based self-directed tool that provides appropriate statistical test selection for biomedical researchers in their scientific studies.

    PubMed

    Suner, Aslı; Karakülah, Gökhan; Koşaner, Özgün; Dicle, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    The improper use of statistical methods is common in analyzing and interpreting research data in biological and medical sciences. The objective of this study was to develop a decision support tool encompassing the commonly used statistical tests in biomedical research by combining and updating the present decision trees for appropriate statistical test selection. First, the decision trees in textbooks, published articles, and online resources were scrutinized, and a more comprehensive unified one was devised via the integration of 10 distinct decision trees. The questions also in the decision steps were revised by simplifying and enriching of the questions with examples. Then, our decision tree was implemented into the web environment and the tool titled StatXFinder was developed. Finally, usability and satisfaction questionnaires were applied to the users of the tool, and StatXFinder was reorganized in line with the feedback obtained from these questionnaires. StatXFinder provides users with decision support in the selection of 85 distinct parametric and non-parametric statistical tests by directing 44 different yes-no questions. The accuracy rate of the statistical test recommendations obtained by 36 participants, with the cases applied, were 83.3 % for "difficult" tests, and 88.9 % for "easy" tests. The mean system usability score of the tool was found 87.43 ± 10.01 (minimum: 70-maximum: 100). A statistically significant difference could not be seen between total system usability score and participants' attributes (p value >0.05). The User Satisfaction Questionnaire showed that 97.2 % of the participants appreciated the tool, and almost all of the participants (35 of 36) thought of recommending the tool to the others. In conclusion, StatXFinder, can be utilized as an instructional and guiding tool for biomedical researchers with limited statistics knowledge. StatXFinder is freely available at http://webb.deu.edu.tr/tb/statxfinder. PMID:26543767

  17. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B; Rivkees, Scott A; Wendler, Christopher C

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20-60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3-65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes.

  18. Investigation of sea-level changes and shelf break prograding sequences during the Late Quaternary offshore of Kusadasi (West Anatolia) and surroundings by high resolution seismic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Savas; Cifci, Gunay; Dondurur, Derman; Okay, Seda; Atgin, Orhan; Ozel, Ozkan; Mert Kucuk, Hilmi

    2016-04-01

    High Resolution multi-channel seismic reflection and Chirp data were collected by K. Piri Reis, research vessel of Dokuz Eylül University, in the central Aegean coast of the West Anatolia by research cruises carried out in 2005 and 2008, respectively. Submarine stratigraphic and structural features of Sıǧacık Gulf, Kuşadası Gulf and surroundings were investigated under this survey. The data were processed and interpreted in SeisLab, D.E.U. Marine Sciences and Technology seismic laboratory. Thirteen distinct unconformities can be traced below the study area that separate thirteen progradational stacked paleo-delta sequences (Lob1-Lob13) on seismic profiles following and cutting each other. As a result of comparison with the oxygen isotopic stages (δ18), these deltas (Lob1-L13) were interpreted that they have been deposited during the sea-level lowstands within Pleistocene glacial stages. In the study area the basement surface which observed as the lowest unconformity surface of the seismic sections was called 'Acoustic Basement'. This basement which traced approximately all of the seismic sections has generally quite wavy surface and underlain the upper seismic units. It was observed that these seismic units which terminated their formation in Pleistocene (Lob1-Lob13) and Holocene period were cut and uplifted by acoustic basement, like an intrusion. These type deformations were interpreted as a result of magmatic intrusion into these upper seismic units occurred in Late Pleistocene and Holocene period. Tectonic and structural interpretation was carried out to constitute the submarine active tectonic map of the study area by correlated active faults identified on seismic sections. Submarine active tectonic map and, basement topography and sediment thickness map were correlated together to present the relationship between tectonic deformation and stratigraphy.

  19. Population structure, antimicrobial resistance, and mutation frequencies of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Rosa; Morosini, María-Isabel; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez-G; Fenoll, Asunción; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Máiz, Luis; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    Forty-eight Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from sputum samples from 26 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients attending our CF unit (1995 to 2003) were studied. Mean yearly incidence of isolation was 5.5%, and all were strains recovered from young patients (< or = 12 years). The isolation was linked to clinical exacerbation in 35% of the cases, but only 27% of these were not accompanied by other CF pathogens. Fifty percent of the patients presented with two to four isolates over the studied period. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-SmaI digestion revealed a high heterogeneity (32 pulsotypes among 48 isolates) and the persistence over a 6-month period of a single clone (clone A) in two patients. This clone, presenting a varied multiresistance phenotype, was identified as the Spain23F-1 clone and was also recognized in six other patients, including two out of nine patients from the CF unit of Sant Joan de Deu Hospital, Barcelona, Spain. In our isolates, 16 different serotypes were recognized, the most frequent being 23F (33.3%), 19F (18.8%), 6A (6.2%), and 6B (6.2%). High overall resistance rates were observed: to penicillin, 73%; to cefotaxime, 33%; to erythromycin, 42%; to tetracycline, 58%; to chloramphenicol, 48%; and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 67%. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Multiresistance was a common feature (60%). The percentage of S. pneumoniae strains with increased frequencies of mutation to rifampin resistance (> or = 7.5 x 10(-8)) was significantly higher (P = 0.02) in CF (60%) than among non-CF (37%) isolates in the same institution (M. I. Morosini et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:1464-1467, 2003). Even though a clear association with acute exacerbations could not be observed, long-term clonal persistence and variability, high frequency of antibiotic resistance, and hypermutability indicate the plasticity for adaptation of S. pneumoniae to the CF lung environment. PMID:15872243

  20. Expanding the REE Partitioning Database for Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. This is taken as evidence of a large-scale differentation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were later derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Some plagioclase grains in a lunar impact rock (60635) have been reported to display a negative Eu anomaly, or in some cases single grains display both positive and neagtive anomalies. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that some crystals have a negative anomaly in the core and positive at the rim, or vice versa, and the negative anomalies are not associated with crystal overgrowths. Oxygen fugacity is known to affect Eu partitioning into plagioclase, as under low fO2 conditions Eu can be divalent, and has an ionic radius similar to Ca2+ - significant in lunar samples where plagioclase compositions are predominantly anorthitic. However, there are very few experimental studies of rare earth element (REE) partitioning in plagioclase relevant to lunar magmatism, with only two plagioclase DEu measurements from experiments using lunar materials, and little data in low fO2 conditions relevant to the Moon. We report on REE partitioning experiments on lunar compositions. We investigate two lunar basaltic compositions, high-alumina basalt 14072 and impact melt breccia 60635. These samples span a large range of lunar surface bulk compositions. The experiments are carried out at variable fO2 in 1 bar gas mixing furnaces, and REE are analysed by and LA-ICP-MS. Our results not only greatly expand the existing plagioclase DREE database for lunar compositions, but also investigate the significance of fO2 in Eu partitioning, and in the interpretation of Eu anomalies in lunar materials.

  1. Palaeoseismological evidence for Holocene activity on the Manisa Fault Zone,Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaymak, Ç.; Sözbilir, H.; Uzel, B.; Akyüz, H. S.

    2009-04-01

    has been active since Holocene time as step-like structural geometries. Key words: Manisa Fault Zone, active fault, palaeoseismology, Western Anatolia This research was supported by the Dokuz Eylül University Research Foundation (Project number: DEU-BAP-2006.KB.FEN.008).

  2. The Cr Redox Record of fO2 Variation in Angrites. Evidence for Redox Conditions of Angrite Petrogenesis and Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, Charles K.; Bell, Aaron S.; Burger, Paul V.; Papike, James J.; Jones, John; Le, Loan

    2016-01-01

    Angrites represent some of the earliest stages of planetesimal differentiation. Not surprisingly, there is no simple petrogenetic model for their origin. Petrogenesis has been linked to both magmatic and impact processes. Studies demonstrated that melting of chondritic material (e.g. CM, CV) at redox conditions where pure iron metal is unstable (e.g., IW+1 to IW+2) produced angrite-like melts. Alternatively, angrites were produced at more reducing conditions (DEu/DGd with fO2, between plagioclase and fassaitic pyroxene in equilibrium with an angrite melt composition. They used their observations to estimate the fO2 of crystallization to be approximately IW+0.6 for angrite LEW 86010. This estimate is only a "snapshot" of fO2 conditions during co-crystallization of plagioclase and pyroxene. Preliminary XANES analyses of V redox state in pyroxenes from D'Orbigny reported changes in fO2 from IW-0.7 during early pyroxene crystallization to IW+0.5 during latter episodes of pyroxene crystallization [15]. As this was a preliminary report, it presented limited information concerning the effects of pyroxene orientation and composition on the V valence measurements, and the effect of melt composition on valence and

  3. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth. PMID:24743957

  4. Pyroxenes in Martian meteorites as petrogenetic indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Gordon; Le, L.; Mikouchi, T.; Makishima, J.; Schwandt, C.

    2006-01-01

    approx.80% while D(Sr) and D(Eu) only increase by 20-30% at oxygen fugacities near IW. The different Al dependency of D for trivalent REE vs. divalent Eu and Sr considerably complicates the calibration of the Eu oxybarometer.

  5. Three-source-partitioning of soil carbon pools and fluxes and priming effects induced by carbohydrates of different availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Khomyakov, N.; Myachina, O.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is not uniform and includes: 1) fresh input of plant-derived organics, i.e. root exudates and rhizodeposits, 2) partially decomposed plant residues and 3) old humus material. The partitioning of these three carbon sources in soil C pools (microbial biomass and dissolved organic matter) and quantification of their contributions in soil CO2 ?uxes is a current challenge in soil science aiming to reveal the C pathways and drivers in terrestrial ecosystems. We applied uniformly labeled 14C-cellulose and 14C-glucose (as low and easily available substrates, respectively) in Ap of loamy Haplic Luvisol developed under C3 vegetation. Miscanthus x giganteus (Greef et Deu) - a perennial C4 plant - was grown for 12 years before the experiment with glucose/cellulose addition. Natural differences in the abundance of 13C between C4 and C3 plants were used to distinguish between old SOC (> 12 years) and recent Miscanthus-derived C (< 12 years). This enabled us to estimate mechanisms and sources of priming effects (PE) during decomposition of applied substrates with varying availability. The real and apparent priming effects were distinguished by partitioning of microbial C for substrate-C and SOM-derived C. Microbial specific growth rates and activity of hydrolytic enzymes were determined to reveal the mechanisms of real PEs. Both short-term apparent and long-term real PEs were induces by glucose, while the cellulose input caused only real PE. Remarkably, the shift to the domination of slow-growing microorganisms was observed during real PEs independently of substrate quality. This is the first direct confirmation of the hypothesized presumable contribution of K-strategists to real priming. 2.5-3 times increase in beta-glucosidase and phosphatase activity coupled with real PE in soil treated with glucose indicated that strong limitation and microbial starvation after glucose consumption caused the PE. Contrary to that the 75% increase in cellobiohydrolase

  6. Psychological distress and community approach to the voice of the community health agent.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Pâmela Câmpelo; Torrenté, Mônica de Olivera Nunes de; Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro; Branco, July Grassiely de Oliveira; Tamboril, Bruna Caroline Rodrigues; Cabral, Ana Larisse Teles

    2016-06-01

    The user in psychological distress needs a service that provides a targeted assistance, that welcomes when required, acting as originator care device to the user on the network of health care. This study aimed to describe how people in psychological distress are perceived by the community in the voice of the community health worker. It is a qualitative research conducted with eighteen Community Health Agents, a Primary Care Unit Health (UAP) located in BE IV, in Fortaleza, Ceará. We used a semi-structured and individual interview. Data processing was due to the content analysis. Ethical and legal aspects on the advice No. 957,595. Through the speeches of ACS, it describes how the community perceives the person in psychic suffering and how it positions itself in the face of your everyday problems, as regards the rejection, prejudice, discrimination ne loss of identity. However it is emphasized that, because of being inserted in the community, the community health worker realizes more accurate way in which this social group is the person in mental distress. The rejection of the person who became ill is seen as a fairly common reaction, accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, marginalizing her from society. O usuário em sofrimento psíquico necessita de um serviço que proporcione uma assistência direcionada, que acolha no momento necessário, atuando como dispositivo ordenador do cuidado ao usuário na rede de atenção a saúde. Objetivou-se descrever como as pessoas em sofrimento psíquico são percebidas pela comunidade na voz do agente comunitário de saúde. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, realizada junto a dezoito Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, de uma Unidade de Atenção Primaria a Saúde (UAPS) situada na SER IV, em Fortaleza-Ceará. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semiestruturada e individual. O processamento dos dados deu-se pela análise de conteúdo. Aspectos éticos e legais sob parecer Nº 957.595. Através dos discursos dos ACS, descrevemos

  7. Field evidence for an active transtensional basin in western Anatolia: The Inner Bay of İzmir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzel, B.; Sözbilir, H.; Sümer, Ö.; Inci, U.; Özkaymak, Ç.

    2009-04-01

    the faults have controlled by an N-S extensional direction associated with E-W contraction. The data support that the kinematically linked Izmir Fault, Seferihisar Fault and Kaŗsıyaka Fault have been contributed to the opening of the inner bay of under the control of the transtensional forces. Key words: The ˙Izmir Bay, active fault, fault kinematics, transtensional basin. This research was supported by the Dokuz Eylül University Research Foundation (Project number: DEU-BAP-2007.KB.FEN.039)

  8. Psychological distress and community approach to the voice of the community health agent.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Pâmela Câmpelo; Torrenté, Mônica de Olivera Nunes de; Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro; Branco, July Grassiely de Oliveira; Tamboril, Bruna Caroline Rodrigues; Cabral, Ana Larisse Teles

    2016-06-01

    The user in psychological distress needs a service that provides a targeted assistance, that welcomes when required, acting as originator care device to the user on the network of health care. This study aimed to describe how people in psychological distress are perceived by the community in the voice of the community health worker. It is a qualitative research conducted with eighteen Community Health Agents, a Primary Care Unit Health (UAP) located in BE IV, in Fortaleza, Ceará. We used a semi-structured and individual interview. Data processing was due to the content analysis. Ethical and legal aspects on the advice No. 957,595. Through the speeches of ACS, it describes how the community perceives the person in psychic suffering and how it positions itself in the face of your everyday problems, as regards the rejection, prejudice, discrimination ne loss of identity. However it is emphasized that, because of being inserted in the community, the community health worker realizes more accurate way in which this social group is the person in mental distress. The rejection of the person who became ill is seen as a fairly common reaction, accompanied by prejudice and discrimination, marginalizing her from society. O usuário em sofrimento psíquico necessita de um serviço que proporcione uma assistência direcionada, que acolha no momento necessário, atuando como dispositivo ordenador do cuidado ao usuário na rede de atenção a saúde. Objetivou-se descrever como as pessoas em sofrimento psíquico são percebidas pela comunidade na voz do agente comunitário de saúde. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, realizada junto a dezoito Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, de uma Unidade de Atenção Primaria a Saúde (UAPS) situada na SER IV, em Fortaleza-Ceará. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semiestruturada e individual. O processamento dos dados deu-se pela análise de conteúdo. Aspectos éticos e legais sob parecer Nº 957.595. Através dos discursos dos ACS, descrevemos

  9. Trace element partitioning in rock forming minerals of co-genetic, subduction-related alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks in the Ural Mountains, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.

    2009-04-01

    (DOpx•Cpx(Lu) = 0.31) towards the LREE (DOpx•Cpx(Nd) = 0.01). The partition coefficients for plagioclase/clinopyroxene and K-feldspar/clinopyroxene in the alkaline melanogabbros decrease from the LREE (DPlg•Cpx(La) = 0.91, DK-fs•Cpx(La)=0.26) to the MREE (DPlg•Cpx(Sm) = 0.02, DK-fs•Cpx(Sm) = 0.006), but both mineral pairs have similar DEu (DPlg•Cpx(Eu) = 0.25, DK-fs•Cpx(Eu) = 0.23). Plagioclase/clinopyroxene partition coefficients for all REE in the tholeiitic gabbros are 3-5 times higher, if compared to those of the alkaline gabbros (DPlg•Cpx(La) = 1.7, DPlg•Cpx(Sm) = 0.034). Apatite/clinopyroxene partition coefficients for the REE decrease from the LREE (DAp•Cpx(La) = 65 in alkaline and 120 in tholeiitic gabbro) to the HREE (DAp•Cpx(Lu) = 4.5 in alkaline and 5.3 in tholeiitic gabbro). The lower partition coefficients for apatite/clinopyroxene and plagioclase/clinopyroxene in the alkaline melanogabbros can be explained by higher clinopyroxene/melt partition coefficients in this system. The higher Al2O3-content in clinopyroxene from the alkali gabbros (Al2O3 = 3.5-7 wt.%), if compared to clinopyroxene in the tholeiitic gabbros (Al2O3 = 2.0-4.5 wt.%) can account for a stronger partitioning of the REE into clinopyroxene in the alkaline rocks (e.g. Gaetani and Grove 1995). Experimental data by Gaetani (2004) also indicate a systematic increase of the Cpx/melt partition coefficients for the REE with increasing Al2O3 and Na2O contents of the parental melt in mafic systems. This is in agreement with the assumed compositional differences between the alkaline and the tholeiitic parental melts. Gaetani, G.A., 2004. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol. 147, 511-527. Gaetani, G.A., Grove, T.L, 1995. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 59, 1951-1962. Ionov, D.A., Griffin, W.L., O'Reily, S.Y., 1997. Chemical Geology, Vol. 141, 153-184.

  10. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção assima de 250% em médio da duas misturas. 12. Numero de tuberculos 0-20 mm e 20 mm- por planta com os manejos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 foi possível aumentar em media 200% sobre a mistura padrão. Os manejo de 18.0 grama de adubo vaso-1 já causaram importante diminuição em relação caso a absoluto controle. 13. Numero total de tuberculos por planta entre manejos foi melhor a dosagem de 7.2 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K comparando da mistura padrão. Nos verificamos-se que a mistura padrão sempre deu menor rasultados do que as outras misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2). Entre as misturas 1 e 2 a melhor foi a número 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Com esta mistura e com relação a mistura padrão, foi possível aumentar o número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com 77%. No caso do adubação, verificamos que grande quantidades de adubo acima de 7.2 grama vaso-1, de modo rigoroso diminuiu a produção de batata-semente pré- básica. Este fato deve ser considerado para a eleição das dosagens de adubos. Deve-se indicar o caso de número de tuberculos acima 20 mm-, onde em relação mistura padrão foi possivel aumentar em média 73% os resultados. Reconhecimento: Esta pesquisa foi apoio da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, Brasília-DF e Centro Pesquisa de Solo e Agroquímica do Academia Húngara de Ciências, Budapest References Kádár I-Márton L.-Horváth S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. Kurnik E.-Németh T.-Márton L.-Radimszki L. 2001. Effects of a new environment friendly deep fertilization system on a limy chernozem soil parameters. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press László M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81