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Sample records for deutsche forschungsgemeinschaft dfg

  1. [Publication rate of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)-supported research projects. An analysis of the "fate" of DFG-support methods in anesthesia, surgery and internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Boldt, J; Maleck, W

    2000-09-22

    Outstanding medical research is not possible without financial support. The success of supported research projects have been evaluated only rarely. The publication rate of research projects supported by the German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [DFG]) was assessed separately for internal medicine, surgery, and anesthesiology. Based on the "Figures and Facts" published by the DFG all supported projects of 1996 for all three specialities were included. In a Medline-based analysis all published papers dealing with the supported project and all papers published by the supported persons from 1996 to may 2000 were documented. A total of 315 grants were analysed (internal medicine: 234; surgery: 63; anesthesiology: 18). Projects with clinical topics were less often supported (n = 80) than experimental projects (n = 235). 162 (69.3%) of the grants in internal medicine, 41 (65.1) in surgery, and 14 (77.8%) of the grants in anesthesiology were published. In anesthesiology all published projects were in English language (internal medicine: 98.2%; surgery: 95%). Independent of the topic of the grant, several supported persons in internal medicine and surgery did not publish any papers between 1996 and may 2000, whereas all supported anesthesiologists published papers in peer reviewed journals in this time period. The publication rate of DFG supported projects is not sufficient. Except for a final internal report after finishing the research project no quality control exists for DFG grants. Unfortunately, not all supported projects were published. A better feedback between the financial support by the DFG and the publication rate of DFG grants is desirable.

  2. Low dose intoxication and a crisis of regulatory models. Chemical mutagens in the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), 1963-1973.

    PubMed

    von Schwerin, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Regulation and the prevention of danger are among the main characteristics of the modern state. However, the idea and the conceptualization of what danger is have changed over time. The genealogy of these changes shows that the history of social change and the history of knowledge are well connected. The 1970s marked the start of a social transformation of Western industrialized societies. This article proposes that this transformation was connected with basic epistemic reconfigurations and that the genealogy of risk played a significant role. This thesis is explored through the example of DFG advisory politics. Beginning in the 1960s, the DFG expert commissions that had been established to make policy and regulation recommendations began to focus more and more on the health effects of environmental pollution. The Commission for Questions of Mutagenicity played a particularly interesting role because its recommendations resulted in the foundation of a research institution run by the DFG, the Central Laboratory for Mutagenicity Testing (CML). The challenges faced by the CML in mutagenic research and testing effected a crisis of the expert-based advisory politics of the Mutagenicity Commission and a fundamental shift in the way scientific (regulatory) knowledge was perceived and valued politically. The pattern of this crisis calls to mind the constellation of the "risk society", but as will be shown, the (re)balancing of science and politics/society presented here is more adequately understood within the framework of political epistemology.

  3. Approximate inverse for the common offset acquisition geometry in 2D seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grathwohl, Christine; Kunstmann, Peer; Quinto, Eric Todd; Rieder, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We explore how the concept of approximate inverse can be used and implemented to recover singularities in the sound speed from common offset measurements in two space dimensions. Numerical experiments demonstrate the performance of the method. We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through CRC 1173. Quinto additionally thanks the Otto Mønsteds Fond and U.S. National Science Foundation (under grants DMS 1311558 and DMS 1712207) for their support. He thanks colleagues at DTU and KIT for their warm hospitality while this research was being done.

  4. Digitization as a Method of Preservation? Final Report of a Working Group of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Hartmut; Dorr, Marianne

    The German Research Association (DFG) is actively involved in preservation of research materials; it takes the view that in preservation, the enormous potential of digitization for access should be combined with the stability of microfilm for long-term storage. A working group was convened to investigate the technical state of digitization of…

  5. ["Maintaining a Common Culture"--the German Research Foundation and the Austrian-German scientific aid in the interbellum].

    PubMed

    Fengler, Silke; Luxbacher, Günther

    2011-12-01

    After the end of the Great War, private as well as public research funding in Austria was anaemic and slow to develop. Whereas the German state-funded Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) was established as early as 1920, first steps in that direction were only taken in Austria in the late 1920s. In 1929, the Osterreichisch-deutsche Wissenschaftshilfe (ODW) was founded under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the DFG. Although prima facie on an equal footing, the new research funding organisation was in fact highly dependent on its German cooperation partner. The article explores for the first time ODW's position within the German and Austrian science and foreign policies, which aimed to promote the idea of unification of both states within the German Reich. A quantitative analysis of the subsidies policy in the first five years of existence shows that the ODW gave financial aid primarily to conservative research fields, affecting the intellectual balance of power in the First Austrian Republic. Policy continuities and discontinuities of the organisation in the course of the national-socialist rise to power in Germany after 1933 are examined in the second part of the article. The article thus both increases our knowledge about the most important German research funding organisation DFG, and identifies some of the fundamental structural features of Austrian science policy in the interwar years.

  6. Modeling of the thermal boundary layer in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emran, Mohammad; Shishkina, Olga

    2016-11-01

    We report modeling of the thermal boundary layer in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC), which incorporates the effect of turbulent fluctuations. The study is based on the thermal boundary layer equation from Shishkina et al., and new Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of RBC in a cylindrical cell of the aspect ratio 1, for the Prandtl number variation of several orders of magnitude. Our modeled temperature profiles are found to agree with the DNS much better than those obtained with the classical Prandtl-Blasius or Falkner-Skan approaches. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship and SFB963, Project A06.

  7. Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng

    2010-09-30

    Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by twomore » such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.« less

  8. Chiral effective-field theory of the nucleon spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    I will review the recent chiral EFT calculations of the nucleon (spin) structure functions at low Q2, confronted with the Jefferson Lab measurements. The moments of the structure functions correspond with various polarizabilities, and I will explain why one of them - δLT - is especially interesting. I will also discuss how the spin structure functions at low Q enter in the atomic calculations of the hyperfine splittings and how they are impacting the ongoing experimental program at PSI (Switzerland) to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen. Partially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the Collaborative Research Center SFB 1044 [The Low-Energy Frontier of the Standard Model].

  9. Structural elucidation of the DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out states of TAM kinases and insight into the selectivity of their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Messoussi, Abdellah; Peyronnet, Lucile; Feneyrolles, Clémence; Chevé, Gwénaël; Bougrin, Khalid; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-10-10

    Structural elucidation of the active (DFG-Asp in) and inactive (DFG-Asp out) states of the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases is required for future development of TAM inhibitors as drugs. Herein we report a computational study on each of the three TAM members Tyro-3, Axl and Mer. DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out homology models of each one were built based on the X-ray structure of c-Met kinase, an enzyme with a closely related sequence. Structural validation and in silico screening enabled identification of critical amino acids for ligand binding within the active site of each DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out model. The position and nature of amino acids that differ among Tyro-3, Axl and Mer, and the potential role of these residues in the design of selective TAM ligands, are discussed.

  10. Supply Chain Engineering and the Use of a Supporting Knowledge Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakmann, Frank

    The future competition in markets will happen between logistics networks and no longer between enterprises. A new approach for supporting the engineering of logistics networks is developed by this research as a part of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 559: "Modeling of Large Networks in Logistics" at the University of Dortmund together with the Fraunhofer-Institute of Material Flow and Logistics founded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Based on a reference model for logistics processes, the process chain model, a guideline for logistics engineers is developed to manage the different types of design tasks of logistics networks. The technical background of this solution is a collaborative knowledge management application. This paper will introduce how new Internet-based technologies support supply chain design projects.

  11. Nusselt number and bulk temperature in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Weiss, Stephan; Shishkina, Olga; International CollaborationTurbulence Research Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We present an algorithm to calculate the Nusselt number (Nu) in measurements of the heat transport in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection under general non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) conditions. We further critically analyze the different ways to evaluate the dependences of Nu over the Rayleigh number (Ra) and show the sensitivity of these dependences to the reference temperatures in the bulk, top and bottom boundary layers (BLs). Finally we propose a method to predict the bulk temperature and a way to calculate the reference temperatures of the top and bottom BLs and validate them against the Göttingen measurements. The work is supported by the Max Planck Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.

  12. Bent dark soliton dynamics in two spatial dimensions beyond the mean field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Katsimiga, Garyfallia; Koutentakis, Georgios; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of a bented dark soliton embedded in two spatial dimensions beyond the mean-field approximation is explored. We examine the case of a single bented dark soliton comparing the mean-field approximation to a correlated approach that involves multiple orbitals. Fragmentation is generally present and significantly affects the dynamics, especially in the case of stronger interparticle interactions and in that of lower atom numbers. It is shown that the presence of fragmentation allows for the appearance of solitonic and vortex structures in the higher-orbital dynamics. In particular, a variety of excitations including dark solitons in multiple orbitals and vortex-antidark complexes is observed to arise spontaneously within the beyond mean-field dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  13. Quench-induced resonant tunneling mechanisms of bosons in an optical lattice with harmonic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Koutentakis, Georgios; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of small boson ensembles in one-dimensional optical lattices is explored upon a sudden quench of an additional harmonic trap from strong to weak confinement. We find that the competition between the initial localization and the repulsive interaction leads to a resonant response of the system for intermediate quench amplitudes, corresponding to avoided crossings in the many-body eigenspectrum with varying final trap frequency. In particular, we show that these avoided crossings can be utilized to prepare the system in a desired state. The dynamical response is shown to depend on both the interaction strength as well as the number of atoms manifesting the many-body nature of the tunneling dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  14. Structure-based drug design enables conversion of a DFG-in binding CSF-1R kinase inhibitor to a DFG-out binding mode

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Marvin J.; Pelc, Matthew; Kamtekar, Satwik

    2010-08-11

    The work described herein demonstrates the utility of structure-based drug design (SBDD) in shifting the binding mode of an HTS hit from a DFG-in to a DFG-out binding mode resulting in a class of novel potent CSF-1R kinase inhibitors suitable for lead development.

  15. Application of the DMRG in two dimensions: a parallel tempering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shijie; Zhao, Jize; Zhang, Xuefeng; Eggert, Sebastian

    The Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) is known to be a powerful algorithm for treating one-dimensional systems. When the DMRG is applied in two dimensions, however, the convergence becomes much less reliable and typically ''metastable states'' may appear, which are unfortunately quite robust even when keeping a very high number of DMRG states. To overcome this problem we have now successfully developed a parallel tempering DMRG algorithm. Similar to parallel tempering in quantum Monte Carlo, this algorithm allows the systematic switching of DMRG states between different model parameters, which is very efficient for solving convergence problems. Using this method we have figured out the phase diagram of the xxz model on the anisotropic triangular lattice which can be realized by hardcore bosons in optical lattices. SFB Transregio 49 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Allianz fur Hochleistungsrechnen Rheinland-Pfalz (AHRP).

  16. Fluctuations of Wigner-type random matrices associated with symmetric spaces of class DIII and CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Wigner-type randomizations of the tangent spaces of classical symmetric spaces can be thought of as ordinary Wigner matrices on which additional symmetries have been imposed. In particular, they fall within the scope of a framework, due to Schenker and Schulz-Baldes, for the study of fluctuations of Wigner matrices with additional dependencies among their entries. In this contribution, we complement the results of these authors by explicit calculations of the asymptotic covariances for symmetry classes DIII and CI and thus obtain explicit CLTs for these classes. On the technical level, the present work is an exercise in controlling the cumulative effect of systematically occurring sign factors in an involved sum of products by setting up a suitable combinatorial model for the summands. This aspect may be of independent interest. Research supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via SFB 878.

  17. Boundary layers and scaling relations in natural thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, Olga; Lohse, Detlef; Grossmann, Siegfried

    2017-11-01

    We analyse the boundary layer (BL) equations in natural thermal convection, which includes vertical convection (VC), where the fluid is confined between two differently heated vertical walls, horizontal convection (HC), where the fluid is heated at one part of the bottom plate and cooled at some other part, and Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC). For BL dominated regimes we derive the scaling relations of the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers (Nu, Re) with the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers (Ra, Pr). For VC the scaling relations are obtained directly from the BL equations, while for HC they are derived by applying the Grossmann-Lohse theory to the case of VC. In particular, for RBC with large Pr we derive Nu Pr0Ra1/3 and Re Pr-1Ra2/3. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.

  18. 3D simulation of floral oil storage in the scopa of South American insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruettgers, Alexander; Griebel, Michael; Pastrik, Lars; Schmied, Heiko; Wittmann, Dieter; Scherrieble, Andreas; Dinkelmann, Albrecht; Stegmaier, Thomas; InstituteNumerical Simulation Team; Institute of Crop Science; Resource Conservation Team; Institute of Textile Technology; Process Engineering Team

    2014-11-01

    Several species of bees in South America possess structures to store and transport floral oils. By using closely spaced hairs at their back legs, the so called scopa, these bees can absorb and release oil droplets without loss. The high efficiency of this process is a matter of ongoing research. Basing on recent x-ray microtomography scans from the scopa of these bees at the Institute of Textile Technology and Process Engineering Denkendorf, we build a three-dimensional computer model. Using NaSt3DGPF, a two-phase flow solver developed at the Institute for Numerical Simulation of the University of Bonn, we perform massively parallel flow simulations with the complex micro-CT data. In this talk, we discuss the results of our simulations and the transfer of the x-ray measurement into a computer model. This research was funded under GR 1144/18-1 by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  19. A thermodynamically consistent model for granular-fluid mixtures considering pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Julian; Wang, Yongqi

    2016-11-01

    A new mixture model for granular-fluid flows, which is thermodynamically consistent with the entropy principle, is presented. The extra pore pressure described by a pressure diffusion equation and the hypoplastic material behavior obeying a transport equation are taken into account. The model is applied to granular-fluid flows, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the dynamic fluid pressure to describe the pressure-like residual unknowns, hereby overcoming previous uncertainties in the modeling process. Besides the thermodynamically consistent modeling, numerical simulations are carried out and demonstrate physically reasonable results, including simple shear flow in order to investigate the vertical distribution of the physical quantities, and a mixture flow down an inclined plane by means of the depth-integrated model. Results presented give insight in the ability of the deduced model to capture the key characteristics of granular-fluid flows. We acknowledge the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for this work within the Project Number WA 2610/3-1.

  20. Multipulse interaction quenched ultracold few-bosonic ensembles in finite optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Neuhaus-Steinmetz, Jannis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The correlated non-equilibrium dynamics following a multipulse interaction quench protocol in few-bosonic ensembles confined in finite optical lattices is investigated. The multipulse interaction quench gives rise to the cradle and a global breathing mode. These modes are generated during the interaction pulse and persist also after the pulse. The corresponding tunneling dynamics consists of several energy channels accompanying the dynamics. The majority of the tunneling channels persist after the pulse, while only a few occur during the pulse. The induced excitation dynamics is also explored and a strong non-linear dependence on the delayed time of the multipulse protocol is observed. Moreover, the character of the excitation dynamics is also manifested by the periodic population of higher-lying lattice momenta. The above mentioned findings pave the way for future investigations on the direct control of the excitation dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  1. Interaction quantum quenches in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bauer, Andreas; Dorfner, Florian; Riegger, Luis; Orso, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the nonequilibrium dynamics in two interaction quantum quenches in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model. First, we study the decay of the Néel state as a function of interaction strength. We observe a fast charge dynamics over which double occupancies are built up, while the long-time decay of the staggered moment is controlled by spin excitations, corroborated by the analysis of the entanglement dynamics. Second, we investigate the formation of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) correlations in a spin-imbalanced system in quenches from the noninteracting case to attractive interactions. Even though the quench puts the system at a finite energy density, peaks at the characteristic FFLO quasimomenta are visible in the quasi-momentum distribution function, albeit with an exponential decay of s-wave pairing correlations. We also discuss the imprinting of FFLO correlations onto repulsively bound pairs and their rapid decay in ramps. Supported by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) via FOR 1807.

  2. Near-degeneracy in Excited Vibrational States of 207PbF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Nguyen, Alexander; Kim, Yongrak; Biekert, Andreas; Sears, Trevor; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Kudashov, A. D.; Skripnikov, L. V.; Titov, A. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy studies of 207PbF have demonstrated the near-degeneracy of two levels of opposite parity. These have attracted attention for the study of parity violation effects and the variation of fundamental constants using 207PbF. Further theoretical work has improved our detailed understanding of both 207PbF and 208PbF, and furthermore recently indicated that the finely split +/- parity levels grow monotonically closer for higher vibrational states. Our experimental results for v = 0-3 confirm this, and are in excellent agreement with our extended theoretical calculations up to v = 4; both will be presented. TJS acknowledges support from Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences within the Office of Basic Energy Sciences., as do RM, AB, YK, & AN from Pomona College & J-UG from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  3. Computational Study of the “DFG-Flip” Conformational Transition in c-Abl and c-Src Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases are crucial to cellular signaling pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and migration. To maintain normal regulation of cellular signal transductions, the activities of tyrosine kinases are also highly regulated. The conformation of a three-residue motif Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) near the N-terminus of the long “activation” loop covering the catalytic site is known to have a critical impact on the activity of c-Abl and c-Src tyrosine kinases. A conformational transition of the DFG motif can switch the enzyme from an active (DFG-in) to an inactive (DFG-out) state. In the present study, the string method with swarms-of-trajectories was used to computationally determine the reaction pathway connecting the two end-states, and umbrella sampling calculations were carried out to characterize the thermodynamic factors affecting the conformations of the DFG motif in c-Abl and c-Src kinases. According to the calculated free energy landscapes, the DFG-out conformation is clearly more favorable in the case of c-Abl than that of c-Src. The calculations also show that the protonation state of the aspartate residue in the DFG motif strongly affects the in/out conformational transition in c-Abl, although it has a much smaller impact in the case of c-Src due to local structural differences. PMID:25548962

  4. An experimental validation of the influence of flow profiles and stratified two-phase flow to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team

    2016-11-01

    We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.

  5. Influence of chirp on laser-pulse amplification in Brillouin backscattering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Goetz; Schluck, Friedrich; Spatschek, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    Plasma-based amplification of laser pulses is currently discussed as a key component for the next generation of high-intensity laser systems, possibly enabling the generation of ultra-short pulses in the exawatt-zetawatt regime. In these scenarios the energy of a long pump pulse (several ps to ns of duration) is transferred to a short seed pulse via a plasma oscillation. Weakly- and strongly-coupled (sc) Brillouin backscattering have been identified as potential candidates for robust amplification scenarios. With the help of three-wave interaction models, we investigate the influence of a chirp of the pump beam on the seed amplification. We show that chirp can mitigate deleterious spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump off noise and that at the same time the amplification dynamics due to Brillouin scattering is still intact. For the experimentally very interesting case of sc-Brillouin we find a dependence of the efficiency on the sign of the chirp. Funding provided by project B10 of SFB TR18 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  6. Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan

    The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  7. Heat and momentum transport scalings in vertical convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, Olga

    2016-11-01

    For vertical convection, where a fluid is confined between two differently heated isothermal vertical walls, we investigate the heat and momentum transport, which are measured, respectively, by the Nusselt number Nu and the Reynolds number Re . For laminar vertical convection we derive analytically the dependence of Re and Nu on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr from our boundary layer equations and find two different scaling regimes: Nu Pr 1 / 4 Ra 1 / 4 , Re Pr - 1 / 2 Ra 1 / 2 for Pr << 1 and Nu Pr0 Ra 1 / 4 , Re Pr-1 Ra 1 / 2 for Pr >> 1 . Direct numerical simulations for Ra from 105 to 1010 and Pr from 0.01 to 30 are in excellent ageement with our theoretical findings and show that the transition between the regimes takes place for Pr around 0.1. We summarize the results from and present new theoretical and numerical results for transitional and turbulent vertical convection. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.

  8. Dark-Bright Soliton Dynamics Beyond the Mean-Field Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsimiga, Garyfallia; Koutentakis, Georgios; Mistakidis, Simeon; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of dark bright solitons beyond the mean-field approximation is investigated. We first examine the case of a single dark-bright soliton and its oscillations within a parabolic trap. Subsequently, we move to the setting of collisions, comparing the mean-field approximation to that involving multiple orbitals in both the dark and the bright component. Fragmentation is present and significantly affects the dynamics, especially in the case of slower solitons and in that of lower atom numbers. It is shown that the presence of fragmentation allows for bipartite entanglement between the distinguishable species. Most importantly the interplay between fragmentation and entanglement leads to the decay of each of the initial mean-field dark-bright solitons into fast and slow fragmented dark-bright structures. A variety of excitations including dark-bright solitons in multiple (concurrently populated) orbitals is observed. Dark-antidark states and domain-wall-bright soliton complexes can also be observed to arise spontaneously in the beyond mean-field dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  9. Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric

    We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.

  10. Exploring the nonequilibrium dynamics of ultracold quantum gases by using numerical tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian

    Numerical tools such as exact diagonalization or the density matrix renormalization group method have been vital for the study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. Moreover, they provided unique insight for the interpretation of quantum gas experiments, whenever a direct comparison with theory is possible. By considering the example of the experiment by Ronzheimer et al., in which both an interaction quench and the release of bosons from a trap into an empty optical lattice (sudden expansion) was realized, I discuss several nonequilibrium effects of strongly interacting quantum gases. These include the thermalization of a closed quantum system and its connection to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, nonequilibrium mass transport, dynamical fermionization, and transient phenomena such as quantum distillation or dynamical quasicondensation. I highlight the role of integrability in giving rise to ballistic transport in strongly interacting 1D systems and in determining the asymptotic state after a quantum quench. The talk concludes with a perspective on open questions concerning 2D systems and the numerical simulation of their nonequilibrium dynamics. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 801.

  11. Conformational Analysis of the DFG-Out Kinase Motif and Biochemical Profiling of Structurally Validated Type II Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Structural coverage of the human kinome has been steadily increasing over time. The structures provide valuable insights into the molecular basis of kinase function and also provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of kinase inhibitors. There are a large number of kinase structures in the PDB for which the Asp and Phe of the DFG motif on the activation loop swap positions, resulting in the formation of a new allosteric pocket. We refer to these structures as “classical DFG-out” conformations in order to distinguish them from conformations that have also been referred to as DFG-out in the literature but that do not have a fully formed allosteric pocket. We have completed a structural analysis of almost 200 small molecule inhibitors bound to classical DFG-out conformations; we find that they are recognized by both type I and type II inhibitors. In contrast, we find that nonclassical DFG-out conformations strongly select against type II inhibitors because these structures have not formed a large enough allosteric pocket to accommodate this type of binding mode. In the course of this study we discovered that the number of structurally validated type II inhibitors that can be found in the PDB and that are also represented in publicly available biochemical profiling studies of kinase inhibitors is very small. We have obtained new profiling results for several additional structurally validated type II inhibitors identified through our conformational analysis. Although the available profiling data for type II inhibitors is still much smaller than for type I inhibitors, a comparison of the two data sets supports the conclusion that type II inhibitors are more selective than type I. We comment on the possible contribution of the DFG-in to DFG-out conformational reorganization to the selectivity. PMID:25478866

  12. Enhanced detection of thiophenol adsorbed on gold nanoparticles by SFG and DFG nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pluchery, Olivier; Humbert, Christophe; Valamanesh, Mehrnoush; Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Busson, Bertrand

    2009-09-21

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) are applied to study vibrational resonance of the thiophenol molecule adsorbed on two different gold samples. One sample is made of 17 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) fixed on a silicon substrate that has been previously functionalized with a silane monolayer (aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). This sample is fully characterized through visible reflection spectroscopy and AFM. The second sample is a gold monocrystal also covered with thiophenol molecules. From their comparison, an enhancement factor of 21 is deduced for the SFG signal on AuNPs with respect to the Au(111), related to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). From a combined analysis of the SFG and DFG spectra, we demonstrate that SFG/DFG spectroscopy is able to identify the nature of the substrate where the molecules are adsorbed. This opens new perspectives for this nonlinear spectroscopy by adding to its well-known intrinsic surface specificity, the ability to selectively probe the chemical layer capping the AuNPs.

  13. New Version of SeismicHandler (SHX) based on ObsPy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stammler, Klaus; Walther, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The command line version of SeismicHandler (SH), a scientific analysis tool for seismic waveform data developed around 1990, has been redesigned in the recent years, based on a project funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). The aim was to address new data access techniques, simplified metadata handling and a modularized software design. As a result the program was rewritten in Python in its main parts, taking advantage of simplicity of this script language and its variety of well developed software libraries, including ObsPy. SHX provides an easy access to waveforms and metadata via arclink and FDSN webservice protocols, also access to event catalogs is implemented. With single commands whole networks or stations within a certain area may be read in, the metadata are retrieved from the servers and stored in a local database. For data processing the large set of SH commands is available, as well as the SH scripting language. Via this SH language scripts or additional Python modules the command set of SHX is easily extendable. The program is open source, tested on Linux operating systems, documentation and download is found at URL "https://www.seismic-handler.org/".

  14. Generation of two-dimensional binary mixtures in complex plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieben, Frank; Block, Dietmar

    2016-10-01

    Complex plasmas are an excellent model system for strong coupling phenomena. Under certain conditions the dust particles immersed into the plasma form crystals which can be analyzed in terms of structure and dynamics. Previous experiments focussed mostly on monodisperse particle systems whereas dusty plasmas in nature and technology are polydisperse. Thus, a first and important step towards experiments in polydisperse systems are binary mixtures. Recent experiments on binary mixtures under microgravity conditions observed a phase separation of particle species with different radii even for small size disparities. This contradicts several numerical studies of 2D binary mixtures. Therefore, dedicated experiments are required to gain more insight into the physics of polydisperse systems. In this contribution first ground based experiments on two-dimensional binary mixtures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the requirements for the generation of such systems which involve the consideration of the temporal evolution of the particle properties. Furthermore, the structure of these two-component crystals is analyzed and compared to simulations. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG in the framework of the SFB TR24 Greifswald Kiel, Project A3b.

  15. Interaction quenched ultracold few-boson ensembles in periodically driven lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of interaction quenched finite ultracold bosonic ensembles in periodically driven one-dimensional optical lattices is investigated. It is shown that periodic driving enforces the bosons in the outer wells of the finite lattice to exhibit out-of-phase dipole-like modes, while in the central well the atomic cloud experiences a local breathing mode. The dynamical behavior is investigated with varying driving frequency, revealing a resonant-like behavior of the intra-well dynamics. An interaction quench in the periodically driven lattice gives rise to admixtures of different excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. We observe then multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes, with the position of the resonances being tunable via the driving frequency. Our results pave the way for future investigations on the use of combined driving protocols in order to excite different inter- and intra-well modes and to subsequently control them. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  16. Tension-induced binding of semiflexible biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetatos, Panayotis; von der Heydt, Alice; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the effect of polymer tension on the collective behaviour of reversible cross-links. We use a model of two parallel-aligned, weakly-bending wormlike chains with a regularly spaced sequence of binding sites subjected to a tensile force. Reversible cross-links attach and detach at the binding sites with an affinity controlled by a chemical potential. In a mean-field approach, we calculate the free energy of the system and we show the emergence of a free energy barrier which controls the reversible (un)binding. The tension affects the conformational entropy of the chains which competes with the binding energy of the cross-links. This competition gives rise to a sudden increase in the fraction of bound sites as the polymer tension increases. The force-induced first-order transition in the number of cross-links implies a sudden force-induced stiffening of the effective stretching modulus of the polymers. This mechanism may be relevant to the formation and stress-induced strengthening of stress fibers in the cytoskeleton. We acknowledge support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via grant SFB-937/A1.

  17. Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga

    2017-11-01

    Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.

  18. Morton Deutsch (1920-2017).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Peter T

    2018-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Morton Deutsch, who died March 13, 2017, at 97 years old. Deutsch believed in the power of ideas to rectify serious social problems, and in the role of science to refine our understanding of those ideas. Ranked among the 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century, he was a distinguished theorist and pioneer in the study of cooperation, conflict resolution and social justice, as well as a remarkably warm, wise and respectful mentor. Deutsch held numerous leadership positions, including faculty positions at Teachers College, Columbia University and New York University and various presidencies, and accumulated dozens of awards, including eight lifetime achievement awards and the creation of four awards in his name. He also trained as a psychoanalyst and had a private practice for many years. In 1986, he founded the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution at Columbia, where he continued to work and welcome students well into his 90s. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Author Correction: Protein-peptide association kinetics beyond the seconds timescale from atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Paul, Fabian; Wehmeyer, Christoph; Abualrous, Esam T; Wu, Hao; Crabtree, Michael D; Schöneberg, Johannes; Clarke, Jane; Freund, Christian; Weikl, Thomas R; Noé, Frank

    2018-03-09

    In the original version of this Article, the Acknowledgement section omitted financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft grant SFB 958/A4. This error has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

  20. DFG-out Mode of Inhibition by an Irreversible Type-1 Inhibitor Capable of Overcoming Gate-Keeper Mutations in FGF Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistance acquisition through kinase gate-keeper mutations is a major hurdle in the clinic. Here, we determined the first crystal structures of the human FGFR4 kinase domain (FGFR4K) alone and complexed with ponatinib, a promiscuous type-2 (DFG-out) kinase inhibitor, and an oncogenic FGFR4K harboring the V550L gate-keeper mutation bound to FIIN-2, a new type-1 irreversible inhibitor. Remarkably, like ponatinib, FIIN-2 also binds in the DFG-out mode despite lacking a functional group necessary to occupy the pocket vacated upon the DFG-out flip. Structural analysis reveals that the covalent bond between FIIN-2 and a cysteine, uniquely present in the glycine-rich loop of FGFR kinases, facilitates the DFG-out conformation, which together with the internal flexibility of FIIN-2 enables FIIN-2 to avoid the steric clash with the gate-keeper mutation that causes the ponatinib resistance. The structural data provide a blueprint for the development of next generation anticancer inhibitors through combining the salient inhibitory mechanisms of ponatinib and FIIN-2. PMID:25317566

  1. Re-Purposing an OER for the Online Language Course: A Case Study of "Deutsch Interaktiv" by the Deutsche Welle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Edward M.; Hondo, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This paper will describe pedagogical approaches for re-purposing an open educational resource (OER) designed and produced by the Deutsche Welle. This free online program, "Deutsch Interaktiv," consists of authentic digital videos, slideshows and audio texts and gives a contemporary overview of the culture and language in Germany, Austria…

  2. Structural Characterization of Proline-rich Tyrosine Kinase 2 (PYK2) Reveals a Unique (DFG-out) Conformation and Enables Inhibitor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seungil; Mistry, Anil; Chang, Jeanne S.

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) is a cytoplasmic, non-receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in multiple signaling pathways. It is a negative regulator of osteogenesis and considered a viable drug target for osteoporosis treatment. The high-resolution structures of the human PYK2 kinase domain with different inhibitor complexes establish the conventional bilobal kinase architecture and show the conformational variability of the DFG loop. The basis for the lack of selectivity for the classical kinase inhibitor, PF-431396, within the FAK family is explained by our structural analyses. Importantly, the novel DFG-out conformation with two diarylurea inhibitors (BIRB796, PF-4618433) reveals a distinct subclass of non-receptormore » tyrosine kinases identifiable by the gatekeeper Met-502 and the unique hinge loop conformation of Leu-504. This is the first example of a leucine residue in the hinge loop that blocks the ATP binding site in the DFG-out conformation. Our structural, biophysical, and pharmacological studies suggest that the unique features of the DFG motif, including Leu-504 hinge-loop variability, can be exploited for the development of selective protein kinase inhibitors.« less

  3. The effect of centrifugal buoyancy on the heat transport in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Susanne; Aurnou, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    In a rapidly rotating and differentially heated fluid, the centrifugal acceleration can play a similar role to that of gravity in generating convective motion. However, in the paradigm system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection, centrifugal buoyancy is typically not considered in theoretical studies and, thus, usually undesired in laboratory experiments, despite being unavoidable. How centrifugal buoyancy affects the turbulent flow, including the heat transport, is still largely unknown, in particular, when it can be considered negligible. We study this problem by means of direct numerical simulations. Unlike in experiments, we are able to systematically vary the Froude number Fr (ratio of centrifugal to gravitational acceleration) and the Rossby number Ro (dimensionless rotation rate) independently, and even set each to zero exactly. We show that the centrifugal acceleration simultaneously leads to contending phenomena, e.g. reflected by an increase and a decrease of the center temperature, or a suppression and an enhancement of the heat transfer efficiency. Which one prevails as net effect strongly depends on the combination of Fr and Ro. Furthermore, we discuss implications for experiments of rapidly rotating convection. SH acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grant HO 5890/1-1, JA by the NSF Geophysics Program.

  4. Rotating thermal convection at very large Rayleigh numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stephan; van Gils, Dennis; Ahlers, Guenter; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2016-11-01

    The large scale thermal convection systems in geo- and astrophysics are usually influenced by Coriolis forces caused by the rotation of their celestial bodies. To better understand the influence of rotation on the convective flow field and the heat transport at these conditions, we study Rayleigh-Bénard convection, using pressurized sulfur hexaflouride (SF6) at up to 19 bars in a cylinder of diameter D=1.12 m and a height of L=2.24 m. The gas is heated from below and cooled from above and the convection cell sits on a rotating table inside a large pressure vessel (the "Uboot of Göttingen"). With this setup Rayleigh numbers of up to Ra =1015 can be reached, while Ekman numbers as low as Ek =10-8 are possible. The Prandtl number in these experiment is kept constant at Pr = 0 . 8 . We report on heat flux measurements (expressed by the Nusselt number Nu) as well as measurements from more than 150 temperature probes inside the flow. We thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for financial support through SFB963: "Astrophysical Flow Instabilities and Turbulence". The work of GA was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR11-58514.

  5. Photoexcitations in a 1D manganite model: From quasiclassical light absorption to quasiparticle relaxations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, T.; Schumann, O.; Biebl, F.; Kramer, S.; Kehrein, S.; Manmana, S.; Rajpurohit, S.; Sotoudeh, M.; Blöchl, P.

    We investigate 1D correlated systems following a photoexcitation by combining ab-initio methods, time-dependent matrix product state (MPS) approaches, analytical insights from linearized quantum Boltzmann equations (LBE), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to describe the dynamics on different time scales ranging from femto- up to nanoseconds. This is done for manganite systems in the material class Pr1-xCaxMnO3. We derive 1D ab-initio model Hamiltonians for which we compute the ground states at different values of the doping using MD simulations. At half doping, we obtain a magnetic microstructure of alternating dimers from which we derive a 1D Hubbard-type model. The dynamics is analyzed concerning the formation and lifetime of such quasiparticles via a LBE. We find that the magnetic microstructure strongly enhances the lifetime of the excitations. In this way, our work constitutes a first step to building a unifying theoretical framework for the description of photoexcitations in strongly correlated materials over a wide range of time scales, capable of making predictions for ongoing experiments investigating pump-probe situations and unconventional photovoltaics. Financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through SFB/CRC1073 (Projects B03 and C03) is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Collections and Services Division. Section: Acquisitions and Exchange. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on acquisitions and exchange presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) a condensed English version and the full German text of the presentation, "Document Exchange and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Council)--The Acquisition of Grey and Special Literature…

  7. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 201/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino Pasa, André

    2004-04-01

    This issue contains scientific contributions to the 4th German/Brazilian Workshop on Applied Surface Science. The workshop was held in Germany at the beautiful Castle Ringberg conference site of the Max Planck Society, located 60 km from Munich, from 21-26 September 2003. The meeting was attended by about 50 participants, with 21 invited talks and 18 contributed presentations (8 oral and 10 posters) on relevant topics of surface science.As in previous meetings (1995 in Portobello, RJ, Brazil, 1998 in Döllnsee, Berlin, Germany, and 2001 in Itapema, SC, Brazil), a significant number of important questions in surface science were covered from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. In the field of materials science, emphasis was given to the description of the structural, physical and chemical properties of nanostructures and films of inorganic (metals, alloys and oxides) and organic (polymers and biological molecules) materials.A substantial part of the success of the meeting can be attributed to the relaxed atmosphere at the castle, near the lake Tegernsee, where excellent scientific presentations were mixed with intense discussions among both senior and younger researchers. The event also led to the development of new and ongoing collaborations between partners from Brazil and Germany.The organizers of the Workshop, Israel J. R. Baumvol (Porto Alegre, Brazil), Hajo Freund (Berlin, Germany), Wolfgang H. P. Losch (Natal, Brazil), Horst Niehus (Berlin, Germany), André A. Pasa (Florianópolis, Brazil) and Eberhard Umbach (Würzburg, Germany), are greatly indebted to the following organizations for financial support: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Fritz-Haber-Institut Berlin (FHI), Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) and the specially created intergovernmental agreement between CAPES and DFG to promote such meetings.

  8. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  9. Health Information in German (Deutsch)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Control and Prevention N Expand Section Nutrition Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a Great Plate - English PDF Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a Great Plate - Deutsch (German) PDF Center for Nutrition Policy and ...

  10. Complex segregation analysis of craniomandibular osteopathy in Deutsch Drahthaar dogs.

    PubMed

    Vagt, J; Distl, O

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated familial relationships among Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy and examined the most likely mode of inheritance. Sixteen Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy were diagnosed using clinical findings, radiography or computed tomography. All 16 dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy had one common ancestor. Complex segregation analyses rejected models explaining the segregation of craniomandibular osteopathy through random environmental variation, monogenic inheritance or an additive sex effect. Polygenic and mixed major gene models sufficiently explained the segregation of craniomandibular osteopathy in the pedigree analysis and offered the most likely hypotheses. The SLC37A2:c.1332C>T variant was not found in a sample of Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy, nor in healthy controls. Craniomandibular osteopathy is an inherited condition in Deutsch Drahthaar dogs and the inheritance seems to be more complex than a simple Mendelian model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Todd G. Deutsch | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    page. Research Interests Solar energy conversion to hydrogen fuel via PEC water splitting III-V ://orcid.org/0000-0001-6577-1226 Dr. Deutsch has been studying photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting since semiconductor water-splitting systems under the joint guidance of Dr. Turner and Prof. Carl A. Koval in the

  12. Ice nucleating particles measured during the laboratory and field intercomparisons FIN-2 and FIN-3 by the diffusion chamber FRIDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Curtius, Joachim; Haunold, Werner; Thomson, Erik; Bingemer, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INP) is still challenging. In the absence of easily applicable INP standards the intercomparison of different methods during collaborative laboratory and field workshops is a valuable tool that can shine light on the performance of individual methods for the measurement of INP [1]. FIN-2 was conducted in March 2015 at the AIDA facility in Karlsruhe as an intercomparison of mobile instruments for measuring INP [2]. FIN-3 was a field campaign at the Desert Research Institutes Storm Peak Laboratory in Colorado in September 2015 [3]. The FRankfurt Ice nucleation Deposition freezinG Experiment (FRIDGE) participated in both experiments. FRIDGE measures ice nucleating particles by electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles onto Si-wafers in a collection unit, followed by activation, growth, and optical detection of ice crystals on the substrate in an isostatic diffusion chamber [4,5]. We will present and discuss results of our measurements of deposition/condensation INP and of immersion INP with FRIDGE during FIN-2 and FIN-3. Acknowledgements: The valuable contributions of the FIN organizers and their institutions, and of the FIN Workshop Science team are gratefully acknowledged. Our work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Research Unit FOR 1525 (INUIT) and the EU FP7-ENV- 2013 BACCHUS project under Grant Agreement 603445.

  13. Requirements for future development of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.; Seeger, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall simulation with small scale simulators is a method used worldwide to assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion, infiltration and interrelated processes such as soil sealing, crusting, splash and redistribution of solids and solutes. Following the outcomes of the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" and the "International Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011" in Trier, the necessity for further technical improvements of simulators and strategies towards an adaption of designs and methods becomes obvious. Uniform measurements of artificially generated rainfall and comparative measurements on a prepared bare fallow with rainfall simulators used by European research groups showed limitations of the comparability of the results. The following requirements, essential for small portable rainfall simulators, were identified: (I) Low and efficient water consumption for use in areas with water shortage, (II) easy handling and control of test conditions, (III) homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution, (IV) best possible drop spectrum (physically), (V) reproducibility and knowledge of spatial distribution and drop spectrum, (VI) easy and fast training of operators to obtain reproducible experiments and (VII) good mobility and easy installation for use in remote areas and in regions where highly erosive rainfall events are rare or irregular. The presentation discusses possibilities for a common use of identical plot designs, rainfall intensities and nozzles.

  14. Mode-coupling of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of interaction quenched finite ultracold bosonic ensembles in periodically driven one-dimensional optical lattices is investigated. As a first attempt a brief analysis of the dynamics caused exclusively by the periodically driven lattice is presented and the induced low-lying modes are introduced. It is shown that the periodic driving enforces the bosons in the outer wells to exhibit out-of-phase dipole-like modes, while in the central well the cloud experiences a local-breathing mode. The dynamical behavior of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency, revealing a resonant-like behavior of the intra-well dynamics. Subsequently, we drive the system to a highly non-equilibrium state by performing an interaction quench upon the periodically driven lattice. This protocol gives rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result (of the quench) the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Finally, our study reveals that the position of the resonances can be adjusted e.g. via the driving frequency or the atom number manifesting their many-body nature. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  15. Origin of superconductivity in KFe2As2 under positive and negative pressures and relation to other Fe-based families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, Roser

    KFe2As2 shows an intricate behavior as a function of pressure. At ambient pressure the system is superconductor with a low critical temperature Tc=3.4 K and follows a V-shaped pressure dependence of Tc for moderate pressures with a local minimum at a pressure of 1.5 GPa. Under high pressures Pc=15 GPa, KFe2As2 exhibits a structural phase transition from a tetragonal to a collapsed tetragonal phase accompanied by a boost of the superconducting critical temperature up to 12 K. On the other hand, negative pressures realized through substitution of K by Cs or Rb decrease Tc down to 2.25K. In this talk we will discuss recent progress on the understanding of the microscopic origin of this pressure-dependent behavior by considering a combination of ab initio density functional theory with dynamical mean field theory and spin fluctuation theory calculations. We will argue that a Lifshitz transition associated with the structural collapse changes the pairing symmetry from d-wave (tetragonal) to s+/- (collapsed tetragonal) at high pressures while at ambient and negative pressures correlation effects appear to be detrimental for superconductivity. Further, we shall establish cross-links to the chalcogenide family, in particular FeSe under pressure. The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) is gratefully acknowledged for financial support.

  16. Remembering Albert deutsch, an advocate for mental health.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2011-12-01

    Albert Deutsch, journalist, advocate for the mentally ill, and honorary APA Fellow died 50 years ago. Author of The Mentally Ill in America and The Shame of the States, he believed in the obligation of individuals and institutions to advocate for patients. In 1961, he was in the midst of a vast project to assess the state of the art in psychiatric research. This article recalls aspects of Deutsch's life and work and places him in the historical context of individuals who have shown great compassion for disabled persons.

  17. Ich spreche Deutsch: A User's Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassar, Sheila

    1969-01-01

    The textbook under discussion, "Ich spreche Deutsch" by Heinz Griesbach and Dora Schulz (London-Harlow: Longmans-Hueber, 1966), is intended to be a one-year introduction to German, particularly for less academic pupils and students. (FWB)

  18. Experimental demonstration of novel cascaded SFG+DFG wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses in LiNbO 3 waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Luo, Chuanhong

    2006-06-01

    A novel cascaded χ (2) wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses based on sum frequency generation and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in LiNbO 3 waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57-ps pulse width is adopted. First of all, high conversion efficiency about -18.93dB can be achieved with low power level required for both two pump lights, which is greatly enhanced approximately 8dB compared with the conventional cascaded second-order nonlinear interactions (SHG+DFG) with a single and much higher power pump. Secondly, the wavelength of the converted idler wave can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm when the signal wavelength is changed from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm, and about 13.1nm converted idler bandwidth is achieved with the conversion efficiency higher than -31dB. Thirdly, two pump wavelengths can be separated as large as 17.3nm. Meanwhile, when one pump wavelength is fixed at 1549.1nm, the other can be tuned within a wide wavelength range about 7.6nm with the conversion efficiency higher than -34dB, which is much larger than that in the SHG+DFG situation. Finally, the temporal waveform of the converted idler pulse is observed with rather clear appearance achieved, and no obvious changes of the pulse shape and width are found compared with its corresponding original injected signal, showing that our proposed scheme exhibits a very good conversion performance.

  19. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  20. Spin injection devices with high mobility 2DEG channels (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciorga, Mariusz; Oltscher, Martin; Kuczmik, Thomas; Loher, Josef; Bayer, Andreas; Schuh, Dieter; Bougeard, Dominique; Weiss, Dieter

    2016-10-01

    Effective electrical spin injection into two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is a prerequisite for many new functionalities in spintronic device concepts, with the Datta-Das spin field effect transistor [1] being a primary example. Here we will discuss some of the results of our studies on spin injection devices with high mobility 2DEG confined in an inverted AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction and a diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As employed as a source and a detector of spin-polarized carriers. Firstly we will show that nonlocal spin valve signal in such devices can significantly exceed the prediction of the standard model of spin injection based on spin drift-diffusion equations [2], what leads to conclusion that ballistic transport in the 2D region directly below the injector should be taken into account to fully describe the spin injection process [3]. Furthermore, we demonstrate also a large magnetoresistance (MR) signal of 20% measured in local configuration, i.e., with spin-polarized current flowing between two ferromagnetic contacts. To our knowledge, this is the highest value of MR observed so far in semiconductor channels. The work has been supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through SFB689. [1] S. Datta and B. Das, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 665 (1990) [2] M. Oltscher et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 236602 (2014) [3] K. Cheng and S. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 92, 214402 (2015)

  1. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  2. Efficient classical simulation of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Simon's algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Niklas; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2017-09-01

    A long-standing aim of quantum information research is to understand what gives quantum computers their advantage. This requires separating problems that need genuinely quantum resources from those for which classical resources are enough. Two examples of quantum speed-up are the Deutsch-Jozsa and Simon's problem, both efficiently solvable on a quantum Turing machine, and both believed to lack efficient classical solutions. Here we present a framework that can simulate both quantum algorithms efficiently, solving the Deutsch-Jozsa problem with probability 1 using only one oracle query, and Simon's problem using linearly many oracle queries, just as expected of an ideal quantum computer. The presented simulation framework is in turn efficiently simulatable in a classical probabilistic Turing machine. This shows that the Deutsch-Jozsa and Simon's problem do not require any genuinely quantum resources, and that the quantum algorithms show no speed-up when compared with their corresponding classical simulation. Finally, this gives insight into what properties are needed in the two algorithms and calls for further study of oracle separation between quantum and classical computation.

  3. Two homologous genes, DCW1 (YKL046c) and DFG5, are essential for cell growth and encode glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins required for cell wall biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Wu, Hong; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2002-11-01

    The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of glucan, chitin and various kinds of mannoproteins. Major parts of mannoproteins are synthesized as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and are then transferred to cell wall beta-1,6-glucan. A glycosyltransferase has been hypothesized to catalyse this transfer reaction. A database search revealed that the products of YKL046c and DFG5 are homologous to bacterial mannosidase. These genes are homologous to each other and have primary structures characteristic of GPI-anchored proteins. Although single disruptants of ykl046c and dfg5 were viable, ykl046cDelta was hypersensitive to a cell wall-digesting enzyme (zymolyase), suggesting that this gene is involved in cell wall biosynthesis. We therefore designated this gene as DCW1 (defective cell wall). A double disruptant of dcw1 and dfg5 was synthetically lethal, indicating that the functions of these gene products are redundant, and at least one of them is required for cell growth. Cells deficient in both Dcw1p and Dfg5p were round and large, had cell walls that contained an increased amount of chitin and secreted a major cell wall protein, Cwp1p, into the medium. Biochemical analyses showed that epitope-tagged Dcw1p is an N-glycosylated, GPI-anchored membrane protein and is localized in the membrane fraction including the cell surface. These results suggest that both Dcw1p and Dfg5p are GPI-anchored membrane proteins and are required for normal biosynthesis of the cell wall.

  4. THE DEUTSCH MODEL--INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.

    THE DEUTSCH INTERVENTION MODEL IS BASED ON THE THEORY THAT ENVIRONMENT PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE SKILLS AND OF FUNCTIONAL USE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPABILITIES. DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN HAVE INTELLECTUAL DEFICITS WHICH MAY BE OVERCOME BY USE OF MATCHED REMEDIAL MEASURES. LANGUAGE SKILLS AND MOTIVATION CAN BE IMPROVED BY TEACHING…

  5. Implementation of a three-qubit refined Deutsch Jozsa algorithm using SFG quantum logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelDuce, A.; Savory, S.; Bayvel, P.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we present a quantum logic circuit which can be used for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit solid state quantum computer based on a recent proposal of optically driven quantum logic gates. In these gates, the entanglement of randomly placed electron spin qubits is manipulated by optical excitation of control electrons. The circuit we describe solves the Deutsch problem with an improved algorithm called the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We show that it is possible to select optical pulses that solve the Deutsch problem correctly, and do so without losing quantum information to the control electrons, even though the gate parameters vary substantially from one gate to another.

  6. Dynamic response functions, helical gaps, and fractional charges in quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Tobias; Pedder, Christopher J.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    We show how experimentally accessible dynamic response functions can discriminate between helical gaps due to magnetic field, and helical gaps driven by electron-electron interactions (''umklapp gaps''). The latter are interesting since they feature gapped quasiparticles of fractional charge e / 2 , and - when coupled to a standard superconductor - an 8 π-Josephson effect and topological zero energy states bound to interfaces. National Research Fund, Luxembourg (ATTRACT 7556175), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GRK 1621 and SFB 1143), Swiss National Science Foundation.

  7. Quantum Cryptography Based on the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao; Farouk, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Recently, secure quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using the Bell state is reported (Nagata and Nakamura, Int. J. Theor. Phys. doi: 10.1007/s10773-017-3352-4, 2017). Our aim is of extending the result to a multipartite system. In this paper, we propose a highly speedy key distribution protocol. We present sequre quantum key distribution based on a special Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. Bob has promised to use a function f which is of one of two kinds; either the value of f( x) is constant for all values of x, or else the value of f( x) is balanced, that is, equal to 1 for exactly half of the possible x, and 0 for the other half. Here, we introduce an additional condition to the function when it is balanced. Our quantum key distribution overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor O(2 N ).

  8. Kinder Lernen Deutsch. Materials Project Part I. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Teachers of German.

    The Kinder Lernen Deutsch (LKD) materials evaluation project identifies materials appropriate for the elementary school German classrooms in grades K-8. This guide consists of an annotated bibliography, with ratings, of these materials. The guiding principles by which the materials were assessed were: use of the communicative approach; integration…

  9. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  10. Graphene-based room-temperature implementation of a modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2015-12-04

    We present an implementation of a one-qubit and two-qubit modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm based on graphene ballistic devices working at room temperature. The modified Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm decides whether a function, equivalent to the effect of an energy potential distribution on the wave function of ballistic charge carriers, is constant or not, without measuring the output wave function. The function need not be Boolean. Simulations confirm that the algorithm works properly, opening the way toward quantum computing at room temperature based on the same clean-room technologies as those used for fabrication of very-large-scale integrated circuits.

  11. Implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with macroscopic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, Henry; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Quantum computing implementations under consideration today typically deal with systems with microscopic degrees of freedom such as photons, ions, cold atoms, and superconducting circuits. The quantum information is stored typically in low-dimensional Hilbert spaces such as qubits, as quantum effects are strongest in such systems. It has, however, been demonstrated that quantum effects can be observed in mesoscopic and macroscopic systems, such as nanomechanical systems and gas ensembles. While few-qubit quantum information demonstrations have been performed with such macroscopic systems, a quantum algorithm showing exponential speedup over classical algorithms is yet to be shown. Here, we show that the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm can be implemented with macroscopic ensembles. The encoding that we use avoids the detrimental effects of decoherence that normally plagues macroscopic implementations. We discuss two mapping procedures which can be chosen depending upon the constraints of the oracle and the experiment. Both methods have an exponential speedup over the classical case, and only require control of the ensembles at the level of the total spin of the ensembles. It is shown that both approaches reproduce the qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, and are robust under decoherence.

  12. Deutsches "Nationales Krebshilfe-Monitoring" 2015-2019 - Studienprotokoll und erste Ergebnisse.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Görig, Tatiana; Schilling, Laura; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Greinert, Rüdiger; Diehl, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    Das Projekt "Nationales Krebshilfe-Monitoring zur Solariennutzung" (National Cancer Aid Monitoring of Tanning Bed Use, NCAM) ist eine deutsche Großstudie mit dem Ziel, die wichtigsten Risikofaktoren für Hautkrebs zu beobachten: natürliches Sonnenlicht und künstliche UV-Strahlung. NCAM ist eine bundesweite Querschnittstudie mit zunächst vier Runden der Datenerfassung (sogenannten Wellen) zwischen 2015 und 2018. Jedes Jahr wird eine bundesweit repräsentative Stichprobe aus 3.000 Personen im Alter von 14 bis 45 Jahren befragt. Die Querschnittsbefragung wird durch eine Kohorte von n = 450 aktuellen Solariennutzern ergänzt. Die erste Welle im Jahr 2015 ergab eine Gesamtprävalenz der Solariennutzung von 29,5 %. Elf Prozent aller Teilnehmer hatten in den vergangenen zwölf Monaten ein Solarium genutzt. Zu den Determinanten der aktuellen Solariennutzung gehörten jüngeres Alter, weibliches Geschlecht und Vollzeit-/Teilzeitbeschäftigung. Die hauptsächlichen Beweggründe, die für die Nutzung eines Solariums genannt wurden, waren Entspannung und Attraktivitätssteigerung. NCAM ist weltweit die erste Studie zur Überwachung der Risikofaktoren für Hautkrebs in jährlichen Intervallen anhand einer großen, landesweit repräsentativen Stichprobe. Erste Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass Millionen Deutsche trotz Warnungen der WHO Solarien nutzen, und dass viele dieser Nutzer Jugendliche sind - trotz gesetzlicher Beschränkungen, die das Ziel haben, die Nutzung von Solarien durch Minderjährige zu verhindern. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development and comparison of metrics for evaluating climate models and estimation of projection uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Christoph; Pollinger, Felix; Kaspar-Ott, Irena; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Paeth, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    The COMEPRO project (Comparison of Metrics for Probabilistic Climate Change Projections of Mediterranean Precipitation), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), is dedicated to the development of new evaluation metrics for state-of-the-art climate models. Further, we analyze implications for probabilistic projections of climate change. This study focuses on the results of 4-field matrix metrics. Here, six different approaches are compared. We evaluate 24 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3), 40 of CMIP5 and 18 of the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). In addition to the annual and seasonal precipitation the mean temperature is analysed. We consider both 50-year trend and climatological mean for the second half of the 20th century. For the probabilistic projections of climate change A1b, A2 (CMIP3) and RCP4.5, RCP8.5 (CMIP5,CORDEX) scenarios are used. The eight main study areas are located in the Mediterranean. However, we apply our metrics to globally distributed regions as well. The metrics show high simulation quality of temperature trend and both precipitation and temperature mean for most climate models and study areas. In addition, we find high potential for model weighting in order to reduce uncertainty. These results are in line with other accepted evaluation metrics and studies. The comparison of the different 4-field approaches reveals high correlations for most metrics. The results of the metric-weighted probabilistic density functions of climate change are heterogeneous. We find for different regions and seasons both increases and decreases of uncertainty. The analysis of global study areas is consistent with the regional study areas of the Medeiterrenean.

  14. Kinder Lernen Deutsch Materials Evaluation Project: Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Teachers of German.

    The Kinder Lernen Deutsch (Children Learn German) project, begun in 1987, is designed to promote German as a second language in grades K-8. The project is premised on the idea that the German program will contribute to the total development of the child and the child's personality. Included in this guide are a selection of recommended core…

  15. The Dirac equation and the normalization of its solutions in a closed Friedmann- Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finster, Felix; Reintjes, Moritz

    2009-05-01

    We set up the Dirac equation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and separate the spatial and time variables. In the case of a closed universe, the spatial dependence is solved explicitly, giving rise to a discrete set of solutions. We compute the probability integral and analyze a spacetime normalization integral. This analysis allows us to introduce the fermionic projector in a closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and to specify its global normalization as well as its local form. First author supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  16. Against the empirical viability of the Deutsch-Wallace-Everett approach to quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawid, Richard; Thébault, Karim P. Y.

    2014-08-01

    The subjective Everettian approach to quantum mechanics presented by Deutsch and Wallace fails to constitute an empirically viable theory of quantum phenomena. The decision theoretic implementation of the Born rule realized in this approach provides no basis for rejecting Everettian quantum mechanics in the face of empirical data that contradicts the Born rule. The approach of Greaves and Myrvold, which provides a subjective implementation of the Born rule as well but derives it from empirical data rather than decision theoretic arguments, avoids the problem faced by Deutsch and Wallace and is empirically viable. However, there is good reason to cast doubts on its scientific value.

  17. A different Deutsch-Jozsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Debajyoti

    2015-06-01

    One of the early achievements of quantum computing was demonstrated by Deutsch and Jozsa (Proc R Soc Lond A Math Phys Sci 439(1907):553, 1992) regarding classification of a particular type of Boolean functions. Their solution demonstrated an exponential speedup compared to classical approaches to the same problem; however, their solution was the only known quantum algorithm for that specific problem so far. This paper demonstrates another quantum algorithm for the same problem, with the same exponential advantage compared to classical algorithms. The novelty of this algorithm is the use of quantum amplitude amplification, a technique that is the key component of another celebrated quantum algorithm developed by Grover (Proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual ACM symposium on theory of computing, ACM Press, New York, 1996). A lower bound for randomized (classical) algorithms is also presented which establishes a sound gap between the effectiveness of our quantum algorithm and that of any randomized algorithm with similar efficiency.

  18. An Applied Methodology for the Use of "Deutsch, Erstes Buch."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimler, G. Richard

    Discussion of teaching methods used with the text, "Deutsch, Erstes Buch" by Hugo Mueller, focuses on practical approaches to the problem of teaching culture through the spoken language and the use of pattern practice. While concentrating on Chapter Eight, "In der Sommerfrische," discussion is presented in subdivisions characteristic of every…

  19. The N-Linked Outer Chain Mannans and the Dfg5p and Dcw1p Endo-α-1,6-Mannanases Are Needed for Incorporation of Candida albicans Glycoproteins into the Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Jie; Chinnici, Jennifer L.; Maddi, Abhiram

    2015-01-01

    A biochemical pathway for the incorporation of cell wall protein into the cell wall of Neurospora crassa was recently proposed. In this pathway, the DFG-5 and DCW-1 endo-α-1,6-mannanases function to covalently cross-link cell wall protein-associated N-linked galactomannans, which are structurally related to the yeast outer chain mannans, into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. In this report, we demonstrate that the mannosyltransferase enzyme Och1p, which is needed for the synthesis of the N-linked outer chain mannan, is essential for the incorporation of cell wall glycoproteins into the Candida albicans cell wall. Using endoglycosidases, we show that C. albicans cell wall proteins are cross-linked into the cell wall via their N-linked outer chain mannans. We further demonstrate that the Dfg5p and Dcw1p α-1,6-mannanases are needed for the incorporation of cell wall glycoproteins into the C. albicans cell wall. Our results support the hypothesis that the Dfg5p and Dcw1p α-1,6-mannanases incorporate cell wall glycoproteins into the C. albicans cell wall by cross-linking outer chain mannans into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. PMID:26048011

  20. Two Thematic Units for the Middle School Curriculum: An Initiative by the "Kinder lernen Deutsch" Steering Committee's Writing Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Iris; Freimann-Cavanaugh, Corinna; Eichler, Ester

    2009-01-01

    The Kinder lernen Deutsch Committee (KLD) is a standing committee of the AATG that has existed since 1987 and that was originally charged to support the advocacy of German in grades K-8. With generous funding by the Standige Arbeitsgruppe Deutsch als Fremdsprache (StADaF) from the German government and the Goethe-Institut, the Kinder lernen…

  1. Transient Phenomena in Multiphase and Multicomponent Systems: Research Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zur Beurteilung von Stoffen in der Landwirtschaft, Senatskommission

    2000-09-01

    Due to the reinforced risk and safety-analysis of industrial plants in chemical and energy-engineering there has been increased demand in industry for more information on thermo- and fluiddynamic effects of non-equilibria during strong transients. Therefore, the 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' initiated a special research program focusing on the study of transient phenomena in multiphase systems with one or several components. This book describes macroscopic as well as microscopic transient situations. A large part of the book deals with numerical methods for describing transients in two-phase mixtures. New developments in measuring techniques are also presented.

  2. 160-Gb/s all-optical phase-transparent wavelength conversion through cascaded SFG-DFG in a broadband linear-chirped PPLN waveguide.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Shinada, Satoshi; Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Ito, Hiromasa

    2010-03-15

    We experimentally demonstrated ultra-fast phase-transparent wavelength conversion using cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation (cSFG-DFG) in linear-chirped periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Error-free wavelength conversion of a 160-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signal was successfully achieved. Thanks to the enhanced conversion bandwidth in the PPLN with linear-chirped periods, no optical equalizer was required to compensate the spectrum distortion after conversion, unlike a previous demonstration of 160-Gb/s RZ on-off keying (OOK) using fixed-period PPLN.

  3. Ice nucleating particles from a large-scale sampling network: insight into geographic and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrod, Jann; Weber, Daniel; Thomson, Erik S.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Saturno, Jorge; Artaxo, Paulo; Curtius, Joachim; Bingemer, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    The number concentration of ice nucleating particles (INP) is an important, yet under quantified atmospheric parameter. The temporal and geographic extent of observations worldwide remains relatively small, with many regions of the world (even whole continents and oceans), almost completely unrepresented by observational data. Measurements at pristine sites are particularly rare, but all the more valuable because such observations are necessary to estimate the pre-industrial baseline of aerosol and cloud related parameters that are needed to better understand the climate system and forecast future scenarios. As a partner of BACCHUS we began in September 2014 to operate an INP measurement network of four sampling stations, with a global geographic distribution. The stations are located at unique sites reaching from the Arctic to the equator: the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory ATTO in Brazil, the Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean Sea, the Zeppelin Observatory at Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic and the Taunus Observatory near Frankfurt, Germany. Since 2014 samples were collected regularly by electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles onto silicon substrates. The INP on the substrate are activated and analyzed in the isothermal static diffusion chamber FRIDGE at temperatures between -20°C and -30°C and relative humidity with respect to ice from 115 to 135%. Here we present data from the years 2015 and 2016 from this novel INP network and from selected campaign-based measurements from remote sites, including the Mt. Kenya GAW station. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) project BACCHUS under grant agreement No 603445 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Research Unit FOR 1525 (INUIT).

  4. Longterm monitoring of pressure, tilt and temperature at Logatchev Hydrothermal Vent Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villinger, H. W.; Gennerich, H.-H.; Fabian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The geophysical parameters of pressure, tilt, acceleration and temperature at the Logatchev Hydrothermal Vent Field (LHF) which is located in 3050m water depth at about 15˚ N at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, were monitored with high resolution for more than two and a half years, from May 2005 until December 2007. An autonomously operating Ocean Bottom Pressure Station (OBP; resolution of 80 Pa in the first year, improved to 8 Pa afterwards, sampling period of 2 minutes in the first year, increased to 2 seconds afterwards) and a programmable Ocean Bottom Tiltmeter (OBT; resolution 1 rad, sampling period 6 seconds) measured local ocean-floor point motions derived from tilt and absolute pressure. In addition, vertical acceleration was measured using a MEMS accelerometer (resolution 10-5 m/s2, sampling rate 1.33 Hz) within the housing of the OBT. Numerous autonomous temperature loggers (resolution 0.001˚ C, sampling period 15 minutes) were installed at prominent places like mussel fields or soil fissures within the LHF. Time series are analyzed using Fourier-Transformation techniques but also using the novel approach called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Pressure records show a modulated background noise level with increased amplitudes lasting for several days to weeks, and most likely show signals generated by local earthquakes. Bottom water temperature has transients with peak-to-peak-amplitudes of up to 0.1˚ C, which correlate for a number of events directly with earthquake signals. A comparison of pressure, tilt, acceleration and temperature data events shows that all four records are correlated. For a few of those events a direct causal link can be firmly established. The study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and part of Priority Program 1144 ("From Mantle to Ocean: Energy-, Material- and Life-cycles at Spreading Axes").

  5. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  6. Cold Milky Way HI Gas in Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.; Haud, U.; Winkel, B.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Flöer, L.; Lenz, D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate data from the Galactic Effelsberg-Bonn H I Survey, supplemented with data from the third release of the Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS III) observed at Parkes. We explore the all-sky distribution of the local Galactic H I gas with | {v}{{LSR}}| \\lt 25 km s-1 on angular scales of 11‧-16‧. Unsharp masking is applied to extract small-scale features. We find cold filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission and conclude that the cold neutral medium (CNM) is mostly organized in sheets that are, because of projection effects, observed as filaments. These filaments are associated with dust ridges, aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures by Planck at 353 GHz. The CNM above latitudes | b| \\gt 20^\\circ is described by a log-normal distribution, with a median Doppler temperature TD = 223 K, derived from observed line widths that include turbulent contributions. The median neutral hydrogen (H I) column density is NH I ≃ 1019.1 cm-2. These CNM structures are embedded within a warm neutral medium with NH I ≃ 1020 cm-2. Assuming an average distance of 100 pc, we derive for the CNM sheets a thickness of ≲0.3 pc. Adopting a magnetic field strength of Btot = (6.0 ± 1.8) μG, proposed by Heiles & Troland, and assuming that the CNM filaments are confined by magnetic pressure, we estimate a thickness of 0.09 pc. Correspondingly, the median volume density is in the range 14 ≲ n ≲ 47 cm-3. The authors thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for support under grant numbers KE757/11-1, KE757/7-3, KE757/7-2, KE757/7-1, and BE4823/1-1.

  7. Bayesian network learning for natural hazard assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Kristin

    2016-04-01

    and incomplete observations. Further studies rise the challenge of relying on very small data sets. Since parameter estimates for complex models based on few observations are unreliable, it is necessary to focus on simplified, yet still meaningful models. A so called Markov Blanket approach is developed to identify the most relevant model components and to construct a simple Bayesian network based on those findings. Since the proceeding is completely data driven, it can easily be transferred to various applications in natural hazard domains. This study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the research training programme GRK 2043/1 "NatRiskChange - Natural hazards and risks in a changing world" at Potsdam University.

  8. Quantum computation with classical light: Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; McLaren, Melanie; Goyal, Sandeep K.; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Forbes, Andrew; Konrad, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We propose an optical implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm using classical light in a binary decision-tree scheme. Our approach uses a ring cavity and linear optical devices in order to efficiently query the oracle functional values. In addition, we take advantage of the intrinsic Fourier transforming properties of a lens to read out whether the function given by the oracle is balanced or constant.

  9. Experiment to measure vacuum birefringence: Conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido; Tanner, David; Doebrich, Babette; Poeld, Jan; Lindner, Axel; Willke, Benno

    2016-03-01

    Vacuum birefringence is another lingering challenge which will soon become accessible to experimental verification. The effect was first calculated by Euler and Heisenberg in 1936 and is these days described as a one-loop correction to the differential index of refraction between light which is polarized parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. Our plan is to realize (and slightly modify) an idea which was originally published by Hall, Ye, and Ma using advanced LIGO and LISA technology and the infrastructure of the ALPS light-shining-through-walls experiment following the ALPS IIc science run. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  10. New type of in-gap states at a spinel/perovskite interface: combined resonant soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Vladislav; Schuetz, Philipp; Pfaff, Florian; Scheiderer, Philipp; Dudy, Lenart; Zapf, Michael; Gabel, Judith; Christensen, Dennis Valbjorn; Chen, Yunzhong; Pryds, Nini; Strocov, Vladimir; Rogalev, Victor; Schlueter, Christoph; Lee, Tien-Lin; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valenti, Roser; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph

    Oxygen vacancies in oxide heterostructures create a plethora of electronic phenomena not observed in the stoichiometric systems. In this talk we will discuss the presence of a new type of in-gap states at the spinel/perovskite γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 interface, as observed in soft x-ray resonant photoemission spectroscopy. Based on ab initio calculations and crystal-field analysis of different atomic environments, we identify the origin of this behavior and we argue on the possible origin of the extraordinarily high electron mobility measured in this heterostructure. This work was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft SFB/TR 49 and SFB 1170.

  11. Many-body dynamics of driven-dissipative Rydberg cavity polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistorius, Tim; Fan, Jingtao; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    The usage of photons as long-range information carriers has greatly increased the interest in systems with nonlinear optical properties in recent years. The nonlinearity is easily achievable in Rydberg mediums through the strong van der Waals interaction which makes them one of the best candidates for such a system. Here, we propose a way to analyze the steady state solutions of a Rydberg medium in a cavity through the combination of the variational principle for open quantum systems and the P-distribution of the density matrix. To get a better understanding of the many-body-dynamics a transformation into the polariton picture is performed and investigated. Volkswagen Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  12. PREFACE: Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserlohe, Christof; Karas, Vladimir; Krips, Melanie; Eckart, Andreas; Britzen, Silke; Fischer, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    University of Thessaloniki in Greece for giving the dinner talk on the most astounding ancient Antikythera mechanism. We would also like to thank Victor Gomer and the staff of the Physikzentrum of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in Bad Honnef where the conference took place. Last but not least we would like to thank all unnamed helpers, without whom the organisation of this conference would not have been possible. Financial support for this conference was granted by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Sonderforschungsbereich project number SFB 956. We also acknowledge support from the European Community Framework Programme 7, Advanced Radio Astronomy in Europe, grant agreement no. 227290. Christof Iserlohe, Vladimir Karas, Melanie Krips, Andreas Eckart, Silke Britzen and Sebastian Fischer The Editors Conference photograph Conference Group Photo, 1 September 2011 The PDF also contains additional photographs from the conference and the Contents of the Proceedings.

  13. A Journey Through the Universe at the Deutsches Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankerl, B.

    2010-12-01

    Five research institutions in Munich and Garching bei München joined forces in the International Year of Astronomy 2009 to realise a unique exhibition project at the Deutsches Museum. The exhibition is called Evolution of the Universe and invites visitors to take a tour through time, beginning 13.7 billion years ago with the Big Bang and finishing with a glimpse into the future of the Universe. En route visitors learn how space, time, matter and the large structures in space have formed. The exhibition combines findings from astronomy, astrophysics, nuclear and particle physics in order to present the history of cosmos from different perspectives.

  14. Genome sequencing of Deutsch strain of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus: Raw Pac Bio reads.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pac Bio RS II whole genome shotgun sequencing technology was used to sequence the genome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus. The DNA was derived from 14 day old eggs from the Deutsch Texas outbreak strain reared at the USDA-ARS Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory, Edinburg, TX. Each corre...

  15. Variationally optimal selection of slow coordinates and reaction coordinates in macromolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Frank

    To efficiently simulate and generate understanding from simulations of complex macromolecular systems, the concept of slow collective coordinates or reaction coordinates is of fundamental importance. Here we will introduce variational approaches to approximate the slow coordinates and the reaction coordinates between selected end-states given MD simulations of the macromolecular system and a (possibly large) basis set of candidate coordinates. We will then discuss how to select physically intuitive order paremeters that are good surrogates of this variationally optimal result. These result can be used in order to construct Markov state models or other models of the stationary and kinetics properties, in order to parametrize low-dimensional / coarse-grained model of the dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, European Research Council.

  16. What is the size of a floating sheath? An answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Farina; Naggary, Schabnam; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-09-01

    The formation of a non-neutral boundary sheath in front of material surfaces is universal plasma phenomenon. Despite several decades of research, however, not all related issues are fully clarified. In a recent paper, Chabert pointed out that this lack of clarity applies even to the seemingly innocuous question ``What the size of a floating sheath?'' This contribution attempts to provide an answer that is not arbitrary: The size of a floating sheath is defined as the plate separation of an equivalent parallel plate capacitor. The consequences of the definition are explored with the help of a self-consistent sheath model, and a comparison is made with other sheath size definitions. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB TR 87.

  17. An overview of the Ice Nuclei Research Unit Jungfraujoch/Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2013 (INUIT-JFJ/CLACE-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Ice formation in mixed phase tropospheric clouds is an essential prerequisite for the formation of precipitation at mid-latitudes. Ice formation at temperatures warmer than -35°C is only possible via heterogeneous ice nucleation, but up to now the exact pathways of heterogeneous ice formation are not sufficiently well understood. The research unit INUIT (Ice NUcleation research unIT), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG FOR 1525) has been established in 2012 with the objective to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation by combination of laboratory studies, model calculation and field experiments. The main field campaign of the INUIT project (INUIT-JFJ) was conducted at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 3580 m asl) during January and February 2013, in collaboration with several international partners in the framework of CLACE2013. The instrumentation included a large set of aerosol chemical and physical analysis instruments (particle counters, particle sizers, particle mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters, ice nucleus counters etc.), that were operated inside the Sphinx laboratory and sampled in mixed phase clouds through two ice selective inlets (Ice-CVI, ISI) as well as through a total aerosol inlet that was used for out-of-cloud aerosol measurements. Besides the on-line measurements, also samples for off-line analysis (ESEM, STXM) have been taken in and out of clouds. Furthermore, several cloud microphysics instruments were operated outside the Sphinx laboratory. First results indicate that a large fraction of ice residues sampled from mixed phase clouds contain organic material, but also mineral dust. Soot and lead were not found to be enriched in ice residues. The concentration of heterogeneous ice nuclei was found to be variable (ranging between < 1 and > 100 per liter) and to be strongly dependent on the operating conditions of the respective IN counter. The number size distribution of ice residues

  18. Obituary: Lynne Karen Deutsch, 1954-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Ann L.

    2004-12-01

    It is with deep sadness and regret that we note the passing of our dear friend and colleague Prof. Lynne K. Deutsch. Lynne died on 2 April 2004 after a protracted illness and lengthy battle with complications caused by the blood disease Polycythaemia Vera. Lynne was born in Chicago on 26 November 1956 to Victor and Ailsa Deutsch. She lived with her family in the town of Morton Grove, IL until she was 8 years old, when they moved to Beverly Hills, CA. She was an outgoing child who played basketball and excelled in her studies. She graduated from Beverly Hills High School at the age of 16 after completing all high school requirements in only three years. Lynne had a beautiful singing voice, and was in the chorus in high school and college. Lynne earned her first bachelor's degree in philosophy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1977. She then returned to Berkeley and received a second bachelor's degree, this time in physics, in 1981. She was a graduate student and teaching assistant at MIT and earned an MS in physics from MIT in 1983. Lynne then attended the astronomy graduate program at Harvard University, where she earned her MA in 1985 and PhD in 1990. During her degree studies she began crafting mid-infrared instrumentation. These instruments were destined to be used by a host of eager observers to discover, identify, and study many emissions from the Solar System, and galactic and extragalactic sources. Lynne was a National Research Council Post-doctoral Fellow at NASA Ames Research Center from 1990 - 1992, where she played an important role in the development of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/University of Arizona Mid-Infrared Array Camera (MIRAC), a well-known and much sought after instrument frequently used in studies of Mercury, Jupiter, the Moon, planetary nebulae, star formation regions, galactic center, young stellar objects, and extragalactic objects. After leaving NASA Ames Research Center, Lynne taught for several years (1993

  19. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  20. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  1. TH-CD-202-05: DECT Based Tissue Segmentation as Input to Monte Carlo Simulations for Proton Treatment Verification Using PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, B; Wuerl, M; Dedes, G

    quantification accuracy in patients, comparing different tissue decomposition methods with an MR brain segmentation. Acknowledgement: DFG-MAP and HIT-Heidelberg Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MAP); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (01IB13001)« less

  2. Stem cell research in Germany: ethics of healing vs. human dignity.

    PubMed

    Oduncu, Fuat S

    2003-01-01

    On 25 April 2002, the German Parliament has passed a strict new law referring to stem cell research. This law took effect on July 1, 2002. The so-called embryonic Stem Cell Act ("Stammzellgesetz-StZG") permits the import of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from surplus lvF-embryos for research reasons. The production itself of ES cells from human blastocysts has been prohibited by the German Embryo Protection Act of 1990, with the exception of the use of ES cells which exist already. The debate on the legitimate use of ES cells escalated, after the main German research funding agency, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), unexpectedly published new guidelines recommending a restricted use of human ES cells for research. Meanwhile, the debate has ethically divided society, political parties, government and church members into a group supporting and a group rejecting ES cell research. The arguments in favour of such a research can be summarized as arguments derived from a new "ethics of healing" calling for a therapeutic imperative, whereas the arguments against can be summarized as arguments violating the fundamental principle of human dignity as they imply the destruction of human embryos. This article will try to present and evaluate various ethical arguments founded on the latest biological and medical data on the potential use of stem cell technologies. It will finally come to the conclusion that ES cell research is opposed to human dignity, since the procedures of isolating ES cells require the destruction and instrumentalization of human embryos. Human embryos are human beings at a very early stage of their development, fully possessing the ability of completing their development. At this very early stage, human embryos are extremely dependent and fragile, and thus vulnerable corporealities. Vulnerability and human dignity demand the protection of the embryo's corporeal integrity. Hence, this essay will try to propagate research with adult stem (AS

  3. Seasonal variability of ice nuclei over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Holger; Nickovic, Slobodan; Schuetz, Lothar; Weinbruch, Stephan; Levin, Zev; Andreae, Meinrat; Barrie, Leonard; Ebert, Martin; Bundke, Ulrich; Bingemer, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of ice nuclei (IN) has been measured every day since April 2008 at the Taunus Observatory on Mt. Kleiner Feldberg (50.22°N, 8.45°E, 825 m. above sea level) at 20 km north of Frankfurt / M., Germany. Aerosol samples were collected on silicon wafers by an electrical aerosol precipitator and analyzed for IN number concentration (condensation and deposition freezing modes) using the static vapor diffusion chamber FRIDGE (Klein et al., Atmos. Res, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.08.002, 2009). Around 800 samples were analyzed so far. The IN number concentration shows a pronounced seasonal signal with about a factor of 10 higher ice nuclei in summer than in winter. Desert dust transported over long distances appears to be the dominant contributor to IN at the site. Episodes of Sahara dust transport are well represented by individual peaks in the IN record and identified by airmass trajectories, transport modelling and mineralogical analysis. The contribution of mineral dust to IN is further corroborated by the covariance of the individual IN concentrations with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) due to extinction by large particles, which was measured simultaneously at the AERONET site (Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry) at Mainz, 20 km southwest of our site. The relation between IN and AOD not only holds for our individual daily measurements, but is also valid for the monthly means of our IN record, which are highly correlated to the multi-year monthly means of coarse and middle-sized dust AOD which is derived from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite instrument (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/misr_tools/clim_likely.cgi ) for the grid point closest to our site. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge funding of this work by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of the collaborative research centre Die troposphärische Eisphase (SFB641) and by the German-Israeli Foundation (GIF).

  4. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (c) 1/8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Markus C.

    2004-07-01

    In this special issue of physica status solidi (c) we have included 10 invited papers reviewing the current state-of-the-art and the progress achieved in materials science, semiconductor theory, novel physical mechanisms and advanced device concepts in the field of nanostructured electronic and optoelectronic semiconductor devices. All of these papers were written by previous members of the Collaborative Research Centre 348 Nanometer-Halbleiterbauelemente: Grundlagen - Konzepte - Realisierungen (Nanometer Semiconductor Devices: Fundamentals - Concepts - Realisations), which was funded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) during the period from 1991 to 2003. In these twelve years, the researchers in this programme have carried an intense activity directed towards two main objectives. First of all, Fundamentals and Concepts of nanostructure devices and their technology were explored theoretically and experimentally including the effects of low-dimensional structures on carrier transport, optical properties and spin, as well as the enabling epitaxial and nanostructure technologies such as the cleaved-edge-overgrowth technique and the self-assembled growth of quantum dots. A second field of interest was focused towards the design and development of Novel Semiconductor Devices exploiting nanostructure technology. This comprises optical detectors and memories with nanometer lateral dimensions, microwave detectors and sources up to the 300 GHz regime, innovative tunable and surface-emitting semiconductor lasers for the wavelength range 0.9 to 2 m, and nitride-based resonant tunnelling diodes. Some of the device innovations have meanwhile become commercial products proving also the practical importance of this research area. The articles in this special issue relate to the projects of the last three-years' funding period from 2000 to 2003 and are organized along these two We would like to thank the numerous reviewers for their valuable

  5. Kinetic Description of the Impedance Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberrath, Jens; Lapke, Martin; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2011-10-01

    Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well known diagnostic method. Many concepts of this method are theoretically investigated and realized as a diagnostic tool, one of which is the impedance probe (IP). The application of such a probe in plasmas with pressures of a few Pa raises the question whether kinetic effects have to be taken into account or not. To address this question a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model for an electrostatic concept of active plasma spectroscopy was presented by R.P. Brinkmann and can be used to describe the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In principle the IP is interpretable as a special case of the MRP in lower order. Thus, we are able to describe the IP by the kinetic model of the MRP. Based on this model we derive a solution to investigate the influence of kinetic effects to the resonance behavior of the IP. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well known diagnostic method. Many concepts of this method are theoretically investigated and realized as a diagnostic tool, one of which is the impedance probe (IP). The application of such a probe in plasmas with pressures of a few Pa raises the question whether kinetic effects have to be taken into account or not. To address this question a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model for an electrostatic concept of active plasma spectroscopy was presented by R.P. Brinkmann and can be used to describe the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In principle the IP is interpretable as a special case of the MRP in lower order. Thus, we are able to describe the IP by the kinetic model of the MRP. Based on this model we derive a solution to investigate the influence of kinetic effects to the resonance behavior of the IP. The authors acknowledge the support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via the Ruhr University Research School and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in frame of the PluTO project.

  6. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  7. Rückwärtsintegration - Zu den Verhältnissen Gymnasium, Hochschule und Arbeitswelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gerhard; Heppner, Winfried; Focht, Eva

    In seiner 2007 erschienen Sammlung von Vorträgen und Essays beschäftigt sich Wolfgang Frühwald, mit der Frage "Wieviel Wissen brauchen wir?“ [1] Die Kernproblematik moderner Wissenschaft und Forschung sieht der Autor, emeritierter Ordinarius für Neuere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft und von 1992 bis 1997 Präsident der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, einerseits in der zunehmenden Spezialisierung der Wissenschaftsbereiche, andererseits in der Gefahr der Abkoppelung der Naturwissenschaften von den Geisteswissenschaften. Wiederholt plädiert er dafür, über der rasanten Entwicklung beispielsweise in der Biologie und Physik, die historische, gesellschaftliche und besonders die ethische Dimension der Forschung nicht zu übersehen und fordert eine übergeordnete Theorie der Wissenschaft, die nur im Dialog zwischen den einzelnen Fachgebieten zu entwickeln sei.

  8. The Place of "Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" in the German Curriculum. A Report of a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerd K.

    The "Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache," an examination developed by the Adult Education Centers in West Germany and the Goethe Institute to measure a student's proficiency in German as a foreign language, consists of two main parts, group testing and individual testing. The group testing section covers listening and reading…

  9. Experimental demonstration of wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) in LiNbO3 waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Lou, Chuanhong; Sun, Qizhen

    2005-09-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57- ps pulse width is adopted. The converted idler wavelength can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm as the signal wavelength is varied from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm. No obvious changes of the pulse shape and width, also no chirp are observed in the converted idler pulse. The results imply that single-to-multiple channel wavelength conversions can be achieved by appropriately tuning the two pump wavelengths.

  10. Experimental demonstration of wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) in LiNbO3 waveguides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Lou, Chuanhong; Sun, Qizhen

    2005-09-19

    All-optical wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57- ps pulse width is adopted. The converted idler wavelength can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm as the signal wavelength is varied from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm. No obvious changes of the pulse shape and width, also no chirp are observed in the converted idler pulse. The results imply that single-to-multiple channel wavelength conversions can be achieved by appropriately tuning the two pump wavelengths.

  11. Unified picture of the doping dependence of superconducting transition temperatures in alkali metal/ammonia intercalated FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald; Hirschfeld, Peter; Valenti, Roser

    2015-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of alkali metal/ammonia intercalated iron selenide. Using ab-initio density functional theory we unravel how charge doping and dimensionality of the electronic structure can be controlled through the chemical composition of the intercalated molecules. Within random phase approximation spin fluctuation theory we analyze the impact of intercalation on the superconducting pairing strength. We find that high Tc is to be expected away from perfect nesting. While experimental studies have focused on the intercalation of larger molecules in the spacer layer so far, we argue that no higher Tc can be achieved this way. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SPP 1458, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY11-25915 and the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46236.

  12. Deterministic implementations of single-photon multi-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithms with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Liu, Ji-Zhen

    2017-02-01

    It is very important to seek an efficient and robust quantum algorithm demanding less quantum resources. We propose one-photon three-qubit original and refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithms with polarization and two linear momentums degrees of freedom (DOFs). Our schemes are constructed by solely using linear optics. Compared to the traditional ones with one DOF, our schemes are more economic and robust because the necessary photons are reduced from three to one. Our linear-optic schemes are working in a determinate way, and they are feasible with current experimental technology.

  13. Capturing changes in flood risk with Bayesian approaches for flood damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Kristin; Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Thieken, Annegret; Müller, Meike; Sieg, Tobias; Laudan, Jonas; Kienzler, Sarah; Weise, Laura; Merz, Bruno; Scherbaum, Frank

    2016-04-01

    parameters, overly complex models should be avoided. A so called Markov Blanket approach aims at the identification of the most relevant factors and constructs a Bayesian network based on those findings. With our approach we want to exploit a major advantage of Bayesian networks which is their ability to consider dependencies not only pairwise, but to capture the joint effects and interactions of driving forces. Hence, the flood damage network does not only show the impact of precaution on the building damage separately, but also reveals the mutual effects of precaution and the quality of warning for a variety of flood settings. Thus, it allows for a consideration of changing conditions and different courses of action and forms a novel and valuable tool for decision support. This study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the research training program GRK 2043/1 "NatRiskChange - Natural hazards and risks in a changing world" at the University of Potsdam.

  14. The metaphysics of D-CTCs: On the underlying assumptions of Deutsch's quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse", and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent a quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel.

  15. The Radio Spectra and - Inertial Defects Behavior of Planar Aromatic Heterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, Don; Jahn, Michaela K.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Godfrey, Peter; Travers, Michael; Wachsmuth, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    The simplest tricyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic molecules 5,6 benzoquinoline and 7,8 benzoquinoline are possible candidates for detection of aromatic systems in the interstellar medium. Therefore the pure rotational spectra have been recorded using frequency-scanned Stark modulated, jet-cooled millimetre wave absorption spectroscopy (48-87 GHz) and Fourier Transform Microwave (FT MW) spectroscopy (2-26 GHz) of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular jet. Guided by ab initio molecular orbital predictions, spectral analysis of mm wave spectra, and higher resolution FT MW spectroscopy provided accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants together with 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants for both species. The determined inertial defects, along with those of similar species are used to develop an empirical formula for calculation of inertial defects of aromatic ring systems. The predictive ability of the formula is shown to be excellent for planar species with a number of pronounced out of plane vibrations. The resultant constants are of sufficient accuracy to be used in potential astrophysical searches. We gratefully acknowledge support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst, as well as the Land Niedersachsen (J.-U.G). DMcN also thanks the Royal Society of Chemistry for their generous travel support.

  16. An Inconvenient History: the Nuclear-Fission Display in the Deutsches Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2010-06-01

    One of the longstanding attractions of the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany, has been its display of the apparatus associated with the discovery of nuclear fission. Although the discovery involved three scientists, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann, the fission display was designated for over 30 years as the Arbeitstisch von Otto Hahn (Otto Hahn’s Worktable), with Strassmann mentioned peripherally and Meitner not at all, and it was not until the early 1990s that the display was revised to include all three codiscoverers more equitably. I examine the creation of the fission display in the context of the postwar German culture of silencing the National Socialist past, and trace the eventual transformation of the display into a contemporary exhibit that more accurately represents the scientific history of the fission discovery.

  17. Topologically non-trivial electronic and magnetic states in doped copper Kagome lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valenti, Roser

    We present a theoretical investigation of doped copper kagome materials based on natural minerals Herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2] and Barlowite[Cu4(OH)6FBr]. Using ab-initio density functional theory calculations we estimate the stability of the hypothetical compounds against structural distortions and analyze their electronic and magnetic properties. We find that materials based on Herbertsmithite present an ideal playground for investigating the interplay of non-trivial band-topology and strong electronic correlation effects. In particular, we propose candidates for the Quantum Spin Hall effect at filling 4/3 and the Quantum Anomalous Hall effect at filling 2/3. For the Barlowite system we point out a route to realize a Quantum Spin Liquid. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SFB/TR 49 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY11-25915.

  18. Charge radii of neutron-deficient Ca isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. J.; Minamisono, K.; Klose, A.; Everett, N.; Kalman, C.; Powel, R. C.; Watkins, J.; Garand, D.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Krämer, J.; Maa, B.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Rossi, D. M.; Kujawa, C.; Pineda, S.; Lantis, J.; Liu, Y.; Mantica, P. F.; Pearson, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Nucleon shell closures are generally associated with a local minimum in mean-square charge radii, 〈r2 〉 , along an isotopic chain. The 〈r2 〉 of 18Ar and 19K isotopes, however, do not show this signature at the N = 20 neutron shell closure. To gain a microscopic understanding of this abnormal behavior, measurements of 〈r2 〉 of neutron-deficient Ca isotopes below N = 20 have been proposed at the BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU. Preliminary results will be presented and the deduced charge radii will be compared to theoretical calculations and the trends in the nearby isotopic chains. Work supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-15-65546, U.S. DOE Grant DE-NA0002924 and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through Grant SFB 1245.

  19. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), and IOP publishing. Finally we would like to thank all attendees for their outstanding scientific contributions to SLOPOS13, and for the fruitful scientific discussions also in informal atmosphere during the social events. We are looking forward to SLOPOS14 in Japan in 2016! Christoph Hugenschmidt and Christian Piochacz (Guest Editors) Garching, March 2014 Further conference and committee information, as well as the conference picture, can be viewed in the pdf.

  20. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Najko; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  1. A study of institutional spending on open access publication fees in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Publication fees as a revenue source for open access publishing hold a prominent place on the agendas of researchers, policy makers, and academic publishers. This study contributes to the evolving empirical basis for funding these charges and examines how much German universities and research organisations spent on open access publication fees. Using self-reported cost data from the Open APC initiative, the analysis focused on the amount that was being spent on publication fees, and compared these expenditure with data from related Austrian (FWF) and UK (Wellcome Trust, Jisc) initiatives, in terms of both size and the proportion of articles being published in fully and hybrid open access journals. We also investigated how thoroughly self-reported articles were indexed in Crossref, a DOI minting agency for scholarly literature, and analysed how the institutional spending was distributed across publishers and journal titles. According to self-reported data from 30 German universities and research organisations between 2005 and 2015, expenditures on open access publication fees increased over the years in Germany and amounted to € 9,627,537 for 7,417 open access journal articles. The average payment was € 1,298, and the median was € 1,231. A total of 94% of the total article volume included in the study was supported in accordance with the price cap of € 2,000, a limit imposed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of its funding activities for open access funding at German universities. Expenditures varied considerably at the institutional level. There were also differences in how much the institutions spent per journal and publisher. These differences reflect, at least in part, the varying pricing schemes in place including discounted publication fees. With an indexing coverage of 99%, Crossref thoroughly indexed the open access journals articles included in the study. A comparison with the related openly available cost data from Austria and

  2. Zinc exposure for female workers in a galvanizing plant in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the toxicokinetics of inhaled zinc, in particular in the case of female workers and for modern, low exposure settings. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship of external zinc levels to those of serum and urine for female workers. Eleven female workers (age: 41.7±8 years old, body mass index (BMI): 23.5±4.2 kg/m2) in a galvanizing plant were investigated. Exposure assessment consisted of personal/environmental air samples, and measurement of zinc in serum (collected at the end of first shift of the working week (T1)) and urine, collected before the first shift of the working week (T0), T1 and at the end of the last shift of the working week (T2). Both environmental and personal air samplings for zinc and zinc compounds were below the recommended by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG) limit values of 2 mg/m3 (7.34±2.8 μg/m3 and 8.31±2.4 μg/ m3, respectively). Serum (118.6±20.9 μg /dl) and urine zinc levels were within reference values for female Italian subjects: the latter increased from 56.4±33.5 μg/dl at T0, to 59.8±37.0 μg/dl at T1, and ultimately 65.4±34.4 μg/dl at T2, but no significant trend was found. End of shift (Spearman's correlation coefficient p value = 0.027) and differential excretion of urinary zinc (both: T0 vs. T1 and T0 vs. T2) were correlated with airborne zinc concentration (p = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). In general, our data suggests that urine may be a useful medium also for female in order to assess zinc exposure. Further studies are required in order to evaluate whether differential excretion may be useful for the biomonitoring of zinc exposure in the workplaces also for male workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):113-124. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Do consumers have the right to drink healthy wine? An appraisal of the Deutsches Weintor case.

    PubMed

    Inglese, Marco

    2013-09-01

    This article seeks to appraise the development that the Deutsches Weintor case will bring to EU law concerning health protection. The analysis will be carried out by highlighting the structure and the aims of Regulation no. 1924/2006/EC in order to assess its role in the construction of health as a fundamental right. Furthermore, attention will be devoted to how this judgment could affect the general theory behind fundamental rights and how it is placed in relation to the settled case law of the Court.

  4. Commissioning of a new photon detection system for charge radii measurements of neutron-deficient Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J.; Garand, D.; Miller, A. J.; Minamisono, K.; Everett, N.; Powel, R. C.; Maaß, B.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Kalman, C.; Lantis, J.; Kujawa, C.; Mantica, P.

    2017-09-01

    Calcium is unique for its possession of two stable isotopes of ``doubly magic'' nuclei at proton and neutron numbers (Z , N) = (20 , 20) and (20 , 28) . Recent charge radii measurements of neutron-rich calcium isotopes yielded an upward trend beyond current theoretical predictions. At the BECOLA facility at NSCL/MSU, Ca charge radii measurements will be extended to the neutron-deficient regime using collinear laser spectroscopy. A new photon detection system with an ellipsoidal reflector and a compound parabolic concentrator has been commissioned for the experiment. The system increases the signal-to-noise ratio by reducing background, which is critical for the low production rates of the Ca experiment. Details of the system and results of the characterization tests will be discussed. Work supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-15-65546, U.S. DOE Grant DE-NA0002924 and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Grant SFB 1245.

  5. Optimal spin current pattern for fast domain wall propagation in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Sun, Zhouzhou; Schliemann, John; Wang, Xiangrong

    2011-03-01

    One of the important issues in nanomagnetism is to lower the current needed for a technologically useful domain wall (DW) propagation speed. Based on the modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation with both Slonczewski spin-transfer torque and the field-like torque, we derive an optimal temporally and spatially varying spin current pattern for fast DW propagation along nanowires. Under such conditions, the DW velocity in biaxial wires can be enhanced as much as tens of times higher than that achieved in experiments so far. Moreover, the fast variation of spin polarization can efficiently help DW depinning. Possible experimental realizations are discussed. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC grants (#603508, 604109, RPC10SC05 and HKU10/CRF/08-HKUST17/CRF/08), and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB 689. ZZS thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (Germany) for a grant.

  6. Efficient G0W0 using localized basis sets: a benchmark for molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Petr; Per Ljungberg, Mathias; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel

    Electronic structure calculations within Hedin's GW approximation are becoming increasingly accessible to the community. In particular, as it has been shown earlier and we confirm by calculations using our MBPT_LCAO package, the computational cost of the so-called G0W0 can be made comparable to the cost of a regular Hartree-Fock calculation. In this work, we study the performance of our new implementation of G0W0 to reproduce the ionization potentials of all 117 closed-shell molecules belonging to the G2/97 test set, using a pseudo-potential starting point provided by the popular density-functional package SIESTA. Moreover, the ionization potentials and electron affinities of a set of 24 acceptor molecules are compared to experiment and to reference all-electron calculations. PK: Guipuzcoa Fellow; PK,ML,DSP: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB1083); PK,DSP: MINECO MAT2013-46593-C6-2-P.

  7. Realization of a mixed-symmetry superconducting gap in correlated organic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Michaela; Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Diehl, Sandra; Methfessel, Torsten; Tutsch, Ulrich; Schubert, Harald; Lang, Michael; Müller, Jens; Huth, Michael; Jourdan, Martin; Elmers, Hans-Joachim; Valenti, Roser

    Recent scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on the organic charge tranfer salt κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br show clear evidence of a highly anisotropic gap structure. Based on an ab initio derived model Hamiltonian we employ random phase approximation spin fluctuation theory yielding a composite order parameter of (extended) s+dx2-y2 symmetry. Taking explicitly also the shape of the Fermi surface into account we calculate STS spectra that are in excellent agreement to the experimental observations [1]. Moreover we determine the minimal tight binding model to describe the general lattice structure of these compounds accurately and generate a phase diagram for the gap symmetry by varying the hopping parameters. Based on ab initio derived parameter sets we predict the gap symmetry of other superconducting κ charge transfer salts. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SFB/TR 49.

  8. Solute-solvent interactions and dynamics probed by THz light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaab, Gerhard; Böhm, Fabian; Ma, Chun-Yu; Havenith, Martina

    The THz range (1-12 THz, 30-400 cm-1) is especially suited to probe changes in the solvent dynamics induced by solutes of different character (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, charged, neutral). In recent years we have investigated a large variety of such solutes and found characteristic spectral fingerprints for ions, but also for uncharged solutes, such as alcohols. We will present a status report on our current understanding of the observed spectral changes and how they relate to physico-chemical parameters like hydration shell size or the lifetime of an excited intermolecular oscillation. In addition, we will show, that in some cases the spectral changes are closely related to the partition function yielding access to a microscopic understanding of macroscopic thermodynamic functions. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (Ruhr-Universität, EXC1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  9. Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  10. Non-trivial role of interlayer cation states in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, Roser; Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Glasbrenner, J. K.; Bascones, E.; Mazin, I. I.

    Unconventional superconductivity in iron pnictides and chalcogenides has been suggested to be controlled by the interplay of low-energy antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations and the particular topology of the Fermi surface in these materials. Under this assumption, one would expect the large class of isostructural and isoelectronic iron germanide compounds to be good superconductors, but they aren't. In this talk we will argue that superconductivity in iron germanides is suppressed by strong ferromagnetic tendencies, which surprisingly do not originate from changes in bond-angles or bond-distances with respect to iron pnictides, but are due to changes in the electronic structure in a wide range of energies happening upon substitution of atom species (As by Ge and the corresponding spacer cations). We will discuss the implications of these results in the general context of Fe-based superconductors. Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft is acknowledged.

  11. The blood from Auschwitz and the silence of the scholars.

    PubMed

    Müller-Hill, B

    1999-01-01

    The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem was the centre of scientific racism in Nazi Germany. Its bad history culminated in a research project to analyse the molecular basis of racial differences in the susceptibility to various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Josef Mengele, a former postdoc of the director of the institute, Otmar von Verschuer, collected blood samples and other material in Auschwitz from families and twins of Jews and Gypsies. The blood samples were analysed by Günther Hillmann in the Berlin laboratory of Nobel Prize winner Adolf Butenandt. Butenandt had just moved to Tübingen. The project was paid for by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Butenandt, Hillmann and von Verschuer made scientific careers in the Federal Republic. To the present day this past has not been acknowledged by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft as part of its history.

  12. Non-Markovianity-assisted high-fidelity Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yang; Zheng, Yu; Li, Shen; Li, Cong-Cong; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2018-01-01

    The memory effects in non-Markovian quantum dynamics can induce the revival of quantum coherence, which is believed to provide important physical resources for quantum information processing (QIP). However, no real quantum algorithms have been demonstrated with the help of such memory effects. Here, we experimentally implemented a non-Markovianity-assisted high-fidelity refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm (RDJA) with a solid spin in diamond. The memory effects can induce pronounced non-monotonic variations in the RDJA results, which were confirmed to follow a non-Markovian quantum process by measuring the non-Markovianity of the spin system. By applying the memory effects as physical resources with the assistance of dynamical decoupling, the probability of success of RDJA was elevated above 97% in the open quantum system. This study not only demonstrates that the non-Markovianity is an important physical resource but also presents a feasible way to employ this physical resource. It will stimulate the application of the memory effects in non-Markovian quantum dynamics to improve the performance of practical QIP.

  13. In situ electrochemical SFG/DFG study of CN- and nitrile adsorption at Au from 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide ionic liquid([BMP][TFSA]) containing 4-{2-[1-(2-cyanoethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl]diazenyl} benzonitrile (CTDB) and K[Au(CN)₂].

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Busson, Bertrand; Gayral, Audrey; Humbert, Christophe; Mele, Claudio; Six, Catherine; Tadjeddine, Abderrahmane

    2012-06-25

    In this paper we report an in situ electrochemical Sum-/Difference Frequency Generation (SFG/DFG) spectroscopy investigation of the adsorption of nitrile and CN⁻ from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide ([BMP][TFSA]) containing 4-{2-[1-(2-cyanoethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl]-diazenyl}benzonitrile (CTDB) at Au electrodes in the absence and in the presence of the Au-electrodeposition process from K[Au(CN)₂]. The adsorption of nitrile and its coadsorption with CN⁻ resulting either from the cathodic decomposition of the dye or from ligand release from the Au(I) cyanocomplex yield potential-dependent single or double SFG bands in the range 2,125-2,140 cm⁻¹, exhibiting Stark tuning values of ca. 3 and 1 cm⁻¹ V⁻¹ in the absence and presence of electrodeposition, respectively. The low Stark tuning found during electrodeposition correlates with the cathodic inhibiting effect of CTDB, giving rise to its levelling properties. The essential insensitivity of the other DFG parameters to the electrodeposition process is due to the growth of smooth Au.

  14. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M.; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M.; CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds.

  15. Active Mesogenic Droplets: Impact of Liquid Crystallinity and Collective Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Christian

    Droplets of common mesogenic compounds show a self-propelled motion when immersed in aqueous solutions containing ionic surfactants at concentrations well above the critical micelle concentration. After introducing some general properties of this type of artificial microswimmer, we focus on two topics: the influence of liquid crystallinity on the swimming behavior and the collective behavior of ensembles of a larger number of droplets. The mesogenic properties are not essential for the basic mechanism of self-propulsion, nevertheless they considerably influence the swimming behavior of the droplets. For instance, the shape of the trajectories strongly depends on whether the droplets are in the nematic or isotropic state. The droplet swimmers are also ideally suited for the study of collective behavior: Microfluidics enables the generation of large numbers of identical swimmers and we can tune their buoyancy. We report on the collective behavior in three-dimensional environments. Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1726 ``Microswimmers'').

  16. Density-wave fronts on the brink of wet granular condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kai; Zippelius, Andreas; Sand lab @ University of Bayreuth Team

    2017-11-01

    From sand dunes to Faraday heaping, driven granular matter, i.e., large agglomeration of macroscopic particles, is rich pattern forming system. When a granular material is partially wet (e.g., wet sand on the beach), a different pattern forming scenario arises due to the cohesive particle-particle interactions. Here, we focus on the formation of density-wave fronts in an oscillated wet granular layer undergoing a gas-liquid-like transition. The threshold of the instability is governed by the amplitude of the vertical vibrations. Fronts, which are curved into a spiral shape, propagate coherently along the circular rim of the container with leading edges. They are stable beyond a critical distance from the container center. Based on the measurement of the critical distance and the rotation frequency, we propose a model for the pattern formation by considering the competition between the time scale for the collapse of cohesive particles and that of the energy injection resisting this process. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. HU1939 4-1).

  17. Boundary layers in turbulent convection for air, liquid gallium and liquid sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Janet; Schumacher, Joerg

    2017-11-01

    The scaling of physical quantities that characterize the shape and dynamics of the viscous and thermal boundary layers with respect to the Rayleigh number will be presented for three series of three-dimensional high-resolution direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio one. The simulations have been conducted for convection in air at a Prandtl number Pr = 0.7, in liquid gallium at Pr = 0.021 and in liquid sodium at Pr = 0.005. Then we discuss three statistical analysis methods which have been developed to predict the transition of turbulent RBC into the ultimate regime. The methods are based on the large-scale properties of the velocity profile. All three methods indicate that the range of critical Rayleigh numbers is shifted to smaller magnitudes as the Prandtl number becomes smaller. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  18. Spin polarized electronic states and spin textures at the surface of oxygen-deficient SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Harald O.; Altmeyer, Michaela; Rozenberg, Marcelo; Gabay, Marc; Valenti, Roser

    We investigate the electronic structure and spin texture at the (001) surface of SrTiO3 in the presence of oxygen vacancies by means of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations of slabs. Relativistic non-magnetic DFT calculations exhibit Rashba-like spin winding with a characteristic energy scale ~ 10 meV. However, when surface magnetism on the Ti ions is included, bands become spin-split with an energy difference ~ 100 meV at the Γ point. This energy scale is comparable to the observations in SARPES experiments performed on the two-dimensional electronic states confined near the (001) surface of SrTiO3. We find the spin polarized state to be the ground state of the system, and while magnetism tends to suppress the effects of the relativistic Rashba interaction, signatures of it are still clearly visible in terms of complex spin textures. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through grants SFB/TR 49 and FOR 1346.

  19. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  20. Turbulent Superstructures in Rayleigh-Bénard convection at different Prandtl number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Jörg; Pandey, Ambrish; Ender, Martin; Westermann, Rüdiger; Scheel, Janet D.

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale patterns of the temperature and velocity field in horizontally extended cells can be considered as turbulent superstructures in Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC). These structures are obtained once the turbulent fluctuations are removed by a finite-time average. Their existence has been reported for example in Bailon-Cuba et al.. This large-scale order obeys a strong similarity with the well-studied patterns from the weakly nonlinear regime at lower Rayleigh number in RBC. In the present work we analyze the superstructures of RBC at different Prandtl number for Prandtl values between Pr = 0.005 for liquid sodium and 7 for water. The characteristic evolution time scales, the typical spatial extension of the rolls and the properties of the defects of the resulting superstructure patterns are analyzed. Data are obtained from well-resolved spectral element direct numerical simulations. The work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  1. Deutsch, Toffoli, and cnot Gates via Rydberg Blockade of Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiao-Feng

    2018-05-01

    Universal quantum gates and quantum error correction (QEC) lie at the heart of quantum-information science. Large-scale quantum computing depends on a universal set of quantum gates, in which some gates may be easily carried out, while others are restricted to certain physical systems. There is a unique three-qubit quantum gate called the Deutsch gate [D (θ )], from which a circuit can be constructed so that any feasible quantum computing is attainable. We design an easily realizable D (θ ) by using the Rydberg blockade of neutral atoms, where θ can be tuned to any value in [0 ,π ] by adjusting the strengths of external control fields. Using similar protocols, we further show that both the Toffoli and controlled-not gates can be achieved with only three laser pulses. The Toffoli gate, being universal for classical reversible computing, is also useful for QEC, which plays an important role in quantum communication and fault-tolerant quantum computation. The possibility and speed of realizing these gates shed light on the study of quantum information with neutral atoms.

  2. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abend, S.

    2015-12-01

    excellence geoQ (SFB 1128), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50 1131-1137 (QUANTUS-III).

  3. A new 10,000 year pollen record from Lake Kinneret (Israel) - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, V.; Litt, T.; Nowaczyk, N.; Stein, M.; Wennrich, V.

    2012-04-01

    XRF-scanning. Caused by a key position within a sensitive climate region of the Near East, the multi-proxy data set of the sedimentary archive of Lake Kinneret hosts a wealth of information that will be used to reconstruct Holocene paleoclimate. Our work is a contribution to the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 806 ('Our Way To Europe'), supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), and dealing with culture-environment interaction and human mobility in the Late Quaternary.

  4. The Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) - Postgraduate education with an interdisciplinary focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christina

    2013-04-01

    The Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR) provides a dedicated research training programme for PhD students in all fields related the marine realm combined with an exceptional supervision and support programme in a stimulating research environment. The graduate school is part of MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the frame of the Excellence Initiative by the German federal and state governments to promote top-level research at German universities. GLOMAR hosts approx. 75 PhD students from different research institutions in Bremen and Bremerhaven. 50% of them are German, 50% have an international background. All students are a member of one of the four GLOMAR research areas: (A) Ocean & Climate, (B) Ocean & Seafloor, (C) Ocean & Life and (D) Ocean & Society. Their academic background ranges from the classical natural sciences to law, social and political sciences. The research areas are supervised by research associates who share their experience and offer advice for their younger colleagues. GLOMAR students work in an interdisciplinary and international context. They spend several months at a foreign research institution and are encouraged to actively participate in international conferences and publish their research results in international scientific journals. The services GLOMAR offers for its PhD students include team supervision by a thesis committee, a comprehensive course programme, research seminars and retreats, a family support programme, a mentoring programme for women in science, an ombudsperson and a funding system for conference trips, research residencies and publication costs. The graduate school offers different formats for interdisciplinary exchange within the PhD student community. Monthly research seminars, which are conducted by the GLOMAR research associates, provide an opportunity to discuss research results, practice oral and poster

  5. Succession of Hydrocarbon Degradation and Microbial Diversity during a Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Stagars, M.; Wefers, P.; Schmidt, M.; Knittel, K.; Krueger, M.; Leifer, I.; Treude, T.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial degradation of petroleum was investigated in intact sediment cores of Caspian Sea during a simulated petroleum seepage using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT) system. Over the course of the SOFT experiment (190 days), distinct redox zones established and evolved in the sediment core. Methanogenesis and sulfate reduction were identified to be important processes in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons. C1 to C6 n-alkanes were completely exhausted in the sulfate-reducing zone and some higher alkanes decreased during the upward migration of petroleum. A diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was identified by 16s rRNA phylogenetic studies, some of which are associated with marine seeps and petroleum degradation. The δ13C signal of produced methane decreased from -33.7‰ to -49.5‰ indicating crude oil degradation by methanogenesis, which was supported by enrichment culturing of methanogens with petroleum hydrocarbons and presence of methanogenic archaea. The SOFT system is, to the best of our knowledge, the first system that simulates an oil-seep like condition and enables live monitoring of biogeochemical changes within a sediment core during petroleum seepage. During our presentation we will compare the Caspian Sea data with other sediments we studied using the SOFT system from sites such as Santa Barbara (Pacific Ocean), the North Alex Mud Volcano (Mediterranean Sea) and the Eckernfoerde Bay (Baltic Sea). This research was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1319) and DEA Deutsche Erdoel AG. Further support came from the Helmholtz and Max Planck Gesellschaft.

  6. [Advancement of the medical doctorate].

    PubMed

    Baum, C; Förster, R; Schmidt, R E

    2009-08-01

    The medical doctorate and the subsequent advanced research qualification in medicine have an exceptional position within the natural sciences. While, in the German system, graduation to the degree of a medical doctor is often an initiation into scientific practice, the in-depth scientific education of medical doctors may be achieved in various configurations. In recent years, structured programs for doctorates in medicine and natural sciences have found increasing acceptance, following recommendations of national scientific councils ("Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" and "Hochschulrat"). Hannover Medical School has been offering such programs for a number of years. The StrucMed program increases the quality of medical doctorate studies, typically performed in the third and fourth years of university studies. The Hannover Biomedical Research School (HBRS) combines several programs for a doctorate in natural sciences, creating a platform for an internationally oriented education of post-graduates in various disciplines of life sciences. Evaluating the achievements and career paths of the trainees will contribute to the successful integration of research work in an efficiency-oriented clinical environment.

  7. Single-Atom Single-Photon Quantum Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehring, David; Bochmann, Joerg; Muecke, Martin; Specht, Holger; Weber, Bernhard; Wilk, Tatjana; Rempe, Gerhard

    2008-05-01

    By combining atom trapping techniques and cavity cooling schemes we are able to trap a single neutral atom inside a high-finesse cavity for several tens of seconds. We show that our coupled atom-cavity system can be used to generate single photons in a controlled way. With our long trapping times and high single-photon production efficiency, the non-classical properties of the emitted light can be shown in the photon correlations of a single atom. In a similar atom-cavity setup, we investigate the interface between atoms and photons by entangling a single atom with a single photon emitted into the cavity and by further mapping the quantum state of the atom onto a second single photon. These schemes are intrinsically deterministic and establish the basic element required to realize a distributed quantum network with individual atoms at rest as quantum memories and single flying photons as quantum messengers. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the European Union SCALA and CONQUEST programs. D. L. M. acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of water solvating biomolecular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyden, Matthias

    Changes in the potential energy and entropy of water molecules hydrating biomolecular interfaces play a significant role for biomolecular solubility and association. Free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods allow calculations of free energy differences between two states from simulations. However, these methods are computationally demanding and do not provide insights into individual thermodynamic contributions, i.e. changes in the solvent energy or entropy. Here, we employ methods to spatially resolve distributions of hydration water thermodynamic properties in the vicinity of biomolecular surfaces. This allows direct insights into thermodynamic signatures of the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvent accessible sites of proteins and small molecules and comparisons to ideal model surfaces. We correlate dynamic properties of hydration water molecules, i.e. translational and rotational mobility, to their thermodynamics. The latter can be used as a guide to extract thermodynamic information from experimental measurements of site-resolved water dynamics. Further, we study energy-entropy compensations of water at different hydration sites of biomolecular surfaces. This work is supported by the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (EXC 1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  9. Orbital Picture of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov Multiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Benjamin W.; Ruby, Michael; Franke, Katharina J.; Peng, Yang; von Oppen, Felix

    Magnetic impurities on an s-wave superconductor induce Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) bound states within the excitation gap of the superconductor. Here, we investigate single manganese (Mn) atoms adsorbed on different surface orientations of superconducting lead (Pb) and the nature of their YSR states. Depending on the adsorption site and surface, we detect a distinct number and characteristic patterns of YSR states around the Mn atoms. We show that the YSR states inherit their properties from the Mn d levels, which are split by the surrounding crystal field. The periodicity of the long-range YSR oscillations allows us to identify a dominant coupling of the d states to the outer Fermi sheet of the two-band superconductor Pb. The long-range and directional nature of the states are promising for the design of coupled adatom structures, which could bear topological phases. We acknowledge funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through Grant No. FR2726/4 and through collaborative research Grants No. Sfb 658, No. CRC 183, and No. SPP 1666, as well as by the European Research Council through Consolidator Grant NanoSpin.

  10. Emergent Momentum-Space Skyrmion Texture on the Surface of Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanta, Narayan; Kampf, Arno P.; Kopp, Thilo

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect has been theoretically predicted and experimentally verified in magnetic topological insulators. In addition, the surface states of these materials exhibit a hedgehog-like ``spin'' texture in momentum space. Here, we apply the previously formulated low-energy model for Bi2Se3, a parent compound for magnetic topological insulators, to a slab geometry in which an exchange field acts only within one of the surface layers. In this sample set up, the hedgehog transforms into a skyrmion texture beyond a critical exchange field. This critical field marks a transition between two topologically distinct phases. The topological phase transition takes place without energy gap closing at the Fermi level and leaves the transverse Hall conductance unchanged and quantized to e2 / 2 h . The momentum-space skyrmion texture persists in a finite field range. It may find its realization in hybrid heterostructures with an interface between a three-dimensional topological insulator and a ferromagnetic insulator. The work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through TRR 80.

  11. Cooperativity in glassy dynamics investigated by higher-harmonic dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Lunkenheimer, Peter; Loidl, Alois; Experimental Physics V Team

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, due to experimental advances initiated by hole burning experiments, nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy has gained increasing interest in the field of glass-forming matter. For example, refining the technique of high-field permittivity measurements, we found a surprising lack of nonlinearity in the so-called excess wing region, that could not be accessed by this method before. In the present contribution, we report new, detailed measurements of the third-order nonlinear dielectric susceptibility χ3 of four glass-forming liquids for a broad temperature range. We find a significant hump in χ3(ν) , from which we deduce the number of correlated molecules Ncorr. We detect a continuous increase of Ncorr on approaching the glass-transition temperature. Comparing these results with the temperature-dependent apparent energy barriers in these systems, our experiments finally prove the old notion that intermolecular correlations of glassy systems are responsible for the non-canonical temperature development of glassy dynamics. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via Research Unit FOR1394.

  12. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from the feet of Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) as affected by acid, alkaline, and enzyme pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abedinia, Ahmadreza; Ariffin, Fazilah; Huda, Nurul; Nafchi, Abdorreza Mohammadi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of different pretreatments on yield and composition of extraction, physicochemical, and rheological properties of duck feet gelatin (DFG) were investigated. Gelatins were extracted from the whole feet of Pekin duck with an average yield of 4.09%, 3.65%, and 5.75% for acidic (Ac-DFG), alkaline (Al-DFG), and enzymatic (En-DFG) pretreatment on a wet weight basis, respectively. Proteins at 81.38%, 79.41%, 82.55%, and 87.38% were the major composition for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, En-DFG, and bovine, respectively. Amino acid analysis showed glycine as the predominant amino acid in Ac-DFG, followed by hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, and En-DFG, respectively. Rheological analysis indicated that the maximum elastic modulus (9972.25Pa) and loss modulus (4956.28Pa) for Ac-DFG gelatin were significantly higher than those of other gelatins. Extracted gelatins contained α 1 and α 2 chains as the predominant components, and enzymatic gelatin had low molecular weight peptides. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the peak of the gelatins was mainly positioned in the amide band region (amides I, II, and III). A considerable loss of molecular-order triple helical structure was also observed after pepsin treatment. In summary, duck feet gelatin has potential to replace as mammalian gelatin in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  14. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters. PMID:26761279

  15. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Eui-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; He, Fu-Yi; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters.

  16. Menstrual Education and Personal Hygiene Supplies to Empower Young Women in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Coker-Bolt, Patricia; Jansson, Annika; Bigg, Sherridan; Hammond, Elizabeth; Hudson, Harmony; Hunkler, Sarah; Kitch, Jana; Richardson, Heather; Tiedemann, Erica; O'Flynn, Janet; Laurent, Marie Dominque

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies report that Haitian women are concerned about unmet women's health issues. The Days for Girls (DfG) International program features women's health education and personal hygiene kits to ensure women understand the process of menstruation and sanitary hygiene practices. The aim was to train Haitian seamstresses to produce the DfG kits during an in-country workshop and investigate the perceived benefit of the DfG program in young women who used the DfG kits. Posttest only design was used to measure the effectiveness of DfG workshop and postsurvey to study perception of women using DfG kits. It was found that the workshop participants demonstrated an understanding of the DfG program (90% average). Forty-four young women (89.8%) who used the DfG hygiene kits for 2 months agreed that there is a need for feminine hygiene programs in Haiti and that the kits were easy to use and clean (97.1% and 92.1%, respectively). The DfG program could provide a cost-effective feminine hygiene program for Haiti and decrease waste from traditional hygiene products.

  17. Walter Max Dale (formerly Deutsch) (1894-1969): pioneer and eminent radiobiochemist at the Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester.

    PubMed

    Shreeve, David R

    2010-05-01

    The political upheaval in Germany in 1933 and subsequent movement of medical scholars with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation allowed Manchester to benefit from the arrival of Dr Walter Deutsch, later known as Dr Walter Dale. His research background enabled him to develop a radiobiochemistry laboratory at the Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute where he became a world authority on the effects of X-rays on enzymes and also the protective effect of additional solutes. In 1959 he initiated and then edited the International Journal of Radiation Biology. By the time of his retirement in 1962 the strength of his research resulted in his laboratory being recognized by the Medical Research Council.

  18. Ice nucleating particles over the Eastern Mediterranean measured at ground and by unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Drücke, Jaqueline; Keleshis, Christos; Pikridas, Michael; Ebert, Martin; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Nickovic, Slobodan; Baars, Holger; Marinou, Eleni; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Curtius, Joachim; Bingemer, Heinz G.

    2017-04-01

    for long distances over wide areas of the globe predominantly at several km altitude, we conclude that INP measurements at ground level may be of limited significance for the situation at the level of cloud formation. This project received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) project BACCHUS under grant agreement no. 603445, and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ACTRIS-2 under grant agreement No 654109, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Research Unit FOR 1525 (INUIT).

  19. Single-cell gene expression analysis reveals diversity among human spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, N; Yoon, J; Terwort, N; Kliesch, S; Seggewiss, J; Huge, A; Voss, R; Schlatt, S; Grindberg, R V; Schöler, H R

    2017-02-10

    spermatogonia at the RNA and protein levels is a snapshot. To further assess the functional meaning of this heterogeneity and the dynamics of stem cell populations, approaches need to be developed to facilitate the repeated analysis of individual cells. Our data suggest that heterogeneous expression profiles may be a key characteristic of human spermatogonia, supporting the model of a heterogeneous stem cell population. Future studies will assess the dynamics of spermatogonial populations in fertile and infertile patients. RNA-seq data is published in the GEO database: GSE91063. This work was supported by the Max Planck Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG-Research Unit FOR 1041 Germ Cell Potential (grant numbers SCHO 340/7-1, SCHL394/11-2). The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Scintillating fiber array for tagging post-bremsstrahlung electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Philip; Alef, Stefan; Reitz, Björn-Eric; Schmieden, Hartmut; Hannappel, Jürgen; Jude, Thomas; Sandri, Paolo Levi; BGO-OD Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We seek to extract the kinematic fingerprints of baryon resonances by making use of a high-quality beam of linearly polarized photons at the BGO-OD experiment at ELSA (Bonn, German). We constructed a unique device for precisely determining the degree of polarization in the coherent bremsstrahlung peak. Deflection of post-bremsstrahlung electrons in the magnetic field of the photon tagger provides precise information on the energy and polarization of the bremsstrahlung photons. And thereby will constrain the overall kinematics of the final-state particles in all decay channels of the photoproduced baryon resonances. We designed, prototyped, built, calibrated, and have been operating a three-layered, multi-stranded, scintillating-fiber detector for ensuring the quality of the linearly polarization of the photon beam. The overlapping 2.00-mm scintillating fibers form an array giving ARGUS over 500 channels. The very befitting name harkens to the mythological all-seeing creature Argus Panoptes, the multi-eyed giant. Our work was supported through a Fulbright Scholarship Award and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Collaborative Research Center (Sonderforschungsbereich SFB/TR-16) of the universities in Bonn, Giessen and Bochum, Germany. NSF-PHY-1307340.

  1. Electric field strength determination in filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Patrick; Kettlitz, Manfred; Brandenburg, Ronny; Hoeft, Hans; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The electric field strength is a basic parameter of non-thermal plasmas. Therefore, a profound knowledge of the electric field distribution is crucial. In this contribution a four wave mixing technique based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure electric field strengths in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). The discharges are operated with a pulsed voltage in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Small amounts hydrogen (10 vol%) are admixed as tracer gas to evaluate the electric field strength in the 1 mm discharge gap. Absolute values of the electric field strength are determined by calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. Alteration of the electric field strength has been observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. In this case the major advantage over emission based methods is that this technique can be used independently from emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive, opposite discharge pulses where no emission occurs at all. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Forschergruppe FOR 1123 and Sonderforschungsbereich TRR 24 ``Fundamentals of complex plasmas''.

  2. Combined Lorentz force and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry in a vertical convection liquid metal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürner, Till; Vogt, Tobias; Resagk, Christian; Eckert, Sven; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    We report experimental studies on turbulent vertical convection flow in the liquid metal alloy gallium-indium-tin. Flow measurements were conducted by a combined use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV). It is known that the forced convection flow in a duct generates a force on the LLFV magnet system, that grows proportional to the flow velocity. We show that for the slower flow of natural convection LLFV retains this linear dependence in the range of micronewtons. Furthermore experimental results on the scaling of heat and momentum transport with the thermal driving are presented. The results cover a range of Rayleigh numbers 3 ×105 < Ra < 3 ×107 at a Prandtl number Pr 0.032 . The Nusselt number Nu is found to scale as Nu Ra0.31 . A Reynolds number Rez based on the vertical velocities close the heated and cooled side walls scales with Rez Ra0.45 . Additionally a Reynolds number based on the horizontal flow component is scaling as Rex Ra0.67 . These results agree well with numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. This work is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. GRK 1567.

  3. Control dynamics of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter; Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2016-05-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold bosons following an interaction quench upon a periodically driven optical lattice is investigated. It is shown that an interaction quench triggers the inter-well tunneling dynamics, while for the intra-well dynamics breathing and cradle-like processes can be generated. In particular, the occurrence of a resonance between the cradle and tunneling modes is revealed. On the other hand, the employed periodic driving enforces the bosons in the mirror wells to oscillate out-of-phase and to exhibit a dipole mode, while in the central well the cloud experiences a breathing mode. The dynamical behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency revealing a resonant behaviour of the intra-well dynamics. To drive the system in a highly non-equilibrium state an interaction quench upon the driving is performed giving rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result of the quench the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  4. From single magnetic adatoms on superconductors to coupled spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Katharina J.

    Magnetic adsorbates on conventional s-wave superconductors lead to exchange interactions that induce Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states inside the superconducting energy gap. Here, we employ tunneling spectroscopy at 1.1 K to investigate magnetic atoms and chains on superconducting Pb surfaces. We show that individual Manganese (Mn) atoms give rise to a distinct number of YSR-states. The single-atom junctions are stable over several orders of magnitude in conductance. We identify single-electron tunneling as well as Andreev processes. When the atoms are brought into sufficiently close distance, the Shiba states hybridize, thus giving rise to states with bonding and anti-bonding character. It has been shown that the Pb(110) surface supports the self-assembly of Fe chains, which exhibit fingerprints of Majorana bound states. Using superconducting tips, we resolve a rich subgap structure including peaks at zero energy and low-energy resonances, which overlap with the putative Majorana states. We gratefully acknowledge funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through collaborative research Grant Sfb 658, and through Grant FR2726/4, as well by the European Research Council through Consolidator Grant NanoSpin.

  5. Ising tricriticality in the extended Hubbard model with bond dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehske, Holger; Ejima, Satoshi; Lange, Florian; Essler, Fabian H. L.

    We explore the quantum phase transition between Peierls and charge-density-wave insulating states in the one-dimensional, half-filled, extended Hubbard model with explicit bond dimerization. We show that the critical line of the continuous Ising transition terminates at a tricritical point, belonging to the universality class of the tricritical Ising model with central charge c=7/10. Above this point, the quantum phase transition becomes first order. Employing a numerical matrix-product-state based (infinite) density-matrix renormalization group method we determine the ground-state phase diagram, the spin and two-particle charge excitations gaps, and the entanglement properties of the model with high precision. Performing a bosonization analysis we can derive a field description of the transition region in terms of a triple sine-Gordon model. This allows us to derive field theory predictions for the power-law (exponential) decay of the density-density (spin-spin) and bond-order-wave correlation functions, which are found to be in excellent agreement with our numerical results. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany), SFB 652, project B5, and by the EPSRC under Grant No. EP/N01930X/1 (FHLE).

  6. Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard

    Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.

  7. Conformation and stretching of end-tethered polymers in pressure-driven flow under confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tamal; Hardt, Steffen; InstituteNano-; Microfludics, Technische Universität Darmstadt Team

    2016-11-01

    Understanding of the conformation and dynamics of polymers under confinement is important for both fundamental studies and applications. We experimentally study the conformation and stretching of surface-tethered polymer chains confined between parallel surfaces and exposed to a pressure-driven flow. λ-DNA molecules are tethered to the wall of a microchannel of height smaller than the contour lengths of the molecules. The DNA molecules, stained with a fluorescent dye, are visualized by epifluorescence and laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The effects of the channel height, flow rate and contour length on the extension of the molecules are determined from epifluorescence images. From LSCM images the complete conformation and orientation of the DNA molecules is inferred. We find that the fractional extension of the molecules is uniquely determined by the fluid shear stress at the tethering surface and the chain contour length. There is no explicit influence of the channel height in the range of contour lengths we consider. We also derive analytical scaling relationships (in the weak and strong extension limits) that explain the experimentally observed stretching characteristics. This work is supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. HA 2696/33-1).

  8. Rayleigh- and Prandtl-number dependence of the large-scale flow-structure in weakly-rotating turbulent thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stephan; Wei, Ping; Ahlers, Guenter

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent thermal convection under rotation shows a remarkable variety of different flow states. The Nusselt number (Nu) at slow rotation rates (expressed as the dimensionless inverse Rossby number 1/Ro), for example, is not a monotonic function of 1/Ro. Different 1/Ro-ranges can be observed with different slopes ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) . Some of these ranges are connected by sharp transitions where ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) changes discontinuously. We investigate different regimes in cylindrical samples of aspect ratio Γ = 1 by measuring temperatures at the sidewall of the sample for various Prandtl numbers in the range 3 < Pr < 35 and Rayleigh numbers in the range of 108 < Ra < 4 ×1011 . From these measurements we deduce changes of the flow structure. We learn about the stability and dynamics of the large-scale circulation (LSC), as well as about its breakdown and the onset of vortex formation close to the top and bottom plate. We shall examine correlations between these measurements and changes in the heat transport. This work was supported by NSF grant DRM11-58514. SW acknowledges support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  9. A Fluidic Hourglass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Alvaro; Lhuissier, Henri; Rossi, Massimiliano; Volk, Andreas; Kähler, Christian J.

    2016-11-01

    A group of objects passing through a constriction might get eventually stuck. It occurs no matter what type of object is considered: sand in an hourglass, particles in a fluid through a porous medium or people leaving a room in panic. The case of particles in a fluid affects porous mediums, filters and membranes, which become unusable when clogged. Certainly the adherence of the particles to the walls and to each other is an important parameter in such systems, but even without adherence the clogging probability is far from negligible. Focusing in these low-adherence regimes, we use microfluidic devices with a bottleneck of squared cross-section through which we force dilute polystyrene particle solutions with diameters comparable to the bottleneck size and down to one tenth its size. In such low friction conditions we show experimental evidence of a strong transition at a critical particle-to-neck ratio, just as it occurs in dry granular systems. We describe analytically such a transition by modeling the arch formation as a purely stochastic process, which yields a good agreement with the experimental data. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft KA1808/22-1.

  10. Importance of liquid fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Pit; Lunkenheimer, Peter; Krohns, Stephan; Thoms, Erik; Loidl, Alois

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that are liquid at ambient temperatures. The strong electrostatic forces between their molecular ions result, e.g., in low volatility and high stability for many members of this huge material class. For this reason they bear a high potential for new advancements in applications, e.g., as electrolytes in energy-storage devices such as supercapacitors or batteries, where the ionic conductivity is an essential figure of merit. Most ILs show dynamic properties typical for glassy matter, which dominate many of their physical properties. An important method to study these dynamical glass-properties is dielectric spectroscopy that can access relaxation times of dynamic processes and the conductivity in a broad frequency and temperature range. In the present contribution, we present results on a large variety of ionic liquids showing that the conductivity of ILs depends in a systematic way not only on their glass temperature but also on the so-called fragility, characterizing the non-canonical super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of their ionic mobility. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via Research Unit FOR1394 and by the BMBF via ENREKON 03EK3015.

  11. A new DFT approach to model small polarons in oxides with proper account for long-range polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, Sebastian; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias; Theory Department Team

    In this work, we address two important challenges in the DFT description of small polarons (excess charges localized within one unit cell): sensitivity to the errors in exchange-correlation (XC) treatment and finite-size effects in supercell calculations. The polaron properties are obtained using a modified neutral potential-energy surface (PES). Using the hybrid HSE functional and considering the whole range 0 <= α <= 1 , we show that the modified PES model significantly reduces the dependence of the polaron level and binding energy in MgO and TiO2 on the XC functional. It does not eliminate the dependence on supercell size. Based on Pekar's model, we derive the proper long-range behavior of the polaron and a finite-size correction that allows to obtain the polaron properties in the dilute limit (tested for supercells containing up to 1,000 atoms). The developed approach reduces drastically the computational time for exploring the polaron PES, and gives a consistent description of polarons for the whole range of α. It allowed us to find a self-trapped hole in MgO that is noticeably more stable than reported previously. partially supported by UniCat (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft).

  12. A dynamic mechanism for allosteric activation of Aurora kinase A by activation loop phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Emily F; Muretta, Joseph M; Thompson, Andrew R; Lake, Eric W; Cyphers, Soreen; Albanese, Steven K; Hanson, Sonya M; Behr, Julie M; Thomas, David D; Chodera, John D; Levinson, Nicholas M

    2018-02-21

    Many eukaryotic protein kinases are activated by phosphorylation on a specific conserved residue in the regulatory activation loop, a post-translational modification thought to stabilize the active DFG-In state of the catalytic domain. Here we use a battery of spectroscopic methods that track different catalytic elements of the kinase domain to show that the ~100 fold activation of the mitotic kinase Aurora A (AurA) by phosphorylation occurs without a population shift from the DFG-Out to the DFG-In state, and that the activation loop of the activated kinase remains highly dynamic. Instead, molecular dynamics simulations and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments show that phosphorylation triggers a switch within the DFG-In subpopulation from an autoinhibited DFG-In substate to an active DFG-In substate, leading to catalytic activation. This mechanism raises new questions about the functional role of the DFG-Out state in protein kinases. © 2018, Ruff et al.

  13. A strategy for detecting derelict fishing gear at sea.

    PubMed

    McElwee, Kris; Donohue, Mary J; Courtney, Catherine A; Morishige, Carey; Rivera-Vicente, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Derelict fishing gear (DFG) is a highly persistent form of marine pollution known to cause environmental and economic damage. At-sea detection of DFG would support pelagic removal of this gear to prevent and minimize impacts on marine environments and species. In 2008, experts in marine debris, oceanography, remote sensing, and marine policy outlined a strategy to develop the capability to detect and ultimately remove DFG from the open ocean. The strategy includes three interrelated components: understanding the characteristics of the targeted DFG, indirectly detecting DFG by modeling likely locations, and directly detecting pelagic DFG using remote sensing. Together, these components aim to refine the search area, increase the likelihood of detection, and decrease mitigation response time, thereby providing guidance for removal operations. Here, we present this at-sea detection strategy, relate it to relevant extant research and technology, and identify gaps that currently prevent successful at-sea detection and removal of DFG. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modification of a School Programme in the Deutsches Museum to Enhance Students' Attitudes and Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrova, Olga; Urhahne, Detlef

    2010-11-01

    The study examines the nature, conditions, and outcomes of student learning from an organised guided tour in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. The instructional methods that best support students' cognitive and affective learning as well as how students' motivational and emotional states influence their achievement were investigated. A sample of 96 secondary school students took part in two different versions of a guided tour on an energy topic. The tours varied in the degree of support of students' active involvement, group work, and the variety of general activities offered during the tour. The data collected indicate that both tour versions led to an increase in student understanding of the visit topic to nearly the same extent. However, the version stimulating students' active participation, group work, and including a larger variety of activities aroused more positive attitudes. Students of the modified school programme showed higher interest and intrinsic motivation, felt more competent, and were less bored after the guided tour. In addition, the results suggest that students' visit-related emotional states predict the degree of their post-visit topic understanding, even when demographics and prior knowledge are taken into consideration.

  15. Representing Value as Digital Object: A Discussion of Transferability and Anonymity; Digital Library Initiatives of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; CrossRef Turns One; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert E.; Lyons, Patrice A.; Brahms, Ewald; Brand, Amy; van den Bergen, Mieke

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the use of digital objects to represent value in a network environment; digital library initiatives at the central public funding organization for academic research in Germany; an application of the Digital Object Identifier System; and the Web site of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. (LRW)

  16. Multiple Scales in Fluid Dynamics and Meteorology: The DFG Priority Programme 1276 MetStröm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Larcher, Th; Klein, R.

    2012-04-01

    -temporal grid adaptivity get invoked in order to further improve the net efficiency in exploiting the given computational resources. In the setting of geophysical flow simulation one must then employ subgrid scale parameterizations that dynamically adapt to the changing grid sizes and time steps, implement ways to judiciously control and steer the newly available flexibility of resolution, and invent novel ways of quantifying the remaining errors. The DFG priority program MetStröm covers the expertise of Meteorology, Fluid Dynamics, and Applied Mathematics to develop model- as well as grid-adaptive numerical simulation concepts in multidisciplinary projects. The goal of this priority programme is to provide simulation models which combine scale-dependent (mathematical) descriptions of key physical processes with adaptive flow discretization schemes. Deterministic continuous approaches and discrete and/or stochastic closures and their possible interplay are taken into consideration. Research focuses on the theory and methodology of multiscale meteorological-fluid mechanics modelling. Accompanying reference experiments support model validation.

  17. Terahertz generation by difference frequency generation from a compact optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyang; Wang, Silei; Wang, Mengtao; Wang, Weishu

    2017-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) generation by difference frequency generation (DFG) processes with dual idler waves is theoretically analyzed. The dual idler waves are generated by a compact optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). The phase-matching conditions in a same PPLN for the optical parametric oscillation generating signal and idler waves and for the DFG generating THz waves can be simultaneously satisfied by selecting the poling period of PPLN. Moreover, 3-order cascaded DFG processes generating THz waves can be realized in the same PPLN. To take an example of 8.341 THz which locates in the vicinity of polariton resonances, THz intensities and quantum conversion efficiencies are calculated. Compared with non-cascaded DFG processes, THz intensities of 8.341 THz in 3-order cascaded DFG processes increase to 2.57 times. When the pump intensity equals to 20 MW/mm2, the quantum conversion efficiency of 106% in 3-order cascaded DFG processes can be realized, which exceeds the Manley-Rowe limit.

  18. At-sea detection of derelict fishing gear in the North Pacific: an overview.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Carey; McElwee, Kris

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous known impacts of derelict fishing gear (DFG) to marine ecosystems and safe navigation around the world. To mitigate these impacts, the preemptive detection and removal of DFG at sea are being pursued. This special issue focuses on the North Pacific Ocean because of historic and ongoing research on DFG in the area, particularly as it relates to the Hawaiian Archipelago. In order to develop an effective detection strategy, information and expertise from three disciplines must be integrated: marine debris, oceanography, and remote sensing technology. Building upon results and discussions during a workshop held in December 2008, this special issue provides both results of original research and review papers, pursuing each discipline as it relates to DFG and outlining a multi-faceted strategy to effectively detect DFG at sea. This strategy serves as a roadmap, taking us closer to realizing the goal of detecting and removing DFG at sea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Navigational threats by derelict fishing gear to navy ships in the Korean seas.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lim, Sehan

    2017-06-30

    This study assessed the impact of derelict fishing gear (DFG) on navigation. The Republic of Korea's navy (ROKN) recorded every case of approximately 170 naval ships associated with propeller entanglement by DFG from January 2010 to December 2015. The frequency of cases was 2.3 per ship and 397.7 (±37.5) per year. The amount of DFG disentangled was 0.025tons per ship and 10.0 (±1.7) tons per year. The frequency temporally decreased whereas the amount increased over these six years. To disentangle propellers, 3.1 divers were needed on average per case. Propeller entanglement occurred in all local seas and some of these areas showed increases over time. Our study highlights that the impact of DFG on navigational threats has been persistent and ubiquitous and can potentially be reduced by preventing DFG in fishing areas, with a focus on improved management by fishermen and government and with more efficient retrieval of DFG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Observation of the Spin Nernst Effect in Platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian

    Thermoelectric effects - arising from the interplay between thermal and charge transport phenomena - have been extensively studied and are considered well established. Upon taking into account the spin degree of freedom, however, qualitatively new phenomena arise. A prototype example for these so-called magneto-thermoelectric or spin-caloritronic effects is the spin Seebeck effect, in which a thermal gradient drives a pure spin current. In contrast to their thermoelectric counterparts, not all the spin-caloritronic effects predicted from theory have yet been observed in experiment. One of these `missing' phenomena is the spin Nernst effect, in which a thermal gradient gives rise to a transverse pure spin current. We have observed the spin Nernst effect in yttrium iron garnet/platinum (YIG/Pt) thin film bilayers. Upon applying a thermal gradient within the YIG/Pt bilayer plane, a pure spin current flows in the direction orthogonal to the thermal drive. We detect this spin current as a thermopower voltage, generated via magnetization-orientation dependent spin transfer into the adjacent YIG layer. Our data shows that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in in Pt have different sign, but comparable magnitude, in agreement with first-principles calculations. Financial support via Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Priority Programme SPP 1538 Spin-Caloric Transport is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Simulations of thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Operating a liquid-metal battery produces Ohmic losses in the electrolyte layer that separates both metal electrodes. As a consequence, temperature gradients establish which potentially cause thermal convection since density and interfacial tension depend on the local temperature. In our numerical investigations, we considered three plane, immiscible layers governed by the Navier-Stokes-Boussinesq equations held at a constant temperature of 500°C at the bottom and top. A homogeneous current is applied that leads to a preferential heating of the mid electrolyte layer. We chose a typical material combination of Li separated by LiCl-KCl (a molten salt) from Pb-Bi for which we analyzed the linear stability of pure thermal conduction and performed three-dimensional direct-numerical simulations by a pseudospectral method probing different: electrolyte layer heights, overall heights, and current densities. Four instability mechanisms are identified, which are partly coupled to each other: buoyant convection in the upper electrode, buoyant convection in the molten salt layer, and Marangoni convection at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated buoyant convection. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. KO 5515/1-1 is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Condensation and transport in the totally asymmetric inclusion process (TASIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebel, Johannes; Weber, Markus F.; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin

    Transport phenomena are often modeled by the hopping of particles on regular lattices or networks. Such models describe, e.g., the exclusive movement of molecular motors along microtubules: no two motors may occupy the same site. In our work, we study inclusion processes that are the bosonic analogues of the fermionic exclusion processes. In inclusion processes, many particles may occupy a single site and hopping rates depend linearly on the occupation of departure and arrival sites. Particles thus attract other particles to their own site. Condensation occurs when particles collectively cluster in one or multiple sites, whereas other sites become depleted.We showed that inclusion processes describe both the selection of strategies in evolutionary zero-sum games and the condensation of non-interacting bosons into multiple quantum states in driven-dissipative systems. The condensation is captured by the antisymmetric Lotka-Volterra equation (ALVE), which constitutes a nonlinearly coupled dynamical system. We derived an algebraic method to analyze the ALVE and to determine the condensates. Our approach allows for the design of networks that result in condensates with oscillating occupations, and yields insight into the interplay between network topology and transport properties. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB-TR12), German Excellence Initiative (Nanosystems Initiative Munich), Center for NanoScience Munich.

  3. Regions of tunneling dynamics for few bosons in an optical lattice subjected to a quench of the imposed harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Koutentakis, Georgios; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2016-05-01

    Recent experimental advances have introduced an interplay in the trapping length scales of the lattice and the harmonic confinement. This fact motivates the investigation to prepare atomic gases at certain quantum states by utilizing a composite atomic trap consisting of a lattice potential that is embedded inside an overlying harmonic trap. In the present work, we examine how frequency modulations of the overlying harmonic trap stimulate the dynamics of an 1D few-boson gas. The gas is initially prepared at a highly confined state, and the subsequent dynamics induced by a quench of the harmonic trap frequency to a lower value is examined. It is shown that a non-interacting gas always diffuses to the outer sites. In contrast the response of the interacting system is more involved and is dominated by a resonance, which is induced by the bifurcation of the low-lying eigenstates. Our study reveals that the position of the resonance depends both on the atom number and the interaction coupling, manifesting its many body nature. The corresponding mean field treatment as well as the single-band approximation have been found to be inadequate for the description of the tunneling dynamics in the interacting case. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  4. Optical fingerprints of solid-liquid interfaces: a joint ATR-IR and first principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Niu, F.; Tecklenburg, S.; Pander, M.; Nayak, S.; Erbe, A.; Wippermann, S.; Gygi, F.; Galli, G.

    Despite the importance of understanding the structural and bonding properties of solid-liquid interfaces for a wide range of (photo-)electrochemical applications, there are presently no experimental techniques available to directly probe the microscopic structure of solid-liquid interfaces. To develop robust strategies to interpret experiments and validate theory, we carried out attenuated total internal reflection (ATR-IR) spectroscopy measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the vibrational properties of interfaces between liquid water and well-controlled prototypical semiconductor substrates. We show the Ge(100)/H2O interface to feature a reversible potential-dependent surface phase transition between Ge-H and Ge-OH termination. The Si(100)/H2O interface is proposed as a model system for corrosion and oxidation processes. We performed AIMD calculations under finite electric fields, revealing different pathways for initial oxidation. These pathways are predicted to exhibit unique spectral signatures. A significant increase in surface specificity can be achieved utilizing an angle-dependent ATR-IR experiment, which allows to detect such signatures at the interfacial layer and consequently changes in the hydrogen bond network. Funding from DOE-BES Grant No. DE-SS0008939 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (RESOLV, EXC 1069) are gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Any Light Particle Search (ALPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Aaron; Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    High power laser fields enabled by technologies developed for ground-based gravitational-wave observatories open up new opportunities for fundamental physics studies. One of these options is the search for axions and axion-like particles in a pure laboratory experiment. The axion is a solution to the strong CP-problem and a potential dark matter candidate. The axion has also been proposed as an additional channel to cool stars as well as a potential explanation for the TeV transparency problem. The German-US ALPS collaboration is setting up a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment at DESY. LSW experiments are based on the simple idea that a high power laser field traversing a static magnetic field will transform partly into a relativistic axion field. This axion field will travel through an opaque wall into a second static magnetic field region where it turns partly back into an electromagnetic wave field with the same frequency as the laser. The ALPS collaboration is working towards a large scale LSW experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. I will report on the status of the ALPS experiment. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, PRISMA, the Helmholtz Association, the National Science Foundation and the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  6. Association of 3He-rich solar energetic particles with large-scale coronal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucik, Radoslav; Innes, Davina; Guo, Lijia; Mason, Glenn M.; Wiedenbeck, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive or 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been typically associated with jets or small EUV brightenings. We identify 30 impulsive SEP events from ACE at L1 during the solar minimum period 2007-2010 and examine their solar sources with high resolution STEREO-A EUV images. At beginning of 2007, STEREO-A was near the Earth while at the end of the investigated period, when there were more events, STEREO-A was leading the Earth by 90°. Thus STEREO-A provided a better (more direct) view on 3He-rich flares generally located on the western Sun's hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the events are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. This finding provides new insights on acceleration and transport of 3He-rich SEPs in solar corona. It is believed that elemental and isotopic fractionation in impulsive SEP events is caused by more localized processes operating in the flare sites. The EUV waves have been reported in gradual SEP events in association with fast coronal mass ejections. To examine their role on 3He-rich SEPs production the energy spectra and relative abundances are discussed. R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grant BU 3115/2-1.

  7. Transitional boundary layer in low-Prandtl-number convection at high Rayleigh number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Joerg; Bandaru, Vinodh; Pandey, Ambrish; Scheel, Janet

    2016-11-01

    The boundary layer structure of the velocity and temperature fields in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flows in closed cylindrical cells of unit aspect ratio is revisited from a transitional and turbulent viscous boundary layer perspective. When the Rayleigh number is large enough the boundary layer dynamics at the bottom and top plates can be separated into an impact region of downwelling plumes, an ejection region of upwelling plumes and an interior region (away from side walls) that is dominated by a shear flow of varying orientation. This interior plate region is compared here to classical wall-bounded shear flows. The working fluid is liquid mercury or liquid gallium at a Prandtl number of Pr = 0 . 021 for a range of Rayleigh numbers of 3 ×105 <= Ra <= 4 ×108 . The momentum transfer response to these system parameters generates a fluid flow in the closed cell with a macroscopic flow Reynolds number that takes values in the range of 1 . 8 ×103 <= Re <= 4 . 6 ×104 . It is shown that particularly the viscous boundary layers for the largest Ra are highly transitional and obey some properties that are directly comparable to transitional channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers below 100. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  8. Characterization of Rare Reverse Flow Events in Adverse Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Fuchs, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Time-resolved tomographic flow fields measured in the viscous sublayer region of a turbulent boundary layer subjected to an adverse pressure gradient (APG) are examined with the aim to resolve and characterize reverse flow events at Reτ = 5000. The fields were measured using a novel high resolution tomographic particle tracking technique. It is shown that this technique is able to fully resolve mean and time dependent features of the complex three-dimensional flow with high accuracy down to very near-wall distances ( 10 μm). From time resolved Lagrangian particle trajectories, statistical information as well as instantaneous topological features of near-wall flow events are deduced. Similar to the zero pressure gradient case (ZPG), it was found that individual events with reverse flow components still occur relatively rarely under the action of the pressure gradient investigated here. However, reverse flow events comprised of many individual events, are shown to appear in relatively organized groupings in both spanwise and streamise directions. Furthermore, instantaneous measurements of reverse flow events show that these events are associated with the motion of low-momentum streaks in the near-wall region. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures and the individual project Grant KA1808/8-2 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  9. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Imidazole Clusters in Helium Droplets Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Devendra; Can, Cihad; Pal, Nitish; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina

    2017-06-01

    Imidazole ring is a part of many biologically important molecules and drugs. Imidazole monomer, dimer and its complexes with water have earlier been studied using infrared spectroscopy in helium droplets^{1,2} and molecular beams^{3}. These studies were focussed on the N-H and O-H stretch regions, covering the spectral region of 3200-3800 \\wn. We have extended the studies on imidazole clusters into the ring vibration region. The imidazole clusters were isolated in helium droplets and were probed using a combination of infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The spectra in the region of 1000-1100 \\wn and 1300-1460 \\wn were recorded using quantum cascade lasers. Some of the observed bands could be assigned to imidazole monomer and higher order imidazole clusters, using pickup curve analysis and ab initio calculations. Work is still in progress. The results will be discussed in detail in the talk. References: 1) M.Y. Choi and R.E. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A, 110, 9344 (2006). 2) M.Y. Choi and R.E. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett., 477, 276 (2009). 3) J. Zischang, J. J. Lee and M. Suhm, J. Chem. Phys., 135, 061102 (2011). Note: This work was supported by the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (Ruhr-Universitat EXC1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  10. Mach Number effects on turbulent superstructures in wall bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Scharnowski, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Planer and three-dimensional flow field measurements along a flat plat boundary layer in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel Munich (TWM) are examined with the aim to characterize the scaling, spatial organization, and topology of large scale turbulent superstructures in compressible flow. This facility is ideal for this investigation as the ratio of boundary layer thickness to test section spanwise extent ratio is around 1/25, ensuring minimal sidewall and corner effects on turbulent structures in the center of the test section. A major difficulty in the experimental investigation of large scale features is the mutual size of the superstructures which can extend over many boundary layer thicknesses. Using multiple PIV systems, it was possible to capture the full spatial extent of large-scale structures over a range of Mach numbers from Ma = 0.3 - 3. To calculate the average large-scale structure length and spacing, the acquired vector fields were analyzed by statistical multi-point methods that show large scale structures with a correlation length of around 10 boundary layer thicknesses over the range of Mach numbers investigated. Furthermore, the average spacing between high and low momentum structures is on the order of a boundary layer thicknesses. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  11. Ice nuclei measurements at a high altitude remote station in the Northern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrod, Jann; Bingemer, Heinz; Haunold, Werner; Curtius, Joachim; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Rinaldi, Matteo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Cristofanelli, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    an optical particle sizer. A clear increase of submicron particles was noted during the passage of the dust plume. The heavily dust loaded air had high IN concentrations up to 270 IN/l . The maximum fraction of large aerosol particles activated as ice nuclei during this dust event was one ice nucleus in 1250 aerosol particles. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Research Unit INUIT. References [Klein et al. 2010] Klein, H. ; Haunold, W. ; Bundke, U. ; Nillius, B. ; Wetter, T. ; Schallenberg, S. ; Bingemer, H.: A new method for sampling of atmospheric ice nuclei with subsequent analysis in a static diffusion chamber. In: Atmospheric Research 96 (2010), p. 218 - 224.

  12. Convergent evolution of Amadori opine catabolic systems in plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Baek, Chang-Ho; Farrand, Stephen K; Lee, Ko-Eun; Park, Dae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong Kug; Kim, Kun-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Deoxyfructosyl glutamine (DFG, referred to elsewhere as dfg) is a naturally occurring Amadori compound found in rotting fruits and vegetables. DFG also is an opine and is found in tumors induced by chrysopine-type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Such strains catabolize this opine via a pathway coded for by their plasmids. NT1, a derivative of the nopaline-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 lacking pTiC58, can utilize DFG as the sole carbon source. Genes for utilization of DFG were mapped to the 543-kb accessory plasmid pAtC58. Two cosmid clones of pAtC58 allowed UIA5, a plasmid-free derivative of C58, harboring pSa-C that expresses MocC (mannopine [MOP] oxidoreductase that oxidizes MOP to DFG), to grow by using MOP as the sole carbon source. Genetic analysis of subclones indicated that the genes for utilization of DFG are located in a 6.2-kb BglII (Bg2) region adjacent to repABC-type genes probably responsible for the replication of pAtC58. This region contains five open reading frames organized into at least two transcriptional soc (santhopine catabolism) groups: socR and socABCD. Nucleotide sequence analysis and analyses of transposon-insertion mutations in the region showed that SocR negatively regulates the expression of socR itself and socABCD. SocA and SocB are responsible for transport of DFG and MOP. SocA is a homolog of known periplasmic amino acid binding proteins. The N-terminal half of SocB is a homolog of the transmembrane transporter proteins for several amino acids, and the C-terminal half is a homolog of the transporter-associated ATP-binding proteins. SocC and SocD could be responsible for the enzymatic degradation of DFG, being homologs of sugar oxidoreductases and an amadoriase from Corynebacterium sp., respectively. The protein products of socABCD are not related at the amino acid sequence level to those of the moc and mot genes of Ti plasmids responsible for utilization of DFG and MOP, indicating that these two sets of genes and their

  13. Convergent Evolution of Amadori Opine Catabolic Systems in Plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Chang-Ho; Farrand, Stephen K.; Lee, Ko-Eun; Park, Dae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong Kug; Kim, Kun-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Deoxyfructosyl glutamine (DFG, referred to elsewhere as dfg) is a naturally occurring Amadori compound found in rotting fruits and vegetables. DFG also is an opine and is found in tumors induced by chrysopine-type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Such strains catabolize this opine via a pathway coded for by their plasmids. NT1, a derivative of the nopaline-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 lacking pTiC58, can utilize DFG as the sole carbon source. Genes for utilization of DFG were mapped to the 543-kb accessory plasmid pAtC58. Two cosmid clones of pAtC58 allowed UIA5, a plasmid-free derivative of C58, harboring pSa-C that expresses MocC (mannopine [MOP] oxidoreductase that oxidizes MOP to DFG), to grow by using MOP as the sole carbon source. Genetic analysis of subclones indicated that the genes for utilization of DFG are located in a 6.2-kb BglII (Bg2) region adjacent to repABC-type genes probably responsible for the replication of pAtC58. This region contains five open reading frames organized into at least two transcriptional soc (santhopine catabolism) groups: socR and socABCD. Nucleotide sequence analysis and analyses of transposon-insertion mutations in the region showed that SocR negatively regulates the expression of socR itself and socABCD. SocA and SocB are responsible for transport of DFG and MOP. SocA is a homolog of known periplasmic amino acid binding proteins. The N-terminal half of SocB is a homolog of the transmembrane transporter proteins for several amino acids, and the C-terminal half is a homolog of the transporter-associated ATP-binding proteins. SocC and SocD could be responsible for the enzymatic degradation of DFG, being homologs of sugar oxidoreductases and an amadoriase from Corynebacterium sp., respectively. The protein products of socABCD are not related at the amino acid sequence level to those of the moc and mot genes of Ti plasmids responsible for utilization of DFG and MOP, indicating that these two sets of genes and their

  14. Theoretical analysis of terahertz generation from a compact optical parametric oscillator based on adhesive-free-bonded periodically inverted KTiOPO4 plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyang; Wang, Silei; Wang, Mengtao; Yuan, Bin; Wang, Weishu

    2017-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) generation by difference frequency generation (DFG) processes with dual signal waves is theoretically analyzed. The dual signal waves are generated by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with periodically inverted KTiOPO4 (KTP) plates based on adhesive-free-bonded (AFB) technology. The phase-matching conditions in a same AFB KTP composite for the OPO generating signals and idlers and for the DFG generating THz wave can be simultaneously satisfied by selecting the thickness of each KTP plate. Moreover, 4-order cascaded DFG processes can be realized in the same AFB KTP composite. The cascaded Stokes interaction processes generating THz photons and the cascaded anti-Stokes interaction processes consuming THz photons are investigated from coupled wave equations. Take an example of 3.106 THz which locates in the vicinity of polariton resonances, THz intensities and quantum conversion efficiencies are calculated. Compared with non-cascaded DFG processes, THz intensities of 3.106 THz in 4-order cascaded DFG processes increase to 5.56 times. When the pump intensity equals 20 MW mm-2, the quantum conversion efficiency of 259% in 4-order cascaded DFG processes can be realized, which exceeds the Manley-Rowe limit.

  15. Comparative assessment of endocrine modulators with oestrogenic activity: I. Definition of a hygiene-based margin of safety (HBMOS) for xeno-oestrogens against the background of European developments.

    PubMed

    Bolt, H M; Janning, P; Michna, H; Degen, G H

    2001-01-01

    A novel concept - the hygiene-based margin of safety (HBMOS) - is suggested for the assessment of the impact of potential endocrine modulators. It integrates exposure scenarios and potency data for industrial chemicals and naturally occurring dietary compounds with oestrogenic activity. An HBMOS is defined as a quotient of estimated daily intakes weighted by the relative in vivo potencies of these compounds. The Existing Chemicals Programme of the European Union provides Human and Environmental Risk Assessments of Existing Chemicals which include human exposure scenarios. Such exposure scenarios, along with potency estimates for endocrine activities, may provide a basis for a quantitative comparison of the potential endocrine-modulating effects of industrial chemicals with endocrine modulators as natural constituents of human diet. Natural phyto-oestrogens exhibit oestrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Important phyto-oestrogens for humans are isoflavones (daidzein, genistein) and lignans, with the highest quantities found in soybeans and flaxseed, respectively. Daily isoflavone exposures calculated for infants on soy-based formulae were in the ranges of 4.5-8 mg/kg body wt.; estimates for adults range up to 1 mg/kg body wt. The Senate Commission on the Evaluation of Food Safety (SKLM) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft has also indicated a wide range of dietary exposures. For matters of risk assessment, the SKLM has based recommendations on dietary exposure scenarios, implying a daily intake of phyto-oestrogens in the order of 1 mg/kg body wt. On the basis of information compiled within the Existing Chemicals Programme of the EU, it appears that a daily human exposure to nonylphenol of 2 microg/kg body wt. may be a worst-case assumption, but which is based on valid scenarios. The intake of octylphenol is much lower, due to a different use pattern and applications, and may be neglected. Data from migration studies led to estimations of the daily human

  16. Assessment of Diastolic Function in Single Ventricle Patients Following the Fontan Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Margossian, Renee; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Barker, Piers C.; Mertens, Luc; Quartermain, Michael D.; Su, Jason T.; Shirali, Girish; Chen, Shan; Colan, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients with functional single ventricles (FSV) following the Fontan procedure have abnormal cardiac mechanics. We sought to determine factors that influence diastolic function and to describe associations of diastolic function with current clinical status. Methods Echocardiograms were obtained as part of the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study. Diastolic function grade (DFG) was assessed as normal (grade 0), impaired relaxation (grade 1), pseudonormalization (grade 2), restrictive (grade 3). Studies were also classified dichotomously (restrictive pattern present or absent). Relationships between DFG and pre-Fontan variables (e.g., ventricular morphology, age at Fontan, history of volume-unloading surgery), and current status (e.g., systolic function, valvar regurgitation, exercise performance) were explored. Results DFG was calculable in 326/546 subjects (60%); mean age = 11.7±3.3 years. Overall, 32% of patients had grade 0, 9% grade 1, 37% grade 2, and 22% grade 3. Although there was no association between ventricular morphology and DFG, there was an association between ventricular morphology and E’, which was lowest in those with right ventricular morphology (p<.001); this association remained significant when using z-scores adjusted for age (p=<.001). DFG was associated with achieving maximal effort on exercise testing (p=.004); the majority (64%) of those not achieving maximal effort had DFG 2 or 3.No additional significant associations of DFG with laboratory or clinical measures were identified. Conclusion Assessment of diastolic function by current algorithms results in a high percentage of patients with abnormal DFG, but we found few clinically or statistically significant associations. This may imply a lack of impact of abnormal diastolic function upon clinical outcome in this cohort, or may indicate that the methodology may not be applicable to pediatric FSV patients. PMID:27624592

  17. Experiences of the Dresdner Cord Blood Bank, supported by the Deutsche Knochenmarkspenderdatei.

    PubMed

    Ordemann, R; Petzold, K; Hölig, K; Schaffer, B; Mauersberger, S; Ehninger, G; Ehminger, G

    1999-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for some malignant hematologic diseases, marrow failure syndromes, and severe congenital immunodeficiency states. Since Gluckman et al reported in 1988 the first successful human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation, it has been known that cord blood is a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells. The Cord Blood Bank at the University Hospital of Dresden was founded in 1997 and started collecting, processing, and cryoconserving umbilical cord blood in August 1997. The cord blood bank is supported by the largest German donor registry: Deutsche Knochenmarkspenderdatei (DKMS) in Tubingen, Germany. With the informed consent of the mothers, the collection is performed in collaboration with six hospitals in Dresden, Berlin, and Bautzen. We routinely perform a volume reduction by centrifuging the blood bag and expressing the leukocyte-rich supernatant. Routinely, sterility, total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ cell count, HLA class I and II, ABO/Rh blood group, and colony-forming units are evaluated. The maternal blood is screened for anti-immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs), anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc), anticytomegalovirus (anti-CMV), and toxoplasmosis and with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). More than 1,000 cord blood units could be collected. Because of the required volume and cell count and because of sterility, 50% of the collected units had to be discharged. Our results are comparable with data of other cord blood banks: mean volume 79 mL; cell count after volume reduction-TNC, 7.16 x 10(8); mononucleated cells (MNC), 3.75 x 10(8); CD34+ cells, 1.95 x 10(6); colony-forming units (CFU), 67.1 x 10(4). To increase the pool of potential umbilical cord blood units and in order to evaluate the

  18. Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial

  19. [Leopoldina insights. The "Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher" around 1750 as reflected in its correspondence].

    PubMed

    Schnalke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The 18th century was the 'Golden Age' of scientific academies and learned societies. The oldest national medical academy still in existence, the "Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher" (Leopoldina), founded in 1652 in Schweinfurt as a private society, underwent steady growth after becoming an imperial institution with substantial privileges over the course of several decades. However, in comparison with other renowned academies in Europe, e.g. the English Royal Society or the French Académie des Sciences, it never gained a similar status due to the fact that its members lived far apart from each other and the seat of the academy was transferred to the residence of each new president, thus prohibiting the development of a geographical center. This paper focuses on the analysis of the central dialogue within the Leopoldina around 1750, the correspondence between the 6th president Andreas Elias Büchner (1701-1769), in Halle and the editor of the Leopoldina journal , the 13th Director Ephemeridum, Christoph Jacob Trew, in Nuremberg. Glancing at the four main topics of their long distance conversation - publishing the journal then called the '(Nova) Acta physico-medica', searching for new scientifically active members, improring the corporate identity amongst the Leopoldina members, enlarging the academy's library - it becomes clear that the Leopoldina profited greatly from the strong axis between Büchner and Trew. Their correspondence formed the center of a wide-spread network of letters through which the Leopoldina raised an active voice in the respublica litteraria, playing down Baroque curiosity and favoring a strong interest in rare and useful observations. Communication, interdisciplinarity and expertise formed the essential features of the Leopoldina's participation in the European natural scientific discourse.

  20. Iridates and RuCl3 - from Heisenberg antiferromagnets to potential Kitaev spin-liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    The observed richness of topological states on the single-electron level prompts the question what kind of topological phases can develop in more strongly correlated, many-body electron systems. Correlation effects, in particular intra- and inter-orbital electron-electron interactions, are very substantial in 3 d transition-metal compounds such as the copper oxides, but the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is weak. In 5 d transition-metal compounds such as iridates, the interesting situation arises that the SOC and Coulomb interactions meet on the same energy scale. The electronic structure of iridates thus depends on a strong competition between the electronic hopping amplitudes, local energy-level splittings, electron-electron interaction strengths, and the SOC of the Ir 5d electrons. The interplay of these ingredients offers the potential to stabilise relatively well-understood states such as a 2D Heisenberg-like antiferromagnet in Sr2IrO4, but in principle also far more exotic ones, such a topological Kitaev quantum spin liquid, in (hyper)honeycomb iridates. I will discuss the microscopic electronic structures of these iridates, their proximity to idealized Heisenberg and Kitaev models and our contributions to establishing the physical factors that appear to have preempted the realization of quantum spin liquid phases so far and include a discussion on the 4d transition metal chloride RuCl3. Supported by SFB 1143 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  1. Stabilization of Reactive MgO Surfaces by Ni Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazheika, Aliaksei; Levchenko, Sergey V.

    Ni-MgO solid solutions are promising materials for catalytic reduction of CO2 and dry reforming of CH4. To explain the catalytic activity, an ab initio study of Ni-substitutional defects in MgO (NiMg) has been performed. At first, the validation of the theory level was done. We compared results of CCSD(T) embedded-cluster calculations of NiMg formation energies and adsorption energies of CO, CO2 and H2 on them to the HSE(α) hybrid DFT functional with the fraction of the exact exchange α varied between 0 and 1. HSE(0.3) was found to be the best compromise in this study. Our periodic HSE(0.3) calculations show that NiMg defects are most stable at corner sites, followed by steps, and are least stable at (001) terraces. Thus, Ni-doping stabilizes stepped MgO surfaces. The dissociative adsorption of H2 on the terrace is found to be endothermic (+ 1 . 1 eV), whereas on (110) surface with NiMg it is highly exothermic (- 1 . 6 eV). Adsorbed CO2 is also significantly stabilized (- 0 . 6 vs. - 2 . 2 eV). These findings explain recent microcalorimetry measurements of H2 and CO2 adsorption at doped Ni-MgO samples. partially supported by UniCat (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft).

  2. Challenges and Ideas to Achieve Wireless 100 Gb/s Transmission: An Overview of Challenges and Solutions within the German Research Foundation (DFG) Special Priority Program SPP1655

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    Wireless communications is one of the fastest growing technology fields, driving numerous other innovations in electronics. One challenging research area within the wireless field is to achieve much higher transmission rates. First products with up to 3 Gb/s are in the market. In the coming years we predict this speed growing quickly up to and beyond 100 Gb/s. Today it is an open question how we can realize a wireless system at this speed. If we intend to use such systems in a mobile environment, we can only afford to spend approximately 1-10 pW/b for the end-to-end communication. This includes RF-transmission and all processing and protocol steps. The SPP1655 of the DFG was set up to investigate new paradigms for achieving the 100 Gb/s wireless transmission goal. Within 11 coordinated projects researchers from all over Germany are addressing several relevant issues ranging from the antennas and RF-Frontend, baseband-processing and error correction to protocol processing. A number of limitations of current approaches have to be investigated and new algorithms must be found in order to achieve the intended goal. One of the big challenges is finding the correct balance between analog and digital signal processing to achieve an extremely high performance at very low energy consumption. Another challenge is to find a good balance between bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency to achieve the 100 Gbps goal. Finally, protocol processing will need new approaches to decouple the central processor of a computer from the high-end input/output operations. Within this editorial we will address the main challenges and briefly outline the approaches of the running projects. The rest of this special issue will be devoted to more detailed descriptions and achievements of the individual projects of SPP1655.

  3. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    PubMed

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  4. Relations between lipoprotein(a) concentrations, LPA genetic variants, and the risk of mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease: a molecular and genetic association study.

    PubMed

    Zewinger, Stephen; Kleber, Marcus E; Tragante, Vinicius; McCubrey, Raymond O; Schmidt, Amand F; Direk, Kenan; Laufs, Ulrich; Werner, Christian; Koenig, Wolfgang; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Mons, Ute; Breitling, Lutz P; Brenner, Herrmann; Jennings, Richard T; Petrakis, Ioannis; Triem, Sarah; Klug, Mira; Filips, Alexandra; Blankenberg, Stefan; Waldeyer, Christoph; Sinning, Christoph; Schnabel, Renate B; Lackner, Karl J; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Nygård, Ottar; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Tell, Grethe S; Sinisalo, Juha; Nieminen, Markku S; Laaksonen, Reijo; Trompet, Stella; Smit, Roelof A J; Sattar, Naveed; Jukema, J Wouter; Groesdonk, Heinrich V; Delgado, Graciela; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Pilbrow, Anna P; Cameron, Vicky A; Richards, A Mark; Doughty, Robert N; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda; Johnson, Julie; Scholz, Markus; Beutner, Frank; Thiery, Joachim; Smith, J Gustav; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O; McPherson, Ruth; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Cresci, Sharon; Lenzini, Petra A; Spertus, John A; Olivieri, Oliviero; Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola I; Leiherer, Andreas; Saely, Christoph H; Drexel, Heinz; Mündlein, Axel; Braund, Peter S; Nelson, Christopher P; Samani, Nilesh J; Kofink, Daniel; Hoefer, Imo E; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Ko, Yi-An; Hartiala, Jaana A; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L; Eriksson, Niclas; Held, Claes; Hagström, Emil; Wallentin, Lars; Åkerblom, Axel; Siegbahn, Agneta; Karp, Igor; Labos, Christopher; Pilote, Louise; Engert, James C; Brophy, James M; Thanassoulis, George; Bogaty, Peter; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Kaczor, Marcin; Sanak, Marek; Virani, Salim S; Ballantyne, Christie M; Lee, Vei-Vei; Boerwinkle, Eric; Holmes, Michael V; Horne, Benjamin D; Hingorani, Aroon; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Patel, Riyaz S; Krämer, Bernhard K; Scharnagl, Hubert; Fliser, Danilo; März, Winfried; Speer, Thimoteus

    2017-07-01

    no associations with mortality. We conclude that these variables are not useful risk factors to measure to predict progression to death after coronary heart disease is established. Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technical Development (AtheroRemo and RiskyCAD), INTERREG IV Oberrhein Programme, Deutsche Nierenstiftung, Else-Kroener Fresenius Foundation, Deutsche Stiftung für Herzforschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Saarland University, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Willy Robert Pitzer Foundation, and Waldburg-Zeil Clinics Isny. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    several public transport units running all across the city. This is accompanied by an analysis of probability density functions (PDF) for heat waves based on recent climate data and climate projections. A dense net of 40 PM measurement sites is operated in order to obtain the spatial pattern of PM concentration as depending on meteorological condition and location. It is lined out how this climate related sub-projects interact with investigations on social networks, governance issues, buildings structure development and health outcome. Related to the later the chemical composition of PM is analyzed in more detail and related to the spatial patterns of health deficiencies. At a later stage City2020+ will propose new strategies based on cooperation from the fields of medicine, geography, sociology, history, civil engineering, and architecture for adapting the city for future needs. The Project CITY 2020+ is part of the interdisciplinary Project House HumTec (Human Sciences and Technology) at RWTH Aachen University funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG).

  6. Experimental Oxidation of Iron Sulphides from Intertidal Surface Sediments: Stable Isotope Effects (S, O, C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersbach, F.; Böttcher, M. E.; Al-Raei, A. M.; Segl, M.

    2009-04-01

    . This observation can be explained by a formation of S° and FeOOH, followed by the oxidation of pyrite. The dissolved species (SO4/Cl ratios) reflected the continuous accumulation of sulphate as an oxidation product. Dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) concentrations decreased upon reaction progress, due to the liberation of protons upon iron sulphide oxidation and degassing of carbon dioxide. The 13C/12C ratio of the residual DIC increased due to the preferential desorption of 12CO2. 34S and 18O contents of dissolved sulphate further show process specific isotope discrimination. The experiments demonstrate the importance of oxidation on the fate of FeS , but less pyrite and the formation of sulphate from resuspended intertidal surface sediments. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge discussions and field advice by N. Volkenborn, and financial support from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft during DFG-SPP ‚BioGeoChemistry of the Wadden Sea' (JO 307/4, BO 1584/4), Max Planck Society, and Leibniz-IO Warnemünde.

  7. A digital-type fluxgate magnetometer using a sigma-delta digital-to-analog converter for a sounding rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Kyosuke; Matsuoka, Ayako

    2014-07-01

    One of the design challenges for future magnetospheric satellite missions is optimizing the mass, size, and power consumption of the instruments to meet the mission requirements. We have developed a digital-type fluxgate (DFG) magnetometer that is anticipated to have significantly less mass and volume than the conventional analog-type. Hitherto, the lack of a space-grade digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with good accuracy has prevented the development of a high-performance DFG. To solve this problem, we developed a high-resolution DAC using parts whose performance was equivalent to existing space-grade parts. The developed DAC consists of a 1-bit second-order sigma-delta modulator and a fourth-order analog low-pass filter. We tested the performance of the DAC experimentally and found that it had better than 17-bits resolution in 80% of the measurement range, and the linearity error was 2-13.3 of the measurement range. We built a DFG flight model (in which this DAC was embedded) for a sounding rocket experiment as an interim step in the development of a future satellite mission. The noise of this DFG was 0.79 nTrms at 0.1-10 Hz, which corresponds to a roughly 17-bit resolution. The results show that the sigma-delta DAC and the DFG had a performance that is consistent with our optimized design, and the noise was as expected from the noise simulation. Finally, we have confirmed that the DFG worked successfully during the flight of the sounding rocket.

  8. Antioxidant behavior of 1-feruloyl-sn-glycerol and 1,3-diferuloyl-sn-glycerol in phospholipid liposomes 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1-Feruloyl-sn-glycerol (FG) and 1,3-diferuloyl-sn-glycerol (DFG) are two natural plant compounds that may be useful in cosmeceutical, food, and skin care applications because of excellent antioxidant properties. FG and DFG enzymatically synthesized through esterification of glycerol and soybean oil...

  9. Exploring protein kinase conformation using swarm-enhanced sampling molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Alessio; Bruce, Neil J; Burusco, Kepa K; Wroblowski, Berthold; Bonnet, Pascal; Bryce, Richard A

    2014-10-27

    Protein plasticity, while often linked to biological function, also provides opportunities for rational design of selective and potent inhibitors of their function. The application of computational methods to the prediction of concealed protein concavities is challenging, as the motions involved can be significant and occur over long time scales. Here we introduce the swarm-enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (sesMD) method as a tool to improve sampling of conformational landscapes. In this approach, a swarm of replica simulations interact cooperatively via a set of pairwise potentials incorporating attractive and repulsive components. We apply the sesMD approach to explore the conformations of the DFG motif in the protein p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase. In contrast to multiple MD simulations, sesMD trajectories sample a range of DFG conformations, some of which map onto existing crystal structures. Simulated structures intermediate between the DFG-in and DFG-out conformations are predicted to have druggable pockets of interest for structure-based ligand design.

  10. Structural Basis for High Specificity of Amadori Compound and Mannopine Opine Binding in Bacterial Pathogens*

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Loïc; Vigouroux, Armelle; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Dessaux, Yves; Faure, Denis; Moréra, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens pathogens genetically modify their host plants to drive the synthesis of opines in plant tumors. Opines are either sugar phosphodiesters or the products of condensed amino acids with ketoacids or sugars. They are Agrobacterium nutrients and imported into the bacterial cell via periplasmic-binding proteins (PBPs) and ABC-transporters. Mannopine, an opine from the mannityl-opine family, is synthesized from an intermediate named deoxy-fructosyl-glutamine (DFG), which is also an opine and abundant Amadori compound (a name used for any derivative of aminodeoxysugars) present in decaying plant materials. The PBP MotA is responsible for mannopine import in mannopine-assimilating agrobacteria. In the nopaline-opine type agrobacteria strain, SocA protein was proposed as a putative mannopine binding PBP, and AttC protein was annotated as a mannopine binding-like PBP. Structural data on mannityl-opine-PBP complexes is currently lacking. By combining affinity data with analysis of seven x-ray structures at high resolution, we investigated the molecular basis of MotA, SocA, and AttC interactions with mannopine and its DFG precursor. Our work demonstrates that AttC is not a mannopine-binding protein and reveals a specific binding pocket for DFG in SocA with an affinity in nanomolar range. Hence, mannopine would not be imported into nopaline-type agrobacteria strains. In contrast, MotA binds both mannopine and DFG. We thus defined one mannopine and two DFG binding signatures. Unlike mannopine-PBPs, selective DFG-PBPs are present in a wide diversity of bacteria, including Actinobacteria, α-,β-, and γ-proteobacteria, revealing a common role of this Amadori compound in pathogenic, symbiotic, and opportunistic bacteria. PMID:27609514

  11. Involving International Student Teams in GPS and GRS Surveys to Study Cryospheric Change in Greenland and the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, U. C.; Mayer, H.

    2009-12-01

    In the course of research programs to develop a methodology for the study of microtopography of ice and snow surfaces, we placed a strong emphasis on the involvement of students. This project provided the opportunity to engage students in every step from building the instrument through development of the data processing, the actual field measurements, processing of the resultant data, their evaluation and interpretation to the final publication in scientific journals. The development of the Glacier Roughness Sensor (GRS) incorporating Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and the fieldwork on the Greenland Inland Ice were particularly fascinating and instructive for students. In a related snow-hydrological research project on Niwot Ridge in the Colorado Front Range, we involved students in two season-long measurement campaigns in a high alpine environment. Students from the Universität Trier, Germany, and the University of Colorado Boulder participated in this project to learn about the value of international collaboration in science. Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Antarctic and Arctic Program) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Hydrological Sciences Program). Students participated in preparatory classes and field camps, selected their own research projects and received university credit towards their degrees in geography or environmental sciences. All student participants in the MICROTOP projects have gone on to higher university education and become professionally exceptionally successful. Students setting up camp on the Greenland Ice Sheet during expedition MICROTOP 99.

  12. Evidence for Alfvén Waves in Source Flares of Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucik, R.; Innes, D.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Nitta, N.

    2017-12-01

    Impulsive solar energetic particle events, characterised by a peculiar elemental composition with the rare elements like 3He and ultra-heavy ions enhanced by factors up to ten thousand above their thermal abundance, have been puzzling for almost 50 years. The solar sources of these events have been commonly associated with coronal jets, believed to be a signature of magnetic reconnection involving field lines open to interplanetary space. Here we present some of the most intense events, highly enriched in both 3He and heavier ions. The corresponding high-resolution, extreme-ultraviolet imaging observations have revealed for the first time a helical structure in the source flare with a jet-like shape. A mini-filament at the base of the jet appears to trigger these events. The events were observed with the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories on the backside of the Sun, during the period of increased solar activity in 2014. During the last decade, it has been established that the helical motions in coronal jets represent propagating Alfvén waves. Revealing such magnetic-untwisting waves in the solar sources of highly enriched events in this study is consistent with a stochastic acceleration mechanism. An examination of jets in previously reported impulsive solar energetic particle events indicates that they tend to be large-scale blowout jets, sometimes cleanly showing a twisted configuration.The work of R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft grant BU 3115/2-1.

  13. CBM Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R.; Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Adamczyk, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Yu.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arend, A.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Baginyan, S.; Balle, T.; Balog, T.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, P.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Basrak, Z.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baznat, M.; Becker, K.-H.; Bel, T.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdermann, E.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Yu.; Böttger, S.; Borysova, M.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, Xu; Cãlin, M.; Cao, Ping; Čaplar, R.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chatterji, S.; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chen, Hongfang; Cheng, Jianping; Chepurnov, V.; Chernenko, S.; Chernogorov, A.; Choi, Kyung-Eon; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Covlea, V.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, S.; Davkov, K.; Davkov, V.; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, Zhi; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dorokhov, A.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, A.; Dürr, M.; Dulinski, W.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Eum, Jongsik; Fan, Huanhuan; Fateev, O.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Fülöp, Á.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Galkin, A.; Galkin, V.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gašparić, I.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Yu.; Haldar, A.; Haldar, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hehner, J.; Heidel, K.; Heine, N.; Hellbär, E.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Huang, Guangming; Huang, Xinjie; Hutsch, J.; Hutter, D.; Iakovleva, E.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, Valery; Ivanov, Victor; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinin, V.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, Tae Im; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, A.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, Ch.; Kleipa, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; König, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Kopfer, J. M.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kotynia, A.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Kretz, M.; Krieger, M.; Kryshen, E.; Kucewicz, W.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kulakov, I.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso Garcia, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Lemke, F.; Li, Cheng; Li, Jin; Li, Qiyan; Li, Yuanjing; Li, Yulan; Lindenstruth, V.; Linev, S.; Linnik, B.; Litvinenko, E.; Liu, Feng; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Lymanets, A.; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin, V.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Mir, M. F.; Miskowiec, D.; Morhardt, T.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Murin, Yu.; Najman, R.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Neumann, B.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Nüssle, M.; Oancea, A.; Oh, Kunsu; Onishchuk, Y.; Osipov, D.; Ososkov, G.; Ossetski, D.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pauly, C.; Peng, Haiping; Peric, I.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plekhanov, E.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Poliakov, V.; Polozov, P.; Pop, A.; Popov, V.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Pouryamout, J.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Raja, W.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, A.; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Yu.; Rykalin, V.; Sadovsky, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Schweda, K.; Scurtu, A.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, Ming; Sharma, M. K.; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Škoda, L.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, Jihye; Sorokin, I.; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Stavinskiy, A.; Stephan, E.; Storozhyk, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Yongjie; Svoboda, O.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Zebo; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Tiflov, V.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Toia, A.; Tolyhi, T.; Topil'skaya, N.; Trageser, C.; Trivedy, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Turowiecki, A.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Vasiliev, T.; Vassiliev, I.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volkov, Yu.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, A.; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yaping; Yi, Wang; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wiedemann, B.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wohlfeld, D.; Wolf, Gy.; Sanguk, Won; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, Changzhou; Nu, Xu; Yi, Jun-Gyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yue, Qian; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Ya Peng; Zhang, Yifei; Zhou, Daicui; Zhu, Xianglei; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Żoładź, M.; Zrelov, P.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-11-01

    We acknowledge support by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Commission through projects AIDA, CRISP and HadronPhysics3; the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Germany, through the grants 05P09PXFC5, 05P12PXFCE, 05P12RFFC7, 05P12RFFCM, 05P12RFFCP, 05P12RGFCG,05P12RGGHM, 05P12VHFCE, 05P12VHFCF, 05PRVHFC7, and 06HD9123I; the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Germany, grant GRK 1039; the Hessian Loewe Initiative through the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (HIC4FAIR); the Helmholtz Graduate School HIRe; the Helmholtz Research School H-QM; the GSI Helmholzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung mbH, Germany, through F&E cooperations with Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen and Bergische Universität Wuppertal (WKAMPE1012); the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India; the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India; the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India; the University Grants Commission, Government of India; the Indo-FAIR Co-ordination Centre, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India; the Strategic Grants POSDRU/89/1.5/S/58852 and PN-II-ID-PCE-IDEI 34/05.10.2011, Romania; the NASR/CAPACITATI-Modul III, Romania, contract nr. 179EU; the NASR/NUCLEU Project PN09370103, Romania; the FAIR Russia Research Center (FRRC), Russia; and the Federal Agency for Atomic Research (Rosatom), Russia.

  14. Rotational Spectrum and Large Amplitude Motions of 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-DIMETHYL-BENZALDEHYDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, I.; Tudorie, M.; Jahn, M.; Grabow, J.-U.; Goubet, M.

    2012-06-01

    The microwave spectra of the 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-Dimethyl-Benzaldehyde (DMBA) molecules have been recorded for the first time in the 2-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the COBRA-FTMW spectrometer in Hannover, with an instrumental uncertainty of 0.5 kHz for unblended lines. The experimental assignments and fits are supplemented by ab initio quantum chemical calculations,conformational energy landscape, and dipole moment components. The analysis of the spectra for the three isomers are in progress. The latest results, including spectroscopic constants and large amplitude motion parameters, will be presented. This investigation follows the study of the spectra of the 4-Methyl-Benzaldehyde molecule. The DMBA isomers belong to a similar series of molecules formally obtained by adding a second methyl group at the aromatic ring. These molecules serve as prototype systems for the development of the theoretical model of asymmetric top molecules having Cs symmetry while containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), exhibiting different barrier heights and coupling terms to methyl internal rotation. Thus, the DMBA isomers represent benchmark species for testing the two-top internal rotors BELGI program written recently. Supported by the ANR-08-BLAN-0054 contract (France), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Land Niedersachsen (Germany). H. Saal, W. Caminati, I. Kleiner, A. R. Hight-Walker, J. T. Hougen, J.-U. Grabow, to be published. M. Tudorie, I. Kleiner, J. T. Hougen, S. Melandri, L. W. Sutikdja, W. Stahl, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 269 (2011), 211-225

  15. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  16. Difference frequency generation of Mid-IR radiation in PPLN crystals using a dual-wavelength all-fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzempek, Karol; Soboń, Grzegorz; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-02-01

    We present a method of generating mid-IR radiation by means of nonlinear difference frequency generation (DFG) effects occurring in periodically polled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystals using an all-fiber dual-wavelength amplifier. The presented mid-IR laser source incorporates an unique double-clad (DC) Erbium and Ytterbium (Er-Yb) doped amplifier stage capable of simultaneous amplification of both wavelengths required in the DFG process - 1064 nm and 1550 nm. The amplifier delivered more than 23.7 dB and 14.4 dB of amplification for 1550 nm and 1064 nm wavelength, low power, off-the-shelf, fiber pigtailed, distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, respectively. The dual-wavelength amplifier parameters crucial for the DFG process were investigated, including long-term power and polarization instabilities and optical spectrum characteristics of both amplified wavelengths. The DFG setup used a single collimator radiation delivery scheme and an 40 mm long MgO doped PPLN crystal. In effect the DFG source was capable of generating 1.14 mW of radiation centered around 3.4 μm. The overall performance of the mid-IR source was elaborated by performing sensitive Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) detection of methane (CH4) in ambient air on an free-space optical path-length of 8 m. The measured detection limit of the sensor was 26 ppbv with a 1σ SNR of 69.

  17. Multiline CO2 laser with Q-switching for generation of terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Stepanishchev, V. V.; Khafizov, I. Zh

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we consider the method of obtaining THz radiation by difference frequency generation (DFG) of multiline CO2 laser. For this purpose a multiline CO2 laser with Q-switching was created. The three strongest lines, 9 R(18), 9 P(20) and 9 P(22) with wavelengths ∼9.28, ∼9.55 and ∼9.57 μm respectively, held 85% of CO2 laser power, and can be used to obtain difference frequency at a wavelength of ∼310 μm. DFG of other spectral lines fall within the range of 263 ÷ 8100 μm. Different nonlinear crystals for DFG and filters to separate THz radiation were considered.

  18. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice.

    PubMed

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; Le Gac, Séverine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-02-01

    with the in vitro groups or in vivo controls. Furthermore, no changes in skeletal development and degree of ossification were observed. However, fibula and tibia of ISM1/ISM2 fetuses were longer than the respective ones from in vivo fetuses. Findings in the mouse embryo and fetus may not be fully transferable to humans. In addition to skeletal development and placentation, there may be other parameters, e.g. on the molecular level which respond to IVC in ART media. Some comparisons have limited statistical power. Our data suggest that once implantation is achieved, subsequent post-implantation development unfolds normally, resulting in healthy fetuses. With mouse models, we gather information for the safety of human ART culture media. Our mouse study is reassuring for the safety of ART conditions on human embryonic development, given the lack of bold detrimental effects observed in the mouse model. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (BO 2540/4-1 and SCHL 394/9-1) and by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (S.L.G.); Bilateral grant NWO-DFG 63-258. None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare. Not applicable.

  19. Interglacial climate dynamics and advanced time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, Manfred; Bermejo, Miguel; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    Studying the climate dynamics of past interglacials (IGs) helps to better assess the anthropogenically influenced dynamics of the current IG, the Holocene. We select the IG portions from the EPICA Dome C ice core archive, which covers the past 800 ka, to apply methods of statistical time series analysis (Mudelsee 2010). The analysed variables are deuterium/H (indicating temperature) (Jouzel et al. 2007), greenhouse gases (Siegenthaler et al. 2005, Loulergue et al. 2008, L¨ü thi et al. 2008) and a model-co-derived climate radiative forcing (Köhler et al. 2010). We select additionally high-resolution sea-surface-temperature records from the marine sedimentary archive. The first statistical method, persistence time estimation (Mudelsee 2002) lets us infer the 'climate memory' property of IGs. Second, linear regression informs about long-term climate trends during IGs. Third, ramp function regression (Mudelsee 2000) is adapted to look on abrupt climate changes during IGs. We compare the Holocene with previous IGs in terms of these mathematical approaches, interprete results in a climate context, assess uncertainties and the requirements to data from old IGs for yielding results of 'acceptable' accuracy. This work receives financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Project ClimSens within the DFG Research Priority Program INTERDYNAMIK) and the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme). References Jouzel J, Masson-Delmotte V, Cattani O, Dreyfus G, Falourd S, Hoffmann G, Minster B, Nouet J, Barnola JM, Chappellaz J, Fischer H, Gallet JC, Johnsen S, Leuenberger M, Loulergue L, Luethi D, Oerter H, Parrenin F, Raisbeck G, Raynaud D, Schilt A, Schwander J, Selmo E, Souchez R, Spahni R, Stauffer B, Steffensen JP, Stenni B, Stocker TF, Tison JL, Werner M, Wolff EW (2007) Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800,000 years. Science 317:793. Köhler P, Bintanja R

  20. Calculations of total electron-impact ionization cross sections for Fluoroketone C5F10O and Fluoronitrile C4F7N using modified Deutsch-Märk formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jiayu; Li, Xingwen; Wu, Jian; Guo, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Hu

    2017-11-01

    Both fluoroketone C5F10O and fluoronitrile C4F7N are promising substitute gases for SF6. The electron-impact ionization cross sections for these two gases are calculated using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) formula and its modified method. The necessary molecular geometry optimization and electron population were determined by ab initio calculation, which was performed with quantum chemistry code. The level of calculation, including the theoretical method and basis-set, are carefully determined. To eliminate the drawbacks of the DM formula, a modified DM formula is set in this paper. The modified DM formula, of which the weighting factors are changed, has a better agreement with the experimental data on both the peak and shape of the cross-section curves. The results calculated by DM formula and modified DM formula are given as references to fill in gaps in further research into C5F10O and C4F7N.

  1. Solar Radiation Measurements Onboard the Research Aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, I.; Bohn, B.; Werner, F.; Ehrlich, A.; Wendisch, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne measurements of the separated upward and downward components of solar spectral actinic flux densities for the determination of photolysis frequencies and of upward nadir spectral radiance were performed with the HALO Solar Radiation (HALO-SR) instrument package onboard the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The instrumentation of HALO-SR is characterized and first measurement data from the Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies (NARVAL) campaigns in 2013 and 2014 are presented. The measured data are analyzed in the context of the retrieved microphysical and optical properties of clouds which were observed underneath the aircraft. Detailed angular sensitivities of the two optical actinic flux receivers were determined in the laboratory. The effects of deviations from the ideal response are investigated using radiative transfer calculations of atmospheric radiance distributions under various atmospheric conditions and different ground albedos. Corresponding correction factors are derived. Example photolysis frequencies are presented, which were sampled in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Atlantic Ocean during the 2013/14 HALO NARVAL campaigns. Dependencies of photolysis frequencies on cloud cover, flight altitude and wavelength range of the photolysis process are investigated. Calculated actinic flux densities in the presence of clouds benefit from the measured spectral radiances. Retrieved cloud optical thicknesses and effective droplet radii are used as model input for the radiative transfer calculations. By comparison with the concurrent measurements of actinic flux densities the retrieval approach is validated. Acknowledgements: Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the priority program HALO (BO 1580/4-1, WE 1900/21-1) is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Association of Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events With Large-Scale Coronal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucik, R.; Innes, D.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Impulsive or 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been commonly associated with EUV jets and narrow CMEs which are believed to be the signatures of magnetic reconnection involving field lines open to interplanetary space. The elemental and isotopic fractionation in these events are thought to be caused by processes confined to the flare sites. In addition to their anomalous abundances, 3He-rich SEPs show puzzling energy spectral shapes varying from rounded forms to power laws where the later are characteristics of shock acceleration. In this study we identify 32 impulsive SEP events observed by the ACE near the Earth during the solar minimum period 2007-2010 and examine their solar sources with the high resolution STEREO EUV images. Leading the Earth, STEREO-A provided for the first time a direct view on impulsive SEP event sources, which are generally located on the Sun's western hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the impulsive SEP events in this survey are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. An examination of the wave front propagation and the coronal magnetic field connections suggests that the EUV waves may affect the injection of 3He-rich SEPs into interplanetary space. We found the events with jets tend to be associated with rounded spectra and the events with coronal waves with power laws. This suggests that coronal waves may be related to the unknown second stage mechanism commonly used to interpret spectral forms of 3He-rich SEPs. R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grant BU 3115/2-1.

  3. The Effective Hamiltonian for the Ground State of 207Pb19F and New Measurements of the Fine Structure Spectrum Near 1.2 μ m.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Murphey, Benjamin; Baum, Alexander; Sears, Trevor J.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; McRaven, C. P.; Shafer-Ray, N. E.; Alphei, Lukas D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe.

    2011-06-01

    We have measured rotational transitions in the ground, X_1 ^2Π1/2, electronic state of naturally occuring isotopomers of PbF in a supersonic free jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The data for 207Pb19F is particularly interesting because it is a candidate for a future experimental e-EDM measurement. To fit the data for this species to the measurement precision, the nuclear spin-spin dipolar interaction and a second term that can be equivalently viewed as a centrifugal distortion correction to the familiar Frosch and Foley hyperfine coupling terms, or an Ω- dependent correction to the nuclear spin-rotational coupling are required, in addition to the standard terms. To characterize the higher X_2 ^2Π3/2 component of the ground state of PbF, we are attempting a direct measurement of transitions between the two components in a slit jet-cooled sample using a frequency comb-referenced extended cavity diode laser. This spectrum was originally detected in a hot source by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy, but low-J transitions were unresolved at that time. Acknowledgments: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Work by N. E. Shafer-Ray was performed with support from the National Science Foundatation award NSF-0855431. J.-U. Grabow ackonwledges funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Land Niedersachsen. K. Ziebarth, K. Setzer, O. Shestakov and E. Fink J. Molec. Spectrosc. 191, 108 1998.

  4. Virtual screening filters for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase inhibitors: a fragment based library generation approach.

    PubMed

    Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G Narahari

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we introduce the development and application of a three-step scoring and filtering procedure for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase leads using allosteric fragments extracted from virtual screening hits. The design of the virtual screening filters is based on a thorough evaluation of docking methods, DFG-loop conformation, binding interactions and chemotype specificity of the 138 p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from Protein Data Bank bound to DFG-in and DFG-out conformations using Glide, GOLD and CDOCKER. A 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation with the apo, type I with DFG-in and type II with DFG-out forms was carried out to delineate the effects of structural variations on inhibitor binding. The designed docking-score and sub-structure filters were first tested on a dataset of 249 potent p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from seven diverse series and 18,842 kinase inhibitors from PDB, to gauge their capacity to discriminate between kinase and non-kinase inhibitors and likewise to selectively filter-in target-specific inhibitors. The designed filters were then applied in the virtual screening of a database of ten million (10⁷) compounds resulting in the identification of 100 hits. Based on their binding modes, 98 allosteric fragments were extracted from the hits and a fragment library was generated. New type II p38 MAP kinase leads were designed by tailoring the existing type I ATP site binders with allosteric fragments using a common urea linker. Target specific virtual screening filters can thus be easily developed for other kinases based on this strategy to retrieve target selective compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance characterization of mid-infrared difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned gallium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junxiong; Chaitanya Kumar, S.; Ye, Hanyu; Schunemann, Peter G.; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

    2018-02-01

    Orientation-patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP) is a recently developed nonlinear material with wide transparency across 0.8-12 μm and high nonlinearity (d14 70 pm/V), which is a promising candidate material for mid-infrared generation. Here we report the full performance characterization of a tunable single-pass nanosecond difference frequency generation (DFG) source based on OP-GaP by mixing the output of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 μm with the signal from a pulsed MgO:PPLN OPO pumped by the same laser. Using the longest OP-GaP crystal (40 mm) deployed to date, the DFG source provides up to 14 mW of average output power at 2719 nm at 80 kHz repetition rate, with >6 mW across 2492-2782 nm, in TEM00 spatial profile. By performing relevant measurements, detrimental issues such as residual absorption and thermal effects have been studied and confirmed. The temperature and spectral acceptance bandwidths for DFG in the 40-mm-log OP-GaP are measured to be 18 °C and 17 nm, respectively, at 1766 nm. The DFG beam exhibits passive power stability better than 1.7% rms over 1.4 hours at 2774 nm, compared to 1.6% and 0.1% rms for the signal and pump, respectively. The polarization dependence of the input beams on the DFG power has also been systematically investigated, for the first time to our knowledge. Further, we have measured the damage threshold of the OP-GaP crystal to be 0.8 J/cm2 at 1064 nm.

  6. Frequency domain tailoring for intra-pulse frequency mixing.

    PubMed

    Ernotte, G; Lassonde, P; Légaré, F; Schmidt, B E

    2016-10-17

    Generating mid infrared (MIR) pulses by difference frequency generation (DFG) is often a trade-off between the maximum stability given by all-inline intra-pulse arrangements and the independent control of pulse parameters with inter-pulse pump-probe like scenarios. We propose a coalescence between both opposing approaches by realizing an all-inline inter-pulse DFG scheme employing a 4-f setup. This allows independent manipulation of the amplitude, delay and polarization of the two corresponding spectral side bands of a supercontinuum source while maintaining 20 attoseconds jitter without any feedback stabilization. After filamentation in air, the broadened Ti:Sa spectrum is tailored in a 4-f setup to generate tunable MIR pulses. In this manner, 2 µm, 4.8 µJ, 26.5 fs and carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) stabilized pulses are generated in a single DFG stage.

  7. Mid-infrared trace gas detection using continuous-wave difference frequency generation in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Mouret, G.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.

    2001-01-01

    A tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave (cw) spectroscopic source in the 3.4-4.5 micrometers region is reported, based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in a quasi-phase-matched periodically poled RbTiOAsO4 (PPRTA) crystal. DFG power levels of 10 microW were generated at approximately 4 micrometers in a 20-mm long PPRTA crystal by mixing two cw single-frequency Ti:Al2O3 lasers operating near 713 nm and 871 nm, respectively, using a laser pump power of 300 mW. A quasi-phase-matched infrared wavelength-tuning bandwidth (FWHM) of 12 cm-1 and a temperature tuning rate of 1.02 cm-1/degree C were achieved. Experimental details regarding the feasibility of trace gas detection based on absorption spectroscopy of CO2 in ambient air using this DFG radiation source are also described.

  8. Major Perspectives of The Dfg-research Programm (schwerpunktprogramm) Dynamics of Sedimentary Systems Under Varying Stress Conditions By Example of The Central European Basin-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, U.; Littke, R.; Gajewski, D.; Brink, H.-J.

    In 2001 a major research program "Dynamics of Sedimentary Systems under Varying Stress Conditions" has been established by the German Science Foundation (DFG). The programme effectively will start early in 2002 and in some sense provides a continuation of the EUROPROBE project TESZ. However, it will focus mainly on post-Paleozoic processes. The following sub-themes for this programme capture a wide range of areas of interest, calling for interdisciplinary research: 1. Structure and evolution of the crust. This topic will be based on the three- dimensional structural interpretation, pre-stack migration, and modelling of geophysi- cal data such as seismic, gravimetric, magnetic, and magnetotelluric data. The deriva- tion of interval velocities and the prediction of lateral inhomogeneities will be essential for the interpretation of rheological properties on one hand and historical geodynamic processes on the other. 2. Basin dynamics in space and time. Methods of basin anal- ysis, seismic stratigraphy,sedimentology, sequence- and event stratigraphy should be used in combination with subsidence analysis and basin modelling to interpret facies distributions within the evolving accomodation space of a sedimentary basin. An ad- vanced interpretation of seismic lines using new modelling tools is of key interest to extract facies patterns and related petrophysical properties for the three dimensional space of a sedimentary basin. 3. Fluid- and salt dynamics. Salt dynamics is related to the recent and historic stress fields of a basin and greatly governs the sedimentation and erosion processes at the surface. In addition, the rheology of the upper crust and the temperature field within sedimentary basins greatly depends on salt doming. Fluid dynamics is coupled to the temperature and pressure field, but depends also on the permeability of sedimentary rocks which varies by more than 15 orders of magnitude. The origin of non-hydrocarbon gases (CO2, N2, H2S), each dominating

  9. Complete remission and early death after intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 60 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia: a web-based application for prediction of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krug, Utz; Röllig, Christoph; Koschmieder, Anja; Heinecke, Achim; Sauerland, Maria Cristina; Schaich, Markus; Thiede, Christian; Kramer, Michael; Braess, Jan; Spiekermann, Karsten; Haferlach, Torsten; Haferlach, Claudia; Koschmieder, Steffen; Rohde, Christian; Serve, Hubert; Wörmann, Bernhard; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Ehninger, Gerhard; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Büchner, Thomas; Müller-Tidow, Carsten

    2010-12-11

    , from 7% to 61%). The scores for acute myeloid leukaemia can be used to predict the probability of CR and the risk of ED in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, but otherwise medically healthy, for whom intensive induction chemotherapy is planned. This information can help physicians with difficult decisions for treatment of these patients. Deutsche Krebshilfe and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Data Management and Archiving - a Long Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Petra; Bertelmann, Roland; Hasler, Tim; Kirchner, Ingo; Klump, Jens; Mettig, Nora; Peters-Kottig, Wolfgang; Rusch, Beate; Ulbricht, Damian

    2014-05-01

    Implementing policies for research data management to the end of data archiving at university institutions takes a long time. Even though, especially in geosciences, most of the scientists are familiar to analyze different sorts of data, to present statistical results and to write publications sometimes based on big data records, only some of them manage their data in a standardized manner. Much more often they have learned how to measure and to generate large volumes of data than to document these measurements and to preserve them for the future. Changing staff and limited funding make this work more difficult, but it is essential in a progressively developing digital and networked world. Results from the project EWIG (Translates to: Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences), funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, will help on these theme. Together with the project partners Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam and Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin a workflow to transfer continuously recorded data from a meteorological city monitoring network into a long-term archive was developed. This workflow includes quality assurance of the data as well as description of metadata and using tools to prepare data packages for long term archiving. It will be an exemplary model for other institutions working with similar data. The development of this workflow is closely intertwined with the educational curriculum at the Institut für Meteorologie. Designing modules to run quality checks for meteorological time series of data measured every minute and preparing metadata are tasks in actual bachelor theses. Students will also test the usability of the generated working environment. Based on these experiences a practical guideline for integrating research data management in curricula will be one of the results of this project, for postgraduates as well as for younger students. Especially at the beginning of the

  11. New method to determine the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of organic nonlinear crystals in the ultra-wideband THz region.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Seigo; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2010-08-02

    A method for simultaneously measuring the refractive index and absorption coefficient of nonlinear optical crystals in the ultra-wideband terahertz (THz) region is described. This method is based on the analysis of a collinear difference frequency generation (DFG) process using a tunable, dual-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator. The refractive index and the absorption coefficient in the organic nonlinear crystal DAST were experimentally determined in the frequency range 2.5-26.2 THz by measuring the THz-wave output using DFG. The resultant refractive index in the x-direction was approximately 2.3, while the absorption spectrum was in good agreement with FT-IR measurements. The output of the DAST-DFG THz-wave source was optimized to the phase-matching condition using the measured refractive index spectrum in THz region, which resulted in an improvement in the output power of up to a factor of nine.

  12. A temperature-sensitive dcw1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is cell cycle arrested with small buds which have aberrant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2004-10-01

    Dcw1p and Dfg5p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are homologous proteins that were previously shown to be involved in cell wall biogenesis and to be essential for growth. Dcw1p was found to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein. To investigate the roles of these proteins in cell wall biogenesis and cell growth, we constructed mutant alleles of DCW1 by random mutagenesis, introduced them into a Deltadcw1 Deltadfg5 background, and isolated a temperature-sensitive mutant, DC61 (dcw1-3 Deltadfg5). When DC61 cells were incubated at 37 degrees C, most cells had small buds, with areas less than 20% of those of the mother cells. This result indicates that DC61 cells arrest growth with small buds at 37 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, fewer DC61 cells had 1N DNA content and most of them still had a single nucleus located apart from the bud neck. In addition, in DC61 cells incubated at 37 degrees C, bipolar spindles were not formed. These results indicate that DC61 cells, when incubated at 37 degrees C, are cell cycle arrested after DNA replication and prior to the separation of spindle pole bodies. The small buds of DC61 accumulated chitin in the bud cortex, and some of them were lysed, which indicates that they had aberrant cell walls. A temperature-sensitive dfg5 mutant, DF66 (Deltadcw1 dfg5-29), showed similar phenotypes. DCW1 and DFG5 mRNA levels peaked in the G1 and S phases, respectively. These results indicate that Dcw1p and Dfg5p are involved in bud formation through their involvement in biogenesis of the bud cell wall.

  13. 78 FR 14844 - Topaz Exchange, LLC; Order Granting Application for a Conditional Exemption Pursuant to Section...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ..., in turn, is fifty percent (50%) owned by Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse'') and fifty percent (50%) owned by Eurex Global Derivatives AG (``EGD''). Deutsche B[ouml]rse has one hundred percent... Zurich, Deutsche B[ouml]rse and EGD (collectively, the ``Foreign Direct Affiliates''), which in turn hold...

  14. Phase diagram and quantum order by disorder in the Kitaev K1-K2 honeycomb magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan; Perkins, Natalia

    We show that the topological Kitaev spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice is extremely fragile against the second neighbor Kitaev coupling K2, which has been recently identified as the dominant perturbation away from the nearest neighbor model in iridate Na2IrO3, and may also play a role in α-RuCl3. This coupling explains naturally the zig-zag ordering and the special entanglement between real and spin space observed recently in Na2IrO3. The minimal K1-K2 model that we present here holds in addition the unique property that the classical and quantum phase diagrams and their respective order-by-disorder mechanisms are qualitatively different due to their fundamentally different symmetry structure. Nsf DMR-1511768; Freie Univ. Berlin Excellence Initiative of German Research Foundation; European Research Council, ERC-StG-336012; DFG-SFB 1170; DFG-SFB 1143, DFG-SPP 1666, and Helmholtz association VI-521.

  15. Trends and Correlation Estimation in Climate Sciences: Effects of Timescale Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, M.; Bermejo, M. A.; Bickert, T.; Chirila, D.; Fohlmeister, J.; Köhler, P.; Lohmann, G.; Olafsdottir, K.; Scholz, D.

    2012-12-01

    Trend describes time-dependence in the first moment of a stochastic process, and correlation measures the linear relation between two random variables. Accurately estimating the trend and correlation, including uncertainties, from climate time series data in the uni- and bivariate domain, respectively, allows first-order insights into the geophysical process that generated the data. Timescale errors, ubiquitious in paleoclimatology, where archives are sampled for proxy measurements and dated, poses a problem to the estimation. Statistical science and the various applied research fields, including geophysics, have almost completely ignored this problem due to its theoretical almost-intractability. However, computational adaptations or replacements of traditional error formulas have become technically feasible. This contribution gives a short overview of such an adaptation package, bootstrap resampling combined with parametric timescale simulation. We study linear regression, parametric change-point models and nonparametric smoothing for trend estimation. We introduce pairwise-moving block bootstrap resampling for correlation estimation. Both methods share robustness against autocorrelation and non-Gaussian distributional shape. We shortly touch computing-intensive calibration of bootstrap confidence intervals and consider options to parallelize the related computer code. Following examples serve not only to illustrate the methods but tell own climate stories: (1) the search for climate drivers of the Agulhas Current on recent timescales, (2) the comparison of three stalagmite-based proxy series of regional, western German climate over the later part of the Holocene, and (3) trends and transitions in benthic oxygen isotope time series from the Cenozoic. Financial support by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (FOR 668, FOR 1070, MU 1595/4-1) and the European Commission (MC ITN 238512, MC ITN 289447) is acknowledged.

  16. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study.

    PubMed

    Reusken, Chantal B E M; Haagmans, Bart L; Müller, Marcel A; Gutierrez, Carlos; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Meyer, Benjamin; Muth, Doreen; Raj, V Stalin; Smits-De Vries, Laura; Corman, Victor M; Drexler, Jan-Felix; Smits, Saskia L; El Tahir, Yasmin E; De Sousa, Rita; van Beek, Janko; Nowotny, Norbert; van Maanen, Kees; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Rottier, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert; Gortázar-Schmidt, Christian; Drosten, Christian; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2013-10-01

    A new betacoronavirus-Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-has been identified in patients with severe acute respiratory infection. Although related viruses infect bats, molecular clock analyses have been unable to identify direct ancestors of MERS-CoV. Anecdotal exposure histories suggest that patients had been in contact with dromedary camels or goats. We investigated possible animal reservoirs of MERS-CoV by assessing specific serum antibodies in livestock. We took sera from animals in the Middle East (Oman) and from elsewhere (Spain, Netherlands, Chile). Cattle (n=80), sheep (n=40), goats (n=40), dromedary camels (n=155), and various other camelid species (n=34) were tested for specific serum IgG by protein microarray using the receptor-binding S1 subunits of spike proteins of MERS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and human coronavirus OC43. Results were confirmed by virus neutralisation tests for MERS-CoV and bovine coronavirus. 50 of 50 (100%) sera from Omani camels and 15 of 105 (14%) from Spanish camels had protein-specific antibodies against MERS-CoV spike. Sera from European sheep, goats, cattle, and other camelids had no such antibodies. MERS-CoV neutralising antibody titres varied between 1/320 and 1/2560 for the Omani camel sera and between 1/20 and 1/320 for the Spanish camel sera. There was no evidence for cross-neutralisation by bovine coronavirus antibodies. MERS-CoV or a related virus has infected camel populations. Both titres and seroprevalences in sera from different locations in Oman suggest widespread infection. European Union, European Centre For Disease Prevention and Control, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic domain walls as reconfigurable spin-wave nano-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Kai

    Research efforts to utilize spin waves as information carriers for wave based logic in micro- and nano-structured ferromagnetic materials have increased tremendously over the recent years. However, finding efficient means of tailoring and downscaling guided spin-wave propagation in two dimensions, while maintaining energy efficiency and reconfigurability, still remains a delicate challenge. Here we target these challenges by spin-wave transport inside nanometer-scaled potential wells formed along magnetic domain walls. For this, we investigate the magnetization dynamics of a rectangular-like element in a Landau state exhibiting a so called 180° Néel wall along its center. By microwave antennae the rf-excitation is constricted to one end of the domain wall and the spin-wave intensities are recorded by means of Brillouin-Light Scattering microscopy revealing channeled transport. Additional micromagnetic simulations with pulsed as well as cw-excitation are performed to yield further insight into this class of modes. We find several spin-wave modes quantized along the width of the domain wall yet with well defined wave vectors along the wall, exhibiting positive dispersion. In a final step, we demonstrate the flexibility of these spin-wave nano-channels based on domain walls. In contrast to wave guides realised by fixed geometries, domain walls can be easily manipulated. Here we utilize small external fields to control its position with nanometer precision over a micrometer range, while still enabling transport. Domain walls thus, open the perspective for reprogrammable and yet non-volatile spin-wave waveguides of nanometer width. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within project SCHU2922/1-1 is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Terahertz difference frequency generation in quantum cascade lasers on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seungyong; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jiang, Yifan; Vijayraghavan, Karun; Belkin, Mikhail A.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that an application of a III-V-on-silicon hybrid concept to terahertz (THz) Cherenkov difference frequency generation (DFG) quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources (THz DFG-QCLs) can dramatically improve THz output power and mid-infrared-to-THz conversion efficiency. Completely processed THz DFG-QCLs grown on a 660-μm-thick native InP substrate are transfer-printed onto a 1-mm-thick high-resistive Si substrate using a 100-nm-thick SU-8 as an adhesive layer. Room temperature device performance of the reference InP and hybrid Si THz DFG-QCLs of the same ridge width (22 μm) and cavity length (4.2 mm) have been experimentally compared. The target THz frequency of 3.5 THz is selected for both devices using the dual-period first order surface gratings to select the mid-infrared pump wavelength of 994 cm-1 and 1110 cm-1. At the maximum bias current, the reference InP and hybrid Si devices produced THz power of 50 μW and 270 μW, respectively. The mid-infrared-to-THz conversion efficiency corresponds to 60 μW/W2 and 480 μW/W2, respectively, resulting in 5 times higher THz power and 8 times higher conversion efficiency from the best-performing hybrid devices. A hybrid Si device integrated in a Littrow external-cavity setup showed wavelength tuning from 1.3 THz to 4.3 THz with beam-steering free operation.

  19. Ultra-wideband and high-gain parametric amplification in telecom wavelengths with an optimally mode-matched PPLN waveguide.

    PubMed

    Sua, Yong Meng; Chen, Jia-Yang; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2018-06-15

    We report a wideband optical parametric amplification (OPA) over 14 THz covering telecom S, C, and L bands with observed maximum parametric gain of 38.3 dB. The OPA is realized through cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation (cSHG-DFG) in a 2 cm periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) waveguide. With tailored cross section geometry, the waveguide is optimally mode matched for efficient cascaded nonlinear wave mixing. We also identify and study the effect of competing nonlinear processes in this cSHG-DFG configuration.

  20. Retrospective evaluation of the impact of early enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in dogs with pancreatitis: 34 cases (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Harris, Jessica P; Parnell, Nolie K; Griffith, Emily H; Saker, Korinn E

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of early enteral nutritional therapy on time to return to voluntary intake, maximum food consumption, incidence of gastrointestinal intolerance (GI), and total hospitalization time for dogs with acute pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of dogs with pancreatitis at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2010 and 2013. Thirty-four client-owned dogs diagnosed with acute or acute-on-chronic pancreatitis. Medical records of dogs evaluated for inappetence, anorexia, and GI for which a diagnosis of pancreatitis was recorded were reviewed. The time to initiation of food offerings since hospitalization were recorded in addition to signalment, historical medical conditions, chief complaint, physical examination findings, diagnostic results, treatments provided, timing of food offering (within 48 h of hospitalization, early feeding group (EFG) versus delayed feeding group (DFG), diet therapy (low fat versus high fat), caloric intake (% resting energy requirement), incidence of GI (%), and length of hospitalization (LOH) (days). A Clinical Severity Index Score (CSIS) was determined for each patient. Dogs in the EFG demonstrated a decreased time to return of voluntary intake (2.1 days, EFG versus 2.7 days, DFG; P = 0.05) and time (days) to maximum intake (3, EFG versus 3.4 DFG) as compared to the DFG dogs. The DFG exhibited more GI versus EFG irrespective of CSIS grouping (60% versus 26%, P = 0.04). A CSIS ≥ 7 was associated with prolonged LOH (P = 0.004); however, time to initiation of feeding and diet selection did not impact LOH (P = 0.8). Results of the study suggested that feeding within 48 hours of hospitalization for canine pancreatitis has a positive impact on return to voluntary intake and decreases the frequency of GI in these patients, independent of CSIS. The traditional protocol of withholding food during hospitalization may not be necessary nor yield the most benefit for patient recovery; subsequently early enteral refeeding should be

  1. The role of small molecule Kit protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Roskoski, Robert

    2018-04-25

    The Kit proto-oncogene was found as a consequence of the discovery of the feline v-kit sarcoma oncogene. Stem cell factor (SCF) is the Kit ligand and it mediates Kit dimerization and activation. The Kit receptor contains an extracellular segment that is made up of five immunoglobulin-like domains (D1/2/3/4/5), a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain that contains an insert of 77 amino acid residues, and a carboxyterminal tail. Activating somatic mutations in Kit have been documented in various neoplasms including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), mast cell overexpression (systemic mastocytosis), core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemias (AML), melanomas, and seminomas. In the case of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, most activating mutations occur in the juxtamembrane segment and these mutants are initially sensitive to imatinib. As with many targeted anticancer drugs, resistance to Kit antagonists occurs in about two years and is the result of secondary KIT mutations. An activation segment exon 17 D816V mutation is one of the more common resistance mutations in Kit and this mutant is resistant to imatinib and sorafenib. Type I protein kinase inhibitors interact with the active enzyme form with DFG-D of the proximal activation segment directed inward toward the active site (DFG-D in ). In contrast, type II inhibitors bind to their target with the DFG-D pointing away from the active site (DFG-D out ). Based upon the X-ray crystallographic structures, imatinib, sunitinib, and ponatinib are Type II Kit inhibitors. We used the Schrödinger induced fit docking protocol to model the interaction of midostaurin with Kit and the result indicates that it binds to the DFG-D in conformation of the receptor and is thus classified as type I inhibitor. This medication inhibits the notoriously resistant Kit D816V mutant and is approved for the treatment of systemic mastocytosis and is effective against tumors bearing the D816V

  2. Degradation of lignin β-aryl ether units in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing LigD , LigF and LigG from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    DOE PAGES

    Mnich, Ewelina; Vanholme, Ruben; Oyarce, Paula; ...

    2016-10-24

    Here, lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin interunit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG ( LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce postlignification modifications into the lignin structure. The three enzymes were targeted to the secretory pathway. Phenolicmore » metabolite profiling and 2D HSQC NMR of the transgenic lines showed an increase in oxidized guaiacyl and syringyl units without concomitant increase in oxidized β-aryl ether units, showing lignin bond cleavage. Saccharification yield increased significantly in transgenic lines expressing LigDFG, showing the applicability of our approach. Additional new information on substrate specificity of the LigDFG enzymes is also provided.« less

  3. Field intercomparison of a novel optical sensor for formaldehyde quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedfeld, Stephen; Fraser, Matthew; Lancaster, David; Leleux, Darrin; Rehle, Dirk; Tittel, Frank

    2000-08-01

    A one-week in situ intercomparison campaign was completed on the Rice University campus for measuring HCHO using three different techniques, including a novel optical sensor based on difference frequency generation (DFG) operating at room temperature. Two chemical derivatization methods, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA), were deployed during the daylight hours for three- to four-hour time-integrated samples. A real-time optical sensor based on laser absorption spectroscopy was operated simultaneously, including nighttime hours. This tunable spectroscopic source based on difference frequency mixing of two fiber-amplified diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) was operated at 3.5315 µm (2831.64 cm-1) to access a strong HCHO ro-vibrational transition free of interferences from other species. The results showed a bias of -1.7 and -1.2 ppbv and a gross error of 2.6 and 1.5 ppbv for DNPH and PFBHA measurements, respectively, compared with DFG measurements. These results validate the DFG sensor for time-resolved measurements of HCHO in urban areas.

  4. Field intercomparison of a novel optical sensor for formaldehyde quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedfeld, S.; Fraser, M.; Lancaster, D.; Leleux, D.; Rehle, D.; Tittel, F.

    2000-01-01

    A one-week in situ intercomparison campaign was completed on the Rice University campus for measuring HCHO using three different techniques, including a novel optical sensor based on difference frequency generation (DFG) operating at room temperature. Two chemical derivatization methods, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA), were deployed during the daylight hours for three- to four-hour time-integrated samples. A real-time optical sensor based on laser absorption spectroscopy was operated simultaneously, including nighttime hours. This tunable spectroscopic source based on difference frequency mixing of two fiber-amplified diode lasers in periodically poled LiNb03 (PPLN) was operated at 3.5315 micrometers (2831.64 cm 1) to access a strong HCHO ro-vibrational transition free of interferences from other species. The results showed a bias of -1.7 and -1.2 ppbv and a gross error of 2.6 and 1.5 ppbv for DNPH and PFBHA measurements, respectively, compared with DFG measurements. These results validate the DFG sensor for time-resolved measurements of HCHO in urban areas.

  5. Degradation of lignin β-aryl ether units in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing LigD , LigF and LigG from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    SciTech Connect

    Mnich, Ewelina; Vanholme, Ruben; Oyarce, Paula

    Here, lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin interunit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG ( LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce postlignification modifications into the lignin structure. The three enzymes were targeted to the secretory pathway. Phenolicmore » metabolite profiling and 2D HSQC NMR of the transgenic lines showed an increase in oxidized guaiacyl and syringyl units without concomitant increase in oxidized β-aryl ether units, showing lignin bond cleavage. Saccharification yield increased significantly in transgenic lines expressing LigDFG, showing the applicability of our approach. Additional new information on substrate specificity of the LigDFG enzymes is also provided.« less

  6. Compact Tunable Narrowband Terahertz-Wave Source Based on Difference Frequency Generation Pumped by Dual Fiber Lasers in MgO:LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshio; Satoh, Takumi; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Urata, Yoshiharu

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a high-average-power, single longitudinal-mode, and tunable terahertz (THz)-wave source based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in a MgO:LiNbO3 (MgO:LN) crystal. The waves for DFG are generated using a pair of Yb-doped pulsed fiber lasers with a master oscillator power fiber amplifier configuration. The average power of the THz-wave output reaches 450 μW at 1.07 THz (280 μm) at a linewidth of 7.2 GHz, and the tunability ranges from 0.35 to 1.07 THz under the pulse repetition frequency of 500 kHz. A short burn-in test of the THz wave is also carried out, and the output power stability is within ± 5% of the averaged power without any active stabilizing technique. The combination of MgO:LN-DFG and stable and robust fiber laser sources is highly promising for the development of high-average-power THz-wave sources, particularly in the high transmission sub-THz region. This approach may enable new applications of THz-wave spectroscopy in imaging and remote sensing.

  7. The Regional Warning Center Darmstadt (from the 1960s until 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damboldt, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The work and achievements of the Regional Warning Center Darmstadt at the Research Institute of the Deutsche Bundespost in Darmstadt, Germany, are briefly reviewed. After privatisation of the Deutsche Bundespost (now Deutsche Telekom) in 1993, research in HF propagation and hence the RWC was disbanded.

  8. Design and implementation of novel nonlinear processes in bulk and waveguide periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajal, Meenu

    The telecommunication networks are facing increasing demand to implement all-optical network infrastructure for enabling the wide deployment of new triple play high-speed services (e.g. IPTV, Video On Demand, Voice over IP). One of the challenges with such video broadcasting applications is that these are much more distributed and multi-point in nature unlike the traditional point-to-point communication networks. Currently deployed high-speed electronic components in the optical networks are incapable of handling the unprecedented bandwidth demand for real-time multimedia based broadcasting. The solution essentially lies in increasing the transparency of networks i.e. by replacing high speed signal processing electronics with all-optical signal processors capable of performing signal manipulations such as wavelength switching, time and wavelength division multiplexing, optical pulse compression etc. all in optical domain. This thesis aims at providing an all-optical solution for broadband wavelength conversion and tunable broadcasting, a crucial optical network component, based on quasi-phase-matched wave mixing in nonlinear materials. The quasi phase matching (QPM) technique allows phase matching in long crystal lengths by employing domain-inverted gratings to periodically reverse the sign of nonlinearity, known as periodic poling. This results into new frequency components with high conversion efficiency and has been successfully implemented towards various processes such as second harmonic generation (SHG), sum- and difference- frequency generation (SFG and DFG). Conventionally, the optical networks has an operation window of ˜35 nm centered at 1.55 mum, known as C-band. The wavelength conversion of a signal channel in C-band to an output channel also in the C-band has been demonstrated in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides via the process of difference frequency mixing, cascaded SHG/DFG and cascaded SFG/DFG. While a DFG process utilized a

  9. 76 FR 65264 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Corporate Transaction in Which Its Indirect Parent, Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, Will Become a Wholly Owned... corporation, and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). NYSE Euronext owns 100% of the equity interest of NYSE Group...

  10. 76 FR 65255 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Corporate Transaction in Which Its Indirect Parent, Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, Will Become a Wholly Owned... corporation, and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). NYSE Euronext owns 100% of the equity interest of NYSE Group...

  11. 75 FR 51134 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Wertpapierb[ouml]rse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange) and traded on the Xetra trading system operated by Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG (``DBAG''). DBAG is regulated by the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (``Ba.... \\7\\ See ``Guide to the Equity Indices of Deutsche B[ouml]rse,'' at http://www.deutsche-boerse.com for...

  12. [Perspectives in cardiological research].

    PubMed

    Kübler, W

    2004-08-01

    German cardiological research is confronted with increasing difficulties. Clinical research is restricted by regulations, such as the working hours protecting law, the revised version of the legal articles against corruption and acceptance of advantage as well as by many parts of law for the general frame of the university structures. In addition more and more administrative duties are tranferred to doctors engaged in research. Furthermore cardiology is at a disadvantage as only part of the net profits for cardiological services are tranferred to the responsible clinic. Likewise the facilities for cooperation are increasingly restricted, as basic science institutions originally allocated to cardiological research, are now devoted to other subjects and as many pharmaceutical firms have left the country. Cardiology in our country is practically not supported by private research organizations. Research projects are, therefore, predominantly financed by grants from the Bundeministerium für Bildung und Forschung and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The financial resources for research in our country are declining and much smaller compared, e. g., to the USA. As a consequence of the shortage of resources not only are the weak projects turned down; it is feared that also the very innovative projects are likewise excluded for entering unknown territory. In periods of financial restrictions the central office and the experts evaluating the projects have a special responsibility, which cannot be met by technical objections, such as e. g., an "unsufficient impact factor". In order to improve the conditions for cardiological research the net profits for cardiological services should be transferred unrestricted to the responsible clinic. The acceptance rate of cardiologcal projects may be increased by more intensive cooperation. At the end, the principle of help by self-help also applies to cardiological research; the British Heart Foundation has developed into an

  13. Technology and techniques for parity experiments at Mainz: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, Juergen

    2016-03-01

    For almost 20 years the Mainz accelerator facility MAMI delivered polarized electron beam to the parity violation experiment A4 that measured the contributions of strange sea quarks to the proton electromagnetic factors. Parity violation asymmetries were of the order of A ~5 ppm. Currently the A1 collaboration carries out single spin asymmetry measurements at MAMI (A ~20 ppm) to prepare for a measurement of neutron skin depth on lead (A ~1 ppm). For such high precision experiments active stabilization and precise determination of beam parameters like current, energy, position, and angle are essential requirements in addition to precision electron beam polarimetry. For the future P2 experiment at the planned superconducting accelerator MESA in Mainz the requirements for beam quality will be even higher. P2 will measure the weak mixing angle with 0.15 percent total uncertainty and, in addition, the neutron skin depth of lead as well as parity violation in electron scattering off 12C. A tiny asymmetry of only -0.03 ppm creates the needs to combine digital feedback with feedforward stabilizations along with new polarimetry developments like a hydro-Moller and a double-Mott polarimeter to meet the goals for systematic uncertainty. This talk gives an overview of our experience with polarimetry, analog feedbacks and compensation techniques for apparative asymmetries at the A4 experiment. It finally leads to the requirements and new techniques for the pioneering P2 experiment at MESA. First results from beam tests currently carried out at the existing MAMI accelerator, employing high speed analog/digital conversion and FPGAs for control of beam parameters, will be presented. Supported by the cluster of excellence PRISMA and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the SFB1044.

  14. Production Cross-Section Estimates for Strongly-Interacting Electroweak-Symmetry Breaking Sector Resonances at Particle Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobado, Antonio; Guo, Feng-Kun; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2015-12-01

    We are exploring a generic strongly-interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector (EWSBS) with the low-energy effective field theory for the four experimentally known particles (W±L, ZL, h) and its dispersion-relation based unitary extension. In this contribution we provide simple estimates for the production cross-section of pairs of the EWSBS bosons and their resonances at proton-proton colliders as well as in a future e-e+ (or potentially a μ-μ+) collider with a typical few-TeV energy. We examine the simplest production mechanisms, tree-level production through a W (dominant when quantum numbers allow) and the simple effective boson approximation (in which the electroweak bosons are considered as collinear partons of the colliding fermions). We exemplify with custodial isovector and isotensor resonances at 2 TeV, the energy currently being discussed because of a slight excess in the ATLAS 2-jet data. We find it hard, though not unthinkable, to ascribe this excess to one of these WLWL rescattering resonances. An isovector resonance could be produced at a rate smaller than, but close to earlier CMS exclusion bounds, depending on the parameters of the effective theory. The ZZ excess is then problematic and requires additional physics (such as an additional scalar resonance). The isotensor one (that would describe all charge combinations) has smaller cross-section. Supported by the Spanish Excellence Network on Hadronic Physics FIS2014-57026-REDT, by Spanish Grants Universidad Complutense UCM:910309 and Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad MINECO:FPA2011-27853-C02-01, MINECO:FPA2014-53375-C2-1-P, by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and National Natural Science Foundation of China through Funds Provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC Grant No. 11261130311) and by NSFC (Grant No. 11165005)

  15. First Spectroscopic Studies and Detection in SgrB2 of 13C-DOUBLY Substitued Ethyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Belloche, Arnaud

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl cyanide (CH_3CH_2CN) is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium firstly detected in OMC-1 and Sgr B2 in 1977. The vibrationally excited states are enough populated under ISM conditions and could be detected. Apart from the deuterated ones, all mono-substituted isotopologues of ethyl cyanide (13C and 15N have been detected in the ISM. The detection of isotopologues in the ISM is important: it can give information about the formation process of complex organic molecules, and it is essential to clean the ISM spectra from the lines of known molecules in order to detect new ones. The 12C/13C ratio found in SgrB2: 20-30 suggests that the doubly 13C could be present in the spectral line survey recently obtained with ALMA (EMoCA), but no spectroscopic studies exist up to now. We measured and analyzed the spectra of the 13C-doubly-substitued species up to 1 THz with the Lille solid-state based spectrometer. The spectroscopic results and and the detection of the doubly 13C species in SgrB2 will be presented. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. This work was also done under ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS. Support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB 956, project B3 is acknowledged D.~R.~Johnson, et al., Astrophys.~J. 1977, 218, L370 A.~Belloche, et al., A&A 2013, 559, A47 A.M.~Daly, et al., Astrophys.~J. 2013, 768, 81 K.~Demyk, et al. A&A 2007 466, 255 Margulès, et al. A&A 2009, 493, 565 Belloche et al. 2014, Science, 345, 1584

  16. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in whipple disease: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feurle, Gerhard E; Moos, Verena; Schinnerling, Katina; Geelhaar, Anika; Allers, Kristina; Biagi, Federico; Bläker, Hendrik; Moter, Annette; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Jansen, Andreas; Schneider, Thomas

    2010-12-07

    ; prospective studies are needed. European Commission and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  17. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    PubMed

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  18. Mott criticality and multiferroicity in organic κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Layered organic charge-transfer (CT) salts of the κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X family show a wealth of electronic phases resulting from the interplay of strong electron-electron correlations, reduced dimensions and magnetic frustration. Of particular interest has been the bandwidth-controlled Mott transition, separating an antiferromagnetic (afm) insulating state from a correlated metallic and superconducting state. Whereas the hydrogenated X = Cu[N(CN)2]Br salt is located on the metallic side, the deuterated variant, denoted κ-D8, is situated in splitting distance to the Mott transition, enabling the s-shaped transition line TMI to be crossed via temperature sweeps. The talk will address the following aspects: 1) Thermal expansion measurements on single crystalline κ-D8 reveal discontinuous changes of the lattice parameters on crossing the Mott transition line and a huge anomaly close to the second-order critical end point of TMI. By elaborating on a scaling theory, we found that (i) the latter effect is a consequence of an almost divergence of the Grüneisen parameter Γ at the finite- T critical end point, and (ii) that the expansivity data of are in excellent agreement with the Mott criticality lying within the 2D Ising universality class, at variance with results from conductivity measurements. Thermal expansion measurements under Helium-gas pressure are underway for providing thermodynamic information at variable pressure. 2) Surprisingly, for the isostructural X = Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt, located close to the Mott transition on the insulating side, we found that besides the well-established afm order at TN ~ 27 K, the system also reveals a ferroelectric transition at TFE, making this material the first multiferroic CT salt. Most remarkably, the measurements reveal TFE ~TN , suggesting a close interrelation between both types of ferroic order. Work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Collaborative Research Centers TRR 49 and TRR 80.

  19. 77 FR 19396 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Euronext and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG Will Not Become Effective March 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... combination (the ``Combination'') of NYSE Euronext, a Delaware corporation, and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). The Holdco...

  20. 77 FR 19397 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG Will Not Become Effective March 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the...'') of NYSE Euronext, a Delaware corporation, and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). The Holdco Proposal was...

  1. 75 FR 13151 - In the Matter of the Applications of EDGX Exchange, Inc., and EDGA Exchange, Inc. for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Frankfurt AG (``Eurex Frankfurt,'' and, with Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, the ``German Upstream Owners''). Eurex... jointly owned by Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG and SIX Swiss Exchange AG (``SWX''), a wholly-owned subsidiary of... Frankfurt, Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, Eurex Z[uuml]rich, SWX, SWX Group, and Verein SWX Swiss Exchange. \\16\\ In...

  2. 77 FR 19400 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG Will Not Become Effective March 26, 2012 Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the... combination (the ``Combination'') of NYSE Euronext, a Delaware corporation, and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). The Holdco...

  3. Shaping the System - The DRG Evaluation Project of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, DGGG).

    PubMed

    Fiori, W; Renner, S P; Siam, K; Babapirali, J; Roeder, N; Dausch, E; Hildebrandt, T; Hillemanns, P; Nehmzow, M; Zygmunt, M; Piroth, D; Schem, C; Schwenzer, T; Friese, K; Wallwiener, D; Beckmann, M W

    2013-08-01

    Introduction: The German DRG system is annually adapted to the changing services provided. For the further development, the self-governing body and its DRG Institute (InEK) depend on participation of the users. Methods: For one of the DRG evaluation projects initiated by DGGG, cost and performance data for the year 2011 from 16 hospitals were available. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. In addition, 3 modification proposals were addressed to the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, DIMDI) for further development of the diagnosis classification ICD-10-GM. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system 2014 shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system.

  4. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility. PMID:27616876

  5. Degradation of lignin β-aryl ether units in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing LigD, LigF and LigG from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6.

    PubMed

    Mnich, Ewelina; Vanholme, Ruben; Oyarce, Paula; Liu, Sarah; Lu, Fachuang; Goeminne, Geert; Jørgensen, Bodil; Motawie, Mohammed S; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John; Ulvskov, Peter; Møller, Birger L; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Harholt, Jesper

    2017-05-01

    Lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin interunit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG (LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce postlignification modifications into the lignin structure. The three enzymes were targeted to the secretory pathway. Phenolic metabolite profiling and 2D HSQC NMR of the transgenic lines showed an increase in oxidized guaiacyl and syringyl units without concomitant increase in oxidized β-aryl ether units, showing lignin bond cleavage. Saccharification yield increased significantly in transgenic lines expressing LigDFG, showing the applicability of our approach. Additional new information on substrate specificity of the LigDFG enzymes is also provided. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Design of a hybrid As₂S₃-Ti:LiNbO₃ optical waveguide for phase-matched difference frequency generation at mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Madsen, Christi K

    2014-11-03

    Based on arsenic tri-sulfide films on titanium-diffused lithium niobate, we designed a hybrid optical waveguide for efficient mid-infrared emission by phase-matched difference frequency generation (DFG). The hybrid waveguide structure possesses a low-index magnesium fluoride buffer layer sandwiched between two high-index As(2)S(3) slabs, so that pump and signal waves are tightly confined by titanium-diffused waveguide while the DFG output idler wave at mid-infrared is confined by the whole hybrid waveguide structure. On a 1 mm-long hybrid waveguide pumped at 50 mW powers, a normalized power conversion efficiency of 20.52%W(-1)cm(-2) was theoretically predicted, which is the highest record for mid-infrared DFG waveguides based on lithium niobate crystal, to the best of our knowledge. Using a tunable near-infrared pump laser at 1.38-1.47 µm or a tunable signal laser at 1.95-2.15 µm, a broad mid-infrared tuning range from 4.0 µm to 4.9 µm can be achieved. Such hybrid optical waveguides are feasible for mid-infrared emission with mW powers and sub-nanometer linewidths.

  7. A tunable dual-wavelength pump source based on simulated polariton scattering for terahertz-wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Jianquan; Li, Enbang

    2013-11-01

    We propose a dual-wavelength pump source by utilizing stimulated polariton scattering in a LiNbO3 crystal. The residual pump and the generated tunable Stokes waves can be combined to generate THz-wave generation via difference frequency generation (DFG). With a pump energy of 49 mJ, Stokes waves with a tuning range from 1067.8 to 1074 nm have been generated, and an output energy of up to 14.9 mJ at 1070 nm has been achieved with a conversion efficiency of 21.7%. A sum frequency generation experiment was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme for THz-wave DFG.

  8. Shaping the System – The DRG Evaluation Project of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, DGGG)

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, W.; Renner, S. P.; Siam, K.; Babapirali, J.; Roeder, N.; Dausch, E.; Hildebrandt, T.; Hillemanns, P.; Nehmzow, M.; Zygmunt, M.; Piroth, D.; Schem, C.; Schwenzer, T.; Friese, K.; Wallwiener, D.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The German DRG system is annually adapted to the changing services provided. For the further development, the self-governing body and its DRG Institute (InEK) depend on participation of the users. Methods: For one of the DRG evaluation projects initiated by DGGG, cost and performance data for the year 2011 from 16 hospitals were available. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. In addition, 3 modification proposals were addressed to the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, DIMDI) for further development of the diagnosis classification ICD-10-GM. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system 2014 shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system. PMID:24771931

  9. Deutsch 100, 200, 300.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Manitoba's curriculum guide for German 100, 200, and 300 is designed to (1) make teachers of these courses aware of the official policy concerning the nature, goals, and objectives of the courses and approved teaching materials, and (2) provide instructional guidelines. The guide provides information about three sets of teaching materials from…

  10. Strategy for Defeat: The Lutfwaffe, 1933-1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    subsequently served mostly with the air planning staffs within the Reichswehr during the Weimarperiod . 29 . Deist, et al ., Das deutsche Reich and derZweite... et al ., Das deutsche Reich and der Zweite Weltkrieg, Vol . I, pp . 480-81 ; see Homze, Arming the Luftwaffe, p . 184, for a detailed breakdown of...Ludendorff, Kriegsfiihrung andPolitik (Berlin, 1922), pp . 328-33 . 45 . See the interesting discussion of this point in Deist, et al ., Das deutsche

  11. 77 FR 36324 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... proposed combination of NYSE Euronext and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG (the ``Combination'').\\4\\ Under the rule... prohibit the Combination, NYSE Euronext and Deutsche B[ouml]rse agreed to terminate the agreement to...

  12. 77 FR 36321 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... policy in connection with the previously proposed combination of NYSE Euronext and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG... European Commission's decision to prohibit the Combination, NYSE Euronext and Deutsche B[ouml]rse agreed to...

  13. 77 FR 36307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... proposed combination of NYSE Euronext and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG (the ``Combination'').\\4\\ Under the rule... prohibit the Combination, NYSE Euronext and Deutsche B[ouml]rse agreed to terminate the agreement to...

  14. 75 FR 7299 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...]rich''), which in turn is jointly owned by Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse'') and SIX...]rse, SIX, SIX Group, and U.S. Exchange Holdings, Inc. are collectively referred to herein as the...

  15. Insights into the conformational switching mechanism of the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 kinase domain.

    PubMed

    Chioccioli, Matteo; Marsili, Simone; Bonaccini, Claudia; Procacci, Piero; Gratteri, Paola

    2012-02-27

    Human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (h-VEFGR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the angiogenesis process and regarded as an interesting target for the design of anticancer drugs. Its activation/inactivation mechanism is related to conformational changes in its cytoplasmatic kinase domain, involving first among all the αC-helix in N-lobe and the A-loop in C-lobe. Affinity of inhibitors for the active or inactive kinase form could dictate the open or closed conformation of the A-loop, thus making the different conformations of the kinase domain receptor (KDR) domain different drug targets in drug discovery. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the conformational landscape of KDR domain is of central relevance to rationalize the efficiency and selectivity of kinase inhibitors. Here, molecular dynamics simulations were used to gain insight into the conformational switching activity of the KDR domain and to identify intermediate conformations between the two limiting active and inactive conformations. Specific energy barriers have been selectively removed to induce, and hence highlight at the atomistic level, the regulation mechanism of the A-loop opening. The proposed strategy allowed to repeatedly observe the escape of the KDR domain from the DFG-out free energy basin and to identify rare intermediate conformations between the DFG-out and the DFG-in structures to be employed in a structure-based drug discovery process.

  16. 77 FR 25954 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... commodities. These methods include: Gas-Liquid Chromatography ((GLC)--Method I in PAM II); HPLC with... methodology for proquinazid in plant- based matrices is the DFG-S19 multi-residue method which uses gas...

  17. Early Transthoracic Echocardiography after Cardiac Surgery Predicts Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lacalzada, Juan; Jiménez, Juan José; Iribarren, José Luis; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Martín-Cabeza, Marta; Izquierdo, María Manuela; Marí-López, Belén; García-González, Martín Jesús; Jorge-Pérez, Pablo; Barragán, Antonio; Laynez, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is frequent after cardiac surgery. We aimed to establish a predictive model of POAF based on postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. This study included 147 patients (aged 67 ± 11 years; 109 men) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement. TTE and Doppler tissue imaging were performed on intensive care unit arrival after surgery. All patients were continuously monitored during hospitalization. The end point was the appearance of POAF. POAF appeared in 37 patients (25.2%). These patients were older (69 ± 16 vs. 65 ± 12 years; P < 0.001) and had increased long axis of the left atrium (LA) dimension (5.4 ± 1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 cm, P = 0.02), lower early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (e') (6.9 ± 2.1 vs. 8 ± 1.8 cm/sec; P < 0.01), and higher early diastolic pulsed Doppler mitral ratio (E)/e' (E/e') (17.4 ± 6.8 vs. 13.8 ± 6; P = 0.01). Left ventricle diastolic dysfunction grade (DFG) of 2 or 3 relative to grade 0 was significant: odds ratio (OR) 22.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.52-57.2; P < 0.001, and OR: 23.6, 95% CI: 3.57-60.1; P = 0.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of POAF were age (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18; P < 0.05), long-axis LA dimension (OR: 6.24, 95% CI: 1.97-8.23; P = 0.0017), DFG-2 (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.57-15.81; P < 0.001), and DFG-3 (OR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.11-25.37; P < 0.001). Apart from age, the simple determination by postoperative TTE of long-axis LA dimension and DFG after cardiac surgery proved to be powerful independent predictors of POAF and may be useful for risk stratification of these patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Multi-scale model of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques - project status and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Hugentobler, U.; Jakowski, N.; Dettmering, D.; Liang, W.; Limberger, M.; Wilken, V.; Gerzen, T.; Hoque, M.; Berdermann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Near real-time high resolution and high precision ionosphere models are needed for a large number of applications, e.g. in navigation, positioning, telecommunications or astronautics. Today these ionosphere models are mostly empirical, i.e., based purely on mathematical approaches. In the DFG project 'Multi-scale model of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques (MuSIK)' the complex phenomena within the ionosphere are described vertically by combining the Chapman electron density profile with a plasmasphere layer. In order to consider the horizontal and temporal behaviour the fundamental target parameters of this physics-motivated approach are modelled by series expansions in terms of tensor products of localizing B-spline functions depending on longitude, latitude and time. For testing the procedure the model will be applied to an appropriate region in South America, which covers relevant ionospheric processes and phenomena such as the Equatorial Anomaly. The project connects the expertise of the three project partners, namely Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) Munich, the Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy (IAPG) of the Technical University Munich (TUM) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Neustrelitz. In this presentation we focus on the current status of the project. In the first year of the project we studied the behaviour of the ionosphere in the test region, we setup appropriate test periods covering high and low solar activity as well as winter and summer and started the data collection, analysis, pre-processing and archiving. We developed partly the mathematical-physical modelling approach and performed first computations based on simulated input data. Here we present information on the data coverage for the area and the time periods of our investigations and we outline challenges of the multi-dimensional mathematical-physical modelling approach. We show first results, discuss problems

  19. Design of small-scale gradient coils in magnetic resonance imaging by using the topology optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hui; Jia, Feng; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zaitsev, Maxim; Hennig, Juergen; Korvink, Jan G.

    2018-05-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51675506 and 51275504) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) (Grant Nos. #ZA 422/5-1 and #ZA 422/6-1).

  20. The role of small molecule platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitors in the treatment of neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Roskoski, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was discovered as a serum-derived component necessary for the growth of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and glial cells. The PDGF family is a product of four gene products and consists of five dimeric isoforms: PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC, PDGF-DD, and the PDGF-AB heterodimer. This growth factor family plays an essential role in embryonic development and in wound healing in the adult. These growth factors mediate their effects by binding to and activating their receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by two genes: PDGFRA and PDGFRB. The functional receptors consist of the PDGFRα/α and PDGFRβ/β homodimers and the PDGFRα/β heterodimer. Although PDGF signaling is most closely associated with mesenchymal cells, PDGFs and PDGF receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. The PDGF receptors contain an extracellular domain that is made up of five immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig-d1/2/3/4/5), a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain that contains an insert of about 100 amino acid residues, and a carboxyterminal tail. Although uncommon, activating mutations in the genes for PDGF or PDGF receptors have been documented in various neoplasms including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In most neoplastic diseases, PDGF expression and action appear to involve the tumor stroma. Moreover, this family is pro-angiogenic. More than ten PDGFRα/β multikinase antagonists have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of several neoplastic disorders and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (www.brimr.org/PKI/PKIs.htm). Type I protein kinase inhibitors interact with the active enzyme form with DFG-D of the proximal activation segment directed inward toward the active site (DFG-D in ). In contrast, type II inhibitors bind to their target with the DFG-D pointing away from the active site (DFG-D out ). We used the Schr

  1. New Perspectives on Neuroengineering and Neurotechnologies: NSF-DFG Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Chet T; Ruther, Patrick; Goering, Sara; Stett, Alfred; Ball, Tonio; Burgard, Wolfram; Chudler, Eric H; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2016-07-01

    To identify and overcome barriers to creating new neurotechnologies capable of restoring both motor and sensory function in individuals with neurological conditions. This report builds upon the outcomes of a joint workshop between the US National Science Foundation and the German Research Foundation on New Perspectives in Neuroengineering and Neurotechnology convened in Arlington, VA, USA, November 13-14, 2014. The participants identified key technological challenges for recording and manipulating neural activity, decoding, and interpreting brain data in the presence of plasticity, and early considerations of ethical and social issues pertinent to the adoption of neurotechnologies. The envisaged progress in neuroengineering requires tightly integrated hardware and signal processing efforts, advances in understanding of physiological adaptations to closed-loop interactions with neural devices, and an open dialog with stakeholders and potential end-users of neurotechnology. The development of new neurotechnologies (e.g., bidirectional brain-computer interfaces) could significantly improve the quality of life of people living with the effects of brain or spinal cord injury, or other neurodegenerative diseases. Focused efforts aimed at overcoming the remaining barriers at the electrode tissue interface, developing implantable hardware with on-board computation, and refining stimulation methods to precisely activate neural tissue will advance both our understanding of brain function and our ability to treat currently intractable disorders of the nervous system.

  2. 76 FR 76180 - Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Suisun Marsh...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...) Federal joint lead agencies, and the State of California Department of Fish and Game (DFG), acting as the..., Preservation, and Restoration Plan (SMP) Final EIS/EIR. The SMP is a comprehensive plan designed to address the...

  3. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-04: Evaluating DECT Vs SECT Range Differences in Proton Therapy Using Clinical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hudobivnik, N; Dedes, G; Parodi, K

    Purpose: Range uncertainty from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) is one of the key factors limiting the potential of proton therapy. The large margins required for deep seated tumors degrade the organ sparing achievable with the technology. Of interest is the application of dual energy CT (DECT) to SPR estimation. In this planning study proton range differences between SECT and DECT have been quantified for brain cases. Methods: A last generation dual source DECT scanner was used to acquire SECT (150 kVp with Sn filtration) and DECT (additionally 90 kVp) scans of phantoms and 5 headmore » trauma patients, acting as surrogate cancer patients. Phantom materials were characterized in terms of SPR in a particle beam to obtain reference values. IMPT treatment plans were generated on the basis of SECT and DECT SPR images for hypothetical brain tumors using a short and a long beam path. Range differences between SECT and DECT from plan recalculations were evaluated in beam-eye-view (BEV) by comparing the 80% isodose. Results: For the 18 phantom materials the SECT RMS SPR errors were 2.6% compared to 1.1% for DECT. Group median relative range differences between SECT and DECT plans were −1.0% for the short beam path over the 5 patients investigated in this study. For the long beam path the median difference was −1.4%. These relative range differences corresponded to −0.5 mm and −1.4 mm shifts respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study performing proton therapy treatment planning on DECT patient images. Important range differences of more than 1 mm were observed between SECT and DECT treatment plans, and DECT SPR accuracy was found superior on the basis of phantom measurements. While the patients investigated in this study did not have brain tumors, the findings we observed should apply to cancer patients. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MAP); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (01IB13001)« less

  4. Potassium Channel KIR4.1 as an Immune Target in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rajneesh; Aslam, Muhammad; Kalluri, Sudhakar Reddy; Schirmer, Lucas; Buck, Dorothea; Tackenberg, Björn; Rothhammer, Veit; Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf; Berthele, Achim; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Korn, Thomas; Hemmer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Many findings suggest that the disease has an autoimmune pathogenesis; the target of the immune response is not yet known. METHODS We screened serum IgG from persons with multiple sclerosis to identify antibodies that are capable of binding to brain tissue and observed specific binding of IgG to glial cells in a subgroup of patients. Using a proteomic approach focusing on membrane proteins, we identified the ATP-sensitive inward rectifying potassium channel KIR4.1 as the target of the IgG antibodies. We used a multifaceted validation strategy to confirm KIR4.1 as a target of the autoantibody response in multiple sclerosis and to show its potential pathogenicity in vivo. RESULTS Serum levels of antibodies to KIR4.1 were higher in persons with multiple sclerosis than in persons with other neurologic diseases and healthy donors (P<0.001 for both comparisons). We replicated this finding in two independent groups of persons with multiple sclerosis or other neurologic diseases (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Analysis of the combined data sets indicated the presence of serum antibodies to KIR4.1 in 186 of 397 persons with multiple sclerosis (46.9%), in 3 of 329 persons with other neurologic diseases (0.9%), and in none of the 59 healthy donors. These antibodies bound to the first extracellular loop of KIR4.1. Injection of KIR4.1 serum IgG into the cisternae magnae of mice led to a profound loss of KIR4.1 expression, altered expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes, and activation of the complement cascade at sites of KIR4.1 expression in the cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS KIR4.1 is a target of the autoantibody response in a subgroup of persons with multiple sclerosis. (Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.) PMID:22784115

  5. High-coercivity minerals from North African Humid Period soil material deposited in Lake Yoa (Chad)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, J.; Kroepelin, S.; Wennrich, V.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wagner, B.; Rethemeyer, J.; Karls, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP) have favored the formation of big lake systems. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics together with proxies for lacustrine productivity and biota of a sediment core (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Magnetic properties of AHP sediments show strong indications for reductive diagenesis. An up to ~ 80 m higher lake level is documented by lacustrine deposits in the Ounianga Basin, dating to the early phase of the AHP. The higher lake level and less strong seasonality restricted deep mixing of the lake. Development of anoxic conditions consequently lead to the dissolution of iron oxides. An exception is an interval with high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, deposited between 7800 - 8120 cal yr BP. This interval post-dates the 8.2 event, which was dry in Northern Africa and probably caused a reduced vegetation cover. We propose that the latter resulted in the destabilization of soils around Lake Yoa. After the re-establishment of humid conditions, these soil materials were eroded and deposited in the lake. Magnetic minerals appear well preserved in the varved Late Holocene sequence, indicating (sub-) oxic conditions in the lake. This is surprising, because the occurrence of varves is often interpreted as an indicator for anoxic conditions of the lake water. However, the salinity of lake water rose strongly after the AHP. We therefore hypothesize that the conservation of varves and absence of benthic organisms rather relates to the high salinity than to anoxic conditions.

  6. Applications of atom interferometry - from ground to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Christian; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Gaaloul, Naceur; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Atom interferometry is utilized for the measurement of rotations [1], accelerations [2] and for tests of fundamental physics [3]. In these devices, three laser light pulses separated by a free evolution time coherently manipulate the matter waves which resembles the Mach-Zehnder geometry in optics. Atom gravimeters demonstrated an accuracy of few microgal [2,4], and atom gradiometers showed a noise floor of 30 E Hz^{-1/2} [5]. Further enhancements of atom interferometers are anticipated by the integration of novel source concepts providing ultracold atoms, extending the free fall time of the atoms, and enhanced techniques for coherent manipulation. Sources providing Bose-Einstein condensates recently demontrated a flux compatible with precision experiments [6]. All of these aspects are studied in the transportable quantum gravimeter QG-1 and the very long baseline atom interferometry teststand in Hannover [7] with the goal of surpassing the microgal regime. Going beyond ground based setups, the QUANTUS collaboration exploits the unique features of a microgravity environment in drop tower experiments [8] and in a sounding rocket mission. The payloads are compact and robust atom optics experiments based on atom chips [6], enabling technology for transportable sensors on ground as a byproduct. More prominently, they are pathfinders for proposed satellite missions as tests of the universality of free fall [9] and gradiometry based on atom interferometers [10]. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM1552-1557 (QUANTUS-IV-Fallturm) and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the SFB 1128 geo-Q. [1] PRL 114 063002 2015 [2] Nature 400 849 1999 [3] PRL 112 203002 2014 [4] NJP 13 065026 2011 [5] PRA 65 033608 2002 [6] NJP 17 065001 2015 [7] NJP 17 035011 2015 [8] PRL 110 093602 2013 [9

  7. Genetic variants associated with response to lithium treatment in bipolar disorder: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liping; Heilbronner, Urs; Degenhardt, Franziska; Adli, Mazda; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Arias, Bárbara; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio E M; Benabarre, Antoni; Bengesser, Susanne; Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Biernacka, Joanna M; Birner, Armin; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise T; Cervantes, Pablo; Chen, Guo-Bo; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott R; Colom, Francesc; Cousins, David A; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Czerski, Piotr M; Dantas, Clarissa R; Dayer, Alexandre; Étain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Forstner, Andreas J; Frisén, Louise; Fullerton, Janice M; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie S; Goes, Fernando S; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Hofmann, Andrea; Jamain, Stephane; Jiménez, Esther; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; König, Barbara; Kusumi, Ichiro; Lackner, Nina; Laje, Gonzalo; Landén, Mikael; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G; Jaramillo, Carlos A López; MacQueen, Glenda; Manchia, Mirko; Martinsson, Lina; Mattheisen, Manuel; McCarthy, Michael J; McElroy, Susan L; Mitjans, Marina; Mondimore, Francis M; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Nöthen, Markus M; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H; Pfennig, Andrea; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Rouleau, Guy A; Schofield, Peter R; Schubert, K Oliver; Schweizer, Barbara W; Seemüller, Florian; Severino, Giovanni; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Shilling, Paul D; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Simhandl, Christian; Slaney, Claire M; Smoller, Jordan W; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Volkert, Julia; Witt, Stephanie; Wright, Adam; Young, L Trevor; Zandi, Peter P; Potash, James B; DePaulo, J Raymond; Bauer, Michael; Reininghaus, Eva Z; Novák, Tomas; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Maj, Mario; Baune, Bernhard T; Mitchell, Philip B; Vieta, Eduard; Frye, Mark A; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kato, Tadafumi; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Reif, Andreas; Del Zompo, Maria; Bellivier, Frank; Schalling, Martin; Wray, Naomi R; Kelsoe, John R; Alda, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J; Schulze, Thomas G

    2016-03-12

    Lithium is a first-line treatment in bipolar disorder, but individual response is variable. Previous studies have suggested that lithium response is a heritable trait. However, no genetic markers of treatment response have been reproducibly identified. Here, we report the results of a genome-wide association study of lithium response in 2563 patients collected by 22 participating sites from the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen). Data from common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with categorical and continuous ratings of lithium response. Lithium response was measured using a well established scale (Alda scale). Genotyped SNPs were used to generate data at more than 6 million sites, using standard genomic imputation methods. Traits were regressed against genotype dosage. Results were combined across two batches by meta-analysis. A single locus of four linked SNPs on chromosome 21 met genome-wide significance criteria for association with lithium response (rs79663003, p=1·37 × 10(-8); rs78015114, p=1·31 × 10(-8); rs74795342, p=3·31 × 10(-9); and rs75222709, p=3·50 × 10(-9)). In an independent, prospective study of 73 patients treated with lithium monotherapy for a period of up to 2 years, carriers of the response-associated alleles had a significantly lower rate of relapse than carriers of the alternate alleles (p=0·03268, hazard ratio 3·8, 95% CI 1·1-13·0). The response-associated region contains two genes for long, non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), AL157359.3 and AL157359.4. LncRNAs are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of gene expression, particularly in the CNS. Confirmed biomarkers of lithium response would constitute an important step forward in the clinical management of bipolar disorder. Further studies are needed to establish the biological context and potential clinical utility of these findings. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, National Institute of Mental Health

  8. SU-F-T-408: On the Determination of Equivalent Squares for Rectangular Small MV Photon Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, OA; Wegener, S; Exner, F

    Purpose: It is common practice to tabulate dosimetric data like output factors, scatter factors and detector signal correction factors for a set of square fields. In order to get the data for an arbitrary field, it is mapped to an equivalent square, having the same scatter as the field of interest. For rectangular fields both, tabulated data and empiric formula exist. We tested the applicability of such rules for very small fields. Methods: Using the Monte-Carlo method (EGSnrc-doseRZ), the dose to a point in 10cm depth in water was calculated for cylindrical impinging fluence distributions. Radii were from 0.5mm tomore » 11.5mm with 1mm thickness of the rings. Different photon energies were investigated. With these data a matrix was constructed assigning the amount of dose to the field center to each matrix element. By summing up the elements belonging to a certain field, the dose for an arbitrary point in 10cm depth could be determined. This was done for rectangles up to 21mm side length. Comparing the dose to square field results, equivalent squares could be assigned. The results were compared to using the geometrical mean and the 4Xperimeter/area rule. Results: For side length differences less than 2mm, the difference between all methods was in general less than 0.2mm. For more elongated fields, relevant differences of more than 1mm and up to 3mm for the fields investigated occurred. The mean square side length calculated from both empiric formulas fitted much better, deviating hardly more than 1mm and for the very elongated fields only. Conclusion: For small rectangular photon fields, deviating only moderately from square both investigated empiric methods are sufficiently accurate. As the deviations often differ regarding their sign, using the mean improves the accuracy and the useable elongation range. For ratios larger than 2, Monte-Carlo generated data are recommended. SW is funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SA481/10-1)« less

  9. Widely tunable and monochromatic terahertz difference frequency generation with organic crystal 2-(3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dime-thylcyclohex-2-enylidene) malononitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengxiang; Zhang, Xinyuan; Yan, Chao; Xu, Degang; Li, Yin; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Guochun; Zhang, Xinzheng; Yao, Jianquan; Wu, Yicheng

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental study on widely tunable terahertz (THz) wave difference frequency generation (DFG) with hydrogen-bonded crystals 2-(3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dime-thylcyclohex-2-enylidene) malononitrile (OH1). The organic crystals were pumped by a ˜1.3 μm double-pass KTiOPO4 optical parametric oscillator. A tuning range of 0.02-20 THz was achieved. OH1 crystals offer a long effective interaction length (also high output) for the generation below 3 THz, owing to the low absorption and favorable phase-matching. The highest energy of 507 nJ/pulse was generated at 1.92 THz with a 1.89-mm-thick crystal. Comprehensive explanations were provided, on the basis of theoretical calculations. Cascading phenomenon during the DFG process was demonstrated. The photon conversion efficiency could reach 2.9%.

  10. Yb fiber laser pumped mid-IR source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuoka, N.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nanri, K.; Fujioka, T.; Richter, D.; Tittel, F. K.

    2001-01-01

    A Yb fiber laser pumped cw narrow-linewidth tunable mid-IR source based on a difference frequency generation (DFG) in a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal for trace gas detection was demonstrated. A high power Yb fiber laser and a distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode were used as DFG pump sources. This source generated mid-IR at 3 microns with a powers of 2.5 microW and a spectral linewidth of less than 30 MHz. A frequency tuning range of 300 GHz (10 cm-1) was obtained by varying the current and temperature of the DFB laser diode. A high-resolution NH3 absorption Doppler-broadened spectrum at 3295.4 cm-1 (3.0345 microns) was obtained at a cell pressure of 27 Pa from which a detection sensitivity of 24 ppm m was estimated.

  11. Performance characteristics of narrow linewidth fiber laser pumped mid-IR difference frequency mixing light source for methane detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashizawa, Hiroaki; Ohara, Shinobu; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Masao; Endo, Masamori; Nanri, Kenzo; Fujioka, Tomoo; Tittel, Frank K.

    2003-01-01

    A high-power, narrow-linewidth Yb fiber laser with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pumped difference frequency generation (DFG) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal was investigated in detail. A mid-IR power of approximately 2.3 microW at 3.3 micrometers with a slope efficiency of 0.85 mW/W2 was achieved. A Doppler-broadened absorption spectrum of CH4 at 3038.497 cm-1 (3.2911 micrometers) was obtained with a 0.1-m long-gas cell at a pressure of 133 Pa. The linewidth of the DFG source was evaluated to be less than 96 MHz from the observed spectral linewidth. Real-time monitoring of CH4 (approximately 1.78 ppm) in ambient air in a multipass cell which has an optical path length of 10 m was also demonstrated.

  12. Broadband pulsed difference frequency generation laser source centered 3326 nm based on ring fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangwei; Li, Wenlei

    2018-03-01

    A broadband pulsed mid-infrared difference frequency generation (DFG) laser source based on MgO-doped congruent LiNbO3 bulk is experimentally demonstrated, which employs a homemade pulsed ytterbium-doped ring fiber laser and a continuous wave erbium-doped ring fiber laser to act as seed sources. The experimental results indicate that the perfect phase match crystal temperature is about 74.5∘C. The maximum spectrum bandwidth of idler is about 60 nm with suitable polarization states of fundamental lights. The central wavelength of idlers varies from 3293 nm to 3333 nm over the crystal temperature ranges of 70.4-76∘C. A jump of central wavelength exists around crystal temperature of 72∘C with variation of about 30 nm. The conversion efficiency of DFG can be tuned with the crystal temperature and polarization states of fundamental lights.

  13. 77 FR 19394 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...]rse AG Will Not Become Effective March 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities... Euronext, a Delaware corporation, and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). The Holdco Proposal was...

  14. Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... View Table page Language: English 中文 Chinese Deutsch (German) Español (Spanish) Français (French) Italiano (Italian) 한국어 (Korean) ... DOC [3 pages] Language: English 中文 Chinese Deutsch (German) Español (Spanish) Français (French) Italiano (Italian) 한국어 (Korean) ...

  15. Briefkasten oder Brieftaube? Zur Auswahl der Lexik in amerikanischen Deutschlehrwerken fuer die Grundstufe. ("Mailbox" or "Carrier Pigeon"? Selecting Vocabulary for American College-Level Elementary German Textbooks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Sibylle

    A comparison of four college-level elementary German textbooks reveals significant differences in the numbers of vocabulary entries in each textbook. Further comparison of three of the textbooks with the basic German vocabulary lists provided in "Kontaktschwelle Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and in "Das Zertificat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" reveal in…

  16. 77 FR 19399 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... and Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG Will Not Become Effective March 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1...]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). The Holdco Proposal was conditionally approved by the Commission.\\5\\ The Exchange is...

  17. Historical Experiments and Science Education--From Conceptual Planning of Exhibitions to Continuing Education for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichmann, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    At the Deutsches Museum in München, we established in the department of education during more than 35 years a series of historical experiments and constructed apparatus for pedagogic purposes. We use these reproductions mainly for continuing teacher education within our department. At the exhibitions of the Deutsches Museum there exist many…

  18. 77 FR 19391 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Deutsche B[ouml]rse AG Will Not Become Effective March 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the...]rse AG, an Aktiengesellschaft organized under the laws of the Federal Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). The Holdco Proposal was conditionally approved by the Commission.\\5\\ The Exchange is...

  19. Widely tunable and monochromatic terahertz difference frequency generation with organic crystal 2-(3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dime-thylcyclohex-2-enylidene) malononitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Pengxiang; The Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and TEDA Applied Physics Institute, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071; Zhang, Xinyuan

    2016-01-04

    We report an experimental study on widely tunable terahertz (THz) wave difference frequency generation (DFG) with hydrogen-bonded crystals 2-(3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dime-thylcyclohex-2-enylidene) malononitrile (OH1). The organic crystals were pumped by a ∼1.3 μm double-pass KTiOPO{sub 4} optical parametric oscillator. A tuning range of 0.02–20 THz was achieved. OH1 crystals offer a long effective interaction length (also high output) for the generation below 3 THz, owing to the low absorption and favorable phase-matching. The highest energy of 507 nJ/pulse was generated at 1.92 THz with a 1.89-mm-thick crystal. Comprehensive explanations were provided, on the basis of theoretical calculations. Cascading phenomenon during the DFG process wasmore » demonstrated. The photon conversion efficiency could reach 2.9%.« less

  20. Widely tunable, all-polarization maintaining, monolithic mid-infrared radiation source based on differential frequency generation in PPLN crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzempek, Karol; Sobon, Grzegorz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a difference frequency generation based (DFG) mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser source using an all-polarization-maintaining-fiber (all-PM) amplifier capable of simultaneous amplification of 1064 nm and 1550 nm signals. The amplifier incorporates a single piece of a standard erbium:ytterbium (Er:Yb) co-doped double-clad (DC) active fiber and a limited number of off-the-shelf fiber-based components. Excited by a single 9 W multimode pump, the amplifier delivered over 12.1 dB and 17.8 dB gain at 1 µm and 1.55 µm, respectively. Due to an all-PM configuration, the amplifier was exceptionally convenient for DFG of mid-IR radiation in periodically polled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal, yielding an output power of ~200 µW in a wide spectral range spanning from 3300 to 3470 nm.

  1. Re-Inventing German Security and Defense Policy: A Struggle to be Understood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    book, see “Publisher Drops Nazi Porno Book,” Deutsche Welle World News, 5 February 2004, www.dw-world.de 20 Günzel who was fired for his outward...ed_inhalt_06.php “Publisher Drops Nazi Porno Book,” Deutsche Welle World News, 5 February 2004, www.dw-world.de Pye, Lucian W. and Sidney Verba

  2. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists…

  3. Exploratory study of possible resonances in heavy meson - heavy baryon coupled-channel interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao-Wei; Rönchen, Deborah; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Zou, Bing-Song

    2018-01-01

    We use a unitary coupled-channel model to study the \\bar{{{D}}}{{{Λ }}}{{c}}-\\bar{{{D}}}{{{Σ }}}{{c}} interactions. In our calculation, SU(3) flavor symmetry is applied to determine the coupling constants. Several resonant and bound states with different spin and parity are dynamically generated in the mass range of the recently observed pentaquarks. The approach is also extended to the hidden beauty sector to study the {{B}}{{{Λ }}}{{b}}-{{B}}{{{Σ }}}{{b}} interactions. As the b-quark mass is heavier than the c-quark mass, there are more resonances observed for the {{B}}{{{Λ }}}{{b}}-{{B}}{{{Σ }}}{{b}} interactions and they are more tightly bound. Supported by DFG and NSFC through funds provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetry and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC 11621131001, DFG TR110), as well as an NSFC fund (11647601). The work of UGM was also supported by the CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) (2017VMA0025)

  4. Dynamics of human protein kinase Aurora A linked to drug selectivity

    DOE PAGES

    Pitsawong, Warintra; Buosi, Vanessa; Otten, Renee; ...

    2018-06-14

    Protein kinases are major drug targets, but the development of highly-selective inhibitors has been challenging due to the similarity of their active sites. The observation of distinct structural states of the fully-conserved Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) loop has put the concept of conformational selection for the DFG-state at the center of kinase drug discovery. Recently, it was shown that Gleevec selectivity for the Tyr-kinases Abl was instead rooted in conformational changes after drug binding. Here, we investigate whether protein dynamics after binding is a more general paradigm for drug selectivity by characterizing the binding of several approved drugs to the Ser/Thr-kinase Auroramore » A. Using a combination of biophysical techniques, we propose a universal drug-binding mechanism, that rationalizes selectivity, affinity and long on-target residence time for kinase inhibitors. These new concepts, where protein dynamics in the drug-bound state plays the crucial role, can be applied to inhibitor design of targets outside the kinome.« less

  5. Dynamics of human protein kinase Aurora A linked to drug selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pitsawong, Warintra; Buosi, Vanessa; Otten, Renee

    Protein kinases are major drug targets, but the development of highly-selective inhibitors has been challenging due to the similarity of their active sites. The observation of distinct structural states of the fully-conserved Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) loop has put the concept of conformational selection for the DFG-state at the center of kinase drug discovery. Recently, it was shown that Gleevec selectivity for the Tyr-kinases Abl was instead rooted in conformational changes after drug binding. Here, we investigate whether protein dynamics after binding is a more general paradigm for drug selectivity by characterizing the binding of several approved drugs to the Ser/Thr-kinase Auroramore » A. Using a combination of biophysical techniques, we propose a universal drug-binding mechanism, that rationalizes selectivity, affinity and long on-target residence time for kinase inhibitors. These new concepts, where protein dynamics in the drug-bound state plays the crucial role, can be applied to inhibitor design of targets outside the kinome.« less

  6. Conformational Selection and Induced Fit Mechanisms in the Binding of an Anticancer Drug to the c-Src Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morando, Maria Agnese; Saladino, Giorgio; D'Amelio, Nicola; Pucheta-Martinez, Encarna; Lovera, Silvia; Lelli, Moreno; López-Méndez, Blanca; Marenchino, Marco; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the conformational changes associated with the binding of small ligands to their biological targets is a fascinating and meaningful question in chemistry, biology and drug discovery. One of the most studied and important is the so-called “DFG-flip” of tyrosine kinases. The conserved three amino-acid DFG motif undergoes an “in to out” movement resulting in a particular inactive conformation to which “type II” kinase inhibitors, such as the anti-cancer drug Imatinib, bind. Despite many studies, the details of this prototypical conformational change are still debated. Here we combine various NMR experiments and surface plasmon resonance with enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations to shed light into the conformational dynamics associated with the binding of Imatinib to the proto-oncogene c-Src. We find that both conformational selection and induced fit play a role in the binding mechanism, reconciling opposing views held in the literature. Moreover, an external binding pose and local unfolding (cracking) of the aG helix are observed.

  7. Structure–kinetic relationship study of CDK8/CycC specific compounds

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Elisabeth V.; Böttcher, Jark; Huber, Robert; Maskos, Klaus; Neumann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with the very well explored concept of structure–activity relationship, similar studies are missing for the dependency between binding kinetics and compound structure of a protein ligand complex, the structure–kinetic relationship. Here, we present a structure–kinetic relationship study of the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8)/cyclin C (CycC) complex. The scaffold moiety of the compounds is anchored in the kinase deep pocket and extended with diverse functional groups toward the hinge region and the front pocket. These variations can cause the compounds to change from fast to slow binding kinetics, resulting in an improved residence time. The flip of the DFG motif (“DMG” in CDK8) to the inactive DFG-out conformation appears to have relatively little influence on the velocity of binding. Hydrogen bonding with the kinase hinge region contributes to the residence time but has less impact than hydrophobic complementarities within the kinase front pocket. PMID:23630251

  8. High-energy and ultra-wideband tunable terahertz source with DAST crystal via difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yixin; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Nie, Meitong; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Shi, Jia; Feng, Jiachen; Yan, Dexian; Liu, Hongxiang; Teng, Bing; Feng, Hua; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-01-01

    We have demonstrated a high-energy and broadly tunable monochromatic terahertz (THz) source based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in DAST crystal. A high-energy dual-wavelength optical parametric oscillator with two KTP crystals was constructed as a light source for DFG, where the effect of blue light was first observed accompanying with tunable dual-wavelength pump light due to different nonlinear processes. The THz frequency was tuned randomly in the range of 0.3-19.6 THz. The highest energy of 870 nJ/pulse was obtained at 18.9 THz under the intense pump intensity of 247 MW/cm2. The THz energy dips above 3 THz have been analyzed and mainly attributed to the resonance absorption induced by lattice vibration in DAST crystal. The dependence of THz output on the input energy was studied experimentally, and THz output saturation was observed. Furthermore, tests of transmission spectroscopy of four typical samples were demonstrated with this ultra-wideband THz source.

  9. Wilsonian Renormalization Group and the Lippmann-Schwinger Equation with a Multitude of Cutoff Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epelbaum, E.; Gegelia, J.; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2018-03-01

    The Wilsonian renormalization group approach to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with a multitude of cutoff parameters is introduced. A system of integro-differential equations for the cutoff-dependent potential is obtained. As an illustration, a perturbative solution of these equations with two cutoff parameters for a simple case of an S-wave low-energy potential in the form of a Taylor series in momenta is obtained. The relevance of the obtained results for the effective field theory approach to nucleon-nucleon scattering is discussed. Supported in part by BMBF under Grant No. 05P2015 - NUSTAR R&D), DFG and NSFC through Funds Provided to the Sino- German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD”, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11621131001, DFG Grant No. TRR110, the Georgian Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (grant FR/417/6-100/14) and the CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) under Grant No. 2017VMA0025

  10. Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2017-04-27

    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Enjoyment of Learning and Learning Effort in Primary School: The Significance of Child Individual Characteristics and Stimulation at Home and at Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, David; Lehrl, Simone; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The present paper was written under the auspices of the interdisciplinary research group "Educational Processes, Competence Development, and Selection Decisions at Preschool and Primary School Age (BiKS)" (FOR 543), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The surveys were conceptualised and supervised as part of the developmental…

  12. 75 FR 66780 - Suisun Marsh Habitat Management, Preservation, and Restoration Plan, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... joint lead agencies, and the State of California Department of Fish and Game (DFG), acting as the... comprehensive 30-year plan designed to address various conflicts regarding use of resources within approximately... comprehensive plan designed to address the various conflicts regarding use of Marsh resources, with the focus on...

  13. Computational study of Gleevec and G6G reveals molecular determinants of kinase inhibitor selectivity

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Yen -Lin; Meng, Yilin; Huang, Lei; ...

    2014-10-22

    Gleevec is a potent inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase but not of the highly homologous c-Src kinase. Because the ligand binds to an inactive form of the protein in which an Asp-Phe-Gly structural motif along the activation loop adopts a so-called DFG-out conformation, it was suggested that binding specificity was controlled by a “conformational selection” mechanism. In this context, the binding affinity displayed by the kinase inhibitor G6G poses an intriguing challenge. Although it possesses a chemical core very similar to that of Gleevec, G6G is a potent inhibitor of both Abl and c-Src kinases. Both inhibitors bind to themore » DFG-out conformation of the kinases, which seems to be in contradiction with the conformational selection mechanism. To address this issue and display the hidden thermodynamic contributions affecting the binding selectivity, molecular dynamics free energy simulations with explicit solvent molecules were carried out. Relative to Gleevec, G6G forms highly favorable van der Waals dispersive interactions upon binding to the kinases via its triazine functional group, which is considerably larger than the corresponding pyridine moiety in Gleevec. Upon binding of G6G to c-Src, these interactions offset the unfavorable free energy cost of the DFG-out conformation. When binding to Abl, however, G6G experiences an unfavorable free energy penalty due to steric clashes with the phosphate-binding loop, yielding an overall binding affinity that is similar to that of Gleevec. Such steric clashes are absent when G6G binds to c-Src, due to the extended conformation of the phosphate-binding loop.« less

  14. Signaling alkaline pH stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the Wsc1 cell surface sensor and the Slt2 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Raquel; Martín, Humberto; Casamayor, Antonio; Ariño, Joaquín

    2006-12-29

    Alkalinization of the external environment represents a stress situation for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adaptation to this circumstance involves the activation of diverse response mechanisms, the components of which are still largely unknown. We show here that mutation of members of the cell integrity Pkc1/Slt2 MAPK module, as well as upstream and downstream elements of the system, confers sensitivity to alkali. Alkalinization resulted in fast and transient activation of the Slt2 MAPK, which depended on the integrity of the kinase module and was largely abolished by sorbitol. Lack of Wsc1, removal of specific extracellular and intracellular domains, or substitution of Tyr(303) in this putative membrane stress sensor rendered cells sensitive to alkali and considerably decreased alkali-induced Slt2 activation. In contrast, constitutive activation of Slt2 by the bck1-20 allele increased pH tolerance in the wsc1 mutant. DNA microarray analysis revealed that several genes encoding cell wall proteins, such as GSC2/FKS2, DFG5, SKT5, and CRH1, were induced, at least in part, by high pH in an Slt2-dependent manner. We observed that dfg5, skt5, and particularly dfg5 skt5 cells were alkali-sensitive. Therefore, our results show that an alkaline environment imposes a stress condition on the yeast cell wall. We propose that the Slt2-mediated MAPK pathway plays an important role in the adaptive response to this insult and that Wsc1 participates as an essential cell-surface pH sensor. Moreover, these results provide a new example of the complexity of the response of budding yeast to the alkalinization of the environment.

  15. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  16. Introduction: Identity, Transdisciplinarity, and the Good Language Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.; Norton, Bonny

    2017-01-01

    What constitutes a "good teacher" and "good teaching" has come under much scrutiny in an age of globalization, transnationalism, and increased demands for accountability. It is against this evolving landscape and the pathbreaking work of the Douglas Fir Group (DFG, 2016) that this special issue engages the following two broad…

  17. 77 FR 75198 - Meetings of Humanities Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... INFORMATION section for meeting dates. ADDRESSES: The meetings will be held at the Library of Congress, Thomas... 37, 10117 Berlin, Germany. This meeting will discuss applications for the NEH/DFG Bilateral Digital Humanities Program, submitted to the Office of Digital Humanities. 2. Date: January 25, 2013. Time: 8:30 a.m...

  18. Spatio Temporal Variability of the Global Transmittance During the Arctic POLARSTERN Expedition 106/1 Ice Floe Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos Velasco, C.; Macke, A.; Griesche, H.; Engelmann, R.; Deneke, H.; Seifert, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is warming at a higher rate than the rest of the planet. This has been leading to a dramatically decrease of snow coverage and sea ice thickness in recent years and several studies have suggested that a similar trend is expected in the upcoming years. Large uncertainties in predicting the Arctic climate arise from our lack of understanding the role clouds play in sea ice / atmosphere interaction. During summer the shortwave radiation dominates and clouds have a net cooling effect at the surface. The strength of this cooling critically depends on cloud phase, composition and height. Clouds interactions with aerosols, and its sensitivity to surface properties further complicates their role in the Arctic system. Scattering between the surface and cloud layers amplifies the cloud shortwave contribution, especially over a highly reflective surface such as snow or ice. Therefore, to comprehend how the Arctic's surface is significantly modulated by solar radiation is necessary to more clearly understand the cloud-induced spatio-temporal variability at process relevant scales. Irradiance variability may also have an effect on the biological productivity of various plankton species below the ice. The present study provides an overview of spatio-temporal variability at spatial scales ranging from several decameters to 1 kilometer of the global transmittance derived from 15 pyranometer stations installed at an ice floe station (June 4-16 2017) during the POLARSTERN expedition PS106/1. Specific irradiance statistics under clear sky, broken clouds and overcast conditions will be described considering the combination of a Cloud Radar Mira 35 and a Polly Raman polarization Lidar. Ultimately, radiative closure studies will be performed to quantify our abilities to reproduce realistic cloud solar radiative forcing under Arctic conditions. Acknowledgements. This research is funded by Deutsche Forschunsgemeinschaft (DFG) and involves the active participation of Leibniz

  19. ANP system activity predicts variability of fat mass reduction and insulin sensitivity during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Brachs, Maria; Wiegand, Susanna; Leupelt, Verena; Ernert, Andrea; Kintscher, Ulrich; Jumpertz von Schwarzenberg, Reiner; Decker, Anne-Marie; Bobbert, Thomas; Hübner, Norbert; Chen, Wei; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim; Mai, Knut

    2016-06-01

    In weight loss trials, a considerable inter-individual variability in reduction of fat mass and changes of insulin resistance is observed, even under standardized study conditions. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Given the metabolic properties of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system, we hypothesized that ANP signaling might be involved in this phenomenon by changes of ANP secretion or receptor balance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of systemic, adipose and myocellular ANP system on metabolic and anthropometric improvements during weight loss. We comprehensively investigated 143 subjects (31 male, 112 female) before and after a 3 month-standardized weight loss program. The time course of BMI, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, circulating mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) levels as well as adipose and myocellular natriuretic receptor A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) mRNA expression were investigated. BMI decreased by -12.6±3.7%. This was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of adipose NPR-C expression (1005.0±488.4 vs. 556.7±465.6; p<0.001) as well as a tendency towards increased adipose NPR-A expression (4644.7±946.8 vs. 4877.6±869.8; p=0.051). Weight loss induced changes in NPR-C (ΔNPR-C) was linked to relative reduction of total fat mass (ΔFM) (r=0.281; p<0.05), reduction of BMI (r=0.277; p<0.01), and increase of free fatty acids (ΔFFA) (r=-0.258; p<0.05). Basal NPR-C expression and weight loss induced ΔNPR-C independently explained 22.7% of ΔFM. In addition, ΔMR-proANP was independently associated with improvement of insulin sensitivity (standardized ß=0.246, p<0.01). ANP receptor expression predicted the degree of weight loss induced fat mass reduction. Our comprehensive human data support that peripheral ANP signalling is involved in control of adipose tissue plasticity and function during weight loss. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KFO281/2), the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and the German Centre for

  20. Lithospheric Structure of Central Europe: Puzzle Pieces from Pannonian Basin to Trans-European Suture Zone Resolved by Geophysical-Petrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielik, M.; Tašárová, Z. A.; Fullea, J.; Sroda, P.

    2017-12-01

    We have analysed the thermochemical structure of the mantle in Central Europe comprising the Western Carpathians, Pannonian Basin and parts of the European Platform, Bohemian Massif and easternmost Eastern Alps. This area is very complex and characterized by a highly heterogeneous lithospheric structure reflecting the interplay of contraction, strike slip, subduction, and extension tectonics. Our modelling is based on an integrative 3-D approach (LitMod) that combines in a self-consistent manner concepts and data from thermodynamics, mineral physics, geochemistry, petrology, and solid Earth geophysics. This approach minimizes uncertainties of the estimates derived from modelling of various data sets separately. To further constrain our 3-D model we have made use of the vast geophysical and geological data (2-D and 3-D, shallow/crustal versus deep lithospheric experiments) based on experiments performed in Central Europe in the past decades. Given the amount and the different nature/resolution of the available constraints, one of the most challenging tasks of this study was to consistently combine them. Our goal was to find a trade-off between all local and regional data sets available in a way that preserves as many structural details as possible and summarizes those data sets into a single robust regional model. The resulting P/T-dependent mantle densities are in LitMod 3-D calculated based on a given mineralogical composition. Therefore, they provide more reliable estimates compared to pure gravity models and enhance modelling of the crustal structures. Our results clearly indicate presence of several lithospheric domains characterized by distinct features, Pannonian Basin being one of the most outstanding ones. It has the thinnest crust and lithosphere in the area modelled, characterized by relatively fertile composition. Z. Alasonati Tašárová's research project was financed by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (project TA553/1-2); M. Bielik was funded by the

  1. The Lack of Influence of Metallicity on Cooling and Collapse of Ionized Gas in Small Protogalactic Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jappsen, A.-K.; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2005-12-01

    We study the influence of low levels of metal enrichment on the cooling and collapse of ionized gas in small protogalactic halos. We use three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, run with the publicly available parallel code GADGET (Springel et al. 2001). We implement a sink particle algorithm. This allows us to safely represent gas that has collapsed beyond the resolution limit without causing numerical errors within the resolved regions of the simulation. We also include the necessary framework for following the non-equilibrium chemistry of H2 in the protogalactic gas, and a treatment of radiative heating and cooling. Our initial conditions represent protogalaxies forming within a fossil H ii region---a previously ionized H ii region that has not yet had time to cool and recombine. Prior to cosmological reionization, such regions should be relatively common, since the characteristic lifetimes of the likely ionizing sources are significantly shorter than a Hubble time. We show that in these regions, H2 is the dominant and most effective coolant, even in the presence of small amounts of metals. It is the amount of H2 which forms that controls whether or not the gas can collapse and form stars. For metallicities Z ≤ 10-3 Z⊙, we find that metal line cooling alters the density and temperature evolution of the gas by less than 1% compared to the metal-free case at densities below 1 cm-3 and temperatures above 2000 K. However, at higher densities and lower temperatures, metal line cooling does become rather more important, and will affect the ability of the gas to fragment. We also show that an external ultraviolet background delays or suppresses the cooling and collapse of the gas regardless of whether or not it is metal-enriched. RSK and A-KJ acknowledge support from the Emmy Noether Program of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant no. KL1358/1). M-MML acknowledges support from NSF grants AST99-85392 and AST03-07854, and NASA grant NAG5

  2. SU-F-J-186: Enabling Adaptive IMPT with CBCT-Based Dose Recalculation for H&N and Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, C; LMU Munich, Munich; Park, Y

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To enable adaptive intensity modulated proton therapy for sites sensitive to inter-fractional changes on the basis of accurate CBCT-based proton dose calculations. To this aim two CBCT intensity correction methods are considered: planning CT (pCT) to CBCT DIR and projection correction based on pCT DIR prior. Methods: 3 H&N and 3 prostate cancer patients with CBCT images and corresponding projections were used in this study, in addition to pCT and re-planning CT (rpCT) images (H&N only). A virtual CT (vCT) was generated by pCT to CBCT DIR. In a second approach, the vCT was used as prior for scattermore » correction of the CBCT projections to yield a CBCTcor image. BEV 2D range maps of SFUD IMPT plans were compared. For the prostate cases, the geometric accuracy of the vCT was also evaluated by contour comparison to physician delineation of the CBCTcor and original CBCT. Results: SFUD dose calculations on vCT and CBCTcor were found to be within 3mm for 97% to 99% of 2D range maps. Median range differences compared to rpCT were below 0.5mm. Analysis showed that the DIR-based vCT approach exhibits inaccuracies in the pelvic region due to the very low soft-tissue contrast in the CBCT. The CBCTcor approach yielded results closer to the original CBCT in terms of DICE coefficients than the vCT (median 0.91 vs 0.81) for targets and OARs. In general, the CBCTcor approach was less affected by inaccuracies of the DIR used during the generation of the vCT prior. Conclusion: Both techniques yield 3D CBCT images with intensities equivalent to diagnostic CT and appear suitable for IMPT dose calculation for most sites. For H&N cases, no considerable differences between the two techniques were found, while improved results of the CBCTcor were observed for pelvic cases due to the reduced sensitivity to registration inaccuracies. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MAP); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (01IB13001)« less

  3. Use of Disjunctive Response Requirements in Dual-Task Environments: Implications for Automation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    could be momentarily held in a short-term sensory buffer for later processing. Broadbent, postulating an early filter model , assumed the physical nature...explicative power of the early filter model , further dichotic listening experiments began to support, as a minimum, a late filter model . Deutsch and Deutsch... filter 63 model came from a study by Cortecn and Wood (1972). Initially, they conditioned a list of city names to electrical shock until the

  4. Medical Robotic and Telesurgical Simulation and Education Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Deutsch • Gerard Doherty • Brian Dunkin • Susan Dunlow • Gary Dunnington • Ricardo Estape • Peter Fabri • Vicenzo Ficarra • Marvin Fried • Gerald...Prokar Dasgupta • Ellen Deutsch • Gerard Doherty • Brian Dunkin • Susan Dunlow • Gary Dunnington • Ricardo Estape • Peter Fabri • Vicenzo Ficarra...further frontiers for more effective management or even a potential cure for several diseases . However, with the exponential growth of technology in

  5. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Kuri, Ganesh; Das, Jayanta Kr; Dey, Debleena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG) for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG). Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna's classification) were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001) and motility (P = 0.004) between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention. PMID:24618485

  6. Optical properties of β-BBO and potential for THz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, N. A.; Andreev, Yu. M.; Antsygin, V. D.; Bekker, T. B.; Ezhov, D. M.; Kokh, A. E.; Kokh, K. A.; Lanskii, G. V.; Mamrashev, A. A.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The anisotropy of optical properties of high quality beta barium borate crystal (β-BaB2O4, β-BBO) was studied in the main transparency window by using classic spectroscopic methods and in the range of 0.2 - 2 THz by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. β-BBO crystals were grown by the top-seeded solution technique in a highly resistive furnace with a heat field of 3-fold axis symmetry. At room temperature (RT), absorption coefficient in the maximal transparency window in grown crystals did not exceed 0.05 cm-1. Strong absorption anisotropy was observed in 3 - 5 μm and the THz range. At 1 THz absorption coefficients for e and o wave were, respectively, 7 cm-1 and 21 cm-1 at RT; 2 cm-1 and 10 cm-1 at 81 K. At the most attractive for out-of-door applications range < 0.4 THz the absorption coefficient is found to be very low: below 0.2 cm-1 at RT and 1 cm-1 at 81 K. Refractive indices dispersions measured by THz-TDS were approximated in the form of Sellmeier equations. Birefringence is found quite large for phase matched difference frequency generation (DFG) or down-conversion into the THz range (THz-DFG) under near IR pump at RT and 81 K. Type II (oe-o and eo-o), and type I (ee-e) three wave interactions can be realized at RT. THz-DFG of Nd:YAG laser and KTP OPO can be realized by type II (oe-o) three-wave interaction. For selected spectral ranges of femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser efficient phase matched and group velocity matched optical rectification can be realized by another two types of three wave interactions. Accounting other well-known attractive physical properties of β-BBO crystal, wide application in THz technique can be forecasted.

  7. HRD Motif as the Central Hub of the Signaling Network for Activation Loop Autophosphorylation in Abl Kinase.

    PubMed

    La Sala, Giuseppina; Riccardi, Laura; Gaspari, Roberto; Cavalli, Andrea; Hantschel, Oliver; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-11-08

    A number of structural factors modulate the activity of Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase, whose deregulation is often related to oncogenic processes. First, only the open conformation of the Abl kinase domain's activation loop (A-loop) favors ATP binding to the catalytic cleft. In this regard, the trans-autophosphorylation of the Y412 residue, which is located along the A-loop, favors the stability of the open conformation, in turn enhancing Abl activity. Another key factor for full Abl activity is the formation of active conformations of the catalytic DFG motif in the Abl kinase domain. Furthermore, binding of the SH2 domain to the N-lobe of the Abl kinase was recently demonstrated to have a long-range allosteric effect on the stabilization of the A-loop open state. Intriguingly, these distinct structural factors imply a complex signal transmission network for controlling the A-loop's flexibility and conformational preference for optimal Abl function. However, the exact dynamical features of this signal transmission network structure remain unclear. Here, we report on microsecond-long molecular dynamics coupled with enhanced sampling simulations of multiple Abl model systems, in the presence or absence of the SH2 domain and with the DFG motif flipped in two ways (in or out conformation). Through comparative analysis, our simulations augment the interpretation of the existing Abl experimental data, revealing a dynamical network of interactions that interconnect SH2 domain binding with A-loop plasticity and Y412 autophosphorylation in Abl. This signaling network engages the DFG motif and, importantly, other conserved structural elements of the kinase domain, namely, the EPK-ELK H-bond network and the HRD motif. Our results show that the signal propagation for modulating the A-loop spatial localization is highly dependent on the HRD motif conformation, which thus acts as the central hub of this (allosteric) signaling network controlling Abl activation and function.

  8. Conformational Selection and Induced Fit Mechanisms in the Binding of an Anticancer Drug to the c-Src Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morando, Maria Agnese; Saladino, Giorgio; D’Amelio, Nicola; Pucheta-Martinez, Encarna; Lovera, Silvia; Lelli, Moreno; López-Méndez, Blanca; Marenchino, Marco; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the conformational changes associated with the binding of small ligands to their biological targets is a fascinating and meaningful question in chemistry, biology and drug discovery. One of the most studied and important is the so-called “DFG-flip” of tyrosine kinases. The conserved three amino-acid DFG motif undergoes an “in to out” movement resulting in a particular inactive conformation to which “type II” kinase inhibitors, such as the anti-cancer drug Imatinib, bind. Despite many studies, the details of this prototypical conformational change are still debated. Here we combine various NMR experiments and surface plasmon resonance with enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations to shed light into the conformational dynamics associated with the binding of Imatinib to the proto-oncogene c-Src. We find that both conformational selection and induced fit play a role in the binding mechanism, reconciling opposing views held in the literature. Moreover, an external binding pose and local unfolding (cracking) of the aG helix are observed. PMID:27087366

  9. It's all about NO? - The role of NO and its derivates produced by a DBD in air for wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelmann, K.; Kogelheide, F.; Baldus, S.; Lackmann, J.-W.; Awakowicz, P.; Kartaschew, K.; Havenith, M.; Schroeder, D.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. V.

    2016-09-01

    DBDs can be used therapeutically in various clinical applications, e.g. improving the wound healing. Besides the disinfecting properties of plasma, tissue exposed to plasma responds to the highly reactive mixture of RONS. In particular NO plays an essential role in skin physiology, e.g. promoting wound healing and influencing the microcirculation. However, not only NO itself but also NO-derivates (NOD), such as nitrite and nitrosothiols, play an essential role, acting as NO-storage under acidic conditions and thus contributing to NO bioavailability with a long-term effect. Selected results of the DFG package project PlaCID (Plasma-Cell-Interaction in Dermatology) are presented. Spatial and time-resolved characterization of the DBD regarding ne, O (TALIF) and O3 (OAS) densities is shown. Single skin components investigated with Raman and FTIR spectroscopy show distinct modifications caused by RONS. From single components to whole skin, we investigated diffusion of NO through intact epidermis and dermal enrichment with NOD, acting as long-term storage for NO bioavailability. Funding from the DFG within PAK816 is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Note on X(3872) production at hadron colliders and its molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Nieves, Juan; Nogga, Andreas; Yang, Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The production of the X(3872) as a hadronic molecule in hadron colliders is clarified. We show that the conclusion of Bignamini et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 (2009) 162001, that the production of the X(3872) at high p T implies a non-molecular structure, does not hold. In particular, using the well understood properties of the deuteron wave function as an example, we identify the relevant scales in the production process. Supported by DFG and NSFC through funds provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” (NSFC (11621131001), DFG (TRR110)), by NSFC (11647601), by the CAS Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences (QYZDB-SSW-SYS013), by the Thousand Talents Plan for Young Professionals, by the CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) (2017VMA0025), and by Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and European FEDER under contracts FIS2014-51948-C2-1-P and SEV-2014-0398. Part of the computations have been performed on JUQUEEN and JURECA of the JSC, Jülich, Germany

  11. Spectral purity and tunability of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Consolino, Luigi; Jung, Seungyong; Campa, Annamaria; De Regis, Michele; Pal, Shovon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Fujita, Kazuue; Ito, Akio; Hitaka, Masahiro; Bartalini, Saverio; De Natale, Paolo; Belkin, Mikhail A; Vitiello, Miriam Serena

    2017-09-01

    Terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (THz DFG-QCLs) have recently emerged as the first monolithic electrically pumped semiconductor sources capable of operating at room temperature across the 1- to 6-THz range. Despite tremendous progress in power output, which now exceeds 1 mW in pulsed and 10 μW in continuous-wave regimes at room temperature, knowledge of the major figure of merits of these devices for high-precision spectroscopy, such as spectral purity and absolute frequency tunability, is still lacking. By exploiting a metrological grade system comprising a terahertz frequency comb synthesizer, we measure, for the first time, the free-running emission linewidth (LW), the tuning characteristics, and the absolute center frequency of individual emission lines of these sources with an uncertainty of 4 × 10 -10 . The unveiled emission LW (400 kHz at 1-ms integration time) indicates that DFG-QCLs are well suited to operate as local oscillators and to be used for a variety of metrological, spectroscopic, communication, and imaging applications that require narrow-LW THz sources.

  12. Conformational Transition Pathways of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Domain from Multiple Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Bayesian Clustering.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Xiang; Ma, Weiya; Dong, Zigang

    2014-08-12

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is aberrantly activated in various cancer cells and an important target for cancer treatment. Deep understanding of EGFR conformational changes between the active and inactive states is of pharmaceutical interest. Here we present a strategy combining multiply targeted molecular dynamics simulations, unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, and Bayesian clustering to investigate transition pathways during the activation/inactivation process of EGFR kinase domain. Two distinct pathways between the active and inactive forms are designed, explored, and compared. Based on Bayesian clustering and rough two-dimensional free energy surfaces, the energy-favorable pathway is recognized, though DFG-flip happens in both pathways. In addition, another pathway with different intermediate states appears in our simulations. Comparison of distinct pathways also indicates that disruption of the Lys745-Glu762 interaction is critically important in DFG-flip while movement of the A-loop significantly facilitates the conformational change. Our simulations yield new insights into EGFR conformational transitions. Moreover, our results verify that this approach is valid and efficient in sampling of protein conformational changes and comparison of distinct pathways.

  13. Solid State Research, 1975:3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-15

    Heckscher T. F. Deutsch H. Kildal D. L. Spears I. Melngailis T. C. Haiman P. L. Kelley R. S. Eng D. L. Spears H. R. Fetterman H. R... Fetterman H. R. Schlossberg* W. E. Barch 1975 International IEEE/APS Symposium and USNC/URSI Meeting, Urbana, Illinois, 4 June 1975 * Author not...ft. Chinn, S. R. Del-eo, ft. E. Deutsch, T. F. Fetterman , II. R. Hancock, R. C. II. Ileckscher, Kildal, II. Larsen, D. M. Mandel, P

  14. In-situ single particle composition analysis of free tropospheric ice nuclei and ice residues in mixed-phase clouds during INUIT-JFJ 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Thomas, Klimach; Stephan, Mertes; Ludwig, Schenk; Udo, Kästner; Frank, Stratmann; Joachim, Curtius; Piotr, Kupiszewski; Ernest, Weingartner; Emanuel, Hammer; Paul, Vochezer; Martin, Schnaiter; Stephan, Borrmann

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the DFG (deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)-funded research unit INUIT (Ice Nuclei research UnIT) a field campaign at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Swiss Alps, Sphinx Laboratory, 3580 m asl; 7°59'2''E, 46°32'53''N) took place in January/February 2013 (INUIT-JFJ 2013). The goal of the measurements was to investigate the chemical composition of ice particle residues (IPR) in ambient air as well as the background aerosol particles. Previous investigations conducted at the JFJ showed that particles consisting of mineral components dominate the ice particle residue number (Kamphus et al., 2008) but also particles consisting of black carbon were found to be enriched in IPR (Mertes et al., 2007; Cozic et al., 2008). Cziczo et al. find out that lead as well is a good ice nucleus and was measured in IPR at previous measurements at the JFJ. During INUIT-JFJ 2013, the IPR were sampled out of mixed-phase clouds by an Ice-CVI (Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor, Mertes et al., 2007) and an ISI (Ice Selective Inlet, Kupiszewski et al., 2013) and analyzed by the single particle mass spectrometer ALABAMA (Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer; Brands et al., 2011). Additionally, the ALABAMA was connected to a total aerosol-inlet to investigate the chemical composition of background aerosol particles. During 217 hours of background aerosol measurements we analyzed more than 27000 aerosol particles, which consisted mainly of pure organic components or organics mixed with ammonium, metals or mineral components. During six cloud events with approximately 63 h measurement time we detected 162 IPR sampled by the Ice-CVI. The main part of these IPR were also composed of organic material mixed with other chemical compounds. Additionally, we found particles which consisted of mineral components (approximately 23 %). Sampling mixed-phase cloud through the ISI we measured during four cloud events 34 ice residues in approximately 30 h

  15. PREFACE: Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Neutron and x-ray scattering have emerged as powerful methods for the determination of structure and dynamics. Driven by emerging new, powerful neutron and synchrotron radiation sources, the continuous development of new instrumentation and novel scattering techniques gives rise to exciting possibilities. For example, in situ observations become possible via a high neutron or x-ray flux at the sample and, as a consequence, morphological transitions with small time constants can be detected. This special issue covers a broad range of different materials from soft to hard condensed matter. Hence, different material classes such as colloids, polymers, alloys, oxides and metals are addressed. The issue is dedicated to the 60th birthday of Professor Winfried Petry, scientific director of the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II), Germany, advisor at the physics department for the Bayerische Elite-Akademie, chair person of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Metall- und Materialphysik of the German Physical Society (DPG) and a member of the professional council of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). We would like to acknowledge and thank all contributors for their submissions, which made this special issue possible in the first place. Moreover, we would like to thank the staff at IOP Publishing for helping us with the administrative aspects and for coordinating the refereeing process, and Valeria Lauter for the beautiful cover artwork. Finally, to the readers, we hope that you find this special issue a valuable resource that provides insights into the present possibilities of neutron and x-ray scattering as powerful tools for the investigation of structure and dynamics. Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering contents In situ studies of mass transport in liquid alloys by means of neutron radiography F Kargl, M Engelhardt, F Yang, H Weis, P Schmakat, B Schillinger, A Griesche and A Meyer Magnetic spin

  16. Deutsch im Louvre (oder: Deutsch als tote Sprache) (German in the Louvre [or, German as a Dead Language])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwald, Sabine

    1976-01-01

    Describes a German course for archeologists and art historians, given in the Louvre by the Paris Goethe Institute. Reliance is placed on the students' visual memory, with schematic presentation of pronoun and article declension. This approach sometimes fosters errors and misunderstandings. The verb system is emphasized. (Text is in German.)…

  17. The octave illusion revisited again.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana

    2004-04-01

    The octave illusion (D. Deutsch, 1974) occurs when 2 tones separated by an octave are alternated repeatedly, such that when the right ear receives the high tone, the left ear receives the low tone, and vice versa. Most subjects in the original study reported hearing a single tone that alternated from ear to ear, whose pitch also alternated from octave to octave, and D. Deutsch (1975a) proposed an explanation in terms of separate what and where auditory pathways. C. D. Chambers, J. B. Mattingley, and S. A. Moss (2002) argued that the perceived pitch difference generally corresponds more to a semitone and proposed an alternative explanation in terms of diplacusis. This article argues that Chambers et al. used problematic procedures and reports a new experiment on the octave illusion. The findings confirm that an octave difference is generally perceived, and they agree with the model of Deutsch (1975a) but are at variance with the diplacusis hypothesis. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  18. [Evidence and consensus based treatment guidelines 2010 for juvenile idiopathic arthritis by the German Society of Paediatric Rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Dueckers, G; Guellac, N; Arbogast, M; Dannecker, G; Foeldvari, I; Frosch, M; Ganser, G; Heiligenhaus, A; Horneff, G; Illhardt, A; Krauspe, R; Markus, B; Michels, H; Schneider, M; Singendonk, W; Sitter, H; Spamer, M; Wagner, N; Niehues, T

    2011-11-01

    Treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has improved quality of life in children and adolescents with JIA. Standardisation of care offers the chance to improve the quality of care of those patients. New studies have been published after completion of our last treatment guideline (2007). An updated consensus process is mandatory. A systematic literature analysis in PUBMED (key words: juvenile idiopathic (rheumatoid) arthritis, therapy; limits: humans, published in the last 3 years, all child 0-18 years, clinical trial) revealed 17 relevant studies. Studies relating to diagnosis of JIA, Uveitis, vaccination, transition were excluded. Representatives nominated by scientific societies and organisations were invited to consensus conferences which were hosted by a professional moderator. The following societies were invited: Berufsverband der Kinder- und Jugendärzte (BVKJ), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin (DGKJ), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie (DGRh), Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG), Deutsche Rheuma-Liga Bundesverband, Verein zur Förderung und Unterstützung rheumatologisch erkrankter Kinder und deren Eltern, Vereinigung für Kinderorthopädie, Zentraler Verband der Physiotherapeuten und Krankengymnasten (ZVK). Consensus conferences were each attended by more than 95% of the nominated representatives. Consensus statements were confirmed by nominal group technique and Delphi method. Updated consensus statements regarding drug therapy, symptomatic and surgical management of JIA were compiled and judged strictly by the criteria of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Root-specific expression of opine genes and opine accumulation in some cultivars of the naturally occurring genetically modified organism Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; de Borne, François Dorlhac; Julio, Emilie; Obszynski, Julie; Pale, Patrick; Otten, Léon

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that Nicotiana tabacum contains three Agrobacterium-derived T-DNA sequences inherited from its paternal ancestor Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Among these, the TB locus carries an intact mannopine synthase 2' gene (TB-mas2'). This gene is similar to the Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4-mas2' gene that encodes the synthesis of the Amadori compound deoxyfructosyl-glutamine (DFG or santhopine). In this study we show that TB-mas2' is expressed at very low levels in N. tomentosiformis and in most N. tabacum cultivars; however, some cultivars show high TB-mas2' expression levels. The TB-mas2' promoter sequences of low- and high-expressing cultivars are identical. The low/high level of expression segregates as a single Mendelian factor in a cross between a low- and a high-expression cultivar. pTB-mas2'-GUS and pA4-mas2'-GUS reporter genes were stably introduced in N. benthamiana. Both were mainly expressed in the root expansion zone and leaf vasculature. Roots of tobacco cultivars with high TB-mas2' expression contain detectable levels of DFG. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Triviality of Quantum Electrodynamics Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djukanovic, D.; Gegelia, J.; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum electrodynamics is often considered to be a trivial theory. This is based on a number of evidences, both numerical and analytical. One of the strong indications for triviality of QED is the existence of the Landau pole for the running coupling. We show that by treating QED as the leading order approximation of an effective field theory and including the next-to-leading order corrections, the Landau pole is removed. We also analyze the cutoff dependence of the bare coupling at two-loop order and conclude that the conjecture, that for reasons of self-consistency, QED needs to be trivial is a mere artefact of the leading order approximation to the corresponding effective field theory. Supported in part by DFG and NSFC through funds provided to the Sino-German CRC 110 “Symmetries and the Emergence of Structure in QCD” National Natural Science Foundation of under Grant No. 11621131001, DFG under Grant No. TRR110, the Georgian Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (Grant FR/417/6-100/14) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) under Grant No. 2017VMA0025

  1. Spectral purity and tunability of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation

    PubMed Central

    Consolino, Luigi; Jung, Seungyong; Campa, Annamaria; De Regis, Michele; Pal, Shovon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Fujita, Kazuue; Ito, Akio; Hitaka, Masahiro; Bartalini, Saverio; De Natale, Paolo; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Vitiello, Miriam Serena

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (THz DFG-QCLs) have recently emerged as the first monolithic electrically pumped semiconductor sources capable of operating at room temperature across the 1- to 6-THz range. Despite tremendous progress in power output, which now exceeds 1 mW in pulsed and 10 μW in continuous-wave regimes at room temperature, knowledge of the major figure of merits of these devices for high-precision spectroscopy, such as spectral purity and absolute frequency tunability, is still lacking. By exploiting a metrological grade system comprising a terahertz frequency comb synthesizer, we measure, for the first time, the free-running emission linewidth (LW), the tuning characteristics, and the absolute center frequency of individual emission lines of these sources with an uncertainty of 4 × 10−10. The unveiled emission LW (400 kHz at 1-ms integration time) indicates that DFG-QCLs are well suited to operate as local oscillators and to be used for a variety of metrological, spectroscopic, communication, and imaging applications that require narrow-LW THz sources. PMID:28879235

  2. STS-55 German payload specialists (and backups) in LESs during JSC training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, German payload specialists and backup (alternate) payload specialists, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), pose for group portrait outside mockup side hatch in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. These payload specialists will support the STS-55 Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) mission. It is the second dedicated German (Deutsche) Spacelab flight. Left to right are backup Payload Specialists Renate Brummer and Dr. P. Gerhard Thiele, Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel.

  3. Optical Readout System for Bi-Material Terahertz Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    CCD Charged-Coupled Device DFG Difference-Frequency Generation FOV Field of View FPA Focal Plane Array fps Frames Per Second FTIR Fourier ...techniques in the THz range may be classified as either coherent or incoherent. Basically, coherent detection measures the amplitude and phase of the field...using a lock-in amplifier. In a piezoresistive detector, two electrodes are connected to two deformable temperature–sensitive legs. Monitoring the

  4. 19F and 13C NMR studies of polyol metabolism in freeze-tolerant pupae of Hyalophora cecropia.

    PubMed

    Podlasek, C A; Serianni, A S

    1994-01-28

    Sorbitol biosynthesis and regulation in freeze tolerant pupae of Hyalophora cecropia have been investigated as a function of temperature by 19F and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using several 13C-labeled and/or fluorine-substituted carbohydrates. 3-Deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose (3DFG) was metabolized to 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-sorbitol (3DFS), 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-fructose (3DFF), and 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-gluconic acid (3DFGA), indicating that the enzymes required for sorbitol biosynthesis and metabolism are active in H. cecropia at warm (22 degrees C) and cold (4 and -10 degrees C) temperatures. Two additional metabolites were produced when pupae were injected with either 3DFG, 3DFS, 3DFF, or 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-mannose (3DFM). One of these was identified as 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-mannitol (3DFML) by 13C NMR using [1-13C]3DFM and [1-13C]3DFG as metabolic probes. H. cecropia pupae injected with D-glucose labeled with 13C at C-1, C-2, or C-3 and subsequently analyzed by 13C NMR clearly demonstrated the ability to generate sorbitol and fructose. In contrast, gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of hemolymph failed to detect sorbitol in pupae reared under natural conditions (i.e. in the absence of injected enriched sugars). Thus, although H. cecropia pupae have the enzymic machinery to biosynthesize sorbitol, they do not appear to accumulate high steady-state concentrations of this polyol over the temperature range studied. The specificity of the enzymes involved in alditol biosynthesis in H. cecropia was examined by 13C NMR with a wide range of aldoses enriched with 13C at C-1. Pupae were capable of converting these sugars to their corresponding [1-13C]alditols, indicating that nonspecific dehydrogenase(s), in addition to aldose reductase, is(are) involved in polyol biosynthesis in H. cecropia pupae.

  5. Effects of Following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards and Deutsche Industrie Norm-Medizinische Mikrobiologie Guidelines, Country of Isolate Origin, and Site of Infection on Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (Augmentin)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, I.; Durodie, J.; Knott, S.; Shea, B.; Wilson, J.; Machka, K.

    1998-01-01

    Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin), as a combination of two active agents, poses extra challenges over single agents in establishing clinically relevant breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility tests. Hence, reported differences in amoxicillin-clavulanate percent susceptibilities among Escherichia coli isolates may reflect localized resistance problems and/or methodological differences in susceptibility testing and breakpoint criteria. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of (i) methodology, e.g., those of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and the Deutsche Industrie Norm-Medizinische Mikrobiologie (DIN), (ii) country of origin (Spain, France, and Germany), and (iii) site of infection (urinary tract, intra-abdominal sepsis, or other site[s]) upon the incidence of susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 185 clinical isolates of E. coli. Cefuroxime and cefotaxime were included for comparison. The use of NCCLS methodology resulted in different distribution of amoxicillin-clavulanate MICs than that obtained with the DIN methodology, a difference highlighted by the 10% more strains found to be within the 8- to 32-μg/ml MIC range. This difference reflects the differing amounts of clavulanic acid present. NCCLS and DIN methodologies also produce different MIC distributions for cefotaxime but not for cefuroxime. Implementation of NCCLS and DIN breakpoints produced markedly different incidences of strains that were found to be susceptible, intermediate or resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate. A total of 86.5% strains were found to be susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate by the NCCLS methodology, whereas only 43.8% were found to be susceptible by the DIN methodology. Similarly, 4.3% of the strains were found to be resistant by NCCLS guidelines compared to 21.1% by the DIN guidelines. The use of DIN breakpoints resulted in a fivefold-higher incidence of strains categorized as resistant to cefuroxime. There

  6. Ein Kredit für Weihnachtsbaumkugeln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutsch, Sina

    Eine Mathematikerin aus dem DFG-Forschungszentrum Matheon arbeitet an Methoden zur dreidimensionalen Visualisierung. Sie hat die Geschäftsidee, Weihnachtsbaumkugeln mit bewegten Hologrammen herzustellen, die sich individuell gestalten lassen, und plant eine Existenzgründung. Aus einem öffentlichen Förderprogramm erhält sie ein günstiges Darlehen in Höhe von 50 000 Euro. Für die Startphase ihres Unternehmens benötigt sie jedoch den vierfachen Betrag.

  7. The Battle Command Sustainment Support System: Initial Analysis Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    diagnostic monitoring, asynchronous commits, and others. The other components of the NEDP include a main forwarding gateway /web server and one or more...NATIONAL ENTERPRISE DATA PORTAL ANALYSIS The NEDP is comprised of an Oracle Database 10g referred to as the National Data Server and several other...data forwarding gateways (DFG). Together, with the Oracle Database 10g, these components provide a heterogeneous data source that aligns various data

  8. Tufa and travertine of the Lesser Caucasus: a light on the Quaternary palaeoenvironment of the Circumcaspian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier, V.; Roiron, P.; Nahapetyan, S.; Joannin, S.; Chataigner, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the course of the International Associated Laboratory HEMHA (Humans and Environment in Mountainous Habitats : the case of Armenia), the French Foreign Affair Ministry Caucasus Mission (CNRS-UMR 5133 Archéorient, Lyon University) and the French-German research program Ancient Kura (CNRS-UMR 7192 PrOCauLAC, Paris, France, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Eurasien-Abteilung, Berlin, Germany with ANR-CNRS and DFG funding) numerous sites of the Lesser Caucasus territory are under geomorphological, palaeoenvironmental and archaeological investigations. Through comparisons between the tufa/travertine system and the detrital formation morphosedimentary evolution, one of our research interests is to define the Late Quaternary landscape mutations as well as the origin and rhythmicity of the major morphogenic trends reversals. The impacts of the environmental changes highlighted on the human occupation modes are also debated. A total of 14 travertine and tufa formations were studied (8 Pleistocene and 6 Postglacial formations) on a Northwest-Southeast transect of more than 300 km across the Lesser Caucasus. Each of these carbonated system development are correlated with high global relative sea levels and interstadial climates on a range between the Marine Isotopic Stage 11 and 1 (ca. 335 to 1.5 Ky BP). The absolute chronology is constrained by a series of U/Th and 14C dating. A total of 24 dating was performed (6 radiocarbon and 18 U/Th datings), allowing a high quality overview of the travertinization process over the time at a regional scale. Jointly with the measurement of the late Quaternary interglacial series impact on the tufas development in the Caucasus, the geomorphological position of some travertinous formations and their absolute dating gives some clues about the neotectonic evolution of the studied valleys. In some area, the uplift rate has been determined (ca. 8 mm/year) and discretized from the alluvial incision signal. The analysis of the carbonated

  9. The R package 'icosa' for coarse resolution global triangular and penta-hexagonal gridding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Adam T.

    2017-04-01

    classes defined in the package are communicating with classes of the 'sp' and 'raster' packages and functions are supplied that allow resolution change and type conversions. Three-dimensional rendering is made available with the 'rgl' package and two-dimensional projections can be calculated using 'sp' and 'rgdal'. The package was developed as part of a project funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KO - 5382/1-1).

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness progression to predict cardiovascular events in the general population (the PROG-IMT collaborative project): a meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Matthias W; Polak, Joseph F; Kavousi, Maryam; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Völzke, Henry; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sander, Dirk; Plichart, Matthieu; Catapano, Alberico L; Robertson, Christine M; Kiechl, Stefan; Rundek, Tatjana; Desvarieux, Moïse; Lind, Lars; Schmid, Caroline; DasMahapatra, Pronabesh; Gao, Lu; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Bots, Michiel L; Thompson, Simon G

    2012-06-02

    between r=-0·06 and r=-0·02). The association between cIMT progression assessed from two ultrasound scans and cardiovascular risk in the general population remains unproven. No conclusion can be derived for the use of cIMT progression as a surrogate in clinical trials. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness progression to predict cardiovascular events in the general population (the PROG-IMT collaborative project): a meta-analysis of individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Matthias W; Polak, Joseph F; Kavousi, Maryam; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Völzke, Henry; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Sander, Dirk; Plichart, Matthieu; Catapano, Alberico L; Robertson, Christine M; Kiechl, Stefan; Rundek, Tatjana; Desvarieux, Moïse; Lind, Lars; Schmid, Caroline; DasMahapatra, Pronabesh; Gao, Lu; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Bots, Michiel L; Thompson, Simon G

    2013-01-01

    between occassions (reproducibility correlations between r=−0·06 and r=−0·02). Interpretation The association between cIMT progression assessed from two ultrasound scans and cardiovascular risk in the general population remains unproven. No conclusion can be derived for the use of cIMT progression as a surrogate in clinical trials. Funding Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. PMID:22541275

  12. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of sodium Rydberg levels using difference frequency generation of high-repetition-rate pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naubereit, P.; Marín-Sáez, J.; Schneider, F.; Hakimi, A.; Franzmann, M.; Kron, T.; Richter, S.; Wendt, K.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of tunable laser light in the green to orange spectral range has generally been a deficiency of solid-state lasers. Hence, the formalisms of difference frequency generation (DFG) and optical parametric processes are well known, but the DFG of pulsed solid-state lasers was rarely efficient enough for its use in resonance ionization spectroscopy. Difference frequency generation of high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire lasers was demonstrated for resonance ionization of sodium by efficiently exciting the well-known D1 and D2 lines in the orange spectral range (both ≈589 nm). In order to prove the applicability of the laser system for its use at resonance ionization laser ion sources of radioactive ion beam facilities, the first ionization potential of Na was remeasured by three-step resonance ionization into Rydberg levels and investigating Rydberg convergences. A result of EIP=41449.455 (6) stat(7) syscm-1 was obtained, which is in perfect agreement with the literature value of EIPlit =41449.451(2)cm-1 . A total of 41 level positions for the odd-parity Rydberg series n f 2F5/2,7/2o for principal quantum numbers of 10 ≤n ≤60 were determined experimentally.

  13. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor; Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko

    2015-03-01

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility - actomyosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility. J. L. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation (DFG) within the GRK 1558. F. Z. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation (DFG) via Project ZI 1232/2-1. I. S. A. was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of.

  14. Integrated ultraviolet and tunable mid-infrared laser source for analyses of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazama, Hisanao; Takatani, Yoshiaki; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Mass spectrometry using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique is one of the most widely used method to analyze proteins in biological research fields. However, it is difficult to analyze insoluble proteins which have important roles in researches on disease mechanisms or in developments of drugs by using ultraviolet (UV) lasers which have commonly been used for MALDI. Recently, a significant improvement in MALDI process of insoluble proteins using a combination of a UV nitrogen laser and a tunable mid-infrared (MIR) free electron laser (FEL) was reported. Since the FEL is a very large and expensive equipment, we have developed a tabletop laser source which can generate both UV and tunable MIR lasers. A tunable MIR laser (5.5-10 μm) was obtained by difference frequency generation (DFG) between a Nd:YAG and a tunable Cr:forsterite lasers using two AgGaS II crystals. The MIR laser can generate pulses with an energy of up to 1.4 mJ at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. A UV laser was obtained by third harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser splitted from that used for DFG. A time interval between the UV and the MIR laser pulses can be adjusted with a variable optical delay.

  15. Mid-infrared transmitter and receiver modules for free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiang; Zhu, Guoshen; Yang, Song; Yang, Kangwen; Duan, Tao; Xie, Xiaoping; Huang, Kun; Zeng, Heping

    2017-03-10

    We report on the experimental implementation of single-frequency fiber-laser pumped mid-infrared (mid-IR) transmitter and receiver modules for free-space communications. These modules enable frequency upconversion and downconversion between the 1550-nm telecom wavelength and the mid-IR, thus providing essential free-space transmission links with mid-IR single-frequency lasers in the 3.6 μm region. Specifically, based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN), the mid-IR transmitter produces 9.3-mW power at 3594 nm with 5-W pump power at 1083 nm (<10  kHz linewidth) and 3-W signal power at 1550 nm (<10  kHz linewidth), and the mid-IR receiver reproduces 12-μW power at 1550 nm with 4.7-W pump power at 1083 nm and 5-mW laser at 3594 nm. The whole modules are integrated into portable and compact devices by incorporating single-frequency fiber lasers, fiber amplifiers, DFG units, and related electronic circuits. In addition, the uses of all polarization-maintaining fiber configuration and well-controlled heat dissipation make the mid-IR transmitter and receiver exhibit a long-term stability.

  16. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-orderedmore » protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.« less

  17. A fiber laser pumped dual-wavelength mid-infrared laser based on optical parametric oscillation and intracavity difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Shang, Yaping; Li, Xiao; Shen, Meili; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-02-01

    We report a dual-wavelength mid-infrared laser based on intracavity difference frequency generation (DFG) in an MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3, which was pumped by a dual-wavelength fiber MOPA consisting of two parts: a dual-wavelength seed and a power amplifier. The maximum pump power was 74.1 W and the wavelengths were 1060 nm and 1090 nm. The wavelengths of the mid-infrared output were 3.1 µm and 3.4 µm under maximum pump power with a total idler power of 6.57 W. The corresponding pump-to-idler slope efficiency reached 12%. The contrast for the peak intensity of the emissions for the two idlers was 0.6. A power preamplifier was added in a further experiment to enhance the contrast. The idler output reached 4.45 W under the maximum pump power of 70 W, which was lower than before. However, the contrast for the idler emission peak intensity was increased to 1.18. The signal wave generated in the experiment only had a single wavelength around 1.6 µm, indicating that two kinds of nonlinear processes occurred in the experiment, namely optical parametric oscillation and intracavity DFG.

  18. The ISS Sensitizing Agents Data Bank (BDS).

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Barbara; Binetti, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Federica; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; D'Angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Ferri, Maurizio; Marcello, Ida; Riva, Giovanni; Roazzi, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniela; Tinghino, Raffaella

    2008-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore Sanità has developed a data bank on sensitizing substances (Banca Dati Sensibilizzanti, BDS), available on website (www.iss.it/bdse/), sharing complete, controlled and updated information coming from different sources, such as scientific publications, international agencies and governmental or non governmental organizations. It is worthwhile that the main objective of the BDS is not the classification of sensitizing or potentially sensitizing agents within specific risk classes, but it is essentially to provide concise and non confidential information related to this endpoint. At present, the BDS includes: all the substances officially classified by European Union, (Annex I to Directive 67/548/EEC), some substances listed in I (Directive 67/548/EEC) for endpoints different than "sensitization" but indicated as sensitizers by other relevant institutions, all the substances indicated as sensitizers by relevant agencies or institutions (ACGIH, DFG), some substances indicted as sensitizers by industry and other non-governmental organizations (ETAD and HERA), all the substances regarded as "potentially sensitizing dyes" by the Commission of the European Community for the award of the eco-label to textile products, some substances for which, even in the absence of any categorization by Union, ACGIH or DFG, it is not possible to exclude a sensitizing potential on the basis of reliable documents.

  19. [Interdisciplinary and evidence-based treatment guideline for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Guellac, N; Niehues, T

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has improved quality of life in children and adolescents suffering from JIA. However, it varies considerably from caregiver to caregiver. Therefore a standardisation of care on the basis of consensus treatment recommendations offers the chance to further improve the quality of care for children and adolescents with JIA. We aimed to establish an interdisciplinary, evidence-based treatment guideline for JIA based on the existing guideline from 2005. We did a systematic literature analysis in PUBMED with the key words "juvenile idiopathic (rheumatoid) arthritis" and "therapy". As limits in PUBMED we used: humans, published in the last 3 years, all child 0-18 years, clinical trial. Studies relating to diagnosis of JIA, Uveitis, vaccination, transition and rofexocibe were excluded. Authors of the 2005 guideline and representatives nominated by different societies were invited to attend the consensus conferences which were hosted by a professional moderator. Following societies were invited: Berufsverband der Kinder- und Jugendärzte (BVKJ), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin (DGKJ), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie (DGRh), Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG), Deutsche Rheuma-Liga Bundesverband, Verein zur Förderung und Unterstützung rheumatologisch erkrankter Kinder und deren Eltern, Vereinigung für Kinderorthopädie, Zentraler Verband der Physiotherapeuten und Krankengymnasten (ZVK). Consensus conferences took place in Düsseldorf on May 9th and August 1st 2007 and were each attended by more than 95% of the nominated representatives Finally, statements were confirmed in a Delphi method. Consensus statements regarding drug therapy, symptomatic and surgical management of JIA were compiled and judged strictly by the criteria of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM).

  20. [Emergency response management near the tracks of the public railway network: special aspects of missions connected with the German national railway system].

    PubMed

    Krämer, P; Aul, A; Vock, B; Frank, C

    2010-11-01

    Emergency response management and rescue operations concerning the railway network in Germany need special attention and implementation in several ways. The emergency response concerning the German national railway network managed by Deutsche Bahn AG is subject to various rules and regulations which have to be followed precisely. Only by following these rules and procedures is the safety of all emergency staff at the scene ensured. The German national railway network (Deutsche Bahn AG) provides its own emergency response control center, which specializes in managing its response to emergencies and dispatches an emergency response manager to the scene. This person serves as the primary Deutsche Bahn AG representative at the scene and is the only person who is allowed to earth the railway electrical power lines. This article will discuss different emergency situations concerning railway accidents and the emergency medical response to them based on a near collision with a high speed train during a rescue mission close to the railway track. Injury to personnel could only be avoided by chance and luck. The dangers and risks for rescue staff are specified. Furthermore, the article details practical guidelines for rescue operations around the German national railway track system.

  1. Terahertz Difference-Frequency Quantum Cascade Laser Sources on Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-22

    temperature. The introduction of the Cherenkov waveguide scheme in these devices grown on semi- insulating InP substrates enabled generation of tens...room temperature, a factor of 5 improvement over the best reference devices on a native semi- insulating InP substrate. © 2016 Optical Society of America...implementation of the Cherenkov emission scheme [10]. Cherenkov THz DFG-QCLs reported so far use a semi- insulating (SI) InP substrate. SI InP

  2. Interfacing External Quantum Devices to a Universal Quantum Computer

    PubMed Central

    Lagana, Antonio A.; Lohe, Max A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer. PMID:22216276

  3. Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

    PubMed

    Lagana, Antonio A; Lohe, Max A; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer. © 2011 Lagana et al.

  4. Lernen Wir Deutsch! Part 10, German: 7535.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course in German prescribes broad goals and performance objectives for the development of cultural awareness, student attitudes, and listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills. The content of the course, based on Units 21 and 22 of "A-LM German: Level 2" and "Reading for Meaning," requires mastery of selected…

  5. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...

  6. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  7. GPON FTTH trial: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Erik; Hölzl, Rainer; Breuer, Dirk; Lange, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports on a FTTH field trial with GPON (Gigabit-capable passive optical network) technology in the network of Deutsche Telekom in the region of the cities of Berlin and Potsdam. Focus of this trial was to gain practical experience regarding GPON technology, fibre installation in existing ducts with micro duct technology, fibre cabling in customer buildings and impact on operational processes. Furthermore it is reported on an initial Deutsche Telekom FTTB deployment based on GPON technology in the city of Dresden with the main targets to obtain practical deployment and operation experiences with fibre-based access networks and to provide broadband access to a part of the city formerly not servable by DSL (digital subscriber line) technology.

  8. A brain-penetrant RAF dimer antagonist for the noncanonical BRAF oncoprotein of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Alberta, John A; Pilarz, Catherine; Calligaris, David; Chadwick, Emily J; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Ramkissoon, Lori A; Garcia, Veronica Matia; Mazzola, Emanuele; Goumnerova, Liliana; Kane, Michael; Yao, Zhan; Kieran, Mark W; Ligon, Keith L; Hahn, William C; Garraway, Levi A; Rosen, Neal; Gray, Nathanael S; Agar, Nathalie Y; Buhrlage, Sara J; Segal, Rosalind A; Stiles, Charles D

    2017-06-01

    Activating mutations or structural rearrangements in BRAF are identified in roughly 75% of all pediatric low-grade astrocytomas (PLGAs). However, first-generation RAF inhibitors approved for adult melanoma have poor blood-brain penetrance and are only effective on tumors that express the canonical BRAFV600E oncoprotein, which functions as a monomer. These drugs (type I antagonists that target the "DFG-in" conformation of the kinase) fail to block signaling via KIAA1549:BRAF, a truncation/fusion BRAF oncoprotein which functions as a dimer and is found in the most common form of PLGA. A panel of small molecule RAF inhibitors (including type II inhibitors, targeting the "DFG-out" conformation of the kinase) was screened for drugs showing efficacy on murine models of PLGA and on authentic human PLGA cells expressing KIAA1549:BRAF. We identify a type II RAF inhibitor that serves as an equipotent antagonist of BRAFV600E, KIAA1549:BRAF, and other noncanonical BRAF oncoproteins that function as dimers. This drug (MLN2480, also known as TAK-580) has good brain penetrance and is active on authentic human PLGA cells in brain organotypic cultures. MLN2480 may be an effective therapeutic for BRAF mutant pediatric astrocytomas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    PubMed

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-09-01

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  10. Protein Tunnels: The Case of Urease Accessory Proteins.

    PubMed

    Musiani, Francesco; Gioia, Dario; Masetti, Matteo; Falchi, Federico; Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-05-09

    Transition metals are both essential micronutrients and limited in environmental availability. The Ni(II)-dependent urease protein, the most efficient enzyme known to date, is a paradigm for studying the strategies that cells use to handle an essential, yet toxic, metal ion. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Ni(II) insertion in the urease active site is performed through the action of three essential accessory proteins: UreD, UreF, and UreG. The crystal structure of the UreD-UreF-UreG complex from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HpUreDFG) revealed the presence of tunnels that cross the entire length of both UreF and UreD, potentially able to deliver Ni(II) ions from UreG to apo-urease. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations performed on the HpUreDFG complex in explicit solvent and at physiological ionic conditions demonstrate the stability of these protein tunnels in solution and provide insights on the trafficking of water molecules inside the tunnels. The presence of different alternative routes across the identified tunnels for Ni(II) ions, water molecules, and carbonate ions, all involved in urease activation, is highlighted here, and their potential role in the urease activation mechanism is discussed.

  11. A development of chimeric VEGFR2 TK inhibitor based on two ligand conformers from PDB: 1Y6A complex--medicinal chemistry consequences of a TKs analysis.

    PubMed

    Lintnerová, Lucia; García-Caballero, Melissa; Gregáň, Fridrich; Melicherčík, Milan; Quesada, Ana R; Dobiaš, Juraj; Lác, Ján; Sališová, Marta; Boháč, Andrej

    2014-01-24

    VEGFR2 is an important mediator of angiogenesis and influences fate of some cancer stem cells. Here we analysed all 34 structures of VEGFR2 TK available from PDB database. From them a complex PDB: 1Y6A has an exceptional AAZ ligand bound to TK in form of two conformers (U- and S-shaped). This observation inspired us to develop three chimeric bispyridyl VEGFR2 inhibitors by combining structural features of both AAZ conformers and/or their relative ligand AAX (PDB: 1Y6B). Our most interesting inhibitor 22SYM has an enzymatic VEGFR2 TK activity (IC50: 15.1 nM) comparable or better to the active compounds from clinical drugs Nexavar and Sutent. 22SYM inhibits growth, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells (EC) and selectively induces EC apoptosis. 22SYM also inhibits in vivo angiogenesis in Zebrafish embryo assay. Additionally to the above results, we proved here that tyrosine kinases in an inactive form possessing Type I inhibitors can adopt both a closed or an opened conformation of kinase A-loop independently on their DFG-out arrangement. We proposed here that an activity of certain Type I inhibitors (e.g. 22SYM-like) in complex with DFG-out TK can be negatively influenced by collisions with a dynamically moving TK A-loop. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 12356 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...; MEASAT Broadcast Network Systems Sdn Bhd (MBNS--Astro), Bukit Jalil, MALAYSIA; MicroNova AG, Vierkirchen..., CT; Deutsche Bank, New York, NY; Enghouse Networks Limited, Markham, CANADA; Focus Consulting...

  13. Novel diode laser-based sensors for gas sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittel, F. K.; Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The development of compact spectroscopic gas sensors and their applications to environmental sensing will be described. These sensors employ mid-infrared difference-frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystals pumped by two single-frequency solid state lasers such as diode lasers, diode-pumped solid state, and fiber lasers. Ultrasensitive, highly selective, and real-time measurements of several important atmospheric trace gases, including carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde [correction of formaldehye], and methane, have been demonstrated.

  14. 78 FR 12407 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... SAINT-GOBAIN; Deutsche Telekom AG; FRANCE TELECOM; GAS NATURAL SDG, S.A.; GDF SUEZ; HELLENIC... Telecom International Finance B.V.; RWE Aktiengesellschaft; TELECOM ITALIA SPA; TELEFONICA, S.A.; Telekom...

  15. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP shows off its new blue-and-white livery at L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP is shown at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas, where major modifications and installation was performed. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  16. NASA's newly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP is pushed back from L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems hangar in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP aircraft sits outside a hangar at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  17. Generation of energetic, picosecond seed pulses for CO2 laser using Raman shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Eric; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chan

    2017-03-01

    We present a new concept for generating 3 ps seed pulses for a high-power CO2 laser amplifier that are multiple orders more energetic than seed pulses generated by slicing from a nanosecond CO2 laser pulse. We propose to send a 1 µm picosecond laser through a C6D6 Raman shifter and mix both the pump and shifted components in a DFG crystal to produce pulses at 10.6 µm. Preliminary results of a proof-of-principle experiment are presented.

  18. Der deutsche Röntgensatellit ABRIXAS: Mission und wissenschaftliche Zielsetzung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predehl, P.

    ABRIXAS (A BRoad band Imaging X-ray All-sky Survey) ist ein Röntgensatellit mit sieben 27-fach genesteten Wolterteleskopen, die sich in ihren Brennpunkten eine pn-CCD Kamera teilen. ABRIXAS soll im Frühjahr 1999 auf einer russischen Cosmos-Rakete gestartet werden und die erste abbildende Himmelsdurchmusterung oberhalb von 2.4 keV durchführen. Man erwartet während der dreijährigen Mission wenigstens 10.000 neue Röntgenquellen zu entdecken. Dies sind vor allem solche Quellen, die durch vorgelagerte Staub- und Gasschichten für den ABRIXAS-Vorgänger ROSAT unsichtbar blieben. Darüber hinaus wird ABRIXAS hervorragend geeignet sein, ausgedehnte, diffuse Quellen spektroskopisch zu studieren und Intensitätsvariationen von Röntgenquellen auf sehr unterschiedlichen Zeitskalen zu untersuchen. Das Projekt ist eine wissenschaftliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem Astrophysikalischen Institut Potsdam (AIP), dem Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik der Universität Tübingen (IAAT) und dem Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE).

  19. Evaluating the performance of remotely sensed and reanalysed precipitation data over West Africa using HBV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jütten, Thomas; Jackisch, Dominik; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Kusche, Jürgen; Eicker, Annette; Springer, Anne

    2016-04-01

    located in West Africa. The streamflow generated by the model was compared to the observed streamflow provided by various German, French and West African agencies in order to assess the performance and uncertainties of each product. This study is part of the COAST project (Studying changes of sea level and water storage for coastal regions in West-Africa using satellite and terrestrial data sets) of the University of Bonn, supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. DI 443/6-1. Keywords: precipitation products, hydrological model, hydrologic evaluation, West Africa

  20. Interdisciplinary and transboundary approach of geohistorical reconstruction of the floods in the Rhine Graben (1400 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Brice; Ansel, Romain; Guerrouah, Ouarda; With, Lauriane; -Chenel, Karine Dietrich; Vitoux, Marie-Claire; Glaser, Rudiger; Drescher, Axel; Himmelsbach, Iso

    2010-05-01

    Because of its turbulent history, Alsace is one of French regions where the historic floods are the most underestimated. The damages connected to the wars (on 1870, 1914 - 1918, 1939 - 1945), the particular classification of archives and, especially, their writing in German during several periods of the recent history, is rebuffing numerous specialists Located in the same geographical area (the Rhine Graben), but by the other side of the the border constituted by the Rhine, the land of Bade is, him too, confronted with the problem of the misunderstanding of the historic floods, because of the destructions of the war also, but especially because of the harmful absence, for archives production, of a strong centralized state until the German unification after 1870. Hence the idea to set up a interdisciplinary French - German research program, to establish compared floods chronologies over several centuries in the Rhine Graben, both in France and in Germany, by associating historians, geographers, anthropologists and specialists of the languages from the universities of Mulhouse (France) and Freiburg in Breisgau (Germany). This program (called "TRANSRISK" 2008 - 2010), financed by the « Agence Nationale de la Recherche » and the « Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft , has multiple objectives: - filling the gaps in the knowledge of the floods in France and in Germany - building a common geohistory of the floods - optimizing the prevention and the information about the floods, thanks to the classification, the reconstruction and the mapping of the extreme phenomena - understanding the role of rivers developments responsible for an different floods evolution on both sides of the Rhine - contributing to the implementation of flood risk observatories on a French - German basis - contributing to define a common interdisciplinary vocabulary on risks (and a french - german - english glossary ). These works join the logic of the "European Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment

  1. [Further development and validation of a clinical auditing procedure for rehabilitation facilities].

    PubMed

    Meixner, K; Lubenow, B; Brückner, U; Gerdes, N

    2006-06-01

    Visitations (audits) are considered an instrument of external quality assurance by which the structural and organizational set-up of health facilities can be assessed on site by external experts. The Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund (including the former Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte, BfA, the statutory pension insurance agency for white collar employees) is the largest body responsible for rehabilitation in Germany, and it regularly carries out visitations in the approximately 650 rehab centres it sends its patients to. The project presented in this article aimed at developing a manual with detailed descriptions of the procedures and criteria of the assessment, as well as at checking the inter-rater-reliability of the assessment. The manual was developed in cooperation with experts of the Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund. It contains a description of the areas to be assessed during a visitation as well as leading questions and criteria for the evaluation of single features. The manual was examined in "test visitations" in 10 centres, each of which was visited by three visitation teams (1 medical and 1 administrative expert) simultaneously. When the resulting 30 assessments were compared, the criterion "overall quality of the centre" (which was assessed on a 10-point scale) showed precise agreement in 47 %, and a deviation by 1 point in 33 % of the cases. Single features assessed on a three-point scale (no improvement needed/improvement recommended/immediate improvement obligatory) resulted in precise agreement in between 80 % ("medical and therapeutic processes") and 86 % ("structural features") of the cases. Two-point scales (condition fulfilled or not fulfilled) showed an agreement between 89 % ("internal quality management") and 97 % ("single structural features"). In order to maintain and further develop this good inter-rater-reliability, the visitors of Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund are continually trained in applying the visitation manual

  2. Classification of small molecule protein kinase inhibitors based upon the structures of their drug-enzyme complexes.

    PubMed

    Roskoski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Because dysregulation and mutations of protein kinases play causal roles in human disease, this family of enzymes has become one of the most important drug targets over the past two decades. The X-ray crystal structures of 21 of the 27 FDA-approved small molecule inhibitors bound to their target protein kinases are depicted in this paper. The structure of the enzyme-bound antagonist complex is used in the classification of these inhibitors. Type I inhibitors bind to the active protein kinase conformation (DFG-Asp in, αC-helix in). Type I½ inhibitors bind to a DFG-Asp in inactive conformation while Type II inhibitors bind to a DFG-Asp out inactive conformation. Type I, I½, and type II inhibitors occupy part of the adenine binding pocket and form hydrogen bonds with the hinge region connecting the small and large lobes of the enzyme. Type III inhibitors bind next to the ATP-binding pocket and type IV inhibitors do not bind to the ATP or peptide substrate binding sites. Type III and IV inhibitors are allosteric in nature. Type V inhibitors bind to two different regions of the protein kinase domain and are therefore bivalent inhibitors. The type I-V inhibitors are reversible. In contrast, type VI inhibitors bind covalently to their target enzyme. Type I, I½, and II inhibitors are divided into A and B subtypes. The type A inhibitors bind in the front cleft, the back cleft, and near the gatekeeper residue, all of which occur within the region separating the small and large lobes of the protein kinase. The type B inhibitors bind in the front cleft and gate area but do not extend into the back cleft. An analysis of the limited available data indicates that type A inhibitors have a long residence time (minutes to hours) while the type B inhibitors have a short residence time (seconds to minutes). The catalytic spine includes residues from the small and large lobes and interacts with the adenine ring of ATP. Nearly all of the approved protein kinase inhibitors occupy the

  3. [National S3 guideline on uncomplicated urinary tract infection: recommendations for treatment and management of uncomplicated community-acquired bacterial urinary tract infections in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Schmiemann, G; Hoyme, U; Fünfstück, R; Hummers-Pradier, E; Kaase, M; Kniehl, E; Selbach, I; Sester, U; Vahlensieck, W; Watermann, D; Naber, K G

    2011-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) belong to the most frequent bacterial infections in outpatients. Increasing antibiotic resistance rates and a new appreciation of the epidemiological side effects of antibiotics ("collateral damage") have warranted an update of the guidelines on uncomplicated UTI as an S3 clinical guideline. The guideline was developed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (DGU) in collaboration with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Familienmedizin (DEGAM), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe (DGGG), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie (DGHM), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Infektiologie (DGI), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nephrologie (DGfN), Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft für Chemotherapie (PEG) and a patient representative. The systematic review of the literature on the topics of the guideline was performed for the time period of 1 January 1998 to 30 April 2008 in the databases of the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE. International guidelines of the years 1999-2007 were included. Uncomplicated UTI comprise uncomplicated cystitis and uncomplicated pyelonephritis. The leading uropathogen is Escherichia coli. The choice of the antibiotic substance follows the five primary aspects: (1) individual patient risk and antibiotic pretreatment; (2) bacterial spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility; (3) effectivity of the antimicrobial substance demonstrated in clinical studies; (4) epidemiological effects ("collateral damage"); and (5) adverse effects. If antibiotics such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or fluoroquinolones have previously been given, the risk for pathogens to become resistant against these substances is increased. Because of increasing resistance rates of E. coli against trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole also in uncomplicated UTI, trimethoprim alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole is no longer regarded as the first-line agent in the empiric treatment of uncomplicated cystitis, unless the regional

  4. Zu Problemen statistischer Methoden in der Sprachwissenschaft (Problems of Statistical Methods in Linguistics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Klaus

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of statistical apparatus employed in L. Doncheva-Mareva's article on the wide-spread usage of the present and future tense forms with future meaning in German letters, Deutsch als Fremdsprache, n1 1971. (RS)

  5. Flattop wideband wavelength converters based on cascaded sum and difference-frequency generation using step-chirped gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Kashyap, Raman

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the role of step-chirped gratings (SCG) for flattening of conversion efficiency response and enhancing the pump bandwidth in cascaded sum and difference frequency generation (SFG + DFG) with a large pump wavelength difference. To obtain a flat response with maximum efficiency, using SCG instead of uniform grating with the same length, the appropriate critical period shifts are presented for the reasonable number of sections and chirp steps feasible for fabrication. Furthermore, it is shown that adding the section numbers for SCG structure increases the pump bandwidth.

  6. The Ghost in the Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.; Brown, Julian R.

    1993-09-01

    Foreword; 1. The strange world of the quantum; 2. Alain Aspect; 3. John Bell; 4. John Wheeler; 5. Rudolf Peierls; 6. David Deutsch; 7. John Taylor; 8. David Bohm; 9. Basil Hiley; Glossary; Further reading; Index.

  7. Telecommunications: Competitive Impact of Restructuring the International Satellite Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    service in the Americas include Anik (Canada); Solidaridad (Mexico); Hispasat (Spain); Nahuelsat (Argentina) and Brazilsat (Brazil). Also, the...Deutsche Telecom (DFS-kopernicus and Palapa); Telecom Mexico ( Solidaridad ); Embratel (Brazilsat). Their investment in competing systems is directly

  8. ARC-2010-ACD10-0242-022

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-17

    German Deligation visits Ames SOFIA Science Office for briefing. Left to right Jochen Homann, German State Secretary Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, and Manuel Wiedemann, post-doctorate student from the Deutsches SOFIA Institute, University of Stuttgart.

  9. A review on quantum search algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan; Korepin, Vladimir E.

    2017-12-01

    The use of superposition of states in quantum computation, known as quantum parallelism, has significant advantage in terms of speed over the classical computation. It is evident from the early invented quantum algorithms such as Deutsch's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm and its variation as Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm, Simon algorithm, Shor's algorithms, etc. Quantum parallelism also significantly speeds up the database search algorithm, which is important in computer science because it comes as a subroutine in many important algorithms. Quantum database search of Grover achieves the task of finding the target element in an unsorted database in a time quadratically faster than the classical computer. We review Grover's quantum search algorithms for a singe and multiple target elements in a database. The partial search algorithm of Grover and Radhakrishnan and its optimization by Korepin called GRK algorithm are also discussed.

  10. Equal Opportunities for Women in Marine Sciences in Kiel: Activities and Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Women are still largely underrepresented in geosciences in general. Particularly at the level of professorships and permanent research staff positions this also applies to marine science institutions in Kiel, i.e. the research focus Kiel Marine Sciences at Kiel University and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Both institutions are closely collaborating, for instance in the frame of two major third-party funded collaborative projects: The Cluster of Excellence 'The Future Ocean', funded within the German Excellence Initiative, and the Collaborative Research Centre 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' (SFB 754) financed through the German Research Foundation (DFG). Both funding schemes request for measures to increase the participation of female scientists in leading positions. As an innovative approach, The Future Ocean and SFB 754 jointly finance the position of a coordinator for gender measures who is based at the university's Central Office for Gender Equality, Diversity & Family since 2012. This allows for the coordinated development and implementation of programmes to support female marine scientists, with a focus on the postdoctoral phase, and to offer a broader spectrum of activities to raise awareness of gender imbalance in the research community. The aim of this presentation is to give insight into activities and achievements, among them the mentoring programme via:mento_ocean for female postdocs in marine sciences. The programme via:mento_ocean has been acknowledged as a best practice instrument to support women scientists in a close disciplinary but international setting and was incorporated into the DFG's online toolbox of gender equality measures.

  11. Doubly resonant three-wave-mixing spectroscopy of a chiral coupled-chromophore system in solution: coherent two-dimensional optical activity spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Sangheon; Lee, Hochan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2007-02-07

    Theoretical descriptions of doubly resonant two-dimensional (2D) sum-frequency-generation (SFG) and difference-frequency-generation (DFG) spectroscopies of coupled-chromophore systems are presented. Despite that each electronic or vibrational chromophore is achiral, the interaction-induced chirality of a coupled multichromophore system in solution can be measured by using the doubly resonant 2D three-wave-mixing (3WM) spectroscopic method. An electronically coupled dimer, where each monomer is modeled as a simple two-level system, can have nonvanishing SFG (or DFG) properties, e.g., susceptibility in frequency domain or nonlinear response function in time domain, if the induced dipole vector of the dimer is not orthogonal to the vector product of the two monomer electronic transition dipole vectors. In order to demonstrate that these 2D 3WM spectroscopic methods can be used to determine the solution structure of a polypeptide, the authors carried out quantum chemistry calculations for an alanine dipeptide and obtained first- and second-order dipole derivatives associated with the amide I vibrational transitions of the dipeptide. It is shown that the numerically simulated 2D IR-IR SFG spectrum is highly sensitive to the dipeptide secondary structure and provides rich information on the one- and two-exciton states. It is believed that the theoretically proposed doubly resonant 2D 3WM spectroscopy, which can be considered to be an optical activity spectroscopy, will be of use in studying both structural and dynamical aspects of coupled multichromophore systems, such as proteins, nucleic acids, nanoparticle aggregates etc.

  12. Public funding for medical research in relation to the burden of disease caused by cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krone, Manuel; Dufner, Vera; Wagner, Martin; Gelbrich, Götz; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U

    2018-04-13

    Public funding for medical research in Germany is primarily provided by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The aim of this study was to analyze the amount of national public funding for medical research on predominant causes of death in Germany, cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in relation to the burden of these diseases in Germany. Three evaluators categorized medical research projects funded by the DFG or BMBF between 2010 and 2012 into the categories "Diseases of the circulatory system" (with subgroups "Ischemic heart diseases", "Heart failure" and "Cerebrovascular diseases") and "Neoplasms". The total amount of public funding by the national agencies was analyzed in relation to the burden of disease for the respective disease condition. Information on national public funding for medical research of 2091 million euros was available; of those, 246.8 million euros (11.8%) were categorized being spent for research on "Neoplasms", 118.4 million euros (5.7%) for research on "Diseases of the circulatory system". This results in 362.08 euros per case of death, 16.58 euros per year of life lost (YLL) and 16.04 euros per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for "Neoplasms" and in 113.44 euros per case of death, 8.05 euros per YLL and 7.17 euros per DALY for "Diseases of the circulatory system". In Germany, research on cardiovascular diseases receives a lower share of national public funding for medical research compared to oncological research. These results are comparable to other European countries.

  13. A SELF-CONSISTENT DEUTSCHIAN ESP MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a new version of the EPA I Southern Research Institute electrostatic precipitator (ESP) model. The primary difference between this and the standard (Revision 3) versions is in the treatment of the particulate space charge. Both models apply the Deutsch equatio...

  14. Hoer-Sprech-Uebungen fuer Iraner (Aural-Oral Exercises for Iranians).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    Exercises are presented as supplementary material for beginning classes. Many examples illustrate ways to consolidate the learned material, with particular reference to the textbook "Ich lerne Deutsch" and its pictures. Other exercises are designed to compare German and Farsi sentence structure. (IFS/WGA)

  15. 77 FR 76156 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... public limited company; COMPAGNIE DE SAINT-GOBAIN; Deutsche Telekom AG; FRANCE TELECOM; GAS NATURAL SDG....; Koninklijke KPN N.V.; NATIONAL GRID PLC; Portugal Telecom International Finance B.V.; RWE Aktiengesellschaft; TELECOM ITALIA SPA; TELEFONICA, S.A.; Telekom Austria Aktiengesellschaft; TELENOR ASA; TeliaSonera...

  16. Tunable narrow band difference frequency THz wave generation in DAST via dual seed PPLN OPG.

    PubMed

    Dolasinski, Brian; Powers, Peter E; Haus, Joseph W; Cooney, Adam

    2015-02-09

    We report a widely tunable narrowband terahertz (THz) source via difference frequency generation (DFG). A narrowband THz source uses the output of dual seeded periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric generators (OPG) combined in the nonlinear crystal 4-dimthylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST). We demonstrate a seamlessly tunable THZ output that tunes from 1.5 THz to 27 THz with a minimum bandwidth of 3.1 GHz. The effects of dispersive phase matching, two-photon absorption, and polarization were examined and compared to a power emission model that consisted of the current accepted parameters of DAST.

  17. Surface Demixing in a AuSn Liquid Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagurusamy, Venkat; Streitel, Reinhard; Shpyrko, Oleg; Pershan, Peter; Ocko, Ben; Deutsch, Moshe

    2006-03-01

    We present results of X-ray reflectivity studies of the eutectic AuSn alloy liquid-vapor interface. The analysis shows that in common with the BiSn eutectic, there is surface demixing that extends to more than one monolayer. This is in contrast to a common presumption that the Gibbs adsorption predicts complete demixing only in the surface monolayer. The composition profiles can be explained by surface segregation theory for attractive interaction between Sn and Au atoms, similar to BiIn [1] and BiSn [2]. [1] E. DiMasi, H. Tostmann, O. G. Shpyrko, P. Huber, B. M. Ocko, P. S. Pershan, M. Deutsch, and L. E. Berman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1538 (2001) [2] O. G. Shpyrko, A. Y. Grigoriev, R. Streitel, D. Pontoni, P. S. Pershan, M. Deutsch, and B. M. Ocko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 106103 (2005) *Present address: Center for Nanoscale Materials, ANL

  18. Cultural Representations in Foreign Language Teaching: A Critique of Four BBC Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1992-01-01

    Examines four well-known BBC language courses, "Deutsch Direkt!""A Vous la France!""Viva Espana," and "Buongiorno Italia!" It is suggested that these courses focus on tourism, stereotyping both learners and the target culture and that the presentation of the cultural materials is unrealistic. (VWL)

  19. Assembled contigs of the synganglion transcriptome from an Australian population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a collaboration with National Center for Genome Resources and University of Texas at El Paso researchers, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of the synganglion of the Texas strain (Deutsch) of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. This transcriptome contains 43, 468 sequences and wa...

  20. Acquisition des competences discursives dans un contexte plurilingue (Acquisition of Discourse Competencies in a Multilingual Context).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoud, Anne-Claude, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles on second language learning in a multilingual environment includes: "Franzosisch-Deutsch: Zweisprachiges Lernen au der Sekundarstufe 1" (French-German: Learning Two Languages at Secondary School, Level 1) (Otto Stern, Brigit Eriksson, Christine Le Pape, Hans Reutener, Cecilia Serra Oesch); "Das Projekt…

  1. Forces for Positive Change: Preparing Leaders for the 21st Century in an Undergraduate Honors Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Leadership education is offered in myriad ways at many institutions of higher education (Borgese, Deutsch, & Winkler, 2004). This article highlights the West Chester University Honors College (WCUHC), a highly selective, four-year program for undergraduate students. The WCUHC instituted a liberal education, interdisciplinary approach to…

  2. Rhipicephalus microplus dataset of nonredundant raw sequence reads from 454 GS FLX sequencing of Cot-selected (Cot = 660) genomic DNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A reassociation kinetics-based approach was used to reduce the complexity of genomic DNA from the Deutsch laboratory strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, to facilitate genome sequencing. Selected genomic DNA (Cot value = 660) was sequenced using 454 GS FLX technology, resulting in 356...

  3. Assembled contigs of the synganglion transcriptome from a Texas population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a collaboration with National Center for Genome Resources and University of Texas at El Paso researchers, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of the synganglion of the Texas strain (Deutsch) of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. This transcriptome contains 43, 468 sequences and wa...

  4. Improving the Quality of Child Care. Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources on Examining Proposals To Improve the Quality of Child Care in the United States, Including the Proposed Creating Improved Delivery of Child Care: Affordable, Reliable, and Educational Act of 1997. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress. First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearings transcripts present testimony on proposals to improve the quality of child care in the United States. Both oral and submitted written statements are included. Contributors are: Representative Peter Deutsch (Florida); Senator James M. Jeffords, committee chairman; Senator Mike Enzi (Wyoming); Senator Edward M. Kennedy…

  5. German 1990: Intensive and Diverse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Franz R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests the following methods for improving university-level German language education curricula: reduce skill-development time through immersion programs, adopt Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache as the proficiency standard for advanced students, and include literature from a variety of liberal arts disciplines in the reading materials for…

  6. Incorporating Critical Thinking and Authenticity into Business German Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram

    1998-01-01

    Proposes to integrate critical thinking and problem-solving into two existing international tests of business German (Prufung Wirtschaftsdeutsch International and Zertifikat Deutsch fur den Beruf), and to contextualize the tests' tasks in a more authentic business setting without compromising their content. Parallels are drawn with the American…

  7. Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualized Goal Structures on Learning Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    A theoretical orientation to three goal structures (cooperation, competition, and individualization) is postulated, based upon Deutsch's extension of Lewin's theory of motivation. Lewin postulated that a state of tension within a person motivates movement toward the accomplishment of desired goals; a goal structure specifies the type of…

  8. Multilingual Thesauri for the Modern World - No Ideal Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorna, Kerstin; Davies, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses thesauri as tools for multilingual information retrieval and cross-cultural communication. Considers the need for multilingual thesauri and the importance of explicit conceptual structures, and introduces a pilot thesaurus, InfoDEFT (Information Deutsch-English-Francais Thesaurus), as a possible model for new online thesauri which are…

  9. Constructing a New Vision: Undoing Gender through Secondary Education in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents results from a qualitative study on how the Honduran secondary education programme, "Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial" (SAT), attempts to "undo gender" (Deutsch 2007: 122) by encouraging students to rethink gender relations in their everyday lives in a way that reflects their increased consciousness of…

  10. Intracellular activation of ovastacin mediates pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Körschgen, Hagen; Kuske, Michael; Karmilin, Konstantin; Yiallouros, Irene; Balbach, Melanie; Floehr, Julia; Wachten, Dagmar; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Stöcker, Walter

    2017-09-01

    protein) and a secreted protease mediating ZP2 cleavage. For this study, only oocytes isolated from wild-type and ovastacin-deficient FVB mice were investigated. Some experiments involved oocyte activation by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to trigger ZPH. This study provides a detailed spatial and temporal view of pre-mature cleavage of ZP2 by ovastacin, which is known to adversely affect IVF rate in mice and humans. None. This work was supported by the Center of Natural Sciences and Medicine and by a start-up grant of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz to W.S., and by a grant from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and by the START program of the Medical Faculty of RWTH Aachen University to J.F. and W.J.D. There are no competing interests to declare. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Organochlorine residues in human breast milk: analysis through a sentinel practice network.

    PubMed Central

    Schlaud, M; Seidler, A; Salje, A; Behrendt, W; Schwartz, F W; Ende, M; Knoll, A; Grugel, C

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to assess through a sentinel practice network the validity of data on levels of organochlorine residues in human milk along with personal, lifestyle, and exposure variables of breastfeeding women; to compare the results of this new approach with those of the Lower Saxony breast milk surveillance programme; and to test hypotheses on potential determinants of contamination levels. DESIGN--Eligible women were enrolled into this cross sectional study by a network of 51 paediatric practices when bringing their babies for a U3 infant screening examination (4th to 6th week after delivery). Lifestyle and exposure factors were obtained by questionnaire. All milk samples were analysed for hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorbenzole, DDT, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and heptachlor; half the samples were also analysed for dioxin. Analytic statistics were computed using polychotomous logistic regression (PLR). SETTING--The study was conducted in Lower Saxony, Germany, from summer 1992 to summer 1993. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 156 primiparous, breast feeding German women, aged 25-35 years, who had been born and had grown up in West Germany, were studied. MAIN RESULTS--Compared with the regular programme, participants in this study had their milk analysed sooner after delivery and were more likely to have grown up in rural areas, less likely to have been exposed to hazardous substances, less likely to have a diet of health food, and slightly less likely to be a smoker at the time of the study. Breast milk contamination levels were comparable in both studies, and in all but two cases well below the tolerable concentrations established by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Fellowship). After adjustment for potential confounders using polychotomous logistic regression, there were statistically significant positive associations between breast milk contamination and age (PCB, test for trend: p = 0.006), average dietary fat

  12. Change in hexose distribution volume and fractional utilization of ( sup 18 F)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose in brain during acute hypoglycemia in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.T.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1990-02-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of mild hypoglycemia on cerebral glucose uptake and metabolism. Nine healthy men were studied under basal saline-infusion conditions, and during euglycemic and hypoglycemic clamp studies. Insulin was infused at the same rate (1 mU.kg-1.min-1) in both clamp studies. In euglycemic clamp studies, glucose was infused at a rate sufficient to maintain the basal plasma glucose concentration, whereas in hypoglycemic clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate was reduced to maintain the plasma glucose at 3.1 mM. Each study lasted 3 h and included a 30-min baseline period and a subsequent 150-minmore » period in which insulin or glucose was administered. Blood samples for measurement of insulin, glucose, cortisol, growth hormone, and glucagon were obtained at 20- to 30-min intervals. A bolus injection of 5-10 mCi (18F)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (2-DFG) was administered 120 min after initiation of the study, and plasma radioactivity and dynamic PET scans were obtained at frequent intervals for the remaining 40-60 min of the study. Cerebral regions of interest were defined, and concentrations of radioactivity were calculated and used in the three-compartment model of 2-DFG distribution described by Sokoloff. Glucose levels were similar during saline-infusion (4.9 +/- 0.1 mM) and euglycemic clamp (4.8 +/- 0.1 mM) studies, whereas the desired degree of mild hypoglycemia was achieved during the hypoglycemic clamp study (3.1 +/- 0.1 mM, P less than 0.05). The insulin level during saline infusion was 41 +/- 7 pM.« less

  13. Genetic and Pharmacological Inhibition of PDK1 in Cancer Cells: Characterization of a Selective Allosteric Kinase Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Kumiko; Shumway, Stuart D.; Sathyanarayanan, Sriram

    2013-11-20

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is a critical activator of multiple prosurvival and oncogenic protein kinases and has garnered considerable interest as an oncology drug target. Despite progress characterizing PDK1 as a therapeutic target, pharmacological support is lacking due to the prevalence of nonspecific inhibitors. Here, we benchmark literature and newly developed inhibitors and conduct parallel genetic and pharmacological queries into PDK1 function in cancer cells. Through kinase selectivity profiling and x-ray crystallographic studies, we identify an exquisitely selective PDK1 inhibitor (compound 7) that uniquely binds to the inactive kinase conformation (DFG-out). In contrast to compounds 1-5, which are classical ATP-competitivemore » kinase inhibitors (DFG-in), compound 7 specifically inhibits cellular PDK1 T-loop phosphorylation (Ser-241), supporting its unique binding mode. Interfering with PDK1 activity has minimal antiproliferative effect on cells growing as plastic-attached monolayer cultures (i.e. standard tissue culture conditions) despite reduced phosphorylation of AKT, RSK, and S6RP. However, selective PDK1 inhibition impairs anchorage-independent growth, invasion, and cancer cell migration. Compound 7 inhibits colony formation in a subset of cancer cell lines (four of 10) and primary xenograft tumor lines (nine of 57). RNAi-mediated knockdown corroborates the PDK1 dependence in cell lines and identifies candidate biomarkers of drug response. In summary, our profiling studies define a uniquely selective and cell-potent PDK1 inhibitor, and the convergence of genetic and pharmacological phenotypes supports a role of PDK1 in tumorigenesis in the context of three-dimensional in vitro culture systems.« less

  14. Exploring transition pathway and free-energy profile of large-scale protein conformational change by combining normal mode analysis and umbrella sampling molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinan; Shao, Qiang; Xu, Zhijian; Liu, Yingtao; Yang, Zhuo; Cossins, Benjamin P; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang

    2014-01-09

    Large-scale conformational changes of proteins are usually associated with the binding of ligands. Because the conformational changes are often related to the biological functions of proteins, understanding the molecular mechanisms of these motions and the effects of ligand binding becomes very necessary. In the present study, we use the combination of normal-mode analysis and umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulation to delineate the atomically detailed conformational transition pathways and the associated free-energy landscapes for three well-known protein systems, viz., adenylate kinase (AdK), calmodulin (CaM), and p38α kinase in the absence and presence of respective ligands. For each protein under study, the transient conformations along the conformational transition pathway and thermodynamic observables are in agreement with experimentally and computationally determined ones. The calculated free-energy profiles reveal that AdK and CaM are intrinsically flexible in structures without obvious energy barrier, and their ligand binding shifts the equilibrium from the ligand-free to ligand-bound conformation (population shift mechanism). In contrast, the ligand binding to p38α leads to a large change in free-energy barrier (ΔΔG ≈ 7 kcal/mol), promoting the transition from DFG-in to DFG-out conformation (induced fit mechanism). Moreover, the effect of the protonation of D168 on the conformational change of p38α is also studied, which reduces the free-energy difference between the two functional states of p38α and thus further facilitates the conformational interconversion. Therefore, the present study suggests that the detailed mechanism of ligand binding and the associated conformational transition is not uniform for all kinds of proteins but correlated to their respective biological functions.

  15. Specificity Rendering ‘Hot-Spots’ for Aurora Kinase Inhibitor Design: The Role of Non-Covalent Interactions and Conformational Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the conformational transitions occurring among the major structural motifs of Aurora kinase (AK) concomitant with the DFG-flip and deciphers the role of non-covalent interactions in rendering specificity. Multiple sequence alignment, docking and structural analysis of a repertoire of 56 crystal structures of AK from Protein Data Bank (PDB) has been carried out. The crystal structures were systematically categorized based on the conformational disposition of the DFG-loop [in (DI) 42, out (DO) 5 and out-up (DOU) 9], G-loop [extended (GE) 53 and folded (GF) 3] and αC-helix [in (CI) 42 and out (CO) 14]. The overlapping subsets on categorization show the inter-dependency among structural motifs. Therefore, the four distinct possibilities a) 2W1C (DI, CI, GE) b) 3E5A (DI, CI, GF) c) 3DJ6 (DI, CO, GF) d) 3UNZ (DOU, CO, GF) along with their co-crystals and apo-forms were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations of 40 ns each to evaluate the variations of individual residues and their impact on forming interactions. The non-covalent interactions formed by the 157 AK co-crystals with different regions of the binding site were initially studied with the docked complexes and structure interaction fingerprints. The frequency of the most prominent interactions was gauged in the AK inhibitors from PDB and the four representative conformations during 40 ns. Based on this study, seven major non-covalent interactions and their complementary sites in AK capable of rendering specificity have been prioritized for the design of different classes of inhibitors. PMID:25485544

  16. Studies in Deprivation. Occasional Paper, Special. NDEA National Institute for Advanced Study in Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubrich, Vernon, Ed.

    This document contains four papers. "Some Effects of Social Class and Race on Children's Language and Intellectual Abilities" by Martin Whiteman, Bert R. Brown, and Martin Deutsch is a report of research investigating several different interactions between environmental factors, socioeconomic status, race, and the cognitive and verbal abilities of…

  17. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    Telecommunications Service (GETS) Card  RITN Overview of the use of Satellite Telephones o Materials to be developed include:  RITN Concept of...and Human Service – Assistant Secretary Preparedness and Response ONR Office of Naval Research DIY Do it yourself P2P Peer-to-Peer DKMS Deutsche

  18. Facilitative Dimensions in Interpersonal Relations: Verifying the Theoretical Assumptions of Carl Rogers in School, Family Education, Client-Centered Therapy, and Encounter Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tausch, Reinhard

    1978-01-01

    Summarized numerous different projects which investigated assumptions made by Carol Rogers about the necessary and sufficient conditions for significant positive change in person-to-person contact. Findings agree with Rogers' about the importance of empathy, genuineness, and respect. Presented at the Thirtieth Congress of Deutsch Gesell Schaft for…

  19. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part II: The Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries (Narratives of Development)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbello, Marija

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the narrative accounts of the beginnings of digital library programs in five European national libraries: Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library. Based on interviews with policy makers and developers of digital…

  20. ARC-2010-ACD10-0242-021

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-17

    German Deligation visits Ames SOFIA Science Office for briefing. Left to right Jochen Homann, German State Secretary Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Dr. Benno Bunse, President & CEO, German American Chamber of Commerce, New York, Manuel Wiedemann, post-doctorate student from the Deutsches SOFIA Institute, University of Stuttgart.

  1. Oxygen Transport Characterization of a Human Model of Progressive Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    HL, Deutsch S, Marshall BE, Stephen GW, Behar MG, Neufeld GR. Hemody- namic andmetabolic effects of hemorrhage inman, with particular reference to...Principles and practice of intensive care. New York: Mc- Graw Hill, Inc.; 1997. p. 317–43. 16. Shepherd JT. Circulation to skeletal muscle. In: Shepherd

  2. Prospects for the Working Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Based on a chapter entitled "Barriers to Employment of the Disadvantaged by Martin Deutsch and S. M. Miller in "Manpower Report of the President, 1968. Discusses the Nixon proposals for remediating poverty in relation to the socioeconomic factors operating to maintain the condition of being poor while working. (JM)

  3. Assessing Follow Through: Changes in Intelligence Test Scores over Two and Three Years of Experience in the Responsive Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayder, Nicolas; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four Wechsler subscales were administered in a longitudinal design to children from the Responsive Model Follow Through Program. On the first testing, subjects' average intelligence scores were significantly lower, but on subsequent tests equivalent to or higher than national norms, calling into question Deutsch's cumulative-deficit hypothesis.…

  4. Hit or Miss, or Missing: The Role of Second Language Acquisition Research in Language Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jamie

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses how the syllabus for language teacher training in German has evolved and considers what direction foreign language teacher training might take if it were to follow the cue of "Deutsch als Fremdsprache" and appropriate the research agenda of second-language acquisition studies. (Contains 51 references.) (JL)

  5. Solving Conflicts--Not Just for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    1992-01-01

    Although teachers can gain as much as students from practicing conflict resolution procedures, they often remain unconvinced about benefits unless they actually try them. Drawing on experimental programs in Pittsburgh and New York City, this article describes the basics of moving adults from conflict to collaboration. Morton Deutsch's sidebar…

  6. New Media in the Design of a Learners' Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamper, Johann; Knapp, Judith

    This paper presents an interdisciplinary research project that aims at developing an electronic vocabulary acquisition system for the German and the Italian language called ELDIT (Elektronisches Lern(er)worterbuch Deutsch Italienisch). The approach for studying and practicing the vocabulary. To ensure maximum effectiveness of the learning process,…

  7. German in the Workplace: Workplace Learning for Immigrant and/or Ethnic Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Veronika; Grünhage-Monetti, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of communicative competences in the workplace is conjured up in most discussions, there is little empirical research (in Germany) describing formal and informal communications in companies and branches with a high percentage of immigrant workers, particularly in the production sector. The study group "Deutsch am…

  8. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  9. The DHL EuroCup: shots on goal.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Deutsche Post World Net, the German postal monopoly, faced significant challenges as it began the process of integrating three businesses: Deutsche Post Euro Express, its own ground-based parcel delivery service, and two companies it had acquired-DHL, the worldwide express delivery service, and Danzas, a worldwide air and ocean freight company. The cultural differences alone were imposing. For example, DHL was a privately held, entrepreneurial company in which most managers had international experience; Deutsche Post was until recently a state-owned monopoly in which few managers had worked outside their home country. Enter EuroCup. For 20 years, DHL employees had held a soccer tournament to strengthen company culture across national boundaries. Canceled the previous year due to budget constraints, the EuroCup tournament was revived in 2003-in part to help with the postmerger integration. But did the event really help? HBR senior editor Paul Hemp attended EuroCup 2003, joining nearly 2,500 DHL employees--about 600 of them players, the rest cheerleaders and other supporters--in the small Belgian town of Lommel. He set out to answer a number of questions relevant to any company staging an ambitious off-site intended to encourage teamwork and boost morale. How does a company determine whether such a large-scale event, even one that generates goodwill, is worth the investment? Does the team building extend to those back home who don't get to attend? Can intense competition between teams begin to overshadow the spirit of cooperation that such an event is meant to engender? In short, can a soccer tournament help a company achieve its corporate goal of creating a strong common culture?

  10. Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrester, Alan

    In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k =| ψ k | 2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129-3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415-438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinism-the notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]-I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.

  11. News in Brief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets with Ecuadorian Guests For the First Time a Chinese Researcher Gives the Plenary Lecture at the International Symposium on Combustion Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets with NSERC Executive Vice-President Vice President Sun Jiaguang Meets with CONICYT President Ten-Year Anniversary Workshop of NSFC-IIASA Young Scientists Summer Program Held in Beijing Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets Guest from K.T. Li Foundation The 6th ASIAHORCs General Meeting in Beijing President Chen Yiyu Meets with DFG Delegation Vice President Shen Yan Visited International Organizations in Italy and France Vice President Wang Jie Meets with CEO of Academy of Malaysia

  12. Quark chiral condensate from the overlap quark propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Bi, Yujiang; Cai, Hao; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Liu, Zhaofeng

    2017-05-01

    From the overlap lattice quark propagator calculated in the Landau gauge, we determine the quark chiral condensate by fitting operator product expansion formulas to the lattice data. The quark propagators are computed on domain wall fermion configurations generated by the RBC-UKQCD Collaborations with N f = 2+1 flavors. Three ensembles with different light sea quark masses are used at one lattice spacing 1/a = 1.75(4) GeV. We obtain in the SU(2) chiral limit. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575197, 11575196, 11335001, 11405178), joint funds of NSFC (U1632104, U1232109), YC and ZL acknowledge the support of NSFC and DFG (CRC110)

  13. Hydrogel research in Germany: the priority programme, Intelligent Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmersperger, Thomas; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2009-03-01

    The priority programme "Intelligent Hydrogels" was established by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in 2006 in order to strengthen the hydrogel-related research in Germany. The programme is being coordinated by Gabriele Sadowski, Technische Universität Dortmund. The aim of this priority programme is to develop new methods for the synthesis and characterization of smart hydrogels and to develop new modelling strategies in order to a) prepare the hydrogels for special applications and/or b) to develop and extend their capabilities for any desired use. In this programme, 73 scientists (36 professors and 37 scientific assistants/PhD students) from all over Germany are involved, working in 23 projects.

  14. Microswimmers - From Single Particle Motion to Collective Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gompper, Gerhard; Bechinger, Clemens; Herminghaus, Stephan; Isele-Holder, Rolf; Kaupp, U. Benjamin; Löwen, Hartmut; Stark, Holger; Winkler, Roland G.

    2016-11-01

    Locomotion of autonomous microswimmers is a fascinating field at the cutting edge of science. It combines the biophysics of self-propulsion via motor proteins, artificial propulsion mechanisms, swimming strategies at low Reynolds numbers, the hydrodynamic interaction of swimmers, and the collective motion and synchronisation of large numbers of agents. The articles of this Special Issue are based on the lecture notes of an international summer school, which was organized by the DFG Priority Programme 1726 "Microswimmers - From Single Particle Motion to Collective Behaviour" in the fall of 2015. The minireviews provide a broad overview of the field, covering both elementary and advanced material, as well as selected areas from current research.

  15. Synthesis of Asynchronous Systems from Data Flow Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Sarma B. K. Vrudhula, UA-ECE ISI/RR-93-366 December 1993 DTIC S ELECTE APR 2 81994 U G D!MC QUA& f n MC’W". 1 S INFORMATION SCIENCES 3101822-1511...wire data types is denoted by nb, where n is a positive integer. 3. Group data types are denoted by (g1,g2,.. . , g ,), where each gi is a null data type...During the manipulation of a DFG, a data type may be reduced to an equiv- alent data type. (gl) is equivalent to g1 , and (g1,g2,. . . , g 3 i--9,g9,gj+1

  16. Beneath the Surface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Discusses wood-flooring components for athletic facilities, what materials make up these floors, and how they affect a floor's performance once installed. The pros and cons of anchored versus floating systems are examined, including the issue of moisture resistance. Also discussed is the influence of Deutsches Institut fur Normans (DIN) standards…

  17. 75 FR 64384 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Instituting Proceedings To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ..., particularly in times of market stress, and exacerbate market volatility.\\8\\ \\7\\ See BATS Letter at 2; Deutsche... Volatility Guard to work within the parameters of the recently adopted single-stock circuit breakers, and to... of individual exchange volatility moderators in times of market stress. In addition, as noted above...

  18. European Research on Polymers and Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-13

    and collabo- There are also two other insti- rate closely with the universities. tutes. The Deutsches Kunststoff Institut General Strategies and...problems of major with a budget of about DM 9,000,000 (DM interest to German industry. The two 7,600,000 in 1981). Unlike the DKI this Kunststoff institutes

  19. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  20. The Efforts of Educational Interest Groups To Defeat Merit Pay for Teachers in Pennsylvania: 1983-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Alice Marie

    Efforts of educational interest groups to defeat merit pay for Pennsylvania teachers during 1983-1986 are explored in this case study. Political systems theory and allocative theory provide the conceptual framework. Deutsch's (1973) outline of variables that affect the course of conflict was used to organize indepth personal interviews and a…

  1. Lost (and Found) in Translation: Learning from German Language Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton

    2016-01-01

    This essay introduces two presentations (or "Vorträge") by Ulf Abraham and Thomas Zabka that were originally published in the German journal, "Didaktik Deutsch." I reflect on the complexities of translation and intercultural communication, and ask how we might meaningfully compare the policy environment of one country with that…

  2. Language and Music as Communication: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Roger Brown, Diana Deutsch, Warren Benson, and Ruth Day comment on the similarities and differences between verbal language and music as forms of communication. This discussion occurred at the first session of the National Symposium on the Applications of Psychology to the Teaching and Learning of Music, Ann Arbor. (SJL)

  3. The Professional Negotiator: Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Motivation To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medford, Robert E.; Miskel, Cecil

    The investigation examined the relationship among role conflict, role ambiguity, and motivation to work of teacher-negotiators. The theoretical rationale for the study was formulated from the finding of Walton and McKersie, Deutsch, Vidmar and McGrath, and Blum concerning the negotiator's conflict with his adversary, his dependence on his…

  4. Entwicklung neuer Uebungsformen durch die Einbeziehung des Mediums Fernsehen (Development of New Types of Exercises through the Use of Television)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Dietrich

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the use of television in university-preparatory schools. The exercises are supplementary to "Deutsch 2000" (M. Hueber, Munich), and deal with land and culture. Three short films are presented, for use in free comment. Examples of grammar, vocabulary and dictation exercises are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  6. 76 FR 65288 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... voting limitations would apply only for so long as NYSE Group directly or indirectly controls any... Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). NYSE Euronext owns 100% of the equity interest of NYSE Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation (``NYSE Group''), which in turn directly or indirectly owns (1) 100% of the equity...

  7. 76 FR 65272 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... voting limitations would apply only for so long as NYSE Group directly or indirectly controls any... Republic of Germany (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). NYSE Euronext owns 100% of the equity interest of NYSE Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation (``NYSE Group''), which in turn directly or indirectly owns (1) 100% of...

  8. Resolving Conflicts in Natural and Grammatical Gender Agreement: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dank, Maya; Deutsch, Avital; Bock, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the attraction phenomenon, which commonly occurs in the domain of production but is also apparent in comprehension. It particularly focused on its accessibility to conceptual influence, in analogy to previous findings in production in Hebrew (Deutsch and Dank, "J Mem Lang," 60:112-143, 2009). The…

  9. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching…

  10. Demonstration of essentiality of entanglement in a Deutsch-like quantum algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He-Liang; Goswami, Ashutosh K.; Bao, Wan-Su; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2018-06-01

    Quantum algorithms can be used to efficiently solve certain classically intractable problems by exploiting quantum parallelism. However, the effectiveness of quantum entanglement in quantum computing remains a question of debate. This study presents a new quantum algorithm that shows entanglement could provide advantages over both classical algorithms and quantum algo- rithms without entanglement. Experiments are implemented to demonstrate the proposed algorithm using superconducting qubits. Results show the viability of the algorithm and suggest that entanglement is essential in obtaining quantum speedup for certain problems in quantum computing. The study provides reliable and clear guidance for developing useful quantum algorithms.

  11. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Version 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used ...

  12. Determination of Minimum Suction Level Necessary for Field Dental Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    education. All were general den- tists except for one oral surgeon and one orofacial pain spe- cialist, and seven of the nine had been deployed during...REFERENCES 1, Zadik Y, Levin L: Orofacial injuries and mouth guard use in elite com- mando fighters. Mil Med 2008; 173: 1185-7, 2, Deutsch WM, Simecek

  13. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  14. Review of Recent Research (1998-2012) in German for Academic Purposes (GAP) in Comparison with English for Academic Purposes (EAP): Cross-Influences, Synergies and Implications for Further Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworska, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review reports on the major studies conducted in the field of "Deutsch als Wissenschaftssprache" (academic German) since the late 1990s. To begin with, the current position of German as a language of academic communication nationally and internationally will be discussed, focusing especially on the challenges posed…

  15. Field trials of 100G and beyond: an operator's point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbeck, S.; Schneiders, M.; Weiershausen, W.; Mayer, H.; Schippel, A.; Wagner, P.; Ehrhardt, A.; Braun, R.; Breuer, D.; Drafz, U.; Fritzsche, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a summary of the latest 100 Gbps field trials in the network of Deutsche Telekom AG with industry partners. We cover a brown field approach as alien wavelength on existing systems, a green field high speed overlay network approach and a high speed interface router-router coupling.

  16. ECHO: A Computer Based Test for the Measurement of Individualistic, Cooperative, Defensive, and Aggressive Models of Behavior. Occasional Paper No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krus, David J.; And Others

    This paper describes a test which attempts to measure a group of personality traits by analyzing the actual behavior of the participant in a computer-simulated game. ECHO evolved from an extension and computerization of Horstein and Deutsch's allocation game. The computerized version of ECHO requires subjects to make decisions about the allocation…

  17. Do Our Students Learn What We Teach Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Bettina; Jansen, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Teachers like to believe that students learn what they are taught. Following up on research that questions this belief, a large-scale study of the acquisition of German as a foreign language by French-speaking school students in Geneva (DiGS, or "Deutsch in Genfer Schulen," "German in Geneva schools") further explored the…

  18. Colloquium on Foreign Languages in the Elementary School Curriculum. Proceedings (New York, New York, September 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia, Ed.; Kremer, Douglas, Ed.

    A colloquium convened at the Deutsches Haus in New York is summarized that brought together experts to discuss (1) the significance foreign languages have for other elementary school subjects, and (2) what function the other subjects serve for early foreign language learning. The following six topics, guided by session leaders, provided the…

  19. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... The doors are still wide open for your future goals — whether those goals are to have a family or do anything else that you ... Español | Tagalog | Français | Deutsch | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | Рус ...

  20. 78 FR 35650 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... inbound portion of the Agreement, which concerns delivery of inbound Air and Surface CP \\2\\ and EMS in the... Foreign Postal Operator (Deutsche Post), June 6, 2013 (Notice). \\2\\ ``CP'' is an abbreviation used to... intended effective date is July 1, 2013. Id. at 2. The rates for inbound Air and Surface CP and EMS...

  1. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Walter freefloats inside the SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter demonstrates the microgravity aboard the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module in Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, payload bay (PLB). The module served as his space laboratory and that of his six crewmates for 10 days. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  2. Taking Decisions: Assessment for University Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plassmann, Sibylle; Zeidler, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Language testing means taking decisions: about the test taker's results, but also about the test construct and the measures taken in order to ensure quality. This article takes the German test "telc Deutsch C1 Hochschule" as an example to illustrate this decision-making process in an academic context. The test is used for university…

  3. Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Cancer Society . In fact, the greatest danger from thermography is that those who opt for ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  4. Allergy Meds Could Affect Your Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... and according to directions, they can pose a danger to your health and safety. Information about whether ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  5. Wien und Wein: Connecting Sound and Symbol in First-Year German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Philip N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a technique to train students to associate correct pronunciation of German with the graphemes as soon as they see them. When a student misreads a word, he or she is asked to compare that word with very common words which are almost never mispronounced or misspelled, such as "ein,""die," and "deutsch." (SED)

  6. First Steps towards Successful Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Tan, Hui Shan

    2015-01-01

    The use in education of small groups of two to four members receives substantial support from both theory and research (e.g., (Deutsch, 1949, 1962; Gillies, 2007; Johnson & Johnson, 2006; Lewin, 1935; Sharan, 1999; Slavin, 1995; Vygotsky, 1978, Webb, et al., 2009). This theory and research suggests that people learn more and gain affective…

  7. 77 FR 3297 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; International Securities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... limitations would apply only for so long as NYSE Group directly or indirectly controls any NYSE U.S. Regulated... (``Deutsche B[ouml]rse''). NYSE Euronext owns 100% of the equity interest of NYSE Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation (``NYSE Group''), which in turn directly or indirectly owns (1) 100% of the equity interest of the...

  8. Ground-based inhibition: Suppressive perceptual mechanisms interact with top-down attention to reduce distractor interference.

    PubMed

    Wager, Erica; Peterson, Mary A; Folstein, Jonathan R; Scalf, Paige E

    2015-01-01

    Successful attentional function requires inhibition of distracting information (e.g., Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963). Similarly, perceptual segregation of the visual world into figure and ground entails ground suppression (e.g., Likova & Tyler, 2008; Peterson & Skow, 2008). Here, we ask whether the suppressive processes of attention and perception-distractor inhibition and ground suppression-interact to more effectively insulate task performance from interfering information. We used a variant of the Eriksen flanker paradigm to assess the efficacy of distractor inhibition. Participants indicated the right/left orientation of a central arrow, which could be flanked by congruent, neutral, or incongruent stimuli. We manipulated the degree to which the ground region of a display was suppressed and measured the influence of this manipulation on the efficacy with which participants could inhibit responses from incongruent flankers. Greater ground suppression reduced the influence on target identification of interfering, incongruent information, but not that of facilitative, congruent information. These data are the first to show that distractor inhibition interacts with ground suppression to improve attentional function.

  9. Experimental implementation of local adiabatic evolution algorithms by an NMR quantum information processor.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Avik; Ghosh, Arindam; Das, Ranabir; Patel, Apoorva; Kumar, Anil

    2005-12-01

    Quantum adiabatic algorithm is a method of solving computational problems by evolving the ground state of a slowly varying Hamiltonian. The technique uses evolution of the ground state of a slowly varying Hamiltonian to reach the required output state. In some cases, such as the adiabatic versions of Grover's search algorithm and Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, applying the global adiabatic evolution yields a complexity similar to their classical algorithms. However, using the local adiabatic evolution, the algorithms given by J. Roland and N.J. Cerf for Grover's search [J. Roland, N.J. Cerf, Quantum search by local adiabatic evolution, Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 042308] and by Saurya Das, Randy Kobes, and Gabor Kunstatter for the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm [S. Das, R. Kobes, G. Kunstatter, Adiabatic quantum computation and Deutsh's algorithm, Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 062301], yield a complexity of order N (where N=2(n) and n is the number of qubits). In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of these local adiabatic evolution algorithms on a 2-qubit quantum information processor, by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

  10. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  11. Observations and relocation of a West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) off Bimini, The Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melillo-Sweeting, Kelly; Reid, James P.; Gittens, Lester; Adimey, Nicole; Dillet, Jared Z.

    2011-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are listed as vulnerable (IUCN Red List, 7 March 2009; Deutsch et al., 2008), with the subspecies Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus (Florida and Antillean, respectively) considered endangered (IUCN Red List, 21 January 2011; Deutsch, 2008; Self-Sullivan & Mignucci-Giannoni, 2008). Manatees are not native to The Bahamas; however, sightings have been recorded periodically since 1904, with an increase in sightings documented in the 1990s (Lefebvre et al., 2001). In the area of Bimini, The Bahamas, the first recorded manatee sighting was in 1904 of a single individual that was apparently killed (Allen, 1942). The second was not until 1996, which was poorly documented. The small adult remained for approximately 6 wks before disappearing (Lefebvre et al., 2001). In 1998, a third sighting was reported off Bimini of a single individual. Although the animal was seen for several weeks and was relatively habituated to human presence (Al Sweeting, Jr., pers. comm., 28 November 2008), no data were collected on this individual nor any photographs suitable for identification purposes.

  12. Generalization of some hidden subgroup algorithms for input sets of arbitrary size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poslu, Damla; Say, A. C. Cem

    2006-05-01

    We consider the problem of generalizing some quantum algorithms so that they will work on input domains whose cardinalities are not necessarily powers of two. When analyzing the algorithms we assume that generating superpositions of arbitrary subsets of basis states whose cardinalities are not necessarily powers of two perfectly is possible. We have taken Ballhysa's model as a template and have extended it to Chi, Kim and Lee's generalizations of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm and to Simon's algorithm. With perfectly equal superpositions of input sets of arbitrary size, Chi, Kim and Lee's generalized Deutsch-Jozsa algorithms, both for evenly-distributed and evenly-balanced functions, worked with one-sided error property. For Simon's algorithm the success probability of the generalized algorithm is the same as that of the original for input sets of arbitrary cardinalities with equiprobable superpositions, since the property that the measured strings are all those which have dot product zero with the string we search, for the case where the function is 2-to-1, is not lost.

  13. Injury surveillance and associations with socioeconomic status indicators among youth/young workers in New Jersey secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Apostolico, Alexsandra A; Shendell, Derek G

    2016-02-16

    Injuries involving career-technical-vocational education (CTE) are reported to the New Jersey Safe Schools Program online reporting system, the only U.S. State law-based surveillance data for young workers (ages twenty-one and younger), a susceptible, vulnerable adolescent sub-population. We examined potential associations between socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and high school student injuries reported between 12/1998-12/2013, excluding injuries acquired by staff members. Associations between DFG score-a proxy for school/district SES-and variables relating to reported injuries, including severity, injury type, injury cause, body parts injured, injury treatment setting and demographics were examined with chi square test (X(2)) for independence and logistic regression. To assess potential associations between SES and personal protective equipment (PPE), data were stratified by 2003-2008 and 2008-2013, given mandated payment by employers of PPE for employees. Statistically significant associations were found between SES and injury cause [X(2) = (7, 14.74), p = 0.04] and SES and injury treatment setting [X(2) = (1, 4.76), p = 0.03]. Adjusted odds ratio suggested students from low SES schools were at a higher odds of being treated at a hospital emergency department (ED) than students from high SES schools (95 % CI 1.3-4.3, p < 0.01). These findings indicated low SES schools/districts have increased odds of being treated at ED, after controlling for injury severity. Future research should focus on implications such associations have on health care access and insurance for young workers and their families. With small sample sizes representing lower DFG scoring (SES) schools/districts, additional efforts should be enacted to increase injury reporting in these schools/districts.

  14. Type II Kinase Inhibitors Show an Unexpected Inhibition Mode against Parkinson’s Disease-Linked LRRK2 Mutant G2019S

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Bender, Samantha A.; Cuny, Gregory D; Sherman, Woody; Glicksman, Marcie; Ray, Soumya S.

    2014-01-01

    A number of well-known type II inhibitors (ATP non-competitive) that bind kinases in their DFG-out conformation were tested against wild-type LRRK2 and the most common Parkinson’s disease-linked mutation G2019S. We found that traditional type II inhibitors exhibit surprising variability in their inhibition mechanism between wild type (WT) and the G2019S mutant of LRRK2. The type II kinase inhibitors were found to work by an ATP-competitive fashion against the G2019S mutant, whereas they appear to follow the expected non-competitive mechanism against WT. Since the G2019S mutation lies in the DXG-motif (DYG in LRRK2 but DFG in most other kinases) of the activation loop, we explored the structural consequence of the mutation on loop dynamics using an enhanced sampling method called metadynamics. The simulations suggest that the G2019S mutation stabilizes the DYG-in state of LRRK2 through a series of hydrogen bonds, leading to an increase in the conformational barrier between the active and inactive forms of the enzyme and a relative stabilization of the active form. The conformational bias toward the active form of LRRK2 mutants has two primary consequences: 1) the mutant enzyme becomes hyperactive, a known contributor to the Parkinsonian phenotype, as a consequence of being “locked” into the activated state and 2) the mutation creates an unusual allosteric pocket that can bind type II inhibitors but in an ATP competitive fashion. Our results suggest that developing type II inhibitors, which are generally considered superior to type I inhibitors due to desirable selectivity profiles, might be especially challenging for the G2019S LRRK2 mutant. PMID:23379419

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy on Smoke Produced by Cauterization of Animal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2010-01-01

    In view of in vivo surgical smoke studies a difference-frequency-generation (DFG) laser spectrometer (spectral range 2900–3144 cm−1) and a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer were employed for infrared absorption spectroscopy. The chemical composition of smoke produced in vitro with an electroknife by cauterization of different animal tissues in different atmospheres was investigated. Average concentrations derived are: water vapor (0.87%), methane (20 ppm), ethane (4.8 ppm), ethene (17 ppm), carbon monoxide (190 ppm), nitric oxide (25 ppm), nitrous oxide (40 ppm), ethyne (50 ppm) and hydrogen cyanide (25 ppm). No correlation between smoke composition and the atmosphere or the kind of cauterized tissue was found. PMID:22319267

  16. Steady-state solution growth of microcrystalline silicon on nanocrystalline seed layers on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansen, R.; Ehlers, C.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.

    2016-09-01

    The growth of polycrystalline silicon layers on glass from tin solutions at low temperatures is presented. This approach is based on the steady-state solution growth of Si crystallites on nanocrystalline seed layers, which are prepared in a preceding process step. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations reveal details about the seed layer surfaces, which consist of small hillocks, as well as about Sn inclusions and gaps along the glass substrate after solution growth. The successful growth of continuous microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes up to several ten micrometers shows the feasibility of the process and makes it interesting for photovoltaics. Project supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) (No. BO 1129/5-1).

  17. Dynamical Quasicondensation of Hard-Core Bosons at Finite Momenta: A Non-equilibrium Condensation Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Vidmar, L.; Ronzheimer, J. P.; Hodgman, S.; Schreiber, M.; Braun, S.; Langer, S.; Bloch, I.; Schneider, U.

    2016-05-01

    Long-range order in quantum many-body systems is usually associated with equilibrium situations. Here, we experimentally investigate the quasicondensation of strongly interacting bosons at finite momenta in a far-from-equilibrium case. We prepare an inhomogeneous initial state consisting of one-dimensional Mott insulators in the center of otherwise empty one-dimensional chains in an optical lattice with a lattice constant d. After suddenly quenching the trapping potential to zero, we observe the onset of coherence in spontaneously forming quasicondensates in the lattice. Remarkably, the emerging phase order differs from the ground-state order and is characterized by peaks at finite momenta +/-(π / 2)(ℏ / d) in the momentum distribution function. Supported by the DFG via FOR 801.

  18. Defect interactions in anisotropic two-dimensional fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Harth, Kirsten

    Disclinations in liquid crystals bear striking analogies to defect structures in a wide variety of physical systems, they are excellent models to study fundamental properties of defect interactions. Freely suspended smectic C films behave like quasi 2D polar nematics. An experimental procedure is introduced to capture high-strength disclinations in localized spots. After they are released in a controlled way, the motion of the mutually repelling topological charges is studied. We demonstrate that the classical models, based on elastic one-constant approximation, fail to describe their dynamics correctly. In realistic liquid crystals, the models work only in ideal configurations. In general, additional director walls modify interactions substantially. Funded by DFG within project STA 425/28-1.

  19. Culture Curriculum for German, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Larry M.; Loew, Helene Z.

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-1 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the first eight lessons of the text and comprise the major portion of this text including: (1) die Post, (2) Munchen, (3) Sport in Deutschland, (4) die deutschen…

  20. The Octave Illusion Revisited Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Diana

    2004-01-01

    The octave illusion (D. Deutsch, 1974) occurs when 2 tones separated by an octave are alternated repeatedly, such that when the right ear receives the high tone, the left ear receives the low tone, and vice versa. Most subjects in the original study reported hearing a single tone that alternated from ear to ear, whose pitch also alternated from…

  1. Culture Curriculum for German, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetiker, Rosemary

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-2 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the seventh through the 12th lessons and comprise the major portion of this text including: )1) die Eisenbahn, (2) Reisen und Essen in Deutschland, (3) die Familie,…

  2. Images of Germany: Past and Present. A Film Collection, Series II Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Hutcheson, Gwen

    This booklet offers classroom activities for use with 15 social studies-related films for teaching about Germany. The series of 25-minute films are made available by Deutsche Welle Television and Goethe House New York. Lessons in the booklet include: (1) "Germany Since 1945: A Focus on Berlin"; (2) "'I'll Get You All Out of Here!' A…

  3. Intron size and genome size in plants.

    Treesearch

    J. Wendel; R. Cronn; I. Alvarez; B. Liu; R. Small; D. Senchina

    2002-01-01

    It has long been known that genomes vary over a remarkable range of sizes in both plants (Bennett, Cox, and Leitch 1997) and animals (Gregory 2001). It also has become evident that across the broad phylogenetic sweep, genome size may be correlated with intron size (Deutsch and Long 1999; Vinogradov 1999; McLysaght et al. 2000), suggesting that some component of genome...

  4. BKG/DGFI Combination Center Annual Report 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Loesler, Michael; Heinkelmann, Robert; Gerstl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, BKG) and the German Geodetic Research Institute (Deutsches Geodaetisches Forschungsinstitut, DGFI)BKG/DGFI Combination Center in 2011 and outlines the planned activities for the year 2012. The main focus was to stabilize outlier detection and to update the Web presentation of the combined products.

  5. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Contract Audit Agency DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DIY Do it yourself DKMS Deutsche Knochenmarkspenderdatei DMSO...contact information and complete an online Health History Questionnaire (HHQ) from the Do It Yourself Donor ( DIY ) online platform. Information...email and allows them to: Update their contact information Complete an online Health History Questionnaire (HHQ) from the Do It Yourself ( DIY ) donor

  6. Cross Sections of P-Induced Reactions up to 100 MeV for the Interpretation of Solar Cosmic Ray Produced Nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiekel, T.; Rosel, R.; Herpers, U.; Bodemann, R.; Michel, R.; Dittrich, B.; Hofmann, H. J.; Suter, M.; Wolfli, W.; Holmqvist, B.; Conde, H.; Malmborg, P.

    1992-07-01

    relevant for SCR interactions with terrestrial and extraterrestrial matter, i.e., ^7Be and ^10Be from C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si and ^22Na and ^26Al from Mg, Al, and Si, is discussed in detail. In order to investigate whether theoretical calculations can be used to supply the necessary cross sections for SCR model calcu- lations, a theoretical analysis of the experimental data is given on the basis of model calculations of equilibrium and pre-equilibrium reactions for light target elements. The new data are applied to model calculations of the production of SCR-produced nuclides in lunar surface materials and in meteorites. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and by the Swiss National Science Foundation. References: (1) Michel et al. (1984) J. Geophys Res. 89, B673- B684. (2) Michel R. et al. (1985) Nucl. Phys. A441, 617-639.

  7. Atom chip gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    1552-1557 (QUANTUS-IV-Fallturm) and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the SFB 1128 geo-Q. [1] P. Berg et al., Composite-Light-Pulse Technique for High-Precision Atom Interferometry, Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 063002, 2015. [2] A. Peters et al., Measurement of gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms, Nature 400, 849, 1999. [3] D. Schlippert et al., Quantum Test of the Universality of Free Fall, Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 203002, 2014. [4] A. Louchet-Chauvet et al., The influence of transverse motion within an atomic gravimeter, New J. Phys. 13, 065026, 2011. [5] Q. Bodart et al., A cold atom pyramidal gravimeter with a single laser beam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 134101, 2010. [6] H. Müntinga et al., Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 093602, 2013. [7] T. Kovachy et al., Matter Wave Lensing to Picokelvin Temperatures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 143004, 2015. [8] J. Rudolph et al., A high-flux BEC source for mobile atom interferometers, New J. Phys. 17, 065001, 2015.

  8. Structures and processes of biological soil crusts during initial ecosystem genesis of an artificial watershed in Lusatia, NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spröte, Roland; Fischer, Thomas; Veste, Maik; Yair, Aaron; Wiehe, Wolfgang; Lange, Philipp; Bens, Oliver; Raab, Thomas; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    enmeshed sand grains, and in a wet condition extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) clogged the available pore space. Once settled, the crusts influenced the water regime of the soils. They were not pronounced hydrophobic, yet surface polarity differed between the crust types. Water infiltration was influenced by two factors: (i) the crust type, where infiltration rates were highest on almost bare substrate (BSC-I) and least when cyanobacteria and green algae formed a dense cover on the surface (BSC-CG), and (ii) the texture. Compared to BSC-CG, infiltration rates were elevated in BSC-M, pointing to decline of surface sealing when mosses penetrated the dense microphytic crust. However, the relationships among crust types, water repellency, particle size composition and infiltration are complex and need further investigation on different scales. This project is part of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 38 'Structures and processes of the initial ecosystem development phase in an artificial water catchment' and funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  9. Liebes Tagebuch: Abroad at Last, But Let Me Tell You "auf Deutsch."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Annelise M.

    This paper describes techniques used by a German instructor with American students during a summer abroad program. Learning activities, both in and outside of class, concentrate on writing. The students keep logs and diaries, which force them to be aware of their surroundings and to participate more actively in the life around them. With the…

  10. Von den Flitterwochen zur distanzierten Partnerschaft. Deutsche Manager in internationalen M&A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Martina; Schalljo, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) require considerable intercultural openness on the part of the managers involved. A recent wave of takeovers by private equity investors and foreign investors from emerging economies has challenged German executives. In cases of friendly takeovers, as described in this study, managers at first appear to extend a cosmopolitan welcome to the new owners. However, further analysis of structural hermeneutics reveals latent normative professional ethics of managers which lead to practices of distancing, in particular from young investors from China, India, and Russia.

  11. Folklore for Teachers: Deutsche Volkskunde im Sprachunterricht (German Folklore in Language Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Berta N.

    1971-01-01

    Cultural study provides an invaluable tool for the motivation and enrichment of work in the language classroom. The teacher of German, having decided to embark on a culture study program, must not, however, make the mistake of concentrating on the past, nor of letting current political boundaries restrict his approach; rather, he will find that…

  12. [Physical examination and palpation findings of mammary glands and indications of udder health in goat milk].

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Fahr, R D; Finn, G; Naumann, I

    1999-04-01

    In dairy goats there is less evidence for relationships between udder form traits, results of physical udder examinations and mastitis indicators in the milk than in dairy cows. In 413 goats (predominantly Weisse Deutsche Edelziege and Bunte Deutsche Edelziege) from five herds (free from C.A.E.) repeated investigations of 2537 udder halves and fore milk samples were carried out in order to compare udder traits with findings in the milk. Less than 20% positive bacteriological findings and a low incidence of clinical mastitis testified a good clinical udder health status of the herds. Small teat-floor distances, loose hanging of the udders and bottle-shaped teats, findings which tended to become more frequent as lactation and lactation numbers progressed, indurative alterations of the mammary tissues and the teats tended to be connected with higher milk cell counts (> 1 million/microliter), more polymorphonuclear milk cells (> 40%), higher electrical milk conductivity (> 6.8 mS/cm) and lower milk lactose content (< 4.6%). A similar effect had a bad state of foot trimming. It is proposed to include the studied udder traits into herd health programs and breeding schemes for goats.

  13. Quality of care in breast cancer centers: results of benchmarking by the German Cancer Society and German Society for Breast Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Christoph; Ferencz, Julia; Brucker, Sara Y; Kreienberg, Rolf; Wesselmann, Simone

    2015-04-01

    A total of 218 breast cancer centers, with 274 operating sites, have been certified since 2003 in accordance with the criteria set out by the German Cancer Society (Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft) and the German Society for Breast Diseases (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Senologie). Most of these centers are located in Germany, but centers in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy have also been certified. This paper presents the results for quality indicators (QIs) from 2009 to 2012, based on data from 195,342 primary breast cancer patients, in order to illustrate the development and progress of these centers. Descriptive results on interdisciplinary collaboration (6 QIs), guideline adherence (15 QIs), and specialist expertise (7 QIs) are reported over time. Fulfillment of the certification requirements was high and remained relatively stable over time, with the extent of variation between sites declining. Sites that do not reach the target values are asked to comment on the discrepancies, and their comments, as well as the QI results, are used by centers and auditors during an on-site auditing process and to constantly revise the QIs set out by the guideline and the certification commission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for determining surface properties of microparticles

    DOEpatents

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) can be used for surface analysis or characterization of microparticles having a non-metallic surface feature. The microparticles can be centrosymmetric or such that non-metallic molecules of interest are centrosymmetrically distributed inside and outside the microparticles but not at the surface of the microparticles where the asymmetry aligns the molecules. The signal is quadratic in incident laser intensity or proportional to the product of two incident laser intensities for SFG, it is sharply peaked at the second harmonic wavelength, quadratic in the density of molecules adsorbed onto the microparticle surface, and linear in microparticles density. In medical or pharmacological applications, molecules of interest may be of drugs or toxins, for example.

  15. Quark mass variations of nuclear forces, BBN, and all that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, I discuss the modifications of the nuclear forces due to variations of the light quark masses and of the fine structure constant. This is based on the chiral nuclear effective field theory, that successfully describes a large body of data. The generation of the light elements in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis provides important constraints on these modifications. In addition, I discuss the role of the anthropic principle in the triple-alpha process that underlies carbon and oxygen generation in hot stars. It appears that a fine-tuning of the quark masses and the fine structure constant within 2 to 3 per cent is required to make life on Earth viable. Supported in part by DFG, HGF and the BMBF.

  16. High passive CEP stability from a few-cycle, tunable NOPA-DFG system for observation of CEP-effects in photoemission.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, Jan; Robin, Jörg; Piglosiewicz, Björn; Manzoni, Cristian; Farinello, Paolo; Melzer, Stefan; Feru, Philippe; Cerullo, Giulio; Lienau, Christoph; Groß, Petra

    2014-10-20

    The investigation of fundamental mechanisms taking place on a femtosecond time scale is enabled by ultrafast pulsed laser sources. Here, the control of pulse duration, center wavelength, and especially the carrier-envelope phase has been shown to be of essential importance for coherent control of high harmonic generation and attosecond physics and, more recently, also for electron photoemission from metallic nanostructures. In this paper we demonstrate the realization of a source of 2-cycle laser pulses tunable between 1.2 and 2.1 μm, and with intrinsic CEP stability. The latter is guaranteed by difference frequency generation between the output pulse trains of two noncollinear optical parametric amplifier stages that share the same CEP variations. The CEP stability is better than 50 mrad over 20 minutes, when averaging over 100 pulses. We demonstrate the good CEP stability by measuring kinetic energy spectra of photoemitted electrons from a single metal nanostructure and by observing a clear variation of the electron yield with the CEP.

  17. Specific immune cell and cytokine characteristics of human testicular germ cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Britta; Haggeney, Thomas; Fietz, Daniela; Indumathy, Sivanjah; Loveland, Kate L; Hedger, Mark; Kliesch, Sabine; Weidner, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Martin; Schuppe, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-01

    small number of samples. The unique B cell presence and the significantly increased expression level of IL-6 in testicular germ cell neoplasia (P < 0.001) strengthen its special role in this disease. In line with current knowledge on other types of cancer, these results underline the relevance of further investigating the potential of IL-6 as early biomarker and target for therapeutic intervention in testicular germ cell neoplasia. This study (and B.K. in person) was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of the International Research Training Group between Justus Liebig University of Giessen and Monash University, Melbourne (GRK 1871/1) on 'Molecular pathogenesis on male reproductive disorders'. T.H., H.-C.S. and M.B. were supported by the LOEWE focus group 'MIBIE' (male infertility during infection & inflammation)-an excellence initiative of the German state government of Hessen. From the Australian side, K.L. was supported by NHMRC grants (Fellowship, ID1079646 and Project, ID1081987); K.L., S.I. and M.H. received scholarship (S.I.) and research funding (K.L., M.H.) from Monash University. The project also drew support from the Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program. The authors have no competing interests to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Neuromuscular diseases were always difficult to diagnose].

    PubMed

    Claus, D

    2013-06-01

    The Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Nervenheilkunde (German Journal for Neurology) was founded as a specifically neurological journal at the end of the nineteenth century and soon became a European platform for scientific discussion of neurological topics. Papers also came from the USA, Scandinavia and Russia. The difficulties of the diagnosis and definition of clinical entities are illustrated in cases of botulism, myotonic dystrophy and myasthenia gravis.

  19. STS-55 German Payload Specialist Schlegel works at SL-D2 Biolabor microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel loads sample into a microscope at the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 7 Biolabor (BB) workstation. The BB facility is a life sciences and biotechnology research device developed by Germany (MBB/ERNO) for use aboard Spacelab. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) during this 10-day mission aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  20. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.