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Sample records for developed three-dimensional software

  1. Potentials for Spatial Geometry Curriculum Development with Three-Dimensional Dynamic Geometry Software in Lower Secondary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazaki, Mikio; Kimiho, Chino; Katoh, Ryuhei; Arai, Hitoshi; Ogihara, Fumihiro; Oguchi, Yuichi; Morozumi, Tatsuo; Kon, Mayuko; Komatsu, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional dynamic geometry software has the power to enhance students' learning of spatial geometry. The purpose of this research is to clarify what potential using three-dimensional dynamic geometry software can offer us in terms of how to develop the spatial geometry curriculum in lower secondary schools. By focusing on the impacts the…

  2. Three-dimensional perspective software for representation of digital imagery data. [Olympic National Park, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized three dimensional perspective software capability was developed within the framework of a low cost computer oriented geographically based information system using the Earth Resources Laboratory Applications Software (ELAS) operating subsystem. This perspective software capability, developed primarily to support data display requirements at the NASA/NSTL Earth Resources Laboratory, provides a means of displaying three dimensional feature space object data in two dimensional picture plane coordinates and makes it possible to overlay different types of information on perspective drawings to better understand the relationship of physical features. An example topographic data base is constructed and is used as the basic input to the plotting module. Examples are shown which illustrate oblique viewing angles that convey spatial concepts and relationships represented by the topographic data planes.

  3. Development of an interactive anatomical three-dimensional eye model.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lauren K; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a digital, interactive, three-dimensional (3D) model of the muscles and cranial nerves of the oculomotor system. Development of the 3D model utilized data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) dataset that was refined using multiple forms of 3D software. The model was then paired with a virtual user interface in order to create a novel 3D learning tool for the human oculomotor system. Development of the virtual eye model was done while attempting to adhere to the principles of cognitive load theory (CLT) and the reduction of extraneous load in particular. The detailed approach, digital tools employed, and the CLT guidelines are described herein.

  4. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  5. Is Three-Dimensional Soft Tissue Prediction by Software Accurate?

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Uk; Hong, Jongrak

    2015-11-01

    The authors assessed whether virtual surgery, performed with a soft tissue prediction program, could correctly simulate the actual surgical outcome, focusing on soft tissue movement. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) data for 29 patients, who had undergone orthognathic surgery, were obtained and analyzed using the Simplant Pro software. The program made a predicted soft tissue image (A) based on presurgical CT data. After the operation, we obtained actual postoperative CT data and an actual soft tissue image (B) was generated. Finally, the 2 images (A and B) were superimposed and analyzed differences between the A and B. Results were grouped in 2 classes: absolute values and vector values. In the absolute values, the left mouth corner was the most significant error point (2.36 mm). The right mouth corner (2.28 mm), labrale inferius (2.08 mm), and the pogonion (2.03 mm) also had significant errors. In vector values, prediction of the right-left side had a left-sided tendency, the superior-inferior had a superior tendency, and the anterior-posterior showed an anterior tendency. As a result, with this program, the position of points tended to be located more left, anterior, and superior than the "real" situation. There is a need to improve the prediction accuracy for soft tissue images. Such software is particularly valuable in predicting craniofacial soft tissues landmarks, such as the pronasale. With this software, landmark positions were most inaccurate in terms of anterior-posterior predictions.

  6. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  7. Three-dimensional cell to tissue development process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An improved three-dimensional cell to tissue development process using a specific time varying electromagnetic force, pulsed, square wave, with minimum fluid shear stress, freedom for 3-dimensional spatial orientation of the suspended particles and localization of particles with differing or similar sedimentation properties in a similar spatial region.

  8. Development of three-dimensional memory (3D-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong-Yu; Shen, Chen; Jiang, Lingli; Dong, Bin; Zhang, Guobiao

    2016-10-01

    Since the invention of 3-D ROM in 1996, three-dimensional memory (3D-M) has been under development for nearly two decades. In this presentation, we'll review the 3D-M history and compare different 3D-Ms (including 3D-OTP from Matrix Semiconductor, 3D-NAND from Samsung and 3D-XPoint from Intel/Micron).

  9. Artificial three-dimensional niches deconstruct pancreas development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Manuel; Gobaa, Samy; Ranga, Adrian; Semb, Henrik; Lutolf, Matthias; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2013-11-01

    In the context of a cellular therapy for diabetes, methods for pancreatic progenitor expansion and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing beta cells would be extremely valuable. Here we establish three-dimensional culture conditions in Matrigel that enable the efficient expansion of dissociated mouse embryonic pancreatic progenitors. By manipulating the medium composition we generate either hollow spheres, which are mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors, or complex organoids that spontaneously undergo pancreatic morphogenesis and differentiation. The in vitro maintenance and expansion of pancreatic progenitors require active Notch and FGF signaling, thus recapitulating in vivo niche signaling interactions. Our experiments reveal new aspects of pancreas development, such as a community effect by which small groups of cells better maintain progenitor properties and expand more efficiently than isolated cells, as well as the requirement for three-dimensionality. Finally, growth conditions in chemically defined biomaterials pave the way for testing the biophysical and biochemical properties of the niche that sustains pancreatic progenitors.

  10. Three-Dimensional Path Planning Software-Assisted Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: A Technical Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Tsauo, Jiaywei Luo, Xuefeng; Ye, Linchao; Li, Xiao

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to report our results with a modified technique of three-dimensional (3D) path planning software assisted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).Methods3D path planning software was recently developed to facilitate TIPS creation by using two carbon dioxide portograms acquired at least 20° apart to generate a 3D path for overlay needle guidance. However, one shortcoming is that puncturing along the overlay would be technically impossible if the angle of the liver access set and the angle of the 3D path are not the same. To solve this problem, a prototype 3D path planning software was fitted with a utility to calculate the angle of the 3D path. Using this, we modified the angle of the liver access set accordingly during the procedure in ten patients.ResultsFailure for technical reasons occurred in three patients (unsuccessful wedged hepatic venography in two cases, software technical failure in one case). The procedure was successful in the remaining seven patients, and only one needle pass was required to obtain portal vein access in each case. The course of puncture was comparable to the 3D path in all patients. No procedure-related complication occurred following the procedures.ConclusionsAdjusting the angle of the liver access set to match the angle of the 3D path determined by the software appears to be a favorable modification to the technique of 3D path planning software assisted TIPS.

  11. Software for compartmental translation analysis and virtual three-dimensional visualization of the pivot shift phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Choi, Daniel; Bosscher, Marianne Roberta Frederiek; Citak, Mustafa; Pearle, Andrew D; Plaskos, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may cause knee instability and may result in damage to the menisci and the articular cartilage. The pivot shift test is commonly used to identify rotational instability of the knee following injury to the ACL. The magnitude of lateral compartment translation correlates well with the grade of the pivot shift. However, commonly used navigation systems do not readily provide individualized compartmental translation. We aimed to develop software to (a) quantify individual medial and lateral compartmental translation in the knee during the pivot shift test, and (b) generate animated three-dimensional renderings of recorded pivot shift examinations. Twelve paired cadaveric knees were used to test the software. Three mechanized pivot shift tests were performed on each knee with the ACL intact and again after sectioning the ACL. Using the Pivot Shift Processor, we successfully analyzed the data recorded using the navigation system. After sectioning the ACL, there was a greater increase in tibiofemoral translation in the lateral compartment compared to the medial compartment. The Pivot Shift Visualizer successfully produced a 3D rendering of the knee joint and the recorded pivot shift maneuvers. This virtual representation of the pivot shift phenomenon from multiple points of view allows for efficient side-by-side comparison of tibiofemoral motion tracking across conditions, which is not possible in the in vivo / in vitro settings. This, in turn, could lead to a better understanding of the kinematics in play during the pivot shift phenomenon.

  12. Development of Three-Dimensional DRAGON Grid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yao; Kiou, Meng-Sing; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    1999-01-01

    For a typical three dimensional flow in a practical engineering device, the time spent in grid generation can take 70 percent of the total analysis effort, resulting in a serious bottleneck in the design/analysis cycle. The present research attempts to develop a procedure that can considerably reduce the grid generation effort. The DRAGON grid, as a hybrid grid, is created by means of a Direct Replacement of Arbitrary Grid Overlapping by Nonstructured grid. The DRAGON grid scheme is an adaptation to the Chimera thinking. The Chimera grid is a composite structured grid, composing a set of overlapped structured grids, which are independently generated and body-fitted. The grid is of high quality and amenable for efficient solution schemes. However, the interpolation used in the overlapped region between grids introduces error, especially when a sharp-gradient region is encountered. The DRAGON grid scheme is capable of completely eliminating the interpolation and preserving the conservation property. It maximizes the advantages of the Chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured and while at the same time keeping its weaknesses minimal. In the present paper, we describe the progress towards extending the DRAGON grid technology into three dimensions. Essential and programming aspects of the extension, and new challenges for the three-dimensional cases, are addressed.

  13. Development of a three-dimensional turbulent duct flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, P. R.; Levy, R.; Mcdonald, H.; Briley, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    A method for computing three-dimensional turbulent subsonic flow in curved ducts is described. An approximate set of governing equations is given for viscous flows which have a primary flow direction. The derivation is coordinate invariant, and the resulting equations are expressed in terms of tensors. General tube-like coordinates were developed for a general class of geometries applicable to many internal flow problems. The coordinates are then particularized to pipes having superelliptic cross sections whose shape can vary continuously between a circle and a near rectangle. The analysis is applied to a series of relevant aerodynamic problems including transition from nearly square to round pipes and flow through a pipe with an S-shaped bend.

  14. Three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction: software RED for automated data collection and data processing.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wei; Sun, Junliang; Su, Jie; Hovmöller, Sven; Zou, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of a computer program package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction (RED) data is described. The software package contains two computer programs: RED data collection and RED data processing. The RED data collection program controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Electron beam tilts at a fine step (0.05-0.20°) are combined with goniometer tilts at a coarse step (2.0-3.0°) around a common tilt axis, which allows a fine relative tilt to be achieved between the electron beam and the crystal in a large tilt range. An electron diffraction (ED) frame is collected at each combination of beam tilt and goniometer tilt. The RED data processing program processes three-dimensional ED data generated by the RED data collection program or by other approaches. It includes shift correction of the ED frames, peak hunting for diffraction spots in individual ED frames and identification of these diffraction spots as reflections in three dimensions. Unit-cell parameters are determined from the positions of reflections in three-dimensional reciprocal space. All reflections are indexed, and finally a list with hkl indices and intensities is output. The data processing program also includes a visualizer to view and analyse three-dimensional reciprocal lattices reconstructed from the ED frames. Details of the implementation are described. Data collection and data processing with the software RED are demonstrated using a calcined zeolite sample, silicalite-1. The structure of the calcined silicalite-1, with 72 unique atoms, could be solved from the RED data by routine direct methods.

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIO AND X-RAY MODELING AND DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: REVEALING FLARE COMPLEXITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  16. Three-dimensional Radio and X-Ray Modeling and Data Analysis Software: Revealing Flare Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Gary, Dale E.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  17. Development of Three-Dimensional Object Completion in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion was investigated by habituating 4- and 6-month-old infants (n = 24 total) with a computer-generated wedge stimulus that pivoted 15[degrees], providing only a limited view. Two displays, rotating 360[degrees], were then shown: a complete, solid volume and an incomplete, hollow form composed only of the sides…

  18. Development of a Three-Dimensional Hand Model Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry: Assessment of Image Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Hoevenaren, Inge A.; Meulstee, J.; Krikken, E.; Bergé, S. J.; Ulrich, D. J. O.; Maal, Thomas J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Using three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry precise images and reconstructions of the human body can be produced. Over the last few years, this technique is mainly being developed in the field of maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, creating fusion images with computed tomography (CT) data for precise planning and prediction of treatment outcome. Though, in hand surgery 3D stereophotogrammetry is not yet being used in clinical settings. Methods A total of 34 three-dimensional hand photographs were analyzed to investigate the reproducibility. For every individual, 3D photographs were captured at two different time points (baseline T0 and one week later T1). Using two different registration methods, the reproducibility of the methods was analyzed. Furthermore, the differences between 3D photos of men and women were compared in a distance map as a first clinical pilot testing our registration method. Results The absolute mean registration error for the complete hand was 1.46 mm. This reduced to an error of 0.56 mm isolating the region to the palm of the hand. When comparing hands of both sexes, it was seen that the male hand was larger (broader base and longer fingers) than the female hand. Conclusions This study shows that 3D stereophotogrammetry can produce reproducible images of the hand without harmful side effects for the patient, so proving to be a reliable method for soft tissue analysis. Its potential use in everyday practice of hand surgery needs to be further explored. PMID:26366860

  19. Recent developments in three-dimensional numerical estuarine models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Smith, Peter E.; Casulli, Vincenzo

    1993-01-01

    For a fixed cost, computing power increases 5 to 10 times every five years. The readily available computing resources have inspired new modal formulations and innovative model applications. Significant progress has been advanced in three-dimensional numerical estuarine modeling within the past three or four years. This paper attempts to review and summarize properties of new 3-D estuarine hydrodynamic models. The emphasis of the review is placed on the formulation, numerical methods. The emphasis of the review is placed on the formulation, numerical methods, spatial and temporal resolution, computational efficiency, and turbulence closure of new models. Recent research has provided guidelines for the proper use of 3-D models involving in the σ-transformation. Other models resort to a fixed level discretization in the vertical. The semi-implicit treatment in time-stepping models appears to have gained momentum. Future research in three-dimensional numerical modeling remains to be on computational efficiency and turbulent closure.

  20. Design and test of a PC-based portable three-dimensional ultrasound software system Ultra3D.

    PubMed

    Xu, X George; Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Tiantian

    2008-02-01

    Currently, portable ultrasound units lack three-dimensional (3D) image display, limiting their potential usefulness especially under remote and hostile operating environments where information must be intuitive and objective. A freehand 3D image processing and visualization software package, Ultra3D, has been developed and tested, especially to work with a miniaturized linear-array transducer probe that is connected to a laptop PC. This paper presents the software design and method to integrate Ultra3D into Terason's miniaturized SmartProbe for freehand 3D ultrasound imaging. Since images generated by Ultra3D are in a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format, data sharing with others is easy.

  1. [Extraction of buildings three-dimensional information from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi

    2010-05-01

    The demand for accurate and up-to-date spatial information of urban buildings is becoming more and more important for urban planning, environmental protection, and other vocations. Today's commercial high-resolution satellite imagery offers the potential to extract the three-dimensional information of urban buildings. This paper extracted the three-dimensional information of urban buildings from QuickBird imagery, and validated the precision of the extraction based on Barista software. It was shown that the extraction of three-dimensional information of the buildings from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software had the advantages of low professional level demand, powerful universality, simple operation, and high precision. One pixel level of point positioning and height determination accuracy could be achieved if the digital elevation model (DEM) and sensor orientation model had higher precision and the off-Nadir View Angle was relatively perfect.

  2. Development of a Three-Dimensional PSE Code for Compressible Flows: Stability of Three-Dimensional Compressible Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.; Jeyasingham, Samarasingham

    1999-01-01

    A program is developed to investigate the linear stability of three-dimensional compressible boundary layer flows over bodies of revolutions. The problem is formulated as a two dimensional (2D) eigenvalue problem incorporating the meanflow variations in the normal and azimuthal directions. Normal mode solutions are sought in the whole plane rather than in a line normal to the wall as is done in the classical one dimensional (1D) stability theory. The stability characteristics of a supersonic boundary layer over a sharp cone with 50 half-angle at 2 degrees angle of attack is investigated. The 1D eigenvalue computations showed that the most amplified disturbances occur around x(sub 2) = 90 degrees and the azimuthal mode number for the most amplified disturbances range between m = -30 to -40. The frequencies of the most amplified waves are smaller in the middle region where the crossflow dominates the instability than the most amplified frequencies near the windward and leeward planes. The 2D eigenvalue computations showed that due to the variations in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the eigenmodes are clustered into isolated confined regions. For some eigenvalues, the eigenfunctions are clustered in two regions. Due to the nonparallel effect in the azimuthal direction, the most amplified disturbances are shifted to 120 degrees compared to 90 degrees for the parallel theory. It is also observed that the nonparallel amplification rates are smaller than that is obtained from the parallel theory.

  3. The development of a three-dimensional partially elliptic flow computer program for combustor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Y. S.

    1978-01-01

    A three dimensional, partially elliptic, computer program was developed. Without requiring three dimensional computer storage locations for all flow variables, the partially elliptic program is capable of predicting three dimensional combustor flow fields with large downstream effects. The program requires only slight increase of computer storage over the parabolic flow program from which it was developed. A finite difference formulation for a three dimensional, fully elliptic, turbulent, reacting, flow field was derived. Because of the negligible diffusion effects in the main flow direction in a supersonic combustor, the set of finite-difference equations can be reduced to a partially elliptic form. Only the pressure field was governed by an elliptic equation and requires three dimensional storage; all other dependent variables are governed by parabolic equations. A numerical procedure which combines a marching integration scheme with an iterative scheme for solving the elliptic pressure was adopted.

  4. Visualization software for a global three-dimensional upper atmosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Benjamin T.; Roble, Raymond G.; Ridley, E. Cicely

    1995-01-01

    A software environment has been developed to assist in analysis and visualization of numerical outputs from NCAR's thermospheric general circulation models. The codes produce vector graphics, raster imagery, and time dependent animation of model results, with provision for comparison with empirical models and relevant data from satellite and ground based instruments. Separate programs are executed on the NCAR CRAY YMP8/864 and HAO divisional Sun workstations, providing both large volume highspeed batch and custom interactive computing environments. The visualization system assembles a suite of existing software packages including NCAR Graphics, IDL, netCDF, and the Xt intrinsics library with the Athena widget set.

  5. Developments and trends in three-dimensional mesh generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    An intense research effort over the last few years has produced several competing and apparently diverse methods for generating meshes. Recent progress is reviewed and the central themes are emphasized which form a solid foundation for future developments in mesh generation.

  6. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  7. Development of three-dimensional radiotherapy techniques in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Charlotte E.

    Radiotherapy following conservation surgery decreases local relapse and death from breast cancer. Currently, the challenge is to minimise the morbidity caused by this treatment without losing efficacy. Despite many advances in radiation techniques in other sites of the body, the majority of breast cancer patients are still planned and treated using 2-dimensional simple radiotherapy techniques. In addition, breast irradiation currently consumes 30% of the UK's radiotherapy workload. Therefore, any change to more complex treatment should be of proven benefit. The primary objective of this research is to develop and evaluate novel radiotherapy techniques to decrease irradiation of normal structures and improve localisation of the tumour bed. I have developed a forward-planned intensity modulated (IMRT) breast radiotherapy technique, which has shown improved dosimetry results compared to standard breast radiotherapy. Subsequently, I have developed and implemented a phase III randomised controlled breast IMRT trial. This National Cancer Research Network adopted trial will answer an important question regarding the clinical benefit of breast IMRT. It will provide DNA samples linked with high quality clinical outcome data, for a national translational radiogenomics study investigating variation in normal tissue toxicity. Thus, patients with significant late normal tissue side effects despite good dose homogeneity will provide the best model for finding differences due to underlying genetics. I evaluated a novel technique using high definition free-hand 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in a phantom study, and the results suggested that this is an accurate and reproducible method for tumour bed localisation. I then compared recognised methods of tumour bed localisation with the 3D ultrasound method in a clinical study. The 3D ultrasound technique appeared to accurately represent the shape and spatial position of the tumour cavity. This tumour bed localisation research

  8. Three-dimensional developing flow model for photocatalytic monolith reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md.M.; Raupp, G.B.; Hay, S.O.; Obee, T.N.

    1999-06-01

    A first-principles mathematical model describes performance of a titania-coated honeycomb monolith photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor for air purification. The single-channel, 3-D convection-diffusion-reaction model assumes steady-state operation, negligible axial dispersion, and negligible homogeneous reaction. The reactor model accounts rigorously for entrance effects arising from the developing fluid-flow field and uses a previously developed first-principles radiation-field submodel for the UV flux profile down the monolith length. The model requires specification of an intrinsic photocatalytic reaction rate dependent on local UV light intensity and local reactant concentration, and uses reaction-rate expressions and kinetic parameters determined independently using a flat-plate reactor. Model predictions matched experimental pilot-scale formaldehyde conversion measurements for a range of inlet formaldehyde concentrations, air humidity levels, monolith lengths, and for various monolith/lamp-bank configurations. This agreement was realized without benefit of any adjustable photocatalytic reactor model parameters, radiation-field submodel parameters, or kinetic submodel parameters. The model tends to systematically overpredict toluene conversion data by about 33%, which falls within the accepted limits of experimental kinetic parameter accuracy. With further validation, the model could be used in PCO reactor design and to develop quantitative energy utilization metrics.

  9. Xlink Analyzer: software for analysis and visualization of cross-linking data in the context of three-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Jan; von Appen, Alexander; Ori, Alessandro; Karius, Kai; Müller, Christoph W; Beck, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Structural characterization of large multi-subunit protein complexes often requires integrating various experimental techniques. Cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) identifies proximal protein residues and thus is increasingly used to map protein interactions and determine the relative orientation of subunits within the structure of protein complexes. To fully adapt XL-MS as a structure characterization technique, we developed Xlink Analyzer, a software tool for visualization and analysis of XL-MS data in the context of the three-dimensional structures. Xlink Analyzer enables automatic visualization of cross-links, identifies cross-links violating spatial restraints, calculates violation statistics, maps chemically modified surfaces, and allows interactive manipulations that facilitate analysis of XL-MS data and aid designing new experiments. We demonstrate these features by mapping interaction sites within RNA polymerase I and the Rvb1/2 complex. Xlink Analyzer is implemented as a plugin to UCSF Chimera, a standard structural biology software tool, and thus enables seamless integration of XL-MS data with, e.g. fitting of X-ray structures to EM maps. Xlink Analyzer is available for download at http://www.beck.embl.de/XlinkAnalyzer.html.

  10. Development of volcanic passive margins: Three-dimensional laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callot, Jean-Paul; Geoffroy, Laurent; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2002-12-01

    Continental breakup above an anomalously hot mantle may lead to the development of volcanic margins. Volcanic margins are characterized by (1) thick seaward dipping lava flow sequences, (2) central intrusive complexes associated with dyke swarms parallel to the coast, and (3) high seismic velocity bodies in the lower crust attributable to magma underplating. A conceptual model for volcanic margins development has recently been proposed based on onshore studies of the Greenland margins and the British Tertiary Igneous Province. It is proposed that the long-lived central intrusions are genetically linked to underlying persistent zones of mantle fusion. These localized melting domains (or soft spots), equivalent to small mantle diapirs, may locally soften the extending continental lithosphere. The low-viscosity diapirs would (1) localize tectonic strain and (2) feed the volcanic margin with magma. Thus such soft spots can control the along-strike magmatic and tectonic segmentation of volcanic margins. Recent geophysical investigations appear to show that the along-strike structure of volcanic passive margins is compatible with such a segmentation process. Here we present a set of scaled experiments designed to study how such localized rheological heterogeneities in the sub-Moho mantle may have a mechanical effect on continental breakup. Four-layer models were constructed using sand and silicone putties to represent the brittle and ductile layers of both crust and mantle. The soft spots are simulated by low-viscosity silicone putty emplaced within the brittle material. At the scale of the entire breakup zone, the soft spots display an oceanic-type strength profile defining low-strength zones where continental breakup is initiated. The rift orientation and segmentation are strongly controlled by the distribution of the low-viscosity heterogeneities, rather than by the direction of regional extension. The experiments are compared with the geometry and segmentation of the

  11. Photogrammetry of the three-dimensional shape and texture of a nanoscale particle using scanning electron microscopy and free software.

    PubMed

    Gontard, Lionel C; Schierholz, Roland; Yu, Shicheng; Cintas, Jesús; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2016-10-01

    We apply photogrammetry in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the three-dimensional shape and surface texture of a nanoscale LiTi2(PO4)3 particle. We highlight the fact that the technique can be applied non-invasively in any SEM using free software (freeware) and does not require special sample preparation. Three-dimensional information is obtained in the form of a surface mesh, with the texture of the sample stored as a separate two-dimensional image (referred to as a UV Map). The mesh can be used to measure parameters such as surface area, volume, moment of inertia and center of mass, while the UV map can be used to study the surface texture using conventional image processing techniques. We also illustrate the use of 3D printing to visualize the reconstructed model.

  12. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    of three dimensional grid generation both elliptic and hyper- bolic methods were developed. A chimera grid scheme, that is, the use of overset multiple...were developed. A chimera grid scheme, that is, the use of overset multiple grid systems, was also tested in two dimensions. In our study of zonal...Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Grid Generation ............................... 2 3. Overset Grids

  13. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups.

  14. Development of an Unstructured, Three-Dimensional Material Response Design Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Joseph; Stern, Eric; Palmer, Grant; Muppidi, Suman; Schroeder, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary verification and validation of a new material response model is presented. This model, Icarus, is intended to serve as a design tool for the thermal protection systems of re-entry vehicles. Currently, the capability of the model is limited to simulating the pyrolysis of a material as a result of the radiative and convective surface heating imposed on the material from the surrounding high enthalpy gas. Since the major focus behind the development of Icarus has been model extensibility, the hope is that additional physics can be quickly added. The extensibility is critical since thermal protection systems are becoming increasing complex, e.g. woven carbon polymers. Additionally, as a three-dimensional, unstructured, finite-volume model, Icarus is capable of modeling complex geometries as well as multi-dimensional physics, which have been shown to be important in some scenarios and are not captured by one-dimensional models. In this paper, the mathematical and numerical formulation is presented followed by a discussion of the software architecture and some preliminary verification and validation studies.

  15. Development Report on the Idaho National Laboratory Sitewide Three-Dimensional Aquifer Model

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas R. Wood; Catherine M. Helm-Clark; Hai Huang; Swen Magnuson; Travis McLing; Brennon Orr; Michael J. Rohe; Mitchell A. Plummer; Robert Podgorney; Erik Whitmore; Michael S. Roddy

    2007-09-01

    A sub-regional scale, three-dimensional flow model of the Snake River Plain Aquifer was developed to support remediation decisions for Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10 08 at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. This model has been calibrated primarily to water levels and secondarily to groundwater velocities interpreted from stable isotope disequilibrium studies and the movement of anthropogenic contaminants in the aquifer from facilities at the INL. The three-dimensional flow model described in this report is one step in the process of constructing a fully three-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport model as prescribed in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model Work Plan. An updated three-dimensional hydrogeologic conceptual model is presented along with the geologic basis for the conceptual model. Sediment-dominated three-dimensional volumes were used to represent the geology and constrain groundwater flow as part of the conceptual model. Hydrological, geochemical, and geological data were summarized and evaluated to infer aquifer behavior. A primary observation from development and evaluation of the conceptual model was that relative to flow on a regional scale, the aquifer can be treated with steady-state conditions. Boundary conditions developed for the three-dimensional flow model are presented along with inverse simulations that estimate parameterization of hydraulic conductivity. Inverse simulations were performed using the pilot-point method to estimate permeability distributions. Thermal modeling at the regional aquifer scale and at the sub-regional scale using the inverted permeabilities is presented to corroborate the results of the flow model. The results from the flow model show good agreement with simulated and observed water levels almost always within 1 meter. Simulated velocities show generally good agreement with some discrepancies in an interpreted low

  16. Students' Development of Three-Dimensional Visualization in the Geometer's Sketchpad Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Edwin; Jiang, Zhonghong; July, Raquel

    This paper reports on a series of four studies carried out over a period of four years. These related studies were clinical and qualitative as they investigated middle and high school students' development of geometric thought, particularly as it related to three- dimensional visualization. The studies were carried out in the constructivist…

  17. POLYS 2.0: An open source software package for building three-dimensional structures of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Engelsen, Søren B; Hansen, Peter I; Pérez, Serge

    2014-07-01

    This article describes an update of POLYS, the POLYSaccharide builder, for generating three-dimensional structures of polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates (Engelsen et al., Biopolymers 1996, 39, 417-433). POLYS is written in portable ANSI C and is now released under an open source license. Using this software, complex branched carbohydrate structures and polysaccharides can be constructed from their primary structure and the relevant monosaccharides stored in database containing information on optimized glycosidic linkage geometries. The constructed three-dimensional structures are described as Cartesian coordinate files which can be used as input to other molecular modeling software. The new version of POLYS includes a large database of monosaccharides and a helical generator to build and optimize regular single helix or double helix structures. To demonstrate the efficiency of POLYS to build carbohydrate structures, four examples of increasing complexity are presented in the manuscript, from simple alpha glucans over complex starch fragments and the double helical structure of amylopectin to the mega-oligosaccharide RhamnoGalacturonan II.

  18. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  19. FACSGen 2.0 animation software: generating three-dimensional FACS-valid facial expressions for emotion research.

    PubMed

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Tamarit, Lucas; Roesch, Etienne B; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we present FACSGen 2.0, new animation software for creating static and dynamic three-dimensional facial expressions on the basis of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACSGen permits total control over the action units (AUs), which can be animated at all levels of intensity and applied alone or in combination to an infinite number of faces. In two studies, we tested the validity of the software for the AU appearance defined in the FACS manual and the conveyed emotionality of FACSGen expressions. In Experiment 1, four FACS-certified coders evaluated the complete set of 35 single AUs and 54 AU combinations for AU presence or absence, appearance quality, intensity, and asymmetry. In Experiment 2, lay participants performed a recognition task on emotional expressions created with FACSGen software and rated the similarity of expressions displayed by human and FACSGen faces. Results showed good to excellent classification levels for all AUs by the four FACS coders, suggesting that the AUs are valid exemplars of FACS specifications. Lay participants' recognition rates for nine emotions were high, and comparisons of human and FACSGen expressions were very similar. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the software in producing reliable and emotionally valid expressions, and suggest its application in numerous scientific areas, including perception, emotion, and clinical and neuroscience research.

  20. On the development of three-dimensional vortex breakdown in cylindrical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, M. A.; Fernandez-Feria, R.

    2006-08-01

    Three-dimensional and axisymmetric numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been conducted to study the appearance and development of vortex breakdown in a family of columnar vortex flows in a straight pipe without wall friction. The numerical simulations show that the basic form of breakdown is axisymmetric, and a transition to helical breakdown modes is shown to be caused by a sufficiently large pocket of absolute instability inside the original axisymmetric "bubble" of recirculating flow. Depending on the values of the Reynolds and swirl parameters, two distinct unstable modes corresponding to azimuthal wave numbers n =+1 and n =+2 have been found to yield a helical or a double-helical breakdown mode, respectively. By means of a simple linear spatial stability analysis carried out in the sections of the pipe where the basic axisymmetric flow presents reverse flow, we have identified the frequencies and the dominant azimuthal wave numbers observed in the three-dimensional simulations.

  1. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-01-01

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor. PMID:27649194

  2. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-09-15

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor.

  3. Research on the development of space target detecting system and three-dimensional reconstruction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Wei, Zhen; Song, Dawei; Sun, Wenfeng; Fan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    With the development of space technology, the number of spacecrafts and debris are increasing year by year. The demand for detecting and identification of spacecraft is growing strongly, which provides support to the cataloguing, crash warning and protection of aerospace vehicles. The majority of existing approaches for three-dimensional reconstruction is scattering centres correlation, which is based on the radar high resolution range profile (HRRP). This paper proposes a novel method to reconstruct the threedimensional scattering centre structure of target from a sequence of radar ISAR images, which mainly consists of three steps. First is the azimuth scaling of consecutive ISAR images based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The later is the extraction of scattering centres and matching between adjacent ISAR images using grid method. Finally, according to the coordinate matrix of scattering centres, the three-dimensional scattering centre structure is reconstructed using improved factorization method. The three-dimensional structure is featured with stable and intuitive characteristic, which provides a new way to improve the identification probability and reduce the complexity of the model matching library. A satellite model is reconstructed using the proposed method from four consecutive ISAR images. The simulation results prove that the method has gotten a satisfied consistency and accuracy.

  4. Three-dimensional desirability spaces for quality-by-design-based HPLC development.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Hatem I; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Hadad, Ghada M

    2015-04-01

    In this study, three-dimensional desirability spaces were introduced as a graphical representation method of design space. This was illustrated in the context of application of quality-by-design concepts on development of a stability indicating gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of vinpocetine and α-tocopheryl acetate in a capsule dosage form. A mechanistic retention model to optimize gradient time, initial organic solvent concentration and ternary solvent ratio was constructed for each compound from six experimental runs. Then, desirability function of each optimized criterion and subsequently the global desirability function were calculated throughout the knowledge space. The three-dimensional desirability spaces were plotted as zones exceeding a threshold value of desirability index in space defined by the three optimized method parameters. Probabilistic mapping of desirability index aided selection of design space within the potential desirability subspaces. Three-dimensional desirability spaces offered better visualization and potential design spaces for the method as a function of three method parameters with ability to assign priorities to this critical quality as compared with the corresponding resolution spaces.

  5. Fragment Finder: a web-based software to identify similar three-dimensional structural motif

    PubMed Central

    Ananthalakshmi, P.; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Jeyasimhan, M.; Sumathi, K.; Sekar, K.

    2005-01-01

    FF (Fragment Finder) is a web-based interactive search engine developed to retrieve the user-desired similar 3D structural fragments from the selected subset of 25 or 90% non-homologous protein chains. The search is based on the comparison of the main chain backbone conformational angles (φ and ϕ). Additionally, the queried motifs can be superimposed to find out how similar the structural fragments are, so that the information can be effectively used in molecular modeling. The engine has facilities to view the resultant superposed or individual 3D structure(s) on the client machine. The proposed web server is made freely accessible at the following URL: or . PMID:15980587

  6. Mouse fetal whole intestine culture system for ex vivo manipulation of signaling pathways and three-dimensional live imaging of villus development.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine D; Kolterud, Asa

    2014-09-04

    Most morphogenetic processes in the fetal intestine have been inferred from thin sections of fixed tissues, providing snapshots of changes over developmental stages. Three-dimensional information from thin serial sections can be challenging to interpret because of the difficulty of reconstructing serial sections perfectly and maintaining proper orientation of the tissue over serial sections. Recent findings by Grosse et al., 2011 highlight the importance of three- dimensional information in understanding morphogenesis of the developing villi of the intestine(1). Three-dimensional reconstruction of singly labeled intestinal cells demonstrated that the majority of the intestinal epithelial cells contact both the apical and basal surfaces. Furthermore, three-dimensional reconstruction of the actin cytoskeleton at the apical surface of the epithelium demonstrated that the intestinal lumen is continuous and that secondary lumens are an artifact of sectioning. Those two points, along with the demonstration of interkinetic nuclear migration in the intestinal epithelium, defined the developing intestinal epithelium as a pseudostratified epithelium and not stratified as previously thought(1). The ability to observe the epithelium three-dimensionally was seminal to demonstrating this point and redefining epithelial morphogenesis in the fetal intestine. With the evolution of multi-photon imaging technology and three-dimensional reconstruction software, the ability to visualize intact, developing organs is rapidly improving. Two-photon excitation allows less damaging penetration deeper into tissues with high resolution. Two-photon imaging and 3D reconstruction of the whole fetal mouse intestines in Walton et al., 2012 helped to define the pattern of villus outgrowth(2). Here we describe a whole organ culture system that allows ex vivo development of villi and extensions of that culture system to allow the intestines to be three-dimensionally imaged during their development.

  7. Development of an electrohydrodynamic ion-drag micropump using three-dimensional carbon micromesh electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Sato, Hironobu; Nakahara, Asahi; Sekiguchi, Tetsushi; Konishi, Satoshi; Shoji, Shuichi

    2014-09-01

    An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropump using three-dimensional carbon micromesh electrodes was developed. The carbon micromesh electrodes were created by the pyrolysis of SU-8 structures. The carbon electrodes and microchannel were formed on a quartz substrate, and the microchannel was sealed by an SU-8 slab structure. The pumping behaviors were evaluated using Fluorinert as a non-conductive sample solution. The maximum pressure and volume flow rate were approximately 23 Pa and 400 nL/min, respectively, under an applied voltage of 500 V.

  8. Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R.

    2013-11-15

    A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 μm along all the three axes.

  9. Reynolds shear stress development in pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary-layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. D.; Eaton, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the Reynolds stresses has been examined experimentally in an initially two-dimensional boundary layer which is driven to three dimensionality by a spanwise pressure gradient. The pressure field was imposed by an upstream-facing wedge. Two different wedge angles were used in order to vary the level of boundary layer skewing. Bradshaw's Al parameter was found to decrease with the rate of decrease being dependent on the level of skewing between the freestream and the wall flow. It was also concluded that the ratio of the cross-stream to streamwise shear stress components was governed by the rate of freestream turning.

  10. Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R.

    2013-11-01

    A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 μm along all the three axes.

  11. Recent Developments in Three Dimensional Radiation Transport Using the Green's Function Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockell, Candice; Tweed, John; Blattnig, Steve R.; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    In the future, astronauts will be sent into space for longer durations of time compared to previous missions. The increased risk of exposure to dangerous radiation, such as Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events, is of great concern. Consequently, steps must be taken to ensure astronaut safety by providing adequate shielding. In order to better determine and verify shielding requirements, an accurate and efficient radiation transport code based on a fully three dimensional radiation transport model using the Green's function technique is being developed

  12. Development of human nervous tissue upon differentiation of embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Suter, David M; Tirefort, Diderik; Turchi, Laurent; Virolle, Thierry; Chneiweiss, Herve; Foti, Michelangelo; Lobrinus, Johannes-Alexander; Stoppini, Luc; Feki, Anis; Dubois-Dauphin, Michel; Krause, Karl Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Researches on neural differentiation using embryonic stem cells (ESC) require analysis of neurogenesis in conditions mimicking physiological cellular interactions as closely as possible. In this study, we report an air-liquid interface-based culture of human ESC. This culture system allows three-dimensional cell expansion and neural differentiation in the absence of added growth factors. Over a 3-month period, a macroscopically visible, compact tissue developed. Histological coloration revealed a dense neural-like neural tissue including immature tubular structures. Electron microscopy, immunochemistry, and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated a dense network of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes able to propagate signals. Within this tissue, tubular structures were niches of cells resembling germinal layers of human fetal brain. Indeed, the tissue contained abundant proliferating cells expressing markers of neural progenitors. Finally, the capacity to generate neural tissues on air-liquid interface differed for different ESC lines, confirming variations of their neurogenic potential. In conclusion, this study demonstrates in vitro engineering of a human neural-like tissue with an organization that bears resemblance to early developing brain. As opposed to previously described methods, this differentiation (a) allows three-dimensional organization, (b) yields dense interconnected neural tissue with structurally and functionally distinct areas, and (c) is spontaneously guided by endogenous developmental cues.

  13. Development of Holistic Three-Dimensional Models for Cold Spray Supersonic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahiri, S. H.; Phan, T. D.; Masood, S. H.; Jahedi, M.

    2014-08-01

    A three-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to estimate cold spray gas conditions. This model is calibrated and validated with respect to thermal history of a substrate exposed to the cold spray supersonic jet. The proposed holistic model is important to track state of gas and particles from injection point to the substrate surface with significant benefits for optimization of very rapid "nanoseconds" cold spray deposition. The three-dimensional model is developed with careful attention with respect to computation time to benefit broader cold spray industry with limited access to supercomputers. The k-ɛ-type CFD model is evaluated using measured temperature for a titanium substrate exposed to cold spray nitrogen at 800 °C and 3 MPa. The model important parameters are detailed including domain meshing method with turbulence, and dissipation coefficients during spraying. Heat transfer and radiation are considered for the de Laval nozzle used in experiments. The calibrated holistic model successfully estimated state of the gas for chosen high temperature and high pressure cold spray parameters used in this study. Further to this, the holistic model predictions with respect to the substrate maximum temperature had a good agreement with earlier findings in the literature.

  14. On development of a three-dimensional particle motion tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R. N.; Ashok, A. S.; Bukiet, B. G.

    Development of a non-intrusive particle tracking technique is considered. Evaluation of the existing methods show that they are not suitable for three-dimensional motion tracking. A novel system based on the principle of magnetic induction coupling is presented. This technique can be used to track the position and orientation of a single particle in a three-dimensional flow of a mass of particles. The system consists of two or more small transmitters, powered by small batteries, mounted inside the particle, and six or more receivers which acquire the induced voltages. This paper presents details of the techniques used to derive the position and orientation information from the voltages induced in the receivers. The feasibility of the proposed technique is established through simulated and actual experiments. Practical issues such as the effect of signal noise are considered. The technique presented here has a wide range of applications due to its non-intrusive nature, and is particularly useful when optical techniques are not feasible. Directions for future work are provided.

  15. Development of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code on CDC star-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, V. N.; Goglia, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional code in body-fitted coordinates was developed using MacCormack's algorithm. The code is structured to be compatible with any general configuration, provided that the metric coefficients for the transformation are available. The governing equations are developed in primitive variables in order to facilitate the incorporation of physical boundary conditions and turbulence-closure models. MacCormack's two-step, unsplit, time-marching algorithm is used to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations until steady-state solution is achieved. Cases discussed include (1) flat plate in supersonic free stream; (2) supersonic flow along an axial corner; (3) subsonic flow in an axial corner at M infinity = 0.95; and (4) supersonic flow in an axial corner at M infinity 1.5.

  16. Design and development of three-dimensional DNA crystals utilizing CGAA parallel base paired motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muser, Stephanie Elizabeth

    Three-dimensional (3D) DNA crystals hold great potential for various applications such as the development of molecular scaffolds for use in protein structure determination by x-ray crystallography. The programmability and predictability of DNA make it a powerful tool for self-assembly but it is hindered by the linearity of the duplex structure. Predictable noncanonical base pairs and motifs have the potential to connect linear double-helical DNA segments into complex 3D structures. The sequence d(GCGAAAGCT) has been observed to form 3D crystals containing both noncanonical parallel pairs and canonical Watson-Crick pairs. This provided a template structure that we used in expanding the design and development of 3D DNA crystals along with exploring the use of predictable noncanonical motifs. The structures we determined contained all but one or two of the designed secondary structure interactions, depending on pH.

  17. Three-Dimensional Electron Optics Model Developed for Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional traveling-wave tube (TWT) electron beam optics model including periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This accurate model allows a TWT designer to develop a focusing structure while reducing the expensive and time-consuming task of building the TWT and hot-testing it (with the electron beam). In addition, the model allows, for the first time, an investigation of the effect on TWT operation of the important azimuthally asymmetric features of the focusing stack. The TWT is a vacuum device that amplifies signals by transferring energy from an electron beam to a radiofrequency (RF) signal. A critically important component is the focusing structure, which keeps the electron beam from diverging and intercepting the RF slow wave circuit. Such an interception can result in excessive circuit heating and decreased efficiency, whereas excessive growth in the beam diameter can lead to backward wave oscillations and premature saturation, indicating a serious reduction in tube performance. The most commonly used focusing structure is the PPM stack, which consists of a sequence of cylindrical iron pole pieces and opposite-polarity magnets. Typically, two-dimensional electron optics codes are used in the design of magnetic focusing devices. In general, these codes track the beam from the gun downstream by solving equations of motion for the electron beam in static-electric and magnetic fields in an azimuthally symmetric structure. Because these two-dimensional codes cannot adequately simulate a number of important effects, the simulation code MAFIA (solution of Maxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm) was used at Glenn to develop a three-dimensional electron optics model. First, a PPM stack was modeled in three dimensions. Then, the fields obtained using the magnetostatic solver were loaded into a particle-in-cell solver where the fully three-dimensional behavior of the beam

  18. DRAGON Grid: A Three-Dimensional Hybrid Grid Generation Code Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2000-01-01

    Because grid generation can consume 70 percent of the total analysis time for a typical three-dimensional viscous flow simulation for a practical engineering device, payoffs from research and development could reduce costs and increase throughputs considerably. In this study, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field developed a new hybrid grid approach with the advantages of flexibility, high-quality grids suitable for an accurate resolution of viscous regions, and a low memory requirement. These advantages will, in turn, reduce analysis time and increase accuracy. They result from an innovative combination of structured and unstructured grids to represent the geometry and the computation domain. The present approach makes use of the respective strengths of both the structured and unstructured grid methods, while minimizing their weaknesses. First, the Chimera grid generates high-quality, mostly orthogonal meshes around individual components. This process is flexible and can be done easily. Normally, these individual grids are required overlap each other so that the solution on one grid can communicate with another. However, when this communication is carried out via a nonconservative interpolation procedure, a spurious solution can result. Current research is aimed at entirely eliminating this undesired interpolation by directly replacing arbitrary grid overlapping with a nonstructured grid called a DRAGON grid, which uses the same set of conservation laws over the entire region, thus ensuring conservation everywhere. The DRAGON grid is shown for a typical film-cooled turbine vane with 33 holes and 3 plenum compartments. There are structured grids around each geometrical entity and unstructured grids connecting them. In fiscal year 1999, Glenn researchers developed and tested the three-dimensional DRAGON grid-generation tools. A flow solver suitable for the DRAGON grid has been developed, and a series of validation tests are underway.

  19. Dose calculation software for helical tomotherapy, utilizing patient CT data to calculate an independent three-dimensional dose cube

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Simon J.; Eyre, Katie R.; Tudor, G. Samuel J.; Fairfoul, Jamie

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Treatment plans for the TomoTherapy unit are produced with a planning system that is integral to the unit. The authors have produced an independent dose calculation system, to enable plans to be recalculated in three dimensions, using the patient's CT data. Methods: Software has been written using MATLAB. The DICOM-RT plan object is used to determine the treatment parameters used, including the treatment sinogram. Each projection of the sinogram is segmented and used to calculate dose at multiple calculation points in a three-dimensional grid using tables of measured beam data. A fast ray-trace algorithm is used to determine effective depth for each projection angle at each calculation point. Calculations were performed on a standard desktop personal computer, with a 2.6 GHz Pentium, running Windows XP. Results: The time to perform a calculation, for 3375 points averaged 1 min 23 s for prostate plans and 3 min 40 s for head and neck plans. The mean dose within the 50% isodose was calculated and compared with the predictions of the TomoTherapy planning system. When the modified CT (which includes the TomoTherapy couch) was used, the mean difference for ten prostate patients, was -0.4% (range -0.9% to +0.3%). With the original CT (which included the CT couch), the mean difference was -1.0% (range -1.7% to 0.0%). The number of points agreeing with a gamma 3%/3 mm averaged 99.2% with the modified CT, 96.3% with the original CT. For ten head and neck patients, for the modified and original CT, respectively, the mean difference was +1.1% (range -0.4% to +3.1%) and 1.1% (range -0.4% to +3.0%) with 94.4% and 95.4% passing a gamma 4%/4 mm. The ability of the program to detect a variety of simulated errors has been tested. Conclusions: By using the patient's CT data, the independent dose calculation performs checks that are not performed by a measurement in a cylindrical phantom. This enables it to be used either as an additional check or to replace phantom

  20. Development of a three dimensional numerical water quality model for continental shelf applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, M.; Hunter, D.

    1975-01-01

    A model to predict the distribution of water quality parameters in three dimensions was developed. The mass transport equation was solved using a non-dimensional vertical axis and an alternating-direction-implicit finite difference technique. The reaction kinetics of the constituents were incorporated into a matrix method which permits computation of the interactions of multiple constituents. Methods for the computation of dispersion coefficients and coliform bacteria decay rates were determined. Numerical investigations of dispersive and dissipative effects showed that the three-dimensional model performs as predicted by analysis of simpler cases. The model was then applied to a two dimensional vertically averaged tidal dynamics model for the Providence River. It was also extended to a steady state application by replacing the time step with an iteration sequence. This modification was verified by comparison to analytical solutions and applied to a river confluence situation.

  1. Three-dimensional Organization of Layered Apical Cytoskeletal Networks Associated with Mouse Airway Tissue Development

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Tomoki; Inoue, Kanako; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2017-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is an essential cellular component that enables various sophisticated functions of epithelial cells by forming specialized subcellular compartments. However, the functional and structural roles of cytoskeletons in subcellular compartmentalization are still not fully understood. Here we identified a novel network structure consisting of actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules directly beneath the apical membrane in mouse airway multiciliated cells and in cultured epithelial cells. Three-dimensional imaging by ultra-high voltage electron microscopy and immunofluorescence revealed that the morphological features of each network depended on the cell type and were spatiotemporally integrated in association with tissue development. Detailed analyses using Odf2 mutant mice, which lack ciliary basal feet and apical microtubules, suggested a novel contribution of the intermediate filaments to coordinated ciliary beating. These findings provide a new perspective for viewing epithelial cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis through the structure and function of apical cytoskeletal networks. PMID:28272499

  2. On the Development of a Deterministic Three-Dimensional Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockell, Candice; Tweed, John

    2011-01-01

    Since astronauts on future deep space missions will be exposed to dangerous radiations, there is a need to accurately model the transport of radiation through shielding materials and to estimate the received radiation dose. In response to this need a three dimensional deterministic code for space radiation transport is now under development. The new code GRNTRN is based on a Green's function solution of the Boltzmann transport equation that is constructed in the form of a Neumann series. Analytical approximations will be obtained for the first three terms of the Neumann series and the remainder will be estimated by a non-perturbative technique . This work discusses progress made to date and exhibits some computations based on the first two Neumann series terms.

  3. Three-dimensional Organization of Layered Apical Cytoskeletal Networks Associated with Mouse Airway Tissue Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Tomoki; Inoue, Kanako; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2017-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an essential cellular component that enables various sophisticated functions of epithelial cells by forming specialized subcellular compartments. However, the functional and structural roles of cytoskeletons in subcellular compartmentalization are still not fully understood. Here we identified a novel network structure consisting of actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules directly beneath the apical membrane in mouse airway multiciliated cells and in cultured epithelial cells. Three-dimensional imaging by ultra-high voltage electron microscopy and immunofluorescence revealed that the morphological features of each network depended on the cell type and were spatiotemporally integrated in association with tissue development. Detailed analyses using Odf2 mutant mice, which lack ciliary basal feet and apical microtubules, suggested a novel contribution of the intermediate filaments to coordinated ciliary beating. These findings provide a new perspective for viewing epithelial cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis through the structure and function of apical cytoskeletal networks.

  4. A three-dimensional culture system using alginate hydrogel prolongs hatched cattle embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Gao, Hui; Wu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Ming-Jie; Bai, Jia-Hua; Liu, Yan; Evans, Alexander; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2015-07-15

    No successful method exists to maintain the three-dimensional architecture of hatched embryos in vitro. Alginate, a linear polysaccharide derived from brown algae, has characteristics that make it an ideal material as a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix for in vitro cell, tissue, or embryo culture. In this study, alginate hydrogel was used for IVC of posthatched bovine embryos to observe their development under the 3D system. In vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetically activated posthatched bovine blastocysts were cultured in an alginate encapsulation culture system (AECS), an alginate overlay culture system (AOCS), or control culture system. After 18 days of culture, the survival rate of embryos cultured in AECS was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and the embryos were expanded and elongated in AECS with the maximal length of 1.125 mm. When the AECS shrinking embryos were taken out of the alginate beads on Day 18 and cultured in the normal culture system, 9.09% of them attached to the bottoms of the plastic wells and grew rapidly, with the largest area of an attached embryo being 66.00 mm(2) on Day 32. The embryos cultured in AOCS developed monovesicular or multivesicular morphologies. Total cell number of the embryos cultured in AECS on Day 19 was significantly higher than that of embryos on Day 8. Additionally, AECS and AOCS supported differentiation of the embryonic cells. Binuclear cells were visible in Day-26 adherent embryos, and the messenger RNA expression patterns of Cdx2 and Oct4 in AOCS-cultured embryos were similar to those in vivo embryos, whereas IFNT and ISG15 messenger RNA were still expressed in Day-26 and Day-32 prolong-cultured embryos. In conclusion, AECS and AOCS did support cell proliferation, elongation, and differentiation of hatched bovine embryos during prolonged IVC. The culture system will be useful to further investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling ruminant embryo elongation and implantation.

  5. On the development of elastic three dimensional full waveform inversion in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birger Raknes, Espen; Arntsen, Børge

    2016-04-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a classical inverse method that tries to estimate subsurface models of parameters that affects wave propagation. The key requirement for the method is the numerical solution of the wave equation that is used to iteratively update the subsurface model through a optimization procedure of the dissimilarities between the synthetic and measured seismic data. Due to the computational cost to use FWI in practice, the standard procedure for applications of FWI in exploration geophysics has been to assume that the subsurface is a two-dimensional acoustic medium. One of the goals for FWI is to estimate the subsurface parameters using a three-dimensional elastic description of the medium. By incorporating more real world physics into the FWI method, the inversion results are more likely to be close to the true solution. The challenges towards this goal from a computational point of view is the extreme cost related to the numerical solution of the elastic wave equation, in addition to the required storage needs for performing one iteration of the optimization method. From a theoretical point of view, multi-parameter inversion (i.e. inversion of the density, P- and S-wave velocities) using surface seismic data is challenging because the inverse problem is ill-posed (in the Hadamard sense) and non-linear. In addition, the sensitivity in the data with respect to the elastic parameters is dependent on how the data are acquired. Hence, three-dimensional elastic FWI is challenging from both a theoretical and a computational point of view. In the recent years we have developed a three dimensional elastic FWI method where we are able to invert for the density, P-wave and S-wave velocities. To reduce the required storage needs for computing the model gradients through the adjoint state method, we have developed an efficient wave field reconstruction method that uses values on the domain boundaries to reconstruct the wave field inside the domain. To

  6. Development of a three-dimensional, regional, coupled wave, current, and sediment-transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Harris, C.K.; Arango, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a three-dimensional numerical model that implements algorithms for sediment transport and evolution of bottom morphology in the coastal-circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.0), and provides a two-way link between ROMS and the wave model Simulating Waves in the Nearshore (SWAN) via the Model-Coupling Toolkit. The coupled model is applicable for fluvial, estuarine, shelf, and nearshore (surfzone) environments. Three-dimensional radiation-stress terms have been included in the momentum equations, along with effects of a surface wave roller model. The sediment-transport algorithms are implemented for an unlimited number of user-defined non-cohesive sediment classes. Each class has attributes of grain diameter, density, settling velocity, critical stress threshold for erosion, and erodibility constant. Suspended-sediment transport in the water column is computed with the same advection-diffusion algorithm used for all passive tracers and an additional algorithm for vertical settling that is not limited by the CFL criterion. Erosion and deposition are based on flux formulations. A multi-level bed framework tracks the distribution of every size class in each layer and stores bulk properties including layer thickness, porosity, and mass, allowing computation of bed morphology and stratigraphy. Also tracked are bed-surface properties including active-layer thickness, ripple geometry, and bed roughness. Bedload transport is calculated for mobile sediment classes in the top layer. Bottom-boundary layer submodels parameterize wave-current interactions that enhance bottom stresses and thereby facilitate sediment transport and increase bottom drag, creating a feedback to the circulation. The model is demonstrated in a series of simple test cases and a realistic application in Massachusetts Bay. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of microbatteries based on three-dimensional architectures for autonomous micro devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hong-Seok

    2007-12-01

    The goal of fabricating three-dimensional (3D) microbatteries is to improve upon the performance of 2D microbatteries or thin-film batteries by reconfiguring existing materials in a more advanced architecture. 3D battery architectures offer a new approach for miniaturized power sources. These batteries are designed to have a small areal foot print and yet provide sufficient power and energy density to operate autonomous MEMS devices. The more convenient approaches for fabricating such batteries are based on micromachining techniques such as electrodeposition of high aspect ratio metal rods in an array configuration. Three types of three-dimensional microbatteries were fabricated and characterized: Ni-Zn, zinc-air, and Ag-Zn. These different types of microbatteries use different chemistries but all have the common feature of an out-of-plane array of micro-post electrodes. A 3D Ni-Zn microbattery was fabricated and demonstrated proper charge-discharge behavior for the first few cycles. The development of 3D zinc-air microbattery showed high discharge capability under various discharge conditions. Furthermore, performance of 3D zinc-air microbattery was demonstrated by successfully powering an electronic device. During discharge, the 3D zinc-air microbattery exhibited an electrode reaction which formed hollow ZnO electrodes by the Kirkendall effect. This electrode reaction strongly supports the functionality of the 3D microbattery. The fabrication of the Ag-Zn microbattery was accomplished by Ag electrode formation, separator coating, and Zn sedimentation. Due to imperfections in the separator coating, the 3D Ag-Zn microbattery had electrical shorts.

  8. Using three-dimensional geological mapping methods to inform sustainable groundwater development in a volcanic landscape, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Bruce; Cherry, Don; Adelana, Michael; Cheng, Xiang; Reid, Mark

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the use of three-dimensional (3D) geological methods to provide better groundwater resource estimates for the Spring Hill area in central Victoria, Australia. Geological data were gathered in 3D geological software, which was utilised to derive fundamental dimensional parameters of the groundwater system in the study area. Mining industry software and hydrogeological methods were combined to give volumetric determinations of the basalt aquifer that were used to improve estimates of the groundwater resource. The methods reduce uncertainty about the physical attributes of the aquifer systems and greatly improve conceptual understanding of their behaviour. A simple numerical water-balance model was developed to refine the estimates of aquifer volume and fluxes to approximate observed water-level behaviour in the area. This enabled a much better comparison of groundwater resource use to the natural inputs and outputs for the area. A key conclusion was that the main issues for sustainable development and use in the study area are more to do with the physical aspects of the aquifer system, rather than simply the volume of water pumped. Visualisations of the area's hydrogeology also provide improved hydrogeological understanding and communication for groundwater users and administrators.

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of the early development of the dentition

    PubMed Central

    Peterkova, R; Hovorakova, M; Peterka, M; Lesot, H

    2014-01-01

    Tooth development has attracted the attention of researchers since the 19th century. It became obvious even then that morphogenesis could not fully be appreciated from two-dimensional histological sections. Therefore, methods of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were employed to visualize the surface morphology of developing structures and to help appreciate the complexity of early tooth morphogenesis. The present review surveys the data provided by computer-aided 3D analyses to update classical knowledge of early odontogenesis in the laboratory mouse and in humans. 3D reconstructions have demonstrated that odontogenesis in the early stages is a complex process which also includes the development of rudimentary odontogenic structures with different fates. Their developmental, evolutionary, and pathological aspects are discussed. The combination of in situ hybridization and 3D reconstruction have demonstrated the temporo-spatial dynamics of the signalling centres that reflect transient existence of rudimentary tooth primordia at loci where teeth were present in ancestors. The rudiments can rescue their suppressed development and revitalize, and then their subsequent autonomous development can give rise to oral pathologies. This shows that tooth-forming potential in mammals can be greater than that observed from their functional dentitions. From this perspective, the mouse rudimentary tooth primordia represent a natural model to test possibilities of tooth regeneration. PMID:24495023

  10. Three-dimensional imaging of the developing mouse female reproductive organs with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Jason C.; Wang, Shang; Behringer, Richard R.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Infertility is a known major health concern and is estimated to impact ~15% of couples in the U.S. The majority of failed pregnancies occur before or during implantation of the fertilized embryo into the uterus. Understanding the mechanisms regulating development by studying mouse reproductive organs could significantly contribute to an improved understanding of normal development of reproductive organs and developmental causes of infertility in humans. Towards this goal, we report a three-dimensional (3D) imaging study of the developing mouse reproductive organs (ovary, oviduct, and uterus) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In our study, OCT was used for 3D imaging of reproductive organs without exogenous contrast agents and provides micro-scale spatial resolution. Experiments were conducted in vitro on mouse reproductive organs ranging from the embryonic day 14.5 to adult stages. Structural features of the ovary, oviduct, and uterus are presented. Additionally, a comparison with traditional histological analysis is illustrated. These results provide a basis for a wide range of infertility studies in mouse models. Through integration with traditional genetic and molecular biology approaches, this imaging method can improve understanding of ovary, oviduct, and uterus development and function, serving to further contribute to our understanding of fertility and infertility.

  11. A three-dimensional culture system recapitulates placental syncytiotrophoblast development and microbial resistance

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Cameron A.; Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Kim, Kwang Sik; Sadovsky, Yoel; Boyle, Jon P.; Coyne, Carolyn B.

    2016-01-01

    In eutherians, the placenta acts as a barrier and conduit at the maternal-fetal interface. Syncytiotrophoblasts, the multinucleated cells that cover the placental villous tree surfaces of the human placenta, are directly bathed in maternal blood and are formed by the fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts that underlie them. Despite their crucial role in fetal protection, many of the events that govern trophoblast fusion and protection from microbial infection are unknown. We describe a three-dimensional (3D)–based culture model using human JEG-3 trophoblast cells that develop syncytiotrophoblast phenotypes when cocultured with human microvascular endothelial cells. JEG-3 cells cultured in this system exhibit enhanced fusogenic activity and morphological and secretory activities strikingly similar to those of primary human syncytiotrophoblasts. RNASeq analyses extend the observed functional similarities to the transcriptome, where we observed significant overlap between syncytiotrophoblast-specific genes and 3D JEG-3 cultures. Furthermore, JEG-3 cells cultured in 3D are resistant to infection by viruses and Toxoplasma gondii, which mimics the high resistance of syncytiotrophoblasts to microbial infections in vivo. Given that this system is genetically manipulatable, it provides a new platform to dissect the mechanisms involved in syncytiotrophoblast development and microbial resistance. PMID:26973875

  12. Current Challenges in Development of a Database of Three-Dimensional Chemical Structures

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Miki H.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a database named 3DMET, a three-dimensional structure database of natural metabolites. There are two major impediments to the creation of 3D chemical structures from a set of planar structure drawings: the limited accuracy of computer programs and insufficient human resources for manual curation. We have tested some 2D–3D converters to convert 2D structure files from external databases. These automatic conversion processes yielded an excessive number of improper conversions. To ascertain the quality of the conversions, we compared IUPAC Chemical Identifier and canonical SMILES notations before and after conversion. Structures whose notations correspond to each other were regarded as a correct conversion in our present work. We found that chiral inversion is the most serious factor during the improper conversion. In the current stage of our database construction, published books or articles have been resources for additions to our database. Chemicals are usually drawn as pictures on the paper. To save human resources, an optical structure reader was introduced. The program was quite useful but some particular errors were observed during our operation. We hope our trials for producing correct 3D structures will help other developers of chemical programs and curators of chemical databases. PMID:26075200

  13. Three-dimensional structures and turbulence closure of the wake developing in a wall shear layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, C.

    1981-01-01

    The turbulent wake interacting with the rotating wall shear layer is investigated analytically and numerically. The turbulent wakes of the rotating blades in a compressor which are interacting with the rotating hub-wall boundary layer are analyzed. A modified version of the closure model of the pressure-strain correlation term in the Reynolds stress transport equation is developed to predict the effect of rotation, which is appreciable for the present flow because the thick hub-wall boundary layer is interacting with the rotor wake. It is noted that the Poisson type equation for the pressure-strain correlation has an extra rotation term when the entire flow field is rotating. This extra rotation term is modeled to accommodate the effect of rotation. In addition, the standard correction for the wall effect is incorporated for the utilized Reynolds stress closure model. The rotation-modified Reynolds stress closure model is used to predict the present flow, and the predictions are compared with the experimental data. The experimental data reveal that the characteristics of the three-dimensional turbulent wake interacting with the wall shear layer are considerably altered by the effects of the wall and the rotation. These features are predicted with good accuracy by the turbulence closure model developed.

  14. Three-dimensional perspective visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    It was demonstrated that image processing computer graphic techniques can provide an effective means of physiographic analysis of remotely sensed regions through the use of three-dimensional perspective rendering. THe methods used to simulate and animate three-dimensional surfaces from two-dimensional imagery and digital elevation models are explained. A brief historic look at JPL's efforts in this field and several examples of animations, illustrating the evolution of these techniques from 1985, are shown. JPL's current research in this area is discussed along with examples of technology transfer and potential commercial application. The software is part of the VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) image processing system which was developed at the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of JPL.

  15. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Analysis Technique Developed for Evaluating Stirling Convertor Linear Alternators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, the Stirling Technology Company (STC), and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing Stirling convertors for Stirling radioisotope generators to provide electrical power for future NASA deep space missions. STC is developing the 55-We technology demonstration convertor (TDC) under contract to the Department of Energy. The Department of Energy recently named Lockheed Martin as the system integration contractor for the Stirling radioisotope generator development project. Lockheed Martin will develop the Stirling radioisotope generator engineering unit and has contract options to develop the qualification unit and the first flight unit. Glenn s role includes an in-house project to provide convertor, component, and materials testing and evaluation in support of the overall power system development. As a part of this work, Glenn has established an in-house Stirling research laboratory for testing, analyzing, and evaluating Stirling machines. STC has built four 55-We convertors for NASA, and these are being tested at Glenn. A cross-sectional view of the 55-We TDC is shown in the figure. Of critical importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor for space power applications is the development of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. In support, Glenn has been developing finite element analysis and finite element method tools for performing various linear alternator thermal and electromagnetic analyses and evaluating design configurations. A three-dimensional magnetostatic finite element model of STC's 55-We TDC linear alternator was developed to evaluate the demagnetization fields affecting the alternator magnets. Since the actual linear alternator hardware is symmetric to the quarter section about the axis of motion, only a quarter section of the alternator was modeled. The components modeled included the mover laminations, the neodymium-iron-boron magnets, the stator laminations, and the copper coils. The

  16. Development of the human aortic arch system captured in an interactive three-dimensional reference model.

    PubMed

    Rana, M Sameer; Sizarov, Aleksander; Christoffels, Vincent M; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2014-06-01

    Variations and mutations in the human genome, such as 22q11.2 microdeletion, can increase the risk for congenital defects, including aortic arch malformations. Animal models are increasingly expanding our molecular and genetic insights into aortic arch development. However, in order to justify animal-to-human extrapolations, a human morphological, and molecular reference model would be of great value, but is currently lacking. Here, we present interactive three-dimensional reconstructions of the developing human aortic arch system, supplemented with the protein distribution of developmental markers for patterning and growth, including T-box transcription factor TBX1, a major candidate for the phenotypes found in patients with the 22q11.2 microdeletion. These reconstructions and expression data facilitate unbiased interpretations, and reveal previously unappreciated aspects of human aortic arch development. Based on our reconstructions and on reported congenital anomalies of the pulmonary trunk and tributaries, we postulate that the pulmonary arteries originate from the aortic sac, rather than from the sixth pharyngeal arch arteries. Similar to mouse, TBX1 is expressed in pharyngeal mesenchyme and epithelia. The endothelium of the pharyngeal arch arteries is largely negative for TBX1 and family member TBX2 but expresses neural crest marker AP2α, which gradually decreases with ongoing development of vascular smooth muscle. At early stages, the pharyngeal arch arteries, aortic sac, and the dorsal aortae in particular were largely negative for proliferation marker Ki67, potentially an important parameter during aortic arch system remodeling. Together, our data support current animal-to-human extrapolations and future genetic and molecular analyses using animal models of congenital heart disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Development of Holographic Particle Velocimetry Techniques for Three-Dimensional Vortical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui

    The lack of techniques to measure instantaneous velocity vector fields in three-dimensional (3D) space is the primary obstacle to further understanding of vortex dynamics and turbulence phenomena. Holographic Particle Velocimetry (HPV), which can record a 3D flow field laden with tracer particles on holograms using pulsed laser beams and measure the particle displacements, appears to be highly promising to this end. An HPV technique based on in-line holography has been implemented, which is characterized by geometric simplicity and minimal laser requirements. To overcome limitations (such as intrinsic speckle noise and large depth-of-focus) of in-line HPV, an analytical model has been developed which elucidates the nature of the speckle noise, quantifies the signal-to-noise-ratio of particle images as a function of particle field parameters, and suggests ways for further improvements in HPV concepts. Based upon these results, an off-axis HPV system has been developed in which speckle noise is suppressed and depth-of-focus is reduced, but the system complexity increases as well. Improving upon off-axis HPV, two innovative techniques--viz. multibeam, and in-line recording/off-axis viewing (IROV)--have been proposed. Proof-of-concept has been established for the multibeam HPV which utilizes the laser energy efficiently. The IROV technique, which enjoys the geometric simplicity of in-line HPV as well as the low speckle noise and small depth-of-focus of off-axis HPV has been developed and applied to measure an unstable vortex ring (Re = 1360) in water. The instantaneous velocity vector field in a 3D space (21 mm x 40 mm x 11 mm) is obtained at a spatial resolution of 1 mm. The vorticity distribution and circulation as a function of radius from the core center are calculated.

  18. Development of a Three-Dimensional Bioengineering Technology to Generate Lung Tissue for Personalized Disease Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dan C; Alva-Ornelas, Jackelyn A; Sucre, Jennifer M S; Vijayaraj, Preethi; Durra, Abdo; Richardson, Wade; Jonas, Steven J; Paul, Manash K; Karumbayaram, Saravanan; Dunn, Bruce; Gomperts, Brigitte N

    2017-02-01

    Stem cell technologies, especially patient-specific, induced stem cell pluripotency and directed differentiation, hold great promise for changing the landscape of medical therapies. Proper exploitation of these methods may lead to personalized organ transplants, but to regenerate organs, it is necessary to develop methods for assembling differentiated cells into functional, organ-level tissues. The generation of three-dimensional human tissue models also holds potential for medical advances in disease modeling, as full organ functionality may not be necessary to recapitulate disease pathophysiology. This is specifically true of lung diseases where animal models often do not recapitulate human disease. Here, we present a method for the generation of self-assembled human lung tissue and its potential for disease modeling and drug discovery for lung diseases characterized by progressive and irreversible scarring such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Tissue formation occurs because of the overlapping processes of cellular adhesion to multiple alveolar sac templates, bioreactor rotation, and cellular contraction. Addition of transforming growth factor-β1 to single cell-type mesenchymal organoids resulted in morphologic scarring typical of that seen in IPF but not in two-dimensional IPF fibroblast cultures. Furthermore, this lung organoid may be modified to contain multiple lung cell types assembled into the correct anatomical location, thereby allowing cell-cell contact and recapitulating the lung microenvironment. Our bottom-up approach for synthesizing patient-specific lung tissue in a scalable system allows for the development of relevant human lung disease models with the potential for high throughput drug screening to identify targeted therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:622-633.

  19. Development of a Three-Dimensional Bioengineering Technology to Generate Lung Tissue for Personalized Disease Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dan C; Alva-Ornelas, Jackelyn A; Sucre, Jennifer M S; Vijayaraj, Preethi; Durra, Abdo; Richardson, Wade; Jonas, Steven J; Paul, Manash K; Karumbayaram, Saravanan; Dunn, Bruce; Gomperts, Brigitte N

    2016-09-15

    : Stem cell technologies, especially patient-specific, induced stem cell pluripotency and directed differentiation, hold great promise for changing the landscape of medical therapies. Proper exploitation of these methods may lead to personalized organ transplants, but to regenerate organs, it is necessary to develop methods for assembling differentiated cells into functional, organ-level tissues. The generation of three-dimensional human tissue models also holds potential for medical advances in disease modeling, as full organ functionality may not be necessary to recapitulate disease pathophysiology. This is specifically true of lung diseases where animal models often do not recapitulate human disease. Here, we present a method for the generation of self-assembled human lung tissue and its potential for disease modeling and drug discovery for lung diseases characterized by progressive and irreversible scarring such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Tissue formation occurs because of the overlapping processes of cellular adhesion to multiple alveolar sac templates, bioreactor rotation, and cellular contraction. Addition of transforming growth factor-β1 to single cell-type mesenchymal organoids resulted in morphologic scarring typical of that seen in IPF but not in two-dimensional IPF fibroblast cultures. Furthermore, this lung organoid may be modified to contain multiple lung cell types assembled into the correct anatomical location, thereby allowing cell-cell contact and recapitulating the lung microenvironment. Our bottom-up approach for synthesizing patient-specific lung tissue in a scalable system allows for the development of relevant human lung disease models with the potential for high throughput drug screening to identify targeted therapies.

  20. Development of Three-Dimensional Multicellular Tissue-Like Constructs for Mutational Analysis Using Macroporous Microcarriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jacqueline A.; Fraga, Denise N.; Gonda, Steve R.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), tissue-like model was developed for the genotoxic assessment of space environment. In previous experiments, we found that culturing mammalian cells in a NASA-designed bioreactor, using Cytodex-3 beads as a scaffold, generated 3-D multicellular spheroids. In an effort to generate scaffold-free spheroids, we developed a new 3-D tissue-like model by coculturing fibroblast and epithelial cell in a NASA bioreactor using macroporous Cultispher-S(TradeMark) microcarriers. Big Blue(Registered Trademark) Rat 2(Lambda) fibroblasts, genetically engineered to contain multiple copies (>60 copies/cell) of the Lac I target gene, were cocultured with radio-sensitive human epithelial cells, H184F5. Over an 8-day period, samples were periodically examined by microscopy and histology to confirm cell attachment, growth, and viability. Immunohistochemistry and western analysis were used to evaluate the expression of specific cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins. Key cell culture parameters (glucose, pH, and lactate concentrations) were monitored daily. Controls were two-dimensional mono layers of fibroblast or epithelial cells cultured in T-flasks. Analysis of 3-D spheroids from the bioreactor suggests fibroblast cells attached to and completely covered the bead surface and inner channels by day 3 in the bioreactor. Treatment of the 3-day spheroids with dispase II dissolved the Cultisphers(TradeMark) and produced multicellular, bead-less constructs. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of vi.mentin, cytokeratin and E-cadherin in treated spheroids. Examination of the dispase II treated spheroids with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also showed the presence of desmosomes. These results suggest that the controlled enzymatic degradation of an artificial matrix in the low shear environment of the NASA-designed bioreactor can produce 3-D tissue-like spheroids. 2

  1. Development of Three-Dimensional Position-Sensitive Room Temperature Semiconductor Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong He; Wen Li; Glenn F. Knoll; D. K. Wehe

    2000-06-04

    Semiconductor detectors can provide better spectroscopic performance than scintillation or gas-filled detectors because of the small ionization energy required to generate each electron-hole pair. Indeed, cryogenically cooled high-purity germanium detectors have played the dominant role whenever the best gamma-ray spectroscopy is required. A decades-long search for other semiconductor detectors that could provide higher stopping power and could operate at room temperature has been ongoing. Wide-bandgap semiconductors, such as CdTe, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}, have captured the most attention. However, the use of these semiconductors in detectors has been hindered primarily by problems of charge trapping and material nonuniformity. Introduced in 1994, single-polarity charge sensing on semiconductor detectors has shown great promise in avoiding the hole-trapping problem, and the newly demonstrated three-dimensional position-sensing technique can significantly mitigate the degradation of energy resolution due to nonuniformity of detector material. In addition, three-dimensional position sensitivity will provide unique imaging capabilities of these gamma-ray spectrometers. These devices are of interest for nuclear nonproliferation, medical imaging, gamma-ray astronomy, and high-energy physics applications. This paper describes the three-dimensional position-sensing method and reports our latest results using second-generation three-dimensional position-sensitive semiconductor spectrometers.

  2. Development of Novel Three-Dimensional Printed Scaffolds for Osteochondral Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Benjamin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Jiaoyan; Lee, James D.

    2015-01-01

    As modern medicine advances, various methodologies are being explored and developed in order to treat severe osteochondral defects in joints. However, it is still very challenging to cure the osteochondral defects due to their poor inherent regenerative capacity, complex stratified architecture, and disparate biomechanical properties. The objective of this study is to create novel three-dimensional (3D) printed osteochondral scaffolds with both excellent interfacial mechanical properties and biocompatibility for facilitating human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) growth and chondrogenic differentiation. For this purpose, we designed and 3D printed a series of innovative bi-phasic 3D models that mimic the osteochondral region of articulate joints. Our mechanical testing results showed that our bi-phasic scaffolds with key structures have enhanced mechanical characteristics in compression (a maximum Young's modulus of 31 MPa) and shear (a maximum fracture strength of 5768 N/mm2) when compared with homogenous designs. These results are also correlated with numerical simulation. In order to improve their biocompatibility, the scaffolds' surfaces were further modified with acetylated collagen (one of the main components in osteochondral extracellular matrix). MSC proliferation results demonstrated that incorporation of a collagen, along with biomimetically designed micro-features, can greatly enhance MSC growth after 5 days in vitro. Two weeks' chondrogenic differentiation results showed that our novel scaffolds (dubbed “key” scaffolds), both with and without surface collagen modification, displayed enhanced chondrogenesis (e.g., 130%, 114%, and 236% increases in glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen deposition, and total protein content on collagen-modified key scaffolds when compared with homogeneous controls). PMID:25088966

  3. Development and performance evaluation of a three-dimensional clinostat synchronized heavy-ion irradiation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Souda, Hikaru; Puspitasari, Anggraeini; Held, Kathryn D.; Hidema, Jun; Nikawa, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yukari; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Takahashi, Akihisa

    2017-02-01

    Outer space is an environment characterized by microgravity and space radiation, including high-energy charged particles. Astronauts are constantly exposed to both microgravity and radiation during long-term stays in space. However, many aspects of the biological effects of combined microgravity and space radiation remain unclear. We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) clinostat synchronized heavy-ion irradiation system for use in ground-based studies of the combined exposures. Our new system uses a particle accelerator and a respiratory gating system from heavy-ion radiotherapy to irradiate samples being rotated in the 3D clinostat with carbon-ion beams only when the samples are in the horizontal position. A Peltier module and special sample holder were loaded on a static stage (standing condition) and the 3D clinostat (rotation condition) to maintain a suitable temperature under atmospheric conditions. The performance of the new device was investigated with normal human fibroblasts 1BR-hTERT in a disposable closed cell culture chamber. Live imaging revealed that cellular adhesion and growth were almost the same for the standing control sample and rotation sample over 48 h. Dose flatness and symmetry were judged according to the relative density of Gafchromic films along the X-axis and Y-axis of the positions of the irradiated sample to confirm irradiation accuracy. Doses calculated using the carbon-ion calibration curve were almost the same for standing and rotation conditions, with the difference being less than 5% at 1 Gy carbon-ion irradiation. Our new device can accurately synchronize carbon-ion irradiation and simulated microgravity while maintaining the temperature under atmospheric conditions at ground level.

  4. Development of lead iodide perovskite solar cells using three-dimensional titanium dioxide nanowire architectures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanhao; Li, Jianye; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Jialiang; Zhang, Lushuai; Andrew, Trisha L; Arnold, Michael S; Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-27

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanowire (NW) architectures are considered as superior electrode design for photovoltaic devices compared to NWs or nanoparticle systems in terms of improved large surface area and charge transport properties. In this paper, we report development of lead iodide perovskite solar cells based on a novel 3D TiO2 NW architectures. The 3D TiO2 nanostructure was synthesized via surface-reaction-limited pulsed chemical vapor deposition (SPCVD) technique that also implemented the Kirkendall effect for complete ZnO NW template conversion. It was found that the film thickness of 3D TiO2 can significantly influence the photovoltaic performance. Short-circuit current increased with the TiO2 length, while open-circuit voltage and fill factor decreased with the length. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.0% was achieved with ∼ 600 nm long 3D TiO2 NW structures. Compared to other 1D nanostructure arrays (TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2-coated ZnO NWs and ZnO NWs), 3D TiO2 NW architecture was able to achieve larger amounts of perovskite loading, enhanced light harvesting efficiency, and increased electron-transport property. Therefore, its PCE is 1.5, 2.3, and 2.8 times higher than those of TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2-coated ZnO NWs, and ZnO NWs, respectively. The unique morphological advantages, together with the largely suppressed hysteresis effect, make 3D hierarchical TiO2 a promising electrode selection in designing high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  5. Development and proof-of-concept of three-dimensional lung histology volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Lindsay; Alabousi, Mostafa; Wheatley, Andrew; Aladl, Usaf; Slipetz, Deborah; Hogg, James C.; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2012-03-01

    Most medical imaging is inherently three-dimensional (3D) but for validation of pathological findings, histopathology is commonly used and typically histopathology images are acquired as twodimensional slices with quantitative analysis performed in a single dimension. Histopathology is invasive, labour-intensive, and the analysis cannot be performed in real time, yet it remains the gold standard for the pathological diagnosis and validation of clinical or radiological diagnoses of disease. A major goal worldwide is to improve medical imaging resolution, sensitivity and specificity to better guide therapy and biopsy and to one day delay or replace biopsy. A key limitation however is the lack of tools to directly compare 3D macroscopic imaging acquired in patients with histopathology findings, typically provided in a single dimension (1D) or in two dimensions (2D). To directly address this, we developed methods for 2D histology slice visualization/registration to generate 3D volumes and quantified tissue components in the 3D volume for direct comparison to volumetric micro-CT and clinical CT. We used the elastase-instilled mouse emphysema lung model to evaluate our methods with murine lungs sectioned (5 μm thickness/10 μm gap) and digitized with 2μm in-plane resolution. 3D volumes were generated for wildtype and elastase mouse lung sections after semi-automated registration of all tissue slices. The 1D mean linear intercept (Lm) for wildtype (WT) (47.1 μm +/- 9.8 μm) and elastase mouse lung (64.5 μm +/- 14.0 μm) was significantly different (p<.001). We also generated 3D measurements based on tissue and airspace morphometry from the 3D volumes and all of these were significantly different (p<.0001) when comparing elastase and WT mouse lung. The ratio of the airspace-to-lung volume for the entire lung volume was also significantly and strongly correlated with Lm.

  6. Development and performance evaluation of a three-dimensional clinostat synchronized heavy-ion irradiation system.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Souda, Hikaru; Puspitasari, Anggraeini; Held, Kathryn D; Hidema, Jun; Nikawa, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yukari; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Takahashi, Akihisa

    2017-02-01

    Outer space is an environment characterized by microgravity and space radiation, including high-energy charged particles. Astronauts are constantly exposed to both microgravity and radiation during long-term stays in space. However, many aspects of the biological effects of combined microgravity and space radiation remain unclear. We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) clinostat synchronized heavy-ion irradiation system for use in ground-based studies of the combined exposures. Our new system uses a particle accelerator and a respiratory gating system from heavy-ion radiotherapy to irradiate samples being rotated in the 3D clinostat with carbon-ion beams only when the samples are in the horizontal position. A Peltier module and special sample holder were loaded on a static stage (standing condition) and the 3D clinostat (rotation condition) to maintain a suitable temperature under atmospheric conditions. The performance of the new device was investigated with normal human fibroblasts 1BR-hTERT in a disposable closed cell culture chamber. Live imaging revealed that cellular adhesion and growth were almost the same for the standing control sample and rotation sample over 48h. Dose flatness and symmetry were judged according to the relative density of Gafchromic films along the X-axis and Y-axis of the positions of the irradiated sample to confirm irradiation accuracy. Doses calculated using the carbon-ion calibration curve were almost the same for standing and rotation conditions, with the difference being less than 5% at 1Gy carbon-ion irradiation. Our new device can accurately synchronize carbon-ion irradiation and simulated microgravity while maintaining the temperature under atmospheric conditions at ground level.

  7. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Cell Segmentation in Large-Scale Microscopy Data of Developing Embryos.

    PubMed

    Stegmaier, Johannes; Amat, Fernando; Lemon, William C; McDole, Katie; Wan, Yinan; Teodoro, George; Mikut, Ralf; Keller, Philipp J

    2016-01-25

    We present the Real-time Accurate Cell-shape Extractor (RACE), a high-throughput image analysis framework for automated three-dimensional cell segmentation in large-scale images. RACE is 55-330 times faster and 2-5 times more accurate than state-of-the-art methods. We demonstrate the generality of RACE by extracting cell-shape information from entire Drosophila, zebrafish, and mouse embryos imaged with confocal and light-sheet microscopes. Using RACE, we automatically reconstructed cellular-resolution tissue anisotropy maps across developing Drosophila embryos and quantified differences in cell-shape dynamics in wild-type and mutant embryos. We furthermore integrated RACE with our framework for automated cell lineaging and performed joint segmentation and cell tracking in entire Drosophila embryos. RACE processed these terabyte-sized datasets on a single computer within 1.4 days. RACE is easy to use, as it requires adjustment of only three parameters, takes full advantage of state-of-the-art multi-core processors and graphics cards, and is available as open-source software for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.

  8. Three-Dimensional Upper Limb Movement Characteristics in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Ellen; Desloovere, Kaat; Bruyninckx, Herman; Klingels, Katrijn; Molenaers, Guy; Aertbelien, Erwin; Van Gestel, Leen; Feys, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure which three-dimensional spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters differentiate upper limb movement characteristics in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) from those in typically developing children (TDC), during various clinically relevant tasks. We used a standardized protocol containing three reach…

  9. A New Three-Dimensional Educational Model Kit for Building DNA and RNA Molecules: Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltramini, Leila Maria; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; de Oliveira, Tales Henrique Goncalves; dos Santos Abel, Luciano Douglas; da Silva, Aparecido Rodrigues; dos Santos, Neusa Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    International specialized literature focused on research in biology education is sadly scarce, especially regarding biochemical and molecular aspects. In this light, researchers from this Centre for Structural Molecular Biotechnology developed and evaluated a three-dimensional educational model named "Building Life Molecules DNA and RNA." The…

  10. Development and Application of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Vapor Intrusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Bozkurt, Ozgur; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    Details of a three-dimensional finite element model of soil vapor intrusion, including the overall modeling process and the stepwise approach, are provided. The model is a quantitative modeling tool that can help guide vapor intrusion characterization efforts. It solves the soil gas continuity equation coupled with the chemical transport equation, allowing for both advective and diffusive transport. Three-dimensional pressure, velocity, and chemical concentration fields are produced from the model. Results from simulations involving common site features, such as impervious surfaces, porous foundation sub-base material, and adjacent structures are summarized herein. The results suggest that site-specific features are important to consider when characterizing vapor intrusion risks. More importantly, the results suggest that soil gas or subslab gas samples taken without proper regard for particular site features may not be suitable for evaluating vapor intrusion risks; rather, careful attention needs to be given to the many factors that affect chemical transport into and around buildings. PMID:19418819

  11. Development and application of a three-dimensional finite element vapor intrusion model.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Kelly G; Bozkurt, Ozgur; Suuberg, Eric M

    2009-04-01

    Details of a three-dimensional finite element model of soil vapor intrusion, including the overall modeling process and the stepwise approach, are provided. The model is a quantitative modeling tool that can help guide vapor intrusion characterization efforts. It solves the soil gas continuity equation coupled with the chemical transport equation, allowing for both advective and diffusive transport. Three-dimensional pressure, velocity, and chemical concentration fields are produced from the model. Results from simulations involving common site features, such as impervious surfaces, porous foundation sub-base material, and adjacent structures are summarized herein. The results suggest that site-specific features are important to consider when characterizing vapor intrusion risks. More importantly, the results suggest that soil gas or subslab gas samples taken without proper regard for particular site features may not be suitable for evaluating vapor intrusion risks; rather, careful attention needs to be given to the many factors that affect chemical transport into and around buildings.

  12. Development of Finite-Volume Methods for Three-Dimensional Transonic Flows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Thompson , J . F . (1978) "Three-Dimensional Body Fitted Coordinate Systems for... J . F ., Thames, F. C. J., and Mastin, C. W. (1974) "Automatic Numerical General of Body Fitted Curvilinear Coordinate System for Fields Containing any Number of Arbitrary Two Dimensional Bodies," J. Comp. Phys., Vol. 15, No. 3. ...R. L. (1978) "Automatic Boundary Clustering in Grid Generation with Elliptic Partial Differential Equations." Under review, to be published. Thompson

  13. Development of three-dimensional position-sensitive room temperature semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Li, W.; Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.

    2000-07-01

    Semiconductor detectors can provide better spectroscopic performance than scintillation or gas-filled detectors because of the small ionization energy required to generate each electron-hole pair. Indeed, cryogenically cooled high-purity germanium detectors have played the dominant role whenever the best gamma-ray spectroscopy is required. A decades-long search for other semiconductor detectors that could provide higher stopping power and could operate at room temperature has been ongoing. Wide-band-gap semiconductors, such as CdTe, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}, have captured the most attention. However, the use of these semiconductors in detectors has been hindered primarily by problems of charge trapping and material nonuniformity. Introduced in 1994, single-polarity charge sensing on semiconductor detectors has shown great promise in avoiding the hole-trapping problem, and the newly demonstrated three-dimensional position-sensing technique can significantly mitigate the degradation of energy resolution due to the nonuniformity of detector material. In addition, three-dimensional position sensitivity will provide unique imaging capabilities of these gamma-ray spectrometers. These devices are of interest for nuclear nonproliferation, medical imaging, gamma-ray astronomy, and high-energy physics applications. This paper reports the latest results using second-generation three-dimensional position-sensitive semiconductor spectrometers. The improvements over the first generation devices include: (1) Larger volume; (2) Improved anode design; (3) More reliable connections; (4) Enhanced electronic capability; and (5) Measurement of electron drift times. The new detectors and readout electronics (from IDE AS) are being assembled and tested.

  14. A hybrid numerical method for three-dimensional spatially-developing free-shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    The present novel algorithm for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations treats a domain which is (1) infinite in the vertical direction, using a mapped spectral method; (2) finite in the streamwise direction, using a classical Fourier method; and (3) homogeneous in the spanwise direction, using high-order compact finite differencing. A projection method is employed which ensures the exact conservation of mass, as well as the satisfaction of the boundary conditions at infinity. The novel aspects of these methods are noted, and the code they constitute is validated in light of several test cases. Results are presented for two- and three-dimensional mixing layers.

  15. Development and analysis of three-dimensionally reinforced cellular matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a new class of lightweight three-dimensional textile reinforced cellular matrix composite (3-D CMC) materials using a high-pressure foaming method. The scope of the research includes fabrication, experimental evaluation and mathematical modeling of the new composite materials. Principles of thermodynamics and transport phenomena involved in the cell nucleation and bubble growth in plastics using gas blowing agents were reviewed. The determinative factors for the foaming process were the foaming pressure, surface tension, viscous and inertial resistance forces. Foaming of epoxy resins by pressure quenching were carried out using a high-pressure vessel with a digital temperature controller and nitrogen gas as the blowing agent, at 100°C and 28--110.5 bar. The cure time was 2--2.5 hr., well before the time of gel point, 293 min., determined by means of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. It was found that the foam density decreased monotonously and the average bubble radius slightly decreased, while the cell density increased, with the increasing foaming pressure. Cure time of 2 and 2.5 hours have no influence on the foam density, but have opposite influences on the bubble radius and cell density. Samples of 3-D woven carbon CMC materials were fabricated using the high-pressure foaming apparatus at a foaming pressure of 60 bar as the epoxy resin cured for 1.5--2 hr. at 100°C. Photomicrographs of cross-sections of the samples revealed that the epoxy resins in the epoxy pockets of the 3-D CMC samples were removed during foaming. Average density was found 1.009 g/cm 3 for TM samples and 1.076 g/cm3 for TS samples, corresponding to weight reduction of 36.92% and 28.37%, respectively, as compared with the 3-D RMC material, where TM and TS samples used 3-D woven carbon preforms of different weaving parameters. Tensile test, 3-point bending and high velocity projectile impact test were conducted to evaluate the mechanical

  16. 3DNA: a versatile, integrated software system for the analysis, rebuilding, and visualization of three-dimensional nucleic-acid structures

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiang-Jun; Olson, Wilma K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of protocols showing how to use the 3DNA suite of programs to analyze, rebuild, and visualize three-dimensional nucleic-acid structures. The software determines a wide range of conformational parameters, including the identities and rigid-body parameters of interacting bases and base-pair steps, the nucleotides comprising helical fragments, the area of overlap of stacked bases, etc. The reconstruction of three-dimensional structure takes advantage of rigorously defined rigid-body parameters, producing rectangular block representations of the nucleic-acid bases and base pairs and all-atom models with approximate sugar-phosphate backbones. The visualization components create vector-based drawings and scenes that can be rendered as raster-graphics images, allowing for easy generation of publication-quality figures. The utility programs use geometric variables to control the view and scale of an object, for comparison of related structures. The commands run in seconds even for large structures. The software and related information are available at http://3dna.rutgers.edu/. PMID:18600227

  17. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models for Infectious Disease and Drug Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Ott, C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultures hold enormous potential to advance our understanding of infectious disease and to effectively translate basic cellular research into clinical applications. Using novel NASA bioreactor technology, the rotating wall vessel (RWV), we have engineered physiologically relevant 3-D human tissue culture models for infectious disease studies. The design of the RWV is based on the understanding that organs and tissues function in a 3-D environment, and that this 3-D architecture is critical for the differentiated form and function of tissues in vivo. The RWV provides large numbers of cells which are amenable to a wide variety of experimental manipulations and provides an easy, reproducible, and cost-effective approach to enhance differentiated features of cell culture models.

  18. Introductory Molecular Orbital Theory: An Honors General Chemistry Computational Lab as Implemented Using Three-Dimensional Modeling Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddick, Kristie R.; Parrill, Abby L.; Petersen, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a computational molecular orbital theory experiment was implemented in a first-semester honors general chemistry course. Students used the GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) quantum mechanical software (as implemented in ChemBio3D) to optimize the geometry for various small molecules. Extended Huckel…

  19. The Development of a Full Field Three-Dimensional Microscale Flow Measurement Technique for Application to Near Contact Line Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Qun; Hallinan, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present details of the development of a new three-dimensional velocity field measurement technique which can be used to provide more insight into the dynamics of thin evaporating liquid films (not limited to just low heat inputs for the heat transfer) and which also could prove useful for the study of spreading and wetting phenomena and other microscale flows.

  20. Development of three-dimensional integrated microchannel-electrode system to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Obara, H; Sapkota, A; Takei, M

    2016-03-01

    An optical transparent 3-D Integrated Microchannel-Electrode System (3-DIMES) has been developed to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics in the microchannel. In this system, 40 multilayered electrodes are embedded at the 2 opposite sides along the 5 square cross-sections of the microchannel by using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems technology in order to achieve the optical transparency at the other 2 opposite sides. The concept of the 3-DIMES is that the particles are driven by electrokinetic forces which are dielectrophoretic force, thermal buoyancy, electrothermal force, and electroosmotic force in a three-dimensional scope by selecting the excitation multilayered electrodes. As a first step to understand the particles' movement driven by electrokinetic forces in high conductive fluid (phosphate buffer saline (PBS)) with the 3-DIMES, the velocities of particles' movement with one pair of the electrodes are measured three dimensionally by Particle Image Velocimetry technique in PBS; meanwhile, low conductive fluid (deionized water) is used as a reference. Then, the particles' movement driven by the electrokinetic forces is discussed theoretically to estimate dominant forces exerting on the particles. Finally, from the theoretical estimation, the particles' movement mainly results from the dominant forces which are thermal buoyancy and electrothermal force, while the velocity vortex formed at the 2 edges of the electrodes is because of the electroosmotic force. The conclusions suggest that the 3-DIMES with PBS as high conductive fluid helps to understand the three-dimensional advantageous flow structures for cell manipulation in biomedical applications.

  1. Development of three-dimensional integrated microchannel-electrode system to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Obara, H.; Sapkota, A.; Takei, M.

    2016-01-01

    An optical transparent 3-D Integrated Microchannel-Electrode System (3-DIMES) has been developed to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics in the microchannel. In this system, 40 multilayered electrodes are embedded at the 2 opposite sides along the 5 square cross-sections of the microchannel by using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems technology in order to achieve the optical transparency at the other 2 opposite sides. The concept of the 3-DIMES is that the particles are driven by electrokinetic forces which are dielectrophoretic force, thermal buoyancy, electrothermal force, and electroosmotic force in a three-dimensional scope by selecting the excitation multilayered electrodes. As a first step to understand the particles' movement driven by electrokinetic forces in high conductive fluid (phosphate buffer saline (PBS)) with the 3-DIMES, the velocities of particles' movement with one pair of the electrodes are measured three dimensionally by Particle Image Velocimetry technique in PBS; meanwhile, low conductive fluid (deionized water) is used as a reference. Then, the particles' movement driven by the electrokinetic forces is discussed theoretically to estimate dominant forces exerting on the particles. Finally, from the theoretical estimation, the particles' movement mainly results from the dominant forces which are thermal buoyancy and electrothermal force, while the velocity vortex formed at the 2 edges of the electrodes is because of the electroosmotic force. The conclusions suggest that the 3-DIMES with PBS as high conductive fluid helps to understand the three-dimensional advantageous flow structures for cell manipulation in biomedical applications. PMID:27042247

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of a developing sinkhole using GPR and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Gaines, Andrew; Nobes, David

    2016-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging is one of the most promising non-destructive and non-invasive methods that have offered new opportunities for mapping shallow subsurface disturbances in urbanized and industrialized zones. However, difficulties often arise in choosing the optimum antenna frequency to image subsurface features. While high frequency antennas may provide lots of detail, lower frequency antennas may provide information on larger-scale features that provide more site context. In this study, we performed GPR surveys to investigate a zone of subtle surface subsidence and pavement cracking on reclaimed land at a quayside. A 3-stage approach was used, and included: (1) a 250 MHz antenna survey to delineate the spatial extent of the area of interest; (2) a 500 MHz antenna survey to yield greater detail; and (3) direct verification of some of the key features using dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) testing to "ground-truth" anomalies. This staged approach proved successful in imaging the sub-grade, and minor voids within approximately 2 m depth. Moreover, the quality of the data can be further improved by using GPR-Slice software in conjunction with DCP data to develop a 3D ground model. Through this approach, a combination of GPR survey and direct testing, we demonstrate the efficiency and quality of this method in mapping shallow subsidence features. An interpretation of the process-origin of the collapse feature is also proposed.

  3. Development of an explicit non-staggered scheme for solving three-dimensional Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Tony W. H.; Chung, Y. W.; Li, J. H.; Wang, Y. C.

    2016-10-01

    An explicit finite-difference scheme for solving the three-dimensional Maxwell's equations in non-staggered grids is presented. We aspire to obtain time-dependent solutions of the Faraday's and Ampère's equations and predict the electric and magnetic fields within the discrete zero-divergence context (or Gauss's law). The local conservation laws in Maxwell's equations are numerically preserved using the explicit second-order accurate symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta temporal scheme. Following the method of lines, the spatial derivative terms in the semi-discretized Faraday's and Ampère's equations are approximated theoretically to obtain a highly accurate numerical phase velocity. The proposed fourth-order accurate space-centered finite difference scheme minimizes the discrepancy between the exact and numerical phase velocities. This minimization process considerably reduces the dispersion and anisotropy errors normally associated with finite difference time-domain methods. The computational efficiency of getting the same level of accuracy at less computing time and the ability of preserving the symplectic property have been numerically demonstrated through several test problems.

  4. Development of techniques required for the application of a laser to three dimensional visual sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Arthur M.; Gerhardt, Lester A.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing vision research at the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) is directed toward identifying and addressing the relevant issues involved in applying visual sensing to space assembly tasks. A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to passive sensing techniques such as using multiple cameras to identify objects in a scene. To compliment the capabilities of the passive visual system in the CIRSSE robotics testbed, research is being conducted in active sensing techniques. This report is description of the research associated with the testbed's laser scanner and its application as an active sensing device. The report is comprised of five major topics. First is a brief description of the CIRSSE visual system and a summary of the active sensing research that has been conducted up to this point. Second, some of the methods currently used to calibrate CIRSSE's laser scanner are described as well as an appraisal of the effectiveness of these methods. Third, is a discussion of how the laser scanner can be employed in concert with a camera to provide a three dimensional point estimation capability. Fourth, there is a description of methods that can be used to detect the presence of the laser beam in a cluttered camera image. Finally, there is a summary of the current state of this research and a description of research planned for the future.

  5. Development of AN Innovative Three-Dimensional Complete Body Screening Device - 3D-CBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, D. B.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes an innovative technological approach that increases the efficiency with which a large number of particles (photons) can be detected and analyzed. The three-dimensional complete body screening (3D-CBS) combines the functional imaging capability of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with those of the anatomical imaging capability of Computed Tomography (CT). The novel techniques provide better images in a shorter time with less radiation to the patient. A primary means of accomplishing this is the use of a larger solid angle, but this requires a new electronic technique capable of handling the increased data rate. This technique, combined with an improved and simplified detector assembly, enables executing complex real-time algorithms and allows more efficiently use of economical crystals. These are the principal features of this invention. A good synergy of advanced techniques in particle detection, together with technological progress in industry (latest FPGA technology) and simple, but cost-effective ideas provide a revolutionary invention. This technology enables over 400 times PET efficiency improvement at once compared to two to three times improvements achieved every five years during the past decades. Details of the electronics are provided, including an IBM PC board with a parallel-processing architecture implemented in FPGA, enabling the execution of a programmable complex real-time algorithm for best detection of photons.

  6. Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    1991-01-01

    A streamwise upwind algorithm for solving the unsteady 3-D Navier-Stokes equations was extended to handle the moving grid system. It is noted that the finite volume concept is essential to extend the algorithm. The resulting algorithm is conservative for any motion of the coordinate system. Two extensions to an implicit method were considered and the implicit extension that makes the algorithm computationally efficient is implemented into Ames's aeroelasticity code, ENSAERO. The new flow solver has been validated through the solution of test problems. Test cases include three-dimensional problems with fixed and moving grids. The first test case shown is an unsteady viscous flow over an F-5 wing, while the second test considers the motion of the leading edge vortex as well as the motion of the shock wave for a clipped delta wing. The resulting algorithm has been implemented into ENSAERO. The upwind version leads to higher accuracy in both steady and unsteady computations than the previously used central-difference method does, while the increase in the computational time is small.

  7. Development and validation of a three-dimensional ring-based structural tyre model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, P.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a structural model for an unloaded tyre, based on a three-dimensional flexible ring on an elastic foundation. The ring represents the belt and the elastic foundation represents the tyre sidewall. The model is valid up to 300 Hz and includes a submodel of the wheel and the air cavity. This makes the model potentially suitable for the prediction of structure-borne interior noise. Unlike most ring models, which only consider in-plane modes, the presented model also predicts the modes that involve torsion of the belt in circumferential direction. The parameterization of the model, which does not require detailed knowledge of the tyre construction, is based on the main geometrical properties of the tyre and a limited modal test. Comparison between measured and calculated responses shows that the tyre-wheel model describes the dynamic behaviour with acceptable accuracy. Since the model is physical, it can be applied to describe other operational conditions such as loading and rotation.

  8. Dental application of novel finite element analysis software for three-dimensional finite element modeling of a dentulous mandible from its computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Yuki; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Masumi, Shin-ich

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on the application of novel finite-element analysis software for constructing a finite-element model from the computed tomography data of a human dentulous mandible. The finite-element model is necessary for evaluating the mechanical response of the alveolar part of the mandible, resulting from occlusal force applied to the teeth during biting. Commercially available patient-specific general computed tomography-based finite-element analysis software was solely applied to the finite-element analysis for the extraction of computed tomography data. The mandibular bone with teeth was extracted from the original images. Both the enamel and the dentin were extracted after image processing, and the periodontal ligament was created from the segmented dentin. The constructed finite-element model was reasonably accurate using a total of 234,644 nodes and 1,268,784 tetrahedral and 40,665 shell elements. The elastic moduli of the heterogeneous mandibular bone were determined from the bone density data of the computed tomography images. The results suggested that the software applied in this study is both useful and powerful for creating a more accurate three-dimensional finite-element model of a dentulous mandible from the computed tomography data without the need for any other software.

  9. Development of a cost effective three-dimensional posture analysis tool: validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of clear understanding of the association between sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain, might reflect invalid and/or unreliable posture measurement instruments. The psychometric properties of any new measurement instrument should be demonstrated prior to use for research or clinical purposes. This paper describes psychometric testing of a new three-dimensional (3D), portable, non-invasive posture analysis tool (3D-PAT), from sequential studies using a mannequin and high school students. Methods The first study compared the 3D-(X-, Y- and Z-) coordinates of reflective markers placed on a mannequin using the 3D-PAT, and the Vicon motion analysis system. This study also tested the reliability of taking repeated measures of the 3D-coordinates of the reflective markers. The second study determined the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the 3D-PAT measurements of nine sitting postural angles of high school students undertaking a standard computing task. In both studies, concordance correlation coefficients and Intraclass correlation coefficients described test-retest reliability, whilst Pearson product moment correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated concurrent validity. Results The 3D-PAT provides reliable and valid 3D measurements of five of the nine postural angles i.e. head flexion, neck flexion, cranio-cervical angle, trunk flexion and head lateral bending in adolescents undertaking a standard task. Conclusions The 3D-PAT is appropriate for research and clinical settings to measure five upper quadrant postural angles in three dimensions. As a measurement instrument it can provide further understanding of the relationship between sitting posture, changes to sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24289665

  10. Two- and Three-Dimensional Depiction of Subsurface Geology Using Commercial Software for Support of Groundwater Contaminant Fate and Transport Analysis - 13345

    SciTech Connect

    Ivarson, Kristine A.; Miller, Charles W.; Arola, Craig C.

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other nuclear reactor operation-related contaminants has resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas (the Hanford Site 100 Area). The large geographic extent of the resultant contaminant plumes requires an extensive level of understanding of the aquifer structure, characteristics, and configuration to support assessment and design of remedial alternatives within the former 100-D, 100-H, and 100-K reactor areas. The authors have prepared two- and three-dimensional depictions of the key subsurface geologic structures at two Hanford Site reactor operable units (100-K and 100-D/H). These depictions, prepared using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) visualization software, provide a basis for expanding the understanding of groundwater contaminant migration pathways, including identification of geologically-defined preferential groundwater flow pathways. These identified preferential flow pathways support the conceptual site model and help explain both historical and current contaminant distribution and transport. (authors)

  11. Comparison of in vivo cone-beam and multidetector computed tomographic scans by three-dimensional merging software.

    PubMed

    Rostetter, Claudio; Metzler, Philipp; Schenkel, Jan S; Seifert, Burkhardt; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo

    2015-12-01

    In dentomaxillofacial radiology, cone-beam computed tomography (CT) is used to give fast and high-resolution 3-dimensional images of bone with a low dose of radiation. However, its use for quantitative measurement of bone density based on absolute values (Hounsfield units, HU) as in multidetector CT is still controversial. We know of no in vivo study of 3-dimensional merging software that will reliably match identical bone areas of cone-beam and multidetector CT datasets. We studied 19 multidetector, and 19 cone-beam, CT scans of the skull. The two datasets were fused, corresponding points were identified for measurement, and we compared mean density. We used linear regression to analyse the relation between the two different scanning methods, and studied a total of 4180 measurements. The mean time interval between scans was 5.2 (4.7) months. Mean R(2) over all measurements was 0.63 (range 0.22 - 0.79) with a mean internal consistency (Cronbach's α) of 0.86 (range 0.61 - 0.93). The strongest linearity, seen at the left mastoid, was R(2)=0.79 with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.89), and the weakest was at the left zygomatic bone with R(2)=0.22 and Cronbach's α=0.61. Measurements of bone density based on cone-beam and multidetector CT scans generated in vivo showed high and reproducible internal consistency but poor linearity.

  12. Comparison of Commercial Structure-From Photogrammety Software Used for Underwater Three-Dimensional Modeling of Coral Reef Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Delparte, D.

    2017-02-01

    Structural complexity in ecosystems creates an assortment of microhabitat types and has been shown to support greater diversity and abundance of associated organisms. The 3D structure of an environment also directly affects important ecological parameters such as habitat provisioning and light availability and can therefore strongly influence ecosystem function. Coral reefs are architecturally complex 3D habitats, whose structure is intrinsically linked to the ecosystem biodiversity, productivity, and function. The field of coral ecology has, however, been primarily limited to using 2-dimensional (2D) planar survey techniques for studying the physical structure of reefs. This conventional approach fails to capture or quantify the intricate structural complexity of corals that influences habitat facilitation and biodiversity. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach can obtain accurate measurements of architectural complexity, topography, rugosity, volume, and other structural characteristics that affect biodiversity and abundance of reef organisms. Structurefrom- Motion (SfM) photogrammetry is an emerging computer vision technology that provides a simple and cost-effective method for 3D reconstruction of natural environments. SfM has been used in several studies to investigate the relationship between habitat complexity and ecological processes in coral reef ecosystems. This study compared two commercial SfM software packages, Agisoft Photoscan Pro and Pix4Dmapper Pro 3.1, in order to assess the cpaability and spatial accuracy of these programs for conducting 3D modeling of coral reef habitats at three spatial scales.

  13. Use of the surface-based registration function of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing software in medical simulation software for three-dimensional simulation of orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Moon-Key

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography image models are helpful in reproducing the maxillofacial area; however, they do not necessarily provide an accurate representation of dental occlusion and the state of the teeth. Recent efforts have focused on improvement of dental imaging by replacement of computed tomography with other detailed digital images. Unfortunately, despite the advantages of medical simulation software in dentofacial analysis, diagnosis, and surgical simulation, it lacks adequate registration tools. Following up on our previous report on orthognathic simulation surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, we recently used the registration functions of a CAD/CAM platform in conjunction with surgical simulation software. Therefore, we would like to introduce a new technique, which involves use of the registration functions of CAD/CAM software followed by transfer of the images into medical simulation software. This technique may be applicable when using various registration function tools from different software platforms.

  14. Development of a three-dimensional unit cell to model the micromechanical response of a collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Monica E; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure and mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is now being recognized as a primary factor in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, an appreciation of the mechanical aspects by which a cell interacts with its ECM is required for the development of engineered tissues. Ultimately, using these interactions to design tissue equivalents requires mathematical models with three-dimensional architecture. In this study, a three-dimensional model of a collagen fibril matrix undergoing uniaxial tensile stress was developed by making use of cellular solids. A structure consisting of thin struts was chosen to represent the arrangement of collagen fibrils within an engineered ECM. To account for the large deformation of tissues, the collagen fibrils were modeled as hyperelastic neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin materials. The use of cellular solids allowed the fibril properties to be related to the ECM properties in closed form, which, in turn, allowed the estimation of fibril properties using ECM experimental data. A set of previously obtained experimental data consisting of simultaneous measures of the fibril microstructure and mechanical tests was used to evaluate the model's capability to estimate collagen fibril mechanical property when given tissue-scale data and to predict the tissue-scale mechanical properties when given estimated fibril stiffness. The fibril tangent modulus was found to be 1.26 + or - 0.70 and 1.62 + or - 0.88 MPa when the fibril was modeled as neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin material, respectively. There was no statistical significance of the estimated fibril tangent modulus among the different groups. Sensitivity analysis showed that the fibril mechanical properties and volume fraction were the two input parameters which required accurate values. While the volume fraction was easily obtained from the initial image of the gel, the fibril mechanical properties

  15. Status report on the development of a three-dimensional conceptual model for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the status of development of a three-dimensional conceptual model for the unconfined aquifer system at Hanford. A conceptual model is needed to support development of a realistic three-dimensional numerical model for predicting ground-water flow and the transport of contaminants. The report focuses on developing a hydrogeologic framework, assessing available hydraulic property data, describing flow-system boundaries, and evaluating areal recharge and leakage. Geologic descriptions of samples obtained during well drilling were used to prepare cross sections that correlate relatively continuous layers. The layers were defined based on textural differences that are expected to reflect differences in hydraulic properties. Assigning hydraulic properties to the layers is a critical part of the conceptual model. Available hydraulic property data for the study area were compiled and were correlated with the geologic layers where possible. Flow-system boundaries are present within the study area at basalt outcrops and at the Columbia River. Boundary conditions have been evaluated for these areas. Available estimates of areal recharge from precipitation were compiled.

  16. Optimal management of reconfigurable manufacturing system modeling with Petri nets developed three-dimensional - RPD3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, F.; Marinescu, V.; Epureanu, A.

    2016-11-01

    Modeling of reconfigurable manufacturing systems would have done using existing Petri net types, but the complexity and dynamics of the new manufacturing system, mainly data reconfiguration feature, required looking for a more compact representation with many variables that to model as accurately not only the normal operation of the production system but can capture and model and reconfiguration process. Thus, it was necessary to create a new class of Petri nets, called RPD3D (Developed Petri nets with three dimensional) showing the name of both lineage (new class derived from Petri nets developed, created in 2000 by Prof. Dr. Ing Vasile Marinescu in his doctoral thesis) [1], but the most important of the new features defining (transformation from one 2D model into a 3D model).The idea was to introduce the classical model of a Petri third dimension to be able to overlay multiple levels (layers) formed in 2D or 3D Petri nets that interact with each other (receiving or giving commands to enable or disable the various modules together simulating the operation of reconfigurable manufacturing systems). The aim is to present a new type of Petri nets called RPD3D - Developed Petri three-dimensional model used for optimal control and simulation of reconfigurable manufacturing systems manufacture of products such systems.

  17. Accuracy of three-dimensional soft tissue prediction for Le Fort I osteotomy using Dolphin 3D software: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, C M; Dang, R R; Glick, S J; Padwa, B L

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue prediction is replacing two-dimensional analysis in planning for orthognathic surgery. The accuracy of different computational models to predict soft tissue changes in 3D, however, is unclear. A retrospective pilot study was implemented to assess the accuracy of Dolphin 3D software in making these predictions. Seven patients who had a single-segment Le Fort I osteotomy and had preoperative (T0) and >6-month postoperative (T1) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and 3D photographs were included. The actual skeletal change was determined by subtracting the T0 from the T1 CBCT. 3D photographs were overlaid onto the T0 CBCT and virtual skeletal movements equivalent to the achieved repositioning were applied using Dolphin 3D planner. A 3D soft tissue prediction (TP) was generated and differences between the TP and T1 images (error) were measured at 14 points and at the nasolabial angle. A mean linear prediction error of 2.91±2.16mm was found. The mean error at the nasolabial angle was 8.1±5.6°. In conclusion, the ability to accurately predict 3D soft tissue changes after Le Fort I osteotomy using Dolphin 3D software is limited.

  18. Cutting balloon angioplasty for carotid artery in-stent stenosis supported by three-dimensional rotational angiography with automated vessel analysis software.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuhiko; Moritake, Kouzo; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kowari, Kentaro; Sato, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Toshio

    2008-05-01

    In-stent stenosis is a possible long-term complication of carotid artery stenting. A simple and safe technique of cutting balloon angioplasty is described for carotid in-stent stenosis. The stented vessel is imaged by three-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography, the acquired projection images are transferred to a workstation, and the stenotic lesion and implanted stent are reconstructed. The diameter of the implanted stent in the stenotic region is measured by automated analysis software. Cutting balloon angioplasty carries the risk of vessel injury by the cutting balloon microblades, but the implanted stent acts as a barrier to protect the vessel. Therefore, cutting balloon inflation up to the stent diameter is safe and results in maximal vessel dilation. The key to success is precise measurement of the stent diameter and choice of a cutting balloon catheter of the appropriate size. 3D rotational angiography provides high-quality images of the vasculature of a stented vessel and a reference for intervention based on absolute measurements. Cutting balloon angioplasty supported by 3D rotational angiography with automated vessel analysis software should be considered as a treatment strategy for high-grade carotid artery in-stent stenosis.

  19. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  20. Development of A Three-Dimensional Tissue Construct from Dental Human Ectomesenchymal Stem Cells: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Uribe, Daniela; Estrada, Keila Neri Alvarado; Guillén, Amaury de Jesús Pozos; Pérez, Silvia Martín; Ibáñez, Raúl Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Application of regenerative medicine technology provides treatment for patients with several clinical problems, like loss of tissue and its function. The investigation of biological tooth replacement, dental tissue engineering and cell culture, scaffolds and growth factors are considered essential. Currently, studies reported on the making of threedimensional tissue constructs focused on the use of animal cells in the early stages of embryogenesis applied to young biomodels. The purpose of this study was the development and characterization of a three-dimensional tissue construct from human dental cells. The construct was detached, cultured and characterized in mesenchymal and epithelial cells of a human tooth germ of a 12 year old patient. The cells were characterized by specific membrane markers (STRO1, CD44), making a biocomplex using Pura Matrix as a scaffold, and it was incubated for four days and transplanted into 30 adult immunosuppressed male Wistar rats. They were evaluated at 6 days, 10 days and 2 months, obtaining histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cell cultures were positive for specific membrane markers, showing evident deviations in morphology under phase contrast microscope. Differentiation and organization were noted at 10 days, while the constructs at 2 months showed a clear difference in morphology, organization and cell type. It was possible to obtain a three-dimensional tissue construct from human dental ectomesenchymal cells achieving a degree of tissue organization that corresponds to the presence of cellular stratification and extracellular matrix. PMID:23308086

  1. Development of an unstructured solution adaptive method for the quasi-three-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Yi-Tsann; Usab, William J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A general solution adaptive scheme based on a remeshing technique is developed for solving the two-dimensional and quasi-three-dimensional Euler and Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical scheme is formulated on an unstructured triangular mesh utilizing an edge-based pointer system which defines the edge connectivity of the mesh structure. Jameson's four-stage hybrid Runge-Kutta scheme is used to march the solution in time. The convergence rate is enhanced through the use of local time stepping and implicit residual averaging. As the solution evolves, the mesh is regenerated adaptively using flow field information. Mesh adaptation parameters are evaluated such that an estimated local numerical error is equally distributed over the whole domain. For inviscid flows, the present approach generates a complete unstructured triangular mesh using the advancing front method. For turbulent flows, the approach combines a local highly stretched structured triangular mesh in the boundary layer region with an unstructured mesh in the remaining regions to efficiently resolve the important flow features. One-equation and two-equation turbulence models are incorporated into the present unstructured approach. Results are presented for a wide range of flow problems including two-dimensional multi-element airfoils, two-dimensional cascades, and quasi-three-dimensional cascades. This approach is shown to gain flow resolution in the refined regions while achieving a great reduction in the computational effort and storage requirements since solution points are not wasted in regions where they are not required.

  2. Development of an unstructured solution adaptive method for the quasi-three-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Yi-Tsann

    1993-01-01

    A general solution adaptive scheme-based on a remeshing technique is developed for solving the two-dimensional and quasi-three-dimensional Euler and Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical scheme is formulated on an unstructured triangular mesh utilizing an edge-based pointer system which defines the edge connectivity of the mesh structure. Jameson's four-stage hybrid Runge-Kutta scheme is used to march the solution in time. The convergence rate is enhanced through the use of local time stepping and implicit residual averaging. As the solution evolves, the mesh is regenerated adaptively using flow field information. Mesh adaptation parameters are evaluated such that an estimated local numerical error is equally distributed over the whole domain. For inviscid flows, the present approach generates a complete unstructured triangular mesh using the advancing front method. For turbulent flows, the approach combines a local highly stretched structured triangular mesh in the boundary layer region with an unstructured mesh in the remaining regions to efficiently resolve the important flow features. One-equation and two-equation turbulence models are incorporated into the present unstructured approach. Results are presented for a wide range of flow problems including two-dimensional multi-element airfoils, two-dimensional cascades, and quasi-three-dimensional cascades. This approach is shown to gain flow resolution in the refined regions while achieving a great reduction in the computational effort and storage requirements since solution points are not wasted in regions where they are not required.

  3. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  4. Systems in Development: Motor Skill Acquisition Facilitates Three-Dimensional Object Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    How do infants learn to perceive the backs of objects that they see only from a limited viewpoint? Infants' 3-dimensional object completion abilities emerge in conjunction with developing motor skills--independent sitting and visual-manual exploration. Infants at 4.5 to 7.5 months of age (n = 28) were habituated to a limited-view object and tested…

  5. Development of a Three Dimensional Wireless Sensor Network for Terrain-Climate Research in Remote Mountainous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.; Robinson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Developing sensor networks that are robust enough to perform in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks compared to human-dominated areas. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. We aim to overcome these challenges by developing a three-dimensional sensor network arrayed across a topoclimatic gradient (1100-1800 meters) in a wilderness area in central Idaho. Development of this sensor array builds upon advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies coupled with experiences of the multidisciplinary investigators in conducting research in remote mountainous locations. The proposed gradient monitoring network will provide near real-time data from a three-dimensional (3-D) array of sensors measuring biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The network will monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, tree stem growth and leaf wetness at time intervals ranging from seconds to days. The long-term goal of this project is to realize a transformative integration of smart sensor networks adaptively communicating data in real-time to ultimately achieve a 3-D visualization of ecosystem processes within remote mountainous regions. Process models will be the interface between the visualization platforms and the sensor network. This will allow us to better predict how non-human dominated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems function and respond to climate dynamics. Access to the data will be ensured as part of the Northwest Knowledge Network being developed at the University of Idaho, through ongoing Idaho NSF-funded cyber infrastructure initiatives, and existing data management systems funded by NSF, such as

  6. Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    1993-01-01

    In the last two decades, there have been extensive developments in computational aerodynamics, which constitutes a major part of the general area of computational fluid dynamics. Such developments are essential to advance the understanding of the physics of complex flows, to complement expensive wind-tunnel tests, and to reduce the overall design cost of an aircraft, particularly in the area of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity plays an important role in the design and development of aircraft, particularly modern aircraft, which tend to be more flexible. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur because of the interaction of the flow with flexible components. For example, an aircraft with highly swept wings may experience vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations. Also, undesirable aeroelastic phenomena due to the presence and movement of shock waves occur in the transonic range. Aeroelastically critical phenomena, such as a low transonic flutter speed, have been known to occur through limited wind-tunnel tests and flight tests. Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At Ames a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this contract is to continue the algorithm enhancements of ENSAERO and to apply the code to complicated geometries. During the last year

  7. Development of three-dimensional state-space wake theory and application in dynamic ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ke

    In topics of rotorcraft wake analysis, state-space wake theory has a recognized reputation for advantages in real-time simulation, preliminary design and eigenvalue analysis. Developments in the past decades greatly improved range of validity and accuracy of the state-space modeling approach. This work focuses on further improvement of the state-space wake theory and applications in representing dynamic ground effect. Extended state-space model is developed to represent non-zero mass flux on rotor disk. Its instant practical application, representing ground effect with a mass source ground rotor, is evaluated in both steady and dynamic aspects. Investigations of partial ground effect simulation by state-space model are carried out in different rotor configurations. Additional work is done in improving simulation efficiency of practical application of state-space modeling.

  8. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  9. Development of an artificial compound eye system for three-dimensional object detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengchao; Guo, Fang; Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi

    2014-02-20

    A compound eye has the advantages of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and compact structure, showing that it can be applicable for 3D object detection. In this work, an artificial compound eye system is developed for 3D object detection, consisting of a layer of lenslets and a prism-like beam-steering lens. A calibration method is developed for this system, with which the correspondences between incident light rays and the relevant image points can be obtained precisely using an active calibration pattern at multiple positions. Theoretically, calibration patterns at two positions are sufficient for system calibration, although more positions will increase the accuracy of the result. 3D positions of point objects are calculated to evaluate the system, which are obtained by the intersection of multiple incident light rays in the least-squares sense. Experimental results show that the system can detect an object with angular accuracy of better than 1 mrad, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed compound eye system. With a 2D scanning device, the system can be extended for general object detection in 3D space.

  10. Algorithm and code development for unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    1994-01-01

    Aeroelastic tests require extensive cost and risk. An aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiment is an order of magnitude more expensive than a parallel experiment involving only aerodynamics. By complementing the wind-tunnel experiments with numerical simulations, the overall cost of the development of aircraft can be considerably reduced. In order to accurately compute aeroelastic phenomenon it is necessary to solve the unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously with the structural equations of motion. These equations accurately describe the flow phenomena for aeroelastic applications. At ARC a code, ENSAERO, is being developed for computing the unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelasticity of aircraft, and it solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to enhance ENSAERO in both algorithm and geometric capabilities. During the last five years, the algorithms of the code have been enhanced extensively by using high-resolution upwind algorithms and efficient implicit solvers. The zonal capability of the code has been extended from a one-to-one grid interface to a mismatching unsteady zonal interface. The geometric capability of the code has been extended from a single oscillating wing case to a full-span wing-body configuration with oscillating control surfaces. Each time a new capability was added, a proper validation case was simulated, and the capability of the code was demonstrated.

  11. Developing High-Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound Techniques to Characterize Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Karla Patricia E.

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for the repair or replacement of native tissues and organs. Further advancements in the fabrication of functional engineered tissues are partly dependent on developing new and improved technologies to monitor the properties of engineered tissues volumetrically, quantitatively, noninvasively, and nondestructively over time. Currently, engineered tissues are evaluated during fabrication using histology, biochemical assays, and direct mechanical tests. However, these techniques destroy tissue samples and, therefore, lack the capability for real-time, longitudinal monitoring. The research reported in this thesis developed nondestructive, noninvasive approaches to characterize the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of 3-D engineered tissues using high-frequency quantitative ultrasound and elastography technologies. A quantitative ultrasound technique, using a system-independent parameter known as the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), was employed to visualize and quantify structural properties of engineered tissues. Specifically, the IBC was demonstrated to estimate cell concentration and quantitatively detect differences in the microstructure of 3-D collagen hydrogels. Additionally, the feasibility of an ultrasound elastography technique called Single Tracking Location Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (STL-ARFI) imaging was demonstrated for estimating the shear moduli of 3-D engineered tissues. High-frequency ultrasound techniques can be easily integrated into sterile environments necessary for tissue engineering. Furthermore, these high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques can enable noninvasive, volumetric characterization of the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of engineered tissues during fabrication and post-implantation.

  12. Three-dimensional patterns of cell division and expansion throughout the development of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalve, Shweta; Fotschki, Joanna; Beeckman, Tom; Vissenberg, Kris; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2014-12-01

    Variations in size and shape of multicellular organs depend on spatio-temporal regulation of cell division and expansion. Here, cell division and expansion rates were quantified relative to the three spatial axes in the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis thaliana. The results show striking differences in expansion rates: the expansion rate in the petiole is higher than in the leaf blade; expansion rates in the lateral direction are higher than longitudinal rates between 5 and 10 days after stratification, but become equal at later stages of leaf blade development; and anticlinal expansion co-occurs with, but is an order of magnitude slower than periclinal expansion. Anticlinal expansion rates also differed greatly between tissues: the highest rates occurred in the spongy mesophyll and the lowest in the epidermis. Cell division rates were higher and continued for longer in the epidermis compared with the palisade mesophyll, causing a larger increase of palisade than epidermal cell area over the course of leaf development. The cellular dynamics underlying the effect of shading on petiole length and leaf thickness were then investigated. Low light reduced leaf expansion rates, which was partly compensated by increased duration of the growth phase. Inversely, shading enhanced expansion rates in the petiole, so that the blade to petiole ratio was reduced by 50%. Low light reduced leaf thickness by inhibiting anticlinal cell expansion rates. This effect on cell expansion was preceded by an effect on cell division, leading to one less layer of palisade cells. The two effects could be uncoupled by shifting plants to contrasting light conditions immediately after germination. This extended kinematic analysis maps the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cell division and expansion, providing a framework for further research to understand the molecular regulatory mechanisms involved.

  13. Cell-specific transcriptomic analyses of three-dimensional shoot development in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Frank, Margaret H; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Haploid moss gametophytes harbor distinct stem cell types, including tip cells that divide in single planes to generate filamentous protonemata, and bud cells that divide in three planes to yield axial gametophore shoots. This transition from filamentous to triplanar growth occurs progressively during the moss life cycle, and is thought to mirror evolution of the first terrestrial plants from Charophycean green algal ancestors. The innovation of morphologically complex plant body plans facilitated colonization of the vertical landscape, and enabled development of complex vegetative and reproductive plant morphologies. Despite its profound evolutionary significance, the molecular programs involved in this transition from filamentous to triplanar meristematic plant growth are poorly understood. In this study, we used single-cell type transcriptomics to identify more than 4000 differentially expressed genes that distinguish uniplanar protonematal tip cells from multiplanar gametophore bud cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens. While the transcriptomes of both tip and bud cells show molecular signatures of proliferative cells, the bud cell transcriptome exhibits a wider variety of genes with significantly increased transcript abundances. Our data suggest that combined expression of genes involved in shoot patterning and asymmetric cell division accompanies the transition from uniplanar to triplanar meristematic growth in moss.

  14. Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This site-scale model covers and area of about 34 km2 and is bounded by major faults to the north, east and west. The model geometry is defined (1) to represent the variations of hydrogeological units between the ground surface and the water table; (2) to be able to reproduce the effect of abrupt changes in hydrogeological parameters at the boundaries between hyrdogeological units; and (3) to include the influence of major faults. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on the locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Contour maps and isopatch maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. The grid geometry consists of seventeen non-uniform layers which represent the lithological variations within the four main welded and non-welded hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. The fault zones are explicitly modeled as porous medium using various assumptions regarding their permeabilities and characteristic curves. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and non-uniform infiltration rates. The results are interpreted in terms of the effect of fault characteristics on the moisture flow distribution, and on location and formation of preferential pathways.

  15. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Dendritic Growth of Alloy: Part I—Model Development and Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiling; Luo, Sen; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2016-03-01

    To improve the computational efficiency of the three-dimensional (3D) cellular-automaton-finite-volume-method (CA-FVM) model for describing the dendritic growth of alloy, the block-correction technique (BCT) and the parallel computation approach are introduced. Accordingly, a serial of investigations on the efficiency of the optimized codes in dealing with the designed cases for the melt flow and the heat transfer problems is carried out. Moreover, the accuracy of the present codes is evaluated by the comparisons between the solution to the melt flow and the heat transfer problems and the results from analytical equations and the commercial software. Additionally, the capability of the present CA model is evaluated by comparing the steady growth parameters of the equiaxed dendritic tip and the morphology and the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) of columnar dendrites with the LGK analytical model and the experimental results of the unidirectional solidification of high-carbon steels. The results show that with the introduction of the 3D BCT, the iteration process of the serial tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) code changes from the fluctuation type to the smooth one, and thus, the computational cost is reduced significantly. Moreover, the parallel Jacobi code with one two-dimensional (2D) iteration in 3D BCT is proved to be the most efficient one among the codes compiled in the present work, and therefore, accordingly it is employed to simulate the 3D dendritic growth of alloys. The calculated velocity distribution and temperature variation agree well with the results from the analytical equations and the commercial software. The predicted steady tip velocities agree with the LGK analytical model as the undercooling is 6 K to 7 K. Moreover, the predicted columnar dendritic morphology and SDAS of high-carbon Fe-C alloys during the unidirectional solidification agree with the experimental results.

  17. Development of a three-dimensional high-order strand-grids approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Oisin

    Development of a novel high-order flux correction method on strand grids is presented. The method uses a combination of flux correction in the unstructured plane and summation-by-parts operators in the strand direction to achieve high-fidelity solutions. Low-order truncation errors are cancelled with accurate flux and solution gradients in the flux correction method, thereby achieving a formal order of accuracy of 3, although higher orders are often obtained, especially for highly viscous flows. In this work, the scheme is extended to high-Reynolds number computations in both two and three dimensions. Turbulence closure is achieved with a robust version of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model that accommodates negative values of the turbulence working variable, and the Menter SST turbulence model, which blends the k-epsilon and k-o turbulence models for better accuracy. A major advantage of this high-order formulation is the ability to implement traditional finite volume-like limiters to cleanly capture shocked and discontinuous flows. In this work, this approach is explored via a symmetric limited positive (SLIP) limiter. Extensive verification and validation is conducted in two and three dimensions to determine the accuracy and fidelity of the scheme for a number of different cases. Verification studies show that the scheme achieves better than third order accuracy for low and high-Reynolds number flows. Cost studies show that in three-dimensions, the third-order flux correction scheme requires only 30% more walltime than a traditional second-order scheme on strand grids to achieve the same level of convergence. In order to overcome meshing issues at sharp corners and other small-scale features, a unique approach to traditional geometry, coined "asymptotic geometry," is explored. Asymptotic geometry is achieved by filtering out small-scale features in a level set domain through min/max flow. This approach is combined with a curvature based strand shortening

  18. Hyoid Bone Development: An Assessment Of Optimal CT Scanner Parameters and Three-Dimensional Volume Rendering Techniques.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Meghan M; Whyms, Brian J; Kelly, Michael P; Doherty, Benjamin M; Gentry, Lindell R; Bersu, Edward T; Vorperian, Houri K

    2015-08-01

    The hyoid bone anchors and supports the vocal tract. Its complex shape is best studied in three dimensions, but it is difficult to capture on computed tomography (CT) images and three-dimensional volume renderings. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal CT scanning and rendering parameters to accurately measure the growth and developmental anatomy of the hyoid and to determine whether it is feasible and necessary to use these parameters in the measurement of hyoids from in vivo CT scans. Direct linear and volumetric measurements of skeletonized hyoid bone specimens were compared with corresponding CT images to determine the most accurate scanning parameters and three-dimensional rendering techniques. A pilot study was undertaken using in vivo scans from a retrospective CT database to determine feasibility of quantifying hyoid growth. Scanning parameters and rendering technique affected accuracy of measurements. Most linear CT measurements were within 10% of direct measurements; however, volume was overestimated when CT scans were acquired with a slice thickness greater than 1.25 mm. Slice-by-slice thresholding of hyoid images decreased volume overestimation. The pilot study revealed that the linear measurements tested correlate with age. A fine-tuned rendering approach applied to small slice thickness CT scans produces the most accurate measurements of hyoid bones. However, linear measurements can be accurately assessed from in vivo CT scans at a larger slice thickness. Such findings imply that investigation into the growth and development of the hyoid bone, and the vocal tract as a whole, can now be performed using these techniques.

  19. On the development of a three-dimensional finite-element groundwater flow model of the saturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Faunt, C.C.; Gable, C.W.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    Development of a preliminary three-dimensional model of the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain, the potential location for a high-level nuclear waste repository, is presented. The development of the model advances the technology of interfacing: (1)complex three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework modeling; (2) fully three-dimensional, unstructured, finite-element mesh generation; and (3) groundwater flow, heat, and transport simulation. The three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is developed using maps, cross sections, and well data. The framework model data are used to feed an automated mesh generator, designed to discretize irregular three-dimensional solids,a nd to assign materials properties from the hydrogeologic framework model to the tetrahedral elements. The mesh generator facilitated the addition of nodes to the finite-element mesh which correspond to the exact three-dimensional position of the potentiometric surface based on water-levels from wells. A ground water flow and heat simulator is run with the resulting finite- element mesh, within a parameter-estimation program. The application of the parameter-estimation program is designed to provide optimal values of permeability and specified fluxes over the model domain to minimize the residual between observed and simulated water levels.

  20. Development of a three-dimensional correction method for optical distortion of flow field inside a liquid droplet.

    PubMed

    Gim, Yeonghyeon; Ko, Han Seo

    2016-04-15

    In this Letter, a three-dimensional (3D) optical correction method, which was verified by simulation, was developed to reconstruct droplet-based flow fields. In the simulation, a synthetic phantom was reconstructed using a simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique with three detectors positioned at the synthetic object (represented by the phantom), with offset angles of 30° relative to each other. Additionally, a projection matrix was developed using the ray tracing method. If the phantom is in liquid, the image of the phantom can be distorted since the light passes through a convex liquid-vapor interface. Because of the optical distortion effect, the projection matrix used to reconstruct a 3D field should be supplemented by the revision ray, instead of the original projection ray. The revision ray can be obtained from the refraction ray occurring on the surface of the liquid. As a result, the error on the reconstruction field of the phantom could be reduced using the developed optical correction method. In addition, the developed optical method was applied to a Taylor cone which was caused by the high voltage between the droplet and the substrate.

  1. Growth and development, and auxin polar transport of transgenic Arabidopsis under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Toru; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-12-01

    Growth and development, and auxin polar transport in Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with iaaH gene were studied under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat. Simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat did not affect the number of rosette leaves but promoted the growth and development (fresh weight of plant and the elongation of flower stalk) of transformants. Final growth of transformants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat was almost equivalent to that grown on 1 g conditions in the presence of 1 micromoles IAM (indole-3-acetamide). The activities of auxin polar transport in the segments of flower stalk (inflorescence axis) of transformants grown on 1 g conditions were significantly promoted by the addition of IAM. Interestingly, simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also promoted the activities of auxin polar transport of transformants grown on the medium with or without IAM. Based on the results in this study, transgenic plants may not have an efficient homeostatic mechanism for the control of growth and development, and auxin polar transport activity in microgravity conditions in space.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: Some recent developments in two-and three-dimensional laser forming for 'macro' and 'micro' applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearden, G.; Edwardson, S. P.

    2003-07-01

    Laser forming (LF) is an emerging laser process with potential for use in line bending or spatial forming of metal components and in the precise adjustment of novel miniature on-board actuators. The process is achieved by introducing thermal stresses into a work-piece by controlled irradiation with a focused laser beam. Unlike mechanical forming, there is no spring-back effect. A number of mechanisms have been identified to explain the thermo-mechanical behaviour in LF, accounting for various part geometries, laser process conditions and the complex interaction of many thermal and mechanical factors. Although these interactions are not yet fully understood, with increased knowledge of the process (in terms of theoretical models and control strategies) and the continued development of adaptive and/or predictive LF systems, the process offers significant potential value to industry. This review describes a number of recent developments and new techniques in two-and three-dimensional LF, for both macro-and micro-scale applications, and gives suggestions on the current industrial promise of the process. Macro-scale applications include rapid prototyping in industries that have relied on using expensive stamping dies and presses for design evaluations, while micro-scale applications already include the precision alignment of components during product assembly.

  3. Development and Initial Porcine and Cadaver Experience with Three-Dimensional Printing of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Equipment

    PubMed Central

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Yoon, Renai; Khanipour, Ramtin; Juncal, Samuel; Abedi, Garen; Lusch, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology have made it possible to print surgical devices. We report our initial experience with the printing and deployment of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment. Materials and Methods: We created computer-aided designs for ureteral stents and laparoscopic trocars using SolidWorks. We developed three generations of stents, which were printed with an Objet500 Connex printer, and a fourth generation was printed with an EOSINT P395 printer. The trocars were printed with an Objet30 Pro printer. We deployed the printed stents and trocars in a female cadaver and in vivo porcine model. We compared the printed trocars to two standard trocars for defect area and length using a digital caliper. Paired T-tests and ANOVA were used to test for statistical difference. Results: The first two generations of stents (7F and 9F) were functional failures as their diminutive inner lumen failed to allow the passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The third generation 12F stent allowed passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The 12F diameter limited its deployment, but it was introduced in a cadaver through a ureteral access sheath. The fourth-generation 9F stents were printed and deployed in a porcine model using the standard Seldinger technique. The printed trocars were functional for the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum and instrument passage. The printed trocars had larger superficial defect areas (p<0.001) and lengths (p=0.001) compared to Karl Storz and Ethicon trocars (29.41, 18.06, and 17.22 mm2, respectively, and 14.29, 11.39, and 12.15 mm, respectively). Conclusions: In this pilot study, 3D printing of ureteral stents and trocars is feasible, and these devices can be deployed in the porcine and cadaver models. Three-dimensional printing is rapidly advancing and may be clinically viable in the future. PMID:24983138

  4. Software system for three-dimensional visualization of micro-object surfaces for scanning probe microscopy using OpenGL graphics library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakuliuk, Nickolay V.

    2002-07-01

    The software system for 3D visualization of micro objects surfaces for scanning probe microscopy is developed. The system is used as a software part of software/hardware complex of scanning probe microscope (SPM) and its kinds. The system represent the results of microscope work in 3D- view. System has convenient GUI and high level of functionality in modes of visualization and in saving result images. Program allows to operate with image of surface in real time by performing scaling, rotation, moving, setting of lighting and color values, setting level of detail for surface in real time by performing scaling, rotation, moving, setting of lighting and color values, setting level of detail for surface rendering. This viewer works together with another part of software system that is responsible for controlling the SPM. The program also can be used as an independent view of scanning probe microscope files.

  5. Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R.

    1995-06-01

    A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

  6. Development of a three-dimensional angle errors detection and compensation system for two-dimensional stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang-Xian; Bian, Ya-Kui; Chen, Chen; Li, Rui-Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to compensate three-dimensional (3D) angle errors of two-dimensional (2D) stage in motion, a 3D angle errors detection and compensation system using a modified DVD pick-up head has been developed in this paper. The modified DVD pick-up head, which consists of a commercial DVD pick-up head without objective lens and voice coil motor, is used as an angle sensor. The mechanism of the angle sensor is based on optical auto-collimation, and each sensor can detect two deflection angles of the stage simultaneously. Utilizing the angle error information obtained by two angle sensors which are set along X and Y moving direction respectively, the controlling system adjusts the nano-positioning stage by controlling the piezoelectric ceramic actuators' movement to compensate the angle errors of the stage. This system can achieve the measurement and compensation of yaw angle error, pitch angle error and roll angle error of the stage. Experimental results show that the angle detection range of this system is +/-110", the resolution is about 0.2", and the repeatability error is about 2″. After compensating, the 3D angle errors of 2D stage can be controlled within 3″. This system has the advantages of compact structure, low cost, etc.

  7. Development of a three-dimensional bone-like construct in a soft self-assembling peptide matrix.

    PubMed

    Marí-Buyé, Núria; Luque, Tomás; Navajas, Daniel; Semino, Carlos E

    2013-04-01

    This work describes the development of a three-dimensional (3D) model of osteogenesis using mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and a soft synthetic matrix made out of self-assembling peptide nanofibers. By adjusting the matrix stiffness to very low values (around 120 Pa), cells were found to migrate within the matrix, interact forming a cell-cell network, and create a contracted and stiffer structure. Interestingly, during this process, cells spontaneously upregulate the expression of bone-related proteins such as collagen type I, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin, indicating that the 3D environment enhances their osteogenic potential. However, unlike MC3T3-E1 cultures in 2D, the addition of dexamethasone is required to acquire a final mature phenotype characterized by features such as matrix mineralization. Moreover, a slight increase in the hydrogel stiffness (threefold) or the addition of a cell contractility inhibitor (Rho kinase inhibitor) abrogates cell elongation, migration, and 3D culture contraction. However, this mechanical inhibition does not seem to noticeably affect the osteogenic process, at least at early culture times. This 3D bone model intends to emphasize cell-cell interactions, which have a critical role during tissue formation, by using a compliant unrestricted synthetic matrix.

  8. Development of a three-dimensional guidance system for long-range maneuvering of a miniature autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataei, Mansour; Yousefi-Koma, Aghil

    2014-12-01

    The present paper introduces a three-dimensional guidance system developed for a miniature Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The guidance system determines the best trajectory for the vehicle based on target behavior and vehicle capabilities. The dynamic model of this novel AUV is derived based on its special characteristics such as the horizontal posture and the independent diving mechanism. To design the guidance strategy, the main idea is to select the desired depth, presumed proportional to the horizontal distance of the AUV and the target. By connecting the two with a straight line, this strategy helps the AUV move in a trajectory sufficiently close to this line. The adjacency of the trajectory to the line leads to reasonably short travelling distances and avoids unsafe areas. Autopilots are designed using sliding mode controller. Two different engagement geometries are considered to evaluate the strategy's performance: stationary target and moving target. The simulation results show that the strategy can provide sufficiently fast and smooth trajectories in both target situations.

  9. The development of a three-dimensional scaffold for ex vivo biomimicry of human acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Teresa Mortera; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander; Panoskaltsis, Nicki

    2010-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry.

  10. Development of a Three-Dimensional Bone-Like Construct in a Soft Self-Assembling Peptide Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Marí-Buyé, Núria; Luque, Tomás; Navajas, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development of a three-dimensional (3D) model of osteogenesis using mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and a soft synthetic matrix made out of self-assembling peptide nanofibers. By adjusting the matrix stiffness to very low values (around 120 Pa), cells were found to migrate within the matrix, interact forming a cell–cell network, and create a contracted and stiffer structure. Interestingly, during this process, cells spontaneously upregulate the expression of bone-related proteins such as collagen type I, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin, indicating that the 3D environment enhances their osteogenic potential. However, unlike MC3T3-E1 cultures in 2D, the addition of dexamethasone is required to acquire a final mature phenotype characterized by features such as matrix mineralization. Moreover, a slight increase in the hydrogel stiffness (threefold) or the addition of a cell contractility inhibitor (Rho kinase inhibitor) abrogates cell elongation, migration, and 3D culture contraction. However, this mechanical inhibition does not seem to noticeably affect the osteogenic process, at least at early culture times. This 3D bone model intends to emphasize cell–cell interactions, which have a critical role during tissue formation, by using a compliant unrestricted synthetic matrix. PMID:23157379

  11. Three-dimensional development of tensile pre-strained annulus fibrosus cells for tissue regeneration: An in-vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Lee, Wu Chean; Wong, Hee Kit; Kang, Yuejun; Hee, Hwan Tak

    2015-02-01

    Prior research has investigated the immediate response after application of tensile strain on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells for the past decade. Although mechanical strain can produce either catabolic or anabolic consequences to the cell monolayer, little is known on how to translate these findings into further tissue engineering applications. Till to date, the application and effect of tensile pre-strained cells to construct a three-dimensional (3D) AF tissue remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of tensile pre-strained exposure of 1 to 24 h on the development of AF pellet culture for 3 weeks. Equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain was applied on AF monolayer cells over a period of 24 h, which was subsequently developed into a cell pellet. Investigation on cellular proliferation, phenotypic gene expression, and histological changes revealed that tensile pre-strain for 24 h had significant and lasting effect on the AF tissue development, with enhanced cell proliferation, and up-regulation of collagen type I, II, and aggrecan expression. Our results demonstrated the regenerative ability of AF cell pellets subjected to 24 h tensile pre-straining. Knowledge on the effects of tensile pre-strain exposure is necessary to optimize AF development for tissue reconstruction. Moreover, the tensile pre-strained cells may further be utilized in either cell therapy to treat mild disc degeneration disease, or the development of a disc construct for total disc replacement. - Highlights: • Establishment of tensile pre-strained cell line population for annulus development. • Tensile strain limits collagen gene expression declination in monolayer culture. • Tensile pre-strained cells up-regulate their matrix protein in 3D pellet culture.

  12. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model.

  13. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  14. Development of a Multicellular Three-dimensional Organotypic Model of the Human Intestinal Mucosa Grown Under Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Fasano, Alessio; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2016-07-25

    Because cells growing in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment have the potential to bridge many gaps of cell cultivation in 2-D environments (e.g., flasks or dishes). In fact, it is widely recognized that cells grown in flasks or dishes tend to de-differentiate and lose specialized features of the tissues from which they were derived. Currently, there are mainly two types of 3-D culture systems where the cells are seeded into scaffolds mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM): (a) static models and (b) models using bioreactors. The first breakthrough was the static 3-D models. 3-D models using bioreactors such as the rotating-wall-vessel (RWV) bioreactors are a more recent development. The original concept of the RWV bioreactors was developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center in the early 1990s and is believed to overcome the limitations of static models such as the development of hypoxic, necrotic cores. The RWV bioreactors might circumvent this problem by providing fluid dynamics that allow the efficient diffusion of nutrients and oxygen. These bioreactors consist of a rotator base that serves to support and rotate two different formats of culture vessels that differ by their aeration source type: (1) Slow Turning Lateral Vessels (STLVs) with a co-axial oxygenator in the center, or (2) High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) with oxygenation via a flat, silicone rubber gas transfer membrane. These vessels allow efficient gas transfer while avoiding bubble formation and consequent turbulence. These conditions result in laminar flow and minimal shear force that models reduced gravity (microgravity) inside the culture vessel. Here we describe the development of a multicellular 3-D organotypic model of the human intestinal mucosa composed of an intestinal epithelial cell line and primary human lymphocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts cultured under microgravity provided by the RWV bioreactor.

  15. Development of Liver Decellularized Extracellular Matrix Bioink for Three-Dimensional Cell Printing-Based Liver Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungseok; Han, Wonil; Kim, Hyeonji; Ha, Dong-Heon; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Byoung Soo; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-04-10

    The liver is an important organ and plays major roles in the human body. Because of the lack of liver donors after liver failure and drug-induced liver injury, much research has focused on developing liver alternatives and liver in vitro models for transplantation and drug screening. Although numerous studies have been conducted, these systems cannot faithfully mimic the complexity of the liver. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has emerged as one of a number of innovative technologies that may help to overcome this limitation. However, a great deal of work in developing biomaterials optimized for 3D cell printing-based liver tissue engineering remains. Therefore, in this work, we developed a liver decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) bioink for 3D cell printing applications and evaluated its characteristics. The liver dECM bioink retained the major ECM components of the liver while cellular components were effectively removed and further exhibited suitable and adjustable properties for 3D cell printing. We further studied printing parameters with the liver dECM bioink to verify the versatility and fidelity of the printing process. Stem cell differentiation and HepG2 cell functions in the liver dECM bioink in comparison to those of commercial collagen bioink were also evaluated, and the liver dECM bioink was found to induce stem cell differentiation and enhance HepG2 cell function. Consequently, the results demonstrate that the proposed liver dECM bioink is a promising bioink candidate for 3D cell printing-based liver tissue engineering.

  16. Software Model Of Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Synott, Debra J.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs constitutes software tool for simulation of medium- to large-scale software-development projects. Necessary to include easily identifiable and more-readily quantifiable characteristics like costs, times, and numbers of errors. Mathematical model incorporating these and other factors of dynamics of software-development process implemented in the Software Life Cycle Simulator (SLICS) computer program. Simulates dynamics of software-development process. In combination with input and output expert software systems and knowledge-based management software system, develops information for use in managing large software-development project. Intended to aid managers in planning, managing, and controlling software-development processes by reducing uncertainties in budgets, required personnel, and schedules.

  17. The Virtual Solar System Project: Developing Conceptual Understanding of Astronomical Concepts through Building Three-Dimensional Computational Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Thomas; Barnett, Michael; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Virtual Solar System (VSS) course which is one of the first attempts to integrate three-dimensional (3-D) computer modeling as a central component of introductory undergraduate education. Assesses changes in student understanding of astronomy concepts as a result of participating in an experimental introductory astronomy course in…

  18. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  19. Funding Research Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  20. Development of a high-throughput three-dimensional invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Nikki A; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-β1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery.

  1. Development of a High-Throughput Three-Dimensional Invasion Assay for Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Nikki A.; Li, Jian; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xiaojun; Sampson, Nicole S.; Zucker, Stanley; Cao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The lack of three-dimensional (3-D) high-throughput (HT) screening assays designed to identify anti-cancer invasion drugs is a major hurdle in reducing cancer-related mortality, with the key challenge being assay standardization. Presented is the development of a novel 3-D invasion assay with HT potential that involves surrounding cell-collagen spheres within collagen to create a 3-D environment through which cells can invade. Standardization was achieved by designing a tooled 96-well plate to create a precisely designated location for the cell-collagen spheres and by using dialdehyde dextran to inhibit collagen contraction, maintaining uniform size and shape. This permits automated readout for determination of the effect of inhibitory compounds on cancer cell invasion. Sensitivity was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish varying levels of invasiveness of cancer cell lines, and robustness was determined by calculating the Z-factor. A Z-factor of 0.65 was obtained by comparing the effects of DMSO and anti-β1-integrin antibody, an inhibitory reagent, on the invasion of Du145 cancer cells, suggesting this novel assay is suitable for large scale drug discovery. As proof of principle, the NCI Diversity Compound Library was screened against human invasive cancer cells. Nine compounds exhibiting high potency and low toxicity were identified, including DX-52-1, a compound previously reported to inhibit cell migration, a critical determinant of cancer invasion. The results indicate that this innovative HT platform is a simple, precise, and easy to replicate 3-D invasion assay for anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:24349367

  2. Cleanroom software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, M.; Mills, H. D.

    1981-01-01

    The 'cleanroom' software development process is a technical and organizational approach to developing software with certifiable reliability. Key ideas behind the process are well structured software specifications, randomized testing methods and the introduction of statistical controls; but the main point is to deny entry for defects during the development of software. This latter point suggests the use of the term 'cleanroom' in analogy to the defect prevention controls used in the manufacturing of high technology hardware. In the 'cleanroom', the entire software development process is embedded within a formal statistical design, in contrast to executing selected tests and appealing to the randomness of operational settings for drawing statistical inferences. Instead, random testing is introduced as a part of the statistical design itself so that when development and testing are completed, statistical inferences are made about the operation of the system.

  3. Three-Dimensional High-Frequency Ultrasonography for Early Detection and Characterization of Embryo Implantation Site Development in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Peavey, Mary C.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Szwarc, Maria M.; Gibbons, William E.; Valdes, Cecilia T.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero. With HFUS imaging followed by 3-D reconstruction, we were able to precisely quantify embryo implantation site number and embryonic developmental progression in pregnant C57BL6J/129S mice from as early as 5.5 days post coitus (d.p.c.) through to 9.5 d.p.c. using a VisualSonics Vevo 2100 (MS550S) transducer. In addition to measurements of implantation site number, location, volume and spacing, embryo viability via cardiac activity monitoring was also achieved. A total of 12 dams were imaged with HFUS with approximately 100 embryos examined per embryonic day. For the post-implantation period (5.5 to 8.5 d.p.c.), 3-D reconstruction of the gravid uterus in mesh or solid overlay format enabled visual representation in silico of implantation site location, number, spacing distances, and site volume within each uterine horn. Therefore, this short technical report describes the feasibility of using 3-D HFUS imaging for early detection and analysis of post-implantation events in the pregnant mouse with the ability to longitudinally monitor the development of these early pregnancy events in a non-invasive manner. As genetically engineered mice continue to be used to characterize female reproductive phenotypes, we believe this reliable and non-invasive method to detect, quantify, and characterize early implantation events will prove to be an invaluable investigative tool for the study of female

  4. The development of an explicit thermochemical nonequilibrium algorithm and its application to compute three dimensional AFE flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant

    1989-01-01

    This study presents a three-dimensional explicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing numerical algorithm applied to viscous hypersonic flows in thermochemical nonequilibrium. The algorithm employs a two-temperature physical model. Equations governing the finite-rate chemical reactions are fully-coupled to the gas dynamic equations using a novel coupling technique. The new coupling method maintains stability in the explicit, finite-rate formulation while allowing relatively large global time steps. The code uses flux-vector accuracy. Comparisons with experimental data and other numerical computations verify the accuracy of the present method. The code is used to compute the three-dimensional flowfield over the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle at one of its trajectory points.

  5. Development and characterization of a three-dimensional radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, Travis J. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters are particularly useful for verifying the commissioning of treatment planning and delivery systems, especially with the ever-increasing implementation of complex and conformal radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. However, currently available 3D dosimeters require extensive experience to prepare and analyze, and are subject to large measurement uncertainties. This work aims to provide a more readily implementable 3D dosimeter with the development and characterization of a radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. Methods: A film stack dosimeter was developed using Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT2 films. The dosimeter consists of 22 films separated by 1 mm-thick spacers. A Virtual Water™ phantom was created that maintains the radial film alignment within a maximum uncertainty of 0.3 mm. The film stack dosimeter was characterized using simulations and measurements of 6 MV fields. The absorbed-dose energy dependence and orientation dependence of the film stack dosimeter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The water equivalence of the dosimeter was determined by comparing percentage-depth-dose (PDD) profiles measured with the film stack dosimeter and simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Film stack dosimeter measurements were verified with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) microcube measurements. The film stack dosimeter was also used to verify the delivery of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) procedure. Results: The absorbed-dose energy response of EBT2 film differs less than 1.5% between the calibration and film stack dosimeter geometries for a 6 MV spectrum. Over a series of beam angles ranging from normal incidence to parallel incidence, the overall variation in the response of the film stack dosimeter is within a range of 2.5%. Relative to the response to a normally incident beam, the film stack dosimeter exhibits a 1% under-response when the

  6. Three-Dimensional Lung Tumor Microenvironment Modulates Therapeutic Compound Responsiveness In Vitro – Implication for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Ekert, Jason E.; Johnson, Kjell; Strake, Brandy; Pardinas, Jose; Jarantow, Stephen; Perkinson, Robert; Colter, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is gaining acceptance in response to the need for cellular models that better mimic physiologic tissues. Spheroids are one such 3D model where clusters of cells will undergo self-assembly to form viable, 3D tumor-like structures. However, to date little is known about how spheroid biology compares to that of the more traditional and widely utilized 2D monolayer cultures. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and functional differences between lung tumor cells grown as 2D monolayer cultures, versus cells grown as 3D spheroids. Eight lung tumor cell lines, displaying varying levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cMET protein expression, were used to develop a 3D spheroid cell culture model using low attachment U-bottom plates. The 3D spheroids were compared with cells grown in monolayer for 1) EGFR and cMET receptor expression, as determined by flow cytometry, 2) EGFR and cMET phosphorylation by MSD assay, and 3) cell proliferation in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In addition, drug responsiveness to EGFR and cMET inhibitors (Erlotinib, Crizotinib, Cetuximab [Erbitux] and Onartuzumab [MetMab]) was evaluated by measuring the extent of cell proliferation and migration. Data showed that EGFR and cMET expression is reduced at day four of untreated spheroid culture compared to monolayer. Basal phosphorylation of EGFR and cMET was higher in spheroids compared to monolayer cultures. Spheroids showed reduced EGFR and cMET phosphorylation when stimulated with ligand compared to 2D cultures. Spheroids showed an altered cell proliferation response to HGF, as well as to EGFR and cMET inhibitors, compared to monolayer cultures. Finally, spheroid cultures showed exceptional utility in a cell migration assay. Overall, the 3D spheroid culture changed the cellular response to drugs and growth factors and may more accurately mimic the natural tumor

  7. Three-dimensional lung tumor microenvironment modulates therapeutic compound responsiveness in vitro--implication for drug development.

    PubMed

    Ekert, Jason E; Johnson, Kjell; Strake, Brandy; Pardinas, Jose; Jarantow, Stephen; Perkinson, Robert; Colter, David C

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is gaining acceptance in response to the need for cellular models that better mimic physiologic tissues. Spheroids are one such 3D model where clusters of cells will undergo self-assembly to form viable, 3D tumor-like structures. However, to date little is known about how spheroid biology compares to that of the more traditional and widely utilized 2D monolayer cultures. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and functional differences between lung tumor cells grown as 2D monolayer cultures, versus cells grown as 3D spheroids. Eight lung tumor cell lines, displaying varying levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cMET protein expression, were used to develop a 3D spheroid cell culture model using low attachment U-bottom plates. The 3D spheroids were compared with cells grown in monolayer for 1) EGFR and cMET receptor expression, as determined by flow cytometry, 2) EGFR and cMET phosphorylation by MSD assay, and 3) cell proliferation in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In addition, drug responsiveness to EGFR and cMET inhibitors (Erlotinib, Crizotinib, Cetuximab [Erbitux] and Onartuzumab [MetMab]) was evaluated by measuring the extent of cell proliferation and migration. Data showed that EGFR and cMET expression is reduced at day four of untreated spheroid culture compared to monolayer. Basal phosphorylation of EGFR and cMET was higher in spheroids compared to monolayer cultures. Spheroids showed reduced EGFR and cMET phosphorylation when stimulated with ligand compared to 2D cultures. Spheroids showed an altered cell proliferation response to HGF, as well as to EGFR and cMET inhibitors, compared to monolayer cultures. Finally, spheroid cultures showed exceptional utility in a cell migration assay. Overall, the 3D spheroid culture changed the cellular response to drugs and growth factors and may more accurately mimic the natural tumor

  8. Development of improved Gaussian dispersion models for cases of downwash past wide buildings using three- dimensional fluid modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowe, Anita Coulter

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to show that a well- tested three dimensional turbulent kinetic energy/dissipation (k-ɛ) computational model, FLUENT, can be used to model the fluid flow fields and the dispersion effects in the flow fields generated by a variety of building shapes, and to use the data sets to develop parameterizations useful to air quality modeling needs. Once the appropriateness of the computational model was proven through comparisons with experimental results, and data generated for several ratios of building width to building heights, the flow field was examined to determine the length of the recirculation cavity as a function of the ratio of building width to building height both in front of and in the rear of the building. The dimensions of the recirculation cavity in the front of the building have previously not been included in regulatory models, so both the height and length of this front recirculation cavity was parameterized as a function of the ratio of building width to building height. The maximum downdraft was also parameterized as a function of the building width to building height ratio. The dispersive effects were then examined to determine useful parameters. The average concentration in the recirculation cavity was calculated and modeled as a function of ratio of the building width to building height. Finally, because Gaussian models are generally used for regulatory modeling of dispersion effects, the dispersive field was analyzed to find improved dispersion coefficients to use in Gaussian models. The vertical and horizontal dispersion coefficients were computed as a function of distance from the dispersive source for each of the ratios of building width to building height, and then these functions were made a function of the ratio of building width to building height. These new dispersion coefficients, which were a function of both the distance from the stack and the ratio of building width to building height, were then used

  9. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  10. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  11. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, David Bruce

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  12. Three dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, G.; Rajeev, S. G.; Yang, Z.

    1992-02-01

    The subject of this talk is the study of the low energy behavior of three (2+1) dimensional Quantum Chromodynamics. We show the existence of a phase where parity is unbroken and the flavor group U(2n) is broken into a subgroup U(n)×U(n). We derive the low energy effective action for the theory and show that it has solitonic excitations with Fermi statistic, to be identified with the three dimensional ``baryon''. Finally, we study the current algebra for this effective action and we find a co-homologically nontrivial generalization of Kac-Moody algebras to three dimension.

  13. Shape memory polymers: three-dimensional isotropic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, Olaniyi; Mo, Changki

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive three-dimensional isotropic numerical simulation for a thermo-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory polymers (SMPs). In order to predict the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMPs, a one-dimensional rheological thermo-mechanical constitutive model is adopted, translated into a three-dimensional form and a time discrete form of the three-dimensional model is then presented. Numerical simulation of this model was developed using the UMAT subroutine capabilities of the finite element software ABAQUS. Evolution of the analysis was conducted by making use of the backward difference scheme, which was applied to all quantities within the model, including the material properties. A comparison of the numerical simulation results was carried out with the available experimental data. Numerical simulation results clearly exhibit the thermo-mechanical properties of the material which include shape fixity, shape recovery, and recovery stress. Finally, a prediction for the transverse and shear directions of the material is presented.

  14. The development of three-dimensional adjoint method for flow control with blowing in convergent-divergent nozzle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikarwar, Nidhi

    multiple experiments or numerical simulations. Alternatively an inverse design method can be used. An adjoint optimization method can be used to achieve the optimum blowing rate. It is shown that the method works for both geometry optimization and active control of the flow in order to deflect the flow in desirable ways. An adjoint optimization method is described. It is used to determine the blowing distribution in the diverging section of a convergent-divergent nozzle that gives a desired pressure distribution in the nozzle. Both the direct and adjoint problems and their associated boundary conditions are developed. The adjoint method is used to determine the blowing distribution required to minimize the shock strength in the nozzle to achieve a known target pressure and to achieve close to an ideally expanded flow pressure. A multi-block structured solver is developed to calculate the flow solution and associated adjoint variables. Two and three-dimensional calculations are performed for internal and external of the nozzle domains. A two step MacCormack scheme based on predictor- corrector technique is was used for some calculations. The four and five stage Runge-Kutta schemes are also used to artificially march in time. A modified Runge-Kutta scheme is used to accelerate the convergence to a steady state. Second order artificial dissipation has been added to stabilize the calculations. The steepest decent method has been used for the optimization of the blowing velocity after the gradients of the cost function with respect to the blowing velocity are calculated using adjoint method. Several examples are given of the optimization of blowing using the adjoint method.

  15. Software Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin County Community Coll., McKinney, TX.

    The Software Development Program described in this report was developed at Collin County Community College as a pilot associate degree program for the State of Texas. Drawing from an employer needs assessment and a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process, the two-year associate in applied science (AAS) program was developed to train scientific…

  16. MeltMigrator: A MATLAB-based software for modeling three-dimensional melt migration and crustal thickness variations at mid-ocean ridges following a rules-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hailong; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Behn, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    MeltMigrator is a MATLAB®-based melt migration software developed to process three-dimensional mantle temperature and velocity data from user-supplied numerical models of mid-ocean ridges, calculate melt production and melt migration trajectories in the mantle, estimate melt flux along plate boundaries, and predict crustal thickness distribution on the seafloor. MeltMigrator is also capable of calculating compositional evolution depending on the choice of petrologic melting model. Programmed in modules, MeltMigrator is highly customizable and can be expanded to a wide range of applications. We have applied it to complex mid-ocean ridge model settings, including transform faults, oblique segments, ridge migration, asymmetrical spreading, background mantle flow, and ridge-plume interaction. In this technical report, we include an example application to a segmented mid-ocean ridge. MeltMigrator is available as a supplement to this paper, and it is also available from GitHub and the University of Maryland Geodynamics Group website.

  17. Three dimensional interactive display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

  18. Development of a strain visualization system for microstructures using single fluorescent molecule tracking on a three-dimensional orientation microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shintaro; Yoshiki, Keisuke; Namazu, Takahiro; Araki, Nozomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Shozo

    2011-09-01

    We propose a technique that employs single fluorescent molecules for visualizing the distribution of strain induced in microstructures. We sprayed single-molecule tracers on microstructures by ultrasonic atomization and traced the position and orientation of the tracers by a single-molecule detection technique with a three-dimensional (3D) orientation microscope, which consists of a conventional fluorescent microscope and a polarization-mode converter. By using 3D spline interpolation, we visualized the surface geometry of a microelectromechanical (MEMS) device. We tracked the 3D position and orientation of tracers attached to a supporting beam of the MEMS mirror. The surface declination angles calculated from the orientation of the tracers were in agreement with the tilt angle obtained from the 3D position of the tracers.

  19. Three-dimensional turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Final report, 15 April 1991--15 April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1993-12-31

    Many practical combustion processes which use solid particles, liquid droplets, or slurries as fuels introduce these fuels into turbulent environments. Examples include spray combustion, pulverized coal and coal slurry combustion, fluidized beds, sorbent injection, and hazardous waste incineration. The interactions of the condensed phases with turbulent environments in such applications have not been well described. Such a description is complicated by the difficulty of describing turbulence in general, even in the absence of particles or droplets. But the complications in describing the dispersion and reaction of the condensed phases in turbulent environments do not stem entirely, or even primarily, from the uncertainties in the description of the turbulence. Even when the turbulence characteristics are known, computational methods for coupling the dynamics of the particulate phase with the continuous phase have not been well established. Several new theoretical descriptions of the turbulent dispersion of particles and droplets have been proposed over the past few years. It has been the purpose of this project to explore the potential of these theories for coupling with the other aspects of three-dimensional, reacting, turbulent, particle-laden systems, to provide computational simulations that could be useful for addressing industrial problems. Two different approaches were explored in this project. The major thrust of this project was on identifying a suitable dispersion submodel for dilute dispersed flows, implementing it in a comprehensive three-dimensional CFD code framework for combustion simulation and evaluating its performance rigorously. In another effort the potential of a dispersion submodel for densely loaded systems was analyzed. This report discusses the main issues that were resolved as part of this project.

  20. Development of novel three-dimensional reconstruction method for porous media for polymer electrolyte fuel cells using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Takeshi; Inoue, Gen; Kawase, Motoaki; Kubo, Norio; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Yokoyama, Kouji; Tokunaga, Tomomi; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Hara, Yuka; Hara, Toru

    2017-04-01

    An accurate method for three-dimensional reconstruction of microstructures is developed to analyse mass transport phenomena in microporous layers (MPLs). The proposed method involves the use of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope tomography. Numerical calculations of the structural and mass transport properties of MPLs are conducted using the reconstruction results and these results are found to be in good agreement with experimental results, demonstrating the accuracy of the new method.

  1. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology

    PubMed Central

    Sulkin, Matthew S.; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M.; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories. PMID:24043254

  2. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    PubMed

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  3. Three-Dimensional Complex Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1988-01-01

    Report presents new theory of analytic functions of three-dimensional complex variables. While three-dimensional system subject to more limitations and more difficult to use than the two-dimensional system, useful in analysis of three-dimensional fluid flows, electrostatic potentials, and other phenomena involving harmonic functions.

  4. Development and application of a three dimensional numerical model for predicting pollutant and sediment transport using an Eulerian-Lagrangian marker particle technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavish, D. L.; Spaulding, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    A computer coded Lagrangian marker particle in Eulerian finite difference cell solution to the three dimensional incompressible mass transport equation, Water Advective Particle in Cell Technique, WAPIC, was developed, verified against analytic solutions, and subsequently applied in the prediction of long term transport of a suspended sediment cloud resulting from an instantaneous dredge spoil release. Numerical results from WAPIC were verified against analytic solutions to the three dimensional incompressible mass transport equation for turbulent diffusion and advection of Gaussian dye releases in unbounded uniform and uniformly sheared uni-directional flow, and for steady-uniform plug channel flow. WAPIC was utilized to simulate an analytic solution for non-equilibrium sediment dropout from an initially vertically uniform particle distribution in one dimensional turbulent channel flow.

  5. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  6. Astronomers as Software Developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pildis, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomers know that their research requires writing, adapting, and documenting computer software. Furthermore, they often have to learn new computer languages and figure out how existing programs work without much documentation or guidance and with extreme time pressure. These are all skills that can lead to a software development job, but recruiters and employers probably won't know that. I will discuss all the highly useful experience that astronomers may not know that they already have, and how to explain that knowledge to others when looking for non-academic software positions. I will also talk about some of the pitfalls I have run into while interviewing for jobs and working as a developer, and encourage you to embrace the curiosity employers might have about your non-standard background.

  7. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction for industrial computed tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannier, M. W.; Knapp, R. H.; Gayou, D. E.; Sammon, N. P.; Butterfield, R. L.; Larson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Modern high resolution medical computed tomography (CT) scanners can produce geometrically accurate sectional images of many types of industrial objects. Computer software has been developed to convert serial CT scans into a three-dimensional surface form, suitable for display on the scanner itself. This software, originally developed for imaging the skull, has been adapted for application to industrial CT scanning, where serial CT scans thrrough an object of interest may be reconstructed to demonstrate spatial relationships in three dimensions that cannot be easily understood using the original slices. The methods of three-dimensional reconstruction and solid modeling are reviewed, and reconstruction in three dimensions from CT scans through familiar objects is demonstrated.

  8. Development of an optical three-dimensional laser tracker using dual modulated laser diodes and a signal detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li; Liu, Chien-Hung

    2011-03-15

    Laser trackers are widely used in industry for tasks such as the assembly of airplanes and automobiles, contour measurement, and robot calibration. However, laser trackers are expensive, and the corresponding solution procedure is very complex. The influence of measurement uncertainties is also significant. This study proposes a three-dimensional space position measurement system which consists of two tracking modules, a zero tracking angle return subsystem, and a target quadrant photodiode (QPD). The target QPD is placed on the object being tracked. The origin locking method is used to keep the rays on the origin of the target QPD. The position of the target QPD is determined using triangulation since the two laser rays are projected onto one QPD. Modulation and demodulation are utilized to separate the coupled positional values. The experiment results show that measurement errors in the X, Y, and Z directions are less than {+-}0.05% when the measured object was moved by 300, 300, and 200 mm in the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. The theoretical measurement error estimated from the measurement model is between {+-}0.02% and {+-}0.07% within the defined measurable range. The proposed system can be applied to the measurements of machine tools and robot arms.

  9. Development of an optical three-dimensional laser tracker using dual modulated laser diodes and a signal detector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li; Liu, Chien-Hung

    2011-03-01

    Laser trackers are widely used in industry for tasks such as the assembly of airplanes and automobiles, contour measurement, and robot calibration. However, laser trackers are expensive, and the corresponding solution procedure is very complex. The influence of measurement uncertainties is also significant. This study proposes a three-dimensional space position measurement system which consists of two tracking modules, a zero tracking angle return subsystem, and a target quadrant photodiode (QPD). The target QPD is placed on the object being tracked. The origin locking method is used to keep the rays on the origin of the target QPD. The position of the target QPD is determined using triangulation since the two laser rays are projected onto one QPD. Modulation and demodulation are utilized to separate the coupled positional values. The experiment results show that measurement errors in the X, Y, and Z directions are less than ±0.05% when the measured object was moved by 300, 300, and 200 mm in the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. The theoretical measurement error estimated from the measurement model is between ±0.02% and ±0.07% within the defined measurable range. The proposed system can be applied to the measurements of machine tools and robot arms.

  10. Generic design methodology for the development of three-dimensional structured-light sensory systems for measuring complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Veronica E.; Chang, Wei Hao Wayne; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-11-01

    Structured-light (SL) techniques are emerging as popular noncontact approaches for obtaining three-dimensional (3-D) measurements of complex objects for real-time applications in manufacturing, bioengineering, and robotics. The performance of SL systems is determined by the emitting (i.e., projector) and capturing (i.e., camera) hardware components and the triangulation configuration between them and an object of interest. A generic design methodology is presented to determine optimal triangulation configurations for SL systems. These optimal configurations are determined with respect to a set of performance metrics: (1) minimizing the 3-D reconstruction errors, (2) maximizing the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between the projector and camera, and (3) maximizing the dispersion of the measured 3-D points within a measurement volume, while satisfying design constraints based on hardware and user-defined specifications. The proposed methodology utilizes a 3-D geometric triangulation model based on ray-tracing geometry and pin-hole models for the projector and camera. Using the methodology, a set of optimal system configurations can be determined for a given set of hardware components. The design methodology was applied to a real-time SL system for surface profiling of complex objects. Experiments were conducted with an optimal sensor configuration and its performance verified with respect to a nonoptimal hardware configuration.

  11. Three Dimensional Display Of Meteorological Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotch, Stanley L.

    1988-01-01

    Even a cursory reading of any daily newspaper shows that we are in the midst of a dramatic revolution in computer graphics. Virtually every day some new piece of hardware or software is announced, adding to the tools available to the working scientist. Three dimensional graphics form a significant part of this revolution having become virtually commonplace in advertising and on television.

  12. Development of a three-dimensional cell culture system based on microfluidics for nuclear magnetic resonance and optical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Vicent; Monge, Rosa; Celda, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    A new microfluidic cell culture device compatible with real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is presented here. The intended application is the long-term monitoring of 3D cell cultures by several techniques. The system has been designed to fit inside commercially available NMR equipment to obtain maximum readout resolution when working with small samples. Moreover, the microfluidic device integrates a fibre-optic-based sensor to monitor parameters such as oxygen, pH, or temperature during NMR monitoring, and it also allows the use of optical microscopy techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy. This manuscript reports the initial trials culturing neurospheres inside the microchamber of this device and the preliminary images and spatially localised spectra obtained by NMR. The images show the presence of a necrotic area in the interior of the neurospheres, as is frequently observed in histological preparations; this phenomenon appears whenever the distance between the cells and fresh nutrients impairs the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, the spectra acquired in a volume of 8 nl inside the neurosphere show an accumulation of lactate and lipids, which are indicative of anoxic conditions. Additionally, a basis for general temperature control and monitoring and a graphical control software have been developed and are also described. The complete platform will allow biomedical assays of therapeutic agents to be performed in the early phases of therapeutic development. Thus, small quantities of drugs or advanced nanodevices may be studied long-term under simulated living conditions that mimic the flow and distribution of nutrients. PMID:25553182

  13. Three-dimensional representations of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides--SweetUnityMol: a video game-based computer graphic software.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Serge; Tubiana, Thibault; Imberty, Anne; Baaden, Marc

    2015-05-01

    A molecular visualization program tailored to deal with the range of 3D structures of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides, either alone or in their interactions with other biomacromolecules, has been developed using advanced technologies elaborated by the video games industry. All the specific structural features displayed by the simplest to the most complex carbohydrate molecules have been considered and can be depicted. This concerns the monosaccharide identification and classification, conformations, location in single or multiple branched chains, depiction of secondary structural elements and the essential constituting elements in very complex structures. Particular attention was given to cope with the accepted nomenclature and pictorial representation used in glycoscience. This achievement provides a continuum between the most popular ways to depict the primary structures of complex carbohydrates to visualizing their 3D structures while giving the users many options to select the most appropriate modes of representations including new features such as those provided by the use of textures to depict some molecular properties. These developments are incorporated in a stand-alone viewer capable of displaying molecular structures, biomacromolecule surfaces and complex interactions of biomacromolecules, with powerful, artistic and illustrative rendering methods. They result in an open source software compatible with multiple platforms, i.e., Windows, MacOS and Linux operating systems, web pages, and producing publication-quality figures. The algorithms and visualization enhancements are demonstrated using a variety of carbohydrate molecules, from glycan determinants to glycoproteins and complex protein-carbohydrate interactions, as well as very complex mega-oligosaccharides and bacterial polysaccharides and multi-stranded polysaccharide architectures.

  14. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  15. Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.

  16. Three-dimensional velocity measurements using LDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhave, Preben

    The design requirements for and development of an LDA that measures the three components of the fluid velocity vector are described. The problems encountered in LDA measurements in highly turbulent flows, multivariate response, velocity bias, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and dynamic range, are discussed. The use of the fringe and/or the reference beam methods to measure the three velocity components, and the use of color, frequency shift, and polarization to separate three velocity projections are examined. Consideration is given to the coordinate transformation, the presentation of three-dimensional LDA data, and the possibility of three-dimensional bias correction. Procedures for conducting three-dimensional LDA measurements are proposed.

  17. Three dimensional Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent

  18. Algorithms for Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Management aid makes changes obvious. One key element in scheme for software development control is check summing. If check sum for given line in source file is different from previous version, it is evident change has been made. Subsequent editing of file creates new lines, deletes old ones, modifies characters, moves lines, or copies (reuse) existing lines. Combination of three elements of line code permits all transactions to be detected.

  19. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Initial stage of the development of three-dimensional periodic structures in laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgaev, Sergei I.; Kirichenko, N. A.; Simakin, Aleksandr V.; Shafeev, Georgii A.

    2004-08-01

    The initial stage of three-dimensional periodic structures developing during the laser melting of solids is numerically simulated. The temperature nonuniformity caused by reflectivity variations along a capillary wave leads to a self-consistent melt displacement under the action of the temperature gradient due to the temperature dependence of the surface tension coefficient. Based on the numerical solution of the simplified Navier—Stokes equation, the transformation of the initial sinusoidal perturbation of the melt surface is investigated at the stages of self-consistent laser heating and the subsequent cooling. The derived surface shape well agrees with experimental data.

  20. A study of the application of singular perturbation theory. [development of a real time algorithm for optimal three dimensional aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, R. K.; Washburn, R. B.; Sajan, S.; Carroll, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    A hierarchical real time algorithm for optimal three dimensional control of aircraft is described. Systematic methods are developed for real time computation of nonlinear feedback controls by means of singular perturbation theory. The results are applied to a six state, three control variable, point mass model of an F-4 aircraft. Nonlinear feedback laws are presented for computing the optimal control of throttle, bank angle, and angle of attack. Real Time capability is assessed on a TI 9900 microcomputer. The breakdown of the singular perturbation approximation near the terminal point is examined Continuation methods are examined to obtain exact optimal trajectories starting from the singular perturbation solutions.

  1. Three-dimensional echocardiographic technology.

    PubMed

    Salgo, Ivan S

    2007-05-01

    This article addresses the current state of the art of technology in three-dimensional echocardiography as it applies to transducer design, beam forming, display, and quantification. Because three-dimensional echocardiography encompasses many technical and clinical areas, this article reviews its strengths and limitations and concludes with an analysis of what to use when.

  2. Coastal flooding and storm protection program; field verification program. Mathematical modeling of three-dimensional coastal currents and sediment dispersion: model development and application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Y.P.

    1983-09-01

    A comprehensive model of Coastal currents and sediment dispersion has been formulated and applied to the Mississippi Sound and adjacent continental shelf waters. The study combines mathematical modeling of various hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes with laboratory and field experiments. Of primary importance is the development of an efficient and comprehensive three-dimensional, finite-difference model of coastal, estuarine, and lake currents (CELC3D). The model resolves currents driven by tide, wind, and density gradient. It has been applied to the Mississippi Sound, and results agree well with measured surface displacements and currents during two episodes. Rates of entrainment and deposition of the Mississippi Sound sediments have been studied in a laboratory flume. Effects of (1) bottom shear stress, (2) bed properties, (3) salinity of water, and (4) sediment type on the erodability of sediments have been examined. Results of the laboratory study have been incorporated into the bottom boundary conditions for a three-dimensional sediment dispersion model. Gravitational settling and particle size distribution of the Mississippi Sound sediments were also studied in laboratories. Bottom boundary layer dynamics and wave effect on sediment dispersion have been studied by means of a turbulent transport model and a wave model. Model simulations of sediment dispersion in the Mississippi Sound agree well available data from ship surveys.

  3. Software developments for gammasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    This year marked the year when data acquisition development for Gammasphere evolved from planning to accomplishment, both in hardware and software. Two VME crates now contain about 10 crate-processors which are used to handle the data from VXI processors - which in turn collect the data from germanium and BGO detectors in the array. The signals from the detectors are processed and digitized in custom-built electronics boards. The processing power in the VME crates is used to digitally filter the data before they are written to tape. The goal is to have highly processed data flowing to tape, eliminating the off-line filtering and manipulation of data that was standard procedure in earlier experiments.

  4. Paleo-tribology: development of wear measurement techniques and a three-dimensional model revealing how grinding dentitions self-wear to enable functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Sidebottom, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Kay, David Ian; Kuhn-Hendricks, Stephen; Norell, Mark A.; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Krick, Brandon A.

    2016-06-01

    In most mammals and a rare few reptilian lineages the evolution of precise dental occlusion led to the capacity to form functional chewing surfaces due to pressures generated while feeding. The complex dental architectures of such teeth and the biomechanics of their self-wearing nature are poorly understood. Our research team composed of paleontologists, evolutionary biologists, and engineers have developed a protocol to: (1) determine the histological make-up of grinding dentitions in extant and fossil taxa; (2) ascertain wear-relevant material properties of the tissues; (3) determine how those properties relate to inter-tissue-biomechanics leading the dental functionality using a three-dimensional Archard’s wear model developed specifically for dental applications; (4) analyze those data in phylogenetic contexts to infer evolutionary patterns as they relate to feeding. Finally we discuss industrial applications that are emerging from our paleontologically-inspired research.

  5. Three dimensional monitoring of urban development by means of ortho-rectified aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, E; Erden, O; Gormus, E T

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, cities are developing and changing rapidly due to the increases in the population and immigration. Rapid changing brings obligation to control the cities by planning. The satellite images and the aerial photographs enable us to track the urban development and provide the opportunity to get the current data about urban. With the help of these images, cities may have interrogated dynamic structures. This study is composed of three steps. In the first step, orthophoto images have been generated in order to track urban developments by using the aerial photographs and the satellite images. In this step, the panchromatic (PAN), the multi spectral (MS) and the pan-sharpened image of IKONOS satellite have been used as input satellite data and the accuracy of orthophoto images has been investigated in detail, in terms of digital elevation model (DEM), control points, input images and their properties. In the second step, a 3D city model with database has been generated with the help of orthophoto images and the vector layouts. And in the last step, up to date urban information obtained from 3D city model. This study shows that it is possible to detect the unlicensed buildings and the areas which are going to be nationalized and it also shows that it is easy to document the existing alterations in the cities with the help of current development plans and orthophoto images. And since accessing updated data is very essential to control development and monitor the temporal alterations in urban areas, in this study it is proven that the orthophoto images generated by using aerial photos and satellite images are very reliable to use in obtaining topographical information, in change detection and in city planning. When digital orthophoto images used with GIS, they provide quick decision control mechanisms and quick data collection. Besides, they help to find efficient solutions in a short time in the planning applications.

  6. Flapping before Flight: High Resolution, Three-Dimensional Skeletal Kinematics of Wings and Legs during Avian Development.

    PubMed

    Heers, Ashley M; Baier, David B; Jackson, Brandon E; Dial, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained. Such traits are often thought to preclude extinct theropods from powered flight, yet young birds with similarly rudimentary anatomies flap-run up slopes and even briefly fly, thereby challenging longstanding ideas on skeletal and feather function in the theropod-avian lineage. Though skeletons and feathers are the common link between extinct and extant theropods and figure prominently in discussions on flight performance (extant birds) and flight origins (extinct theropods), skeletal inter-workings are hidden from view and their functional relationship with aerodynamically active wings is not known. For the first time, we use X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology to visualize skeletal movement in developing birds, and explore how development of the avian flight apparatus corresponds with ontogenetic trajectories in skeletal kinematics, aerodynamic performance, and the locomotor transition from pre-flight flapping behaviors to full flight capacity. Our findings reveal that developing chukars (Alectoris chukar) with rudimentary flight apparatuses acquire an "avian" flight stroke early in ontogeny, initially by using their wings and legs cooperatively and, as they acquire flight capacity, counteracting ontogenetic increases in aerodynamic output with greater skeletal channelization. In conjunction with previous work, juvenile birds thereby demonstrate that the initial function of developing wings is to enhance leg

  7. Flapping before Flight: High Resolution, Three-Dimensional Skeletal Kinematics of Wings and Legs during Avian Development

    PubMed Central

    Heers, Ashley M.; Baier, David B.; Jackson, Brandon E.; Dial, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small “protowings”, and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained. Such traits are often thought to preclude extinct theropods from powered flight, yet young birds with similarly rudimentary anatomies flap-run up slopes and even briefly fly, thereby challenging longstanding ideas on skeletal and feather function in the theropod-avian lineage. Though skeletons and feathers are the common link between extinct and extant theropods and figure prominently in discussions on flight performance (extant birds) and flight origins (extinct theropods), skeletal inter-workings are hidden from view and their functional relationship with aerodynamically active wings is not known. For the first time, we use X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology to visualize skeletal movement in developing birds, and explore how development of the avian flight apparatus corresponds with ontogenetic trajectories in skeletal kinematics, aerodynamic performance, and the locomotor transition from pre-flight flapping behaviors to full flight capacity. Our findings reveal that developing chukars (Alectoris chukar) with rudimentary flight apparatuses acquire an “avian” flight stroke early in ontogeny, initially by using their wings and legs cooperatively and, as they acquire flight capacity, counteracting ontogenetic increases in aerodynamic output with greater skeletal channelization. In conjunction with previous work, juvenile birds thereby demonstrate that the initial function of developing wings is to enhance leg

  8. Development of three-dimensional collagen scaffolds with controlled architecture for cell migration studies using breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jonathan J; Husmann, Anke; Hume, Robert D; Watson, Christine J; Cameron, Ruth E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is characterized by cell heterogeneity and the development of 3D in vitro assays that can distinguish more invasive or migratory phenotypes could enhance diagnosis or drug discovery. 3D collagen scaffolds have been used to develop analogues of complex tissues in vitro and are suited to routine biochemical and immunological assays. We sought to increase 3D model tractability and modulate the migration rate of seeded cells using an ice-templating technique to create either directional/anisotropic or non-directional/isotropic porous architectures within cross-linked collagen scaffolds. Anisotropic scaffolds supported the enhanced migration of an invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with an altered spatial distribution of proliferative cells in contrast to invasive MDA-MB-468 and non-invasive MCF-7 cells lines. In addition, MDA-MB-468 showed increased migration upon epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in anisotropic scaffolds. The provision of controlled architecture in this system may act both to increase assay robustness and as a tuneable parameter to capture detection of a migrated population within a set time, with consequences for primary tumour migration analysis. The separation of invasive clones from a cancer biomass with in vitro platforms could enhance drug development and diagnosis testing by contributing assay metrics including migration rate, as well as modelling cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction in a system compatible with routine histopathological testing.

  9. Development of a human three-dimensional organotypic skin-melanoma spheroid model for in vitro drug testing

    PubMed Central

    Vörsmann, H; Groeber, F; Walles, H; Busch, S; Beissert, S; Walczak, H; Kulms, D

    2013-01-01

    Despite remarkable efforts, metastatic melanoma (MM) still presents with significant mortality. Recently, mono-chemotherapies are increasingly replenished by more cancer-specific combination therapies involving death ligands and drugs interfering with cell signaling. Still, MM remains a fatal disease because tumors rapidly develop resistance to novel therapies thereby regaining tumorigenic capacity. Although genetically engineered mouse models for MM have been developed, at present no model is available that reliably mimics the human disease and is suitable for studying mechanisms of therapeutic obstacles including cell death resistance. To improve the increasing requests on new therapeutic alternatives, reliable human screening models are demanded that translate the findings from basic cellular research into clinical applications. By developing an organotypic full skin equivalent, harboring melanoma tumor spheroids of defined sizes we have invented a cell-based model that recapitulates both the 3D organization and multicellular complexity of an organ/tumor in vivo but at the same time accommodates systematic experimental intervention. By extending our previous findings on melanoma cell sensitization toward TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) by co-application of sublethal doses of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) or cisplatin, we show significant differences in the therapeutical outcome to exist between regular two-dimensional (2D) and complex in vivo-like 3D models. Of note, while both treatment combinations killed the same cancer cell lines in 2D culture, skin equivalent-embedded melanoma spheroids are potently killed by TRAIL+cisplatin treatment but remain almost unaffected by the TRAIL+UVB combination. Consequently, we have established an organotypic human skin-melanoma model that will facilitate efforts to improve therapeutic outcomes for malignant melanoma by providing a platform for the investigation of cytotoxic treatments and

  10. Toward three-dimensional virtual biopsy of oral lesions through the development of a confocal endomicroscope interfaced with embedded computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Patricia S. P.; Olivo, Malini; Movania, Muhammad M.; Tandjung, Stephanus S.; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Seah, Hock-Soon; Lin, Feng; Qian, Kemao; Soo, Khee-Chee

    2011-07-01

    Oral lesions are conventionally diagnosed using white light endoscopy and histopathology of biopsy samples. Oral lesions are often flat and difficult to visualize under white light illumination. Moreover, histopathology is timeconsuming and there is a need to develop minimally invasive optical biopsy techniques to complement current techniques. Confocal laser endomicroscopy holds promise for virtual biopsy in disease diagnosis. This technique enables fluorescence imaging of tissue structures at microscopic resolution. We have developed a prototype real-time 3- dimensional (3D) imaging system using a laser endomicroscope interfaced with embedded computing. A Field- Programmable Gate Array computing platform has been programmed to synchronize cross-sectional image grabbing and Z-depth scanning, as well as automate acquisition of confocal image stacks. A PC was used for real-time volume rendering of the confocal image stacks. We conducted pre-clinical and pilot clinical studies to image the murine and human oral cavity. High quality volume renderings of the confocal image stacks were generated using 3D texture slicing. Tissue morphology and 3D structures could be visualized. The results demonstrate the potential of the system for diagnostic imaging of the oral cavity. This paves the way toward real-time virtual biopsy of oral lesions, with the aim to achieve same-day diagnosis in a clinical setting.

  11. Development of fibroblast culture in three-dimensional activated carbon fiber-based scaffold for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Ying; Yeh, Chia-Lin; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Ko, Tse-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2012-06-01

    This work developed a novel bi-layer wound dressing composed of 3D activated carbon fibers that allows facilitates fibroblast cell growth and migration to a wound site for tissue reconstruction, and the gentamicin is incorporated into a poly(γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin membrane to prevent bacterial infection. In an in vitro, field emission scanning electron microscopy shows that rat skin fibroblasts appeared and spread on the surface of activated carbon fibers, and penetrated the interior and exterior of the 3D activated carbon fiber construct to a depth of roughly 200 μm. An in vivo analysis shows that fibroblast cells containing the proposed 3D scaffold had the potential of a biologically functionalized dressing to accelerate wound closure. Additionally, fibroblasts migrated to the wound site in a bi-layer wound dressing containing fibroblasts, enhancing fibronectin and type I collagen expression, resulting in faster skin regeneration than that achieved with a Tegaderm™ hydrocolloid dressing or gauze.

  12. LDAR, A Three-Dimensional Lightning Warning System: Its Development and Use by the Government, and Transition to Public Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stan; Sharp, David; Merceret, Francis; Madura, John; Murphy, Martin

    1998-01-01

    NASA, at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), developed and operates a unique high precision lightning location system to provide lightning related weather warnings. These warnings are used to stop lightning-sensitive operations such as space vehicle launches and ground operations where equipment and personnel are at risk. The data is provided to the Range Weather Operations [45th Weather Squadron, U. S. Air Force (USAF)] where it is used with other meteorological data to issue weather advisories and warnings for Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and KSC operations. This system, called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), provides users with a graphical display in three dimensions of 66 MHz radio frequency events generated by lightning processes. The locations of these events provide a sound basis for the prediction of lightning hazards. NASA and Global Atmospherics, Inc. are developing a new system that will replace the unique LDAR components with commercially available and maintainable components having improved capabilities. These components will be phased in to ensure full continuity and access to this important warning technology. These LDAR systems are expected to eventually be available for installation and use by the public at specialized facilities, such as airports, and for general weather warnings via the National Weather Service (NWS) or television broadcast. The NWS in Melbourne has had access to real-time LDAR data since 1993 on an experimental basis. This use of LDAR has shown promise for the improvement of aviation forecasts and severe weather warnings. More so, it has opened the door to investigate the feasibility of issuing lightning-related public advisories. The success of its early use suggests that this technology may improve safety and potentially save lives, therefore constituting a significant benefit to the public. This paper describes the LDR system, the plans and progress of these upgrades, and the potential benefits of its use.

  13. Development and application of a program to calculate transonic flow around an oscillating three-dimensional wing using finite difference procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherill, Warren H.; Ehlers, F. Edward

    1989-01-01

    A finite difference method for solving the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings is investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. Difference equations are derived for harmonic transonic flow to include a coordinate transformation for swept and tapered planforms. A pilot program is developed for three-dimensional planar lifting surface configurations (including thickness) for the CRAY-XMP at Boeing Commercial Airplanes and for the CYBER VPS-32 at the NASA Langley Research Center. An investigation is made of the effect of the location of the outer boundaries on accuracy for very small reduced frequencies. Finally, the pilot program is applied to the flutter analysis of a rectangular wing.

  14. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  15. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction from Cone-Beam Projections for Flat and Curved Detectors: Reconstruction Method Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui

    This dissertation is principally concerned with improving the performance of a prototype image-intensifier -based cone-beam volume computed tomography system by removing or partially removing two of its restricting factors, namely, the inaccuracy of current cone-beam reconstruction algorithm and the image distortion associated with the curved detecting surface of the image intensifier. To improve the accuracy of cone-beam reconstruction, first, the currently most accurate and computationally efficient cone-beam reconstruction method, the Feldkamp algorithm, is investigated by studying the relation of an original unknown function with its Feldkamp estimate. From this study, a partial knowledge on the unknown function can be derived in the Fourier domain from its Feldkamp estimate. Then, based on the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm, a modified iterative algorithm efficiently incorporating the Fourier knowledge as well as the a priori spatial knowledge on the unknown function is devised and tested to improve the cone-beam reconstruction accuracy by postprocessing the Feldkamp estimate. Two methods are developed to remove the distortion associated with the curved surface of image intensifier. A calibrating method based on a rubber-sheet remapping is designed and implemented. As an alternative, the curvature can be considered in the reconstruction algorithm. As an initial effort along this direction, a generalized convolution -backprojection reconstruction algorithm for fan-beam and any circular detector arrays is derived and studied.

  16. A three-dimensional model of error and safety in surgical health care microsystems. Rationale, development and initial testing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research estimates of inadvertent harm to patients undergoing modern healthcare demonstrate a serious problem. Much attention has been paid to analysis of the causes of error and harm, but researchers have typically focussed either on human interaction and communication or on systems design, without fully considering the other components. Existing models for analysing harm are principally derived from theory and the analysis of individual incidents, and their practical value is often limited by the assumption that identifying causal factors automatically suggests solutions. We suggest that new models based on observation are required to help analyse healthcare safety problems and evaluate proposed solutions. We propose such a model which is directed at "microsystem" level (Ward and operating theatre), and which frames problems and solutions within three dimensions. Methods We have developed a new, simple, model of safety in healthcare systems, based on analysis of real problems seen in surgical systems, in which influences on risk at the "microsystem" level are described in terms of only 3 dimensions - technology, system and culture. We used definitions of these terms which are similar or identical to those used elsewhere in the safety literature, and utilised a set of formal empirical and deductive processes to derive the model. The "3D" model assumes that new risks arise in an unpredictable stochastic manner, and that the three defined dimensions are interactive, in an unconstrained fashion. We illustrated testing of the model, using analysis of a small number of incidents in a surgical environment for which we had detailed prospective observational data. Results The model appeared to provide useful explanation and categorisation of real events. We made predictions based on the model, which are experimentally verifiable, and propose further work to test and refine it. Conclusion We suggest that, if calibrated by application to a large incident dataset

  17. Development of near zero-order release dosage forms using three-dimensional printing (3-DP) technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Chao; Tejwani Motwani, Monica R; Roach, Willie J; Kay, Jennifer L; Yoo, Jaedeok; Surprenant, Henry L; Monkhouse, Donald C; Pryor, Timothy J

    2006-03-01

    Three near zero-order controlled-release pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH) formulations demonstrating proportional release rates were developed using 3-Dimensional Printing (3-DP) technology. Mixtures of Kollidon SR and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) were used as drug carriers. The release rates were adjusted by varying the Kollidon SR-HPMC ratio while keeping fabrication parameters constant. The dosage forms were composed of an immediate release core and a release rate regulating shell, fabricated with an aqueous PEH and an ethanolic triethyl citrate (TEC) binder, respectively. The dosage form design called for the drug to be released via diffusional pathways formed by HPMC in the shell matrix. The release rate was shown to increase correspondingly with the fraction of HPMC contained in the polymer blend. The designed formulations resulted in dosage forms that were insensitive to changes in pH of the dissolution medium, paddle stirring rate, and the presence/absence of a sinker. The near zero-order release properties were unchanged regardless of the dissolution test being performed on either single cubes or on a group of eight cubes encased within a gelatin capsule shell. The chemical and dissolution properties of the three formulations remained unchanged following 1 month's exposure to 25 degrees C/60% RH or 40 degrees C/75% RH environment under open container condition. The in vivo performance of the three formulations was evaluated using a single-dose, randomized, open-label, four-way crossover clinical study composed of 10 fasted healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using a noncompartmental model. Qualitative rank order linear correlations between in vivo absorption profiles and in vitro dissolution parameters (with slope and intercept close to unity and origin, respectively) were obtained for all three formulations, indicating good support for a Level A in vivo/in vitro correlation.

  18. Documentation Driven Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    reliability standards, ease of reconfigurability, and interoperability with other systems. The key challenges encountered during design of complex...software life cycles. The challenge here is to ensure proper transformation of project requirements, which may be specified informally, into the formal...software is becoming a more challenging task— often resulting in unexpected safety risks, schedule delays, and cost overruns. This research is

  19. Development of a Joint Inversion Technique using Gravimetric and Muon-radiographic Data for Resolving Three-dimensional Density Structure of a Gigantic Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, R.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Okubo, S.; Oshima, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a method of analyzing gravimetric and muon-radiographic data for visualizing a three-dimensional density structure of a volcano. The method searches for a density structure that best explains the muon and gravity data simultaneously. For finding a solution, techniques in least-squares inversion were employed. According to the model simulation we have conducted, this new method was proved to have higher potential than previous gravimetric inversion and previous muon tomography [Taira,2010; Tanaka et al.,2010]. As a demonstration, we applied this method to Mt. Showa-Shinzan lava dome, Hokkaido, Japan. At this site, muon observation has already been performed with emulsion cloud chamber (ECC). The effective area of ECC was 1200 cm2, and the exposure time was 4 month.Tanaka et al.,[2007] calculated the amount of matter on the muon trajectories in the unit of gcm-2 (density times length). In addition to the muon data, we newly collected gravity data at 35 stations on / around the lava dome. The data was measured by using a LaCoste Romberg Gravimeter (G-875). Position of a gravity station was determined by GPS interferometry between a reference station and a moving station. Thereby, we conducted joint inversion of the muon and gravity data. The joint inversion yielded us the three-dimensional density profile of Mt.Showa-Shinzan. The density profile suggested the two features of the dome. Firstly, lava had intruded beneath the dome in a cylindrical shape whose diameter was 300 meter. This is inferred by the existence of high density(ρ > 2.4g/cc) region localized at an altitude of 220 ~ 260 meter. Secondly, we found a ultra high density region which was suspected to be a spine spreading vertically near the top of the dome.

  20. Open Source Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Agency’s XMM-Newton Observatory, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and others. These are three highly visible astrophysics research projects whose...In scientific fields like astrophysics that critically depend on software, open source is considered an essential precondition for research to...space are made, this in turn often leads to modification, extension, and new versions of the astronomical software in use that enable astrophysical

  1. Three-dimensional colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hironori; Poteet, Austen; Zhang, Xu A; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2017-03-24

    Light interactions with colloidal particles can generate a variety of complex three-dimensional (3D) intensity patterns, which can be utilized for nanolithography. The study of particle-light interactions can add more types of intensity patterns by manipulating key factors. Here we investigate a novel 3D nanolithography technique using colloidal particles under two-beam coherent illuminations. The fabricated 3D nanostructures are hollow, nested within periodic structures, and possess multiple chamber geometry. The effects of incident angles and particle size on the fabricated nanostructures were examined. The relative phase shift between particle position and interference pattern is identified as another significant parameter influencing the resultant nanostructures. A numerical model has been developed to show the evolution of nanostructure geometry with phase shifts, and experimental studies confirm the simulation results. Through the introduction of single colloidal particles, the fabrication capability of Lloyd's mirror interference can now be extended to fabrication of 3D nanostructure with complex shell geometry. The fabricated hollow nanostructures with grating background could find potential applications in the area of photonics, drug delivery, and nanofluidics.

  2. Three-dimensional colloidal lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hironori; Poteet, Austen; Zhang, Xu A.; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2017-03-01

    Light interactions with colloidal particles can generate a variety of complex three-dimensional (3D) intensity patterns, which can be utilized for nanolithography. The study of particle–light interactions can add more types of intensity patterns by manipulating key factors. Here we investigate a novel 3D nanolithography technique using colloidal particles under two-beam coherent illuminations. The fabricated 3D nanostructures are hollow, nested within periodic structures, and possess multiple chamber geometry. The effects of incident angles and particle size on the fabricated nanostructures were examined. The relative phase shift between particle position and interference pattern is identified as another significant parameter influencing the resultant nanostructures. A numerical model has been developed to show the evolution of nanostructure geometry with phase shifts, and experimental studies confirm the simulation results. Through the introduction of single colloidal particles, the fabrication capability of Lloyd’s mirror interference can now be extended to fabrication of 3D nanostructure with complex shell geometry. The fabricated hollow nanostructures with grating background could find potential applications in the area of photonics, drug delivery, and nanofluidics.

  3. Specifications for the development of a fully three-dimensional numerical groundwater model for regional mass transport of radionuclides from a deep waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Prickett, T.A.

    1980-04-01

    Specifications are given which are necessary to develop a three-dimensional numerical model capable of simulating regional mass transport of radionuclides from a deep waste repository. The model to be developed will include all of the significant mass transport processes including flow, chemical, and thermal advection, mechanical dispersion, molecular diffusion, ion exchange reactions, and radioactive decay. The model specifications also include that density and viscosity fluid properties be functions of pressure, temperature, and concentration and take into account fluid and geologic heterogenieties by allowing possible assignment of individual values to every block of the model. The model specifications furthermore include the repository shape, input/output information, boundary conditions, and the need for documentation and a user's manual. Model code validation can be accomplished with the included known analytical or laboratory solutions. It is recommended that an existing finite-difference model (developed by INTERCOMP and INTERA, Inc.) be used as a starting point either as an acceptable basic code for modification or as a pattern for the development of a completely different numerical scheme. A ten-step plan is given to outline the general procedure for development of the code.

  4. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  5. Development methodology for scientific software

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.; Goldstone, J.A.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Miller, L.; Barrus, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    We present the details of a software development methodology that addresses all phases of the software life cycle, yet is well suited for application by small projects with limited resources. The methodology has been developed at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility and was utilized during the recent development of the WNR Data Acquisition Command Language. The methodology emphasizes the development and maintenance of comprehensive documentation for all software components. The impact of the methodology upon software quality and programmer productivity is assessed.

  6. Managers Handbook for Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W.; Mcgarry, F.; Card, D.; Page, J.; Church, V.; Werking, R.

    1984-01-01

    Methods and aids for the management of software development projects are presented. The recommendations are based on analyses and experiences with flight dynamics software development. The management aspects of organizing the project, producing a development plan, estimation costs, scheduling, staffing, preparing deliverable documents, using management tools, monitoring the project, conducting reviews, auditing, testing, and certifying are described.

  7. Development of a 12-Item Abbreviated Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS-12): Item Selection and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael L; Bangen, Katherine J; Ardelt, Monika; Jeste, Dilip V

    2017-01-01

    Wisdom has been reported to be associated with better mental health and quality of life among older adults. Over the past decades, there has been considerable growth in empirical research on wisdom, including the development of standardized measures. The 39-item Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS) is a useful assessment tool, given its rigorous development and good psychometric properties. However, the measure's length can prohibit use. In this article, we used a sample of 1,546 community-dwelling adults aged 21 to 100 years (M = 66 years) from the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study to develop an abbreviated 12-item version of the 3D-WS: the 3D-WS-12. Balancing concerns for measurement precision, internal structure, and content validity, factor analytic methods and expert judgment were used to identify a subset of 12-items for the 3D-WS-12. Results suggest that the 3D-WS-12 can provide efficient and valid assessments of Wisdom within the context of epidemiological surveys.

  8. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  9. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  10. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  11. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  12. Managing the Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubelczky, Jeffrey T.; Parra, Amy

    1999-01-01

    The goal of any software development project is to produce a product that is delivered on time, within the allocated budget, and with the capabilities expected by the customer and unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved. However, a properly managed project in a mature software engineering environment can consistently achieve this goal. In this paper we provide an introduction to three project success factors, a properly managed project, a competent project manager, and a mature software engineering environment. We will also present an overview of the benefits of a mature software engineering environment based on 24 years of data from the Software Engineering Lab, and suggest some first steps that an organization can take to begin benefiting from this environment. The depth and breadth of software engineering exceeds this paper, various references are cited with a goal of raising awareness and encouraging further investigation into software engineering and project management practices.

  13. Fabrication of endothelialized tube in collagen gel as starting point for self-developing capillary-like network to construct three-dimensional organs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takei, Takayuki; Sakai, Shinji; Ono, Tsutomu; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Koei

    2006-09-05

    A possible strategy for creating three-dimensional (3D) tissue-engineered organs in vitro with similar volumes to the primary organs is to develop a capillary network throughout the constructs to provide sufficient oxygenation and nutrition to the cells composing them. Here, we propose a novel approach for the creation of a capillary-like network in vitro, based on the spontaneous tube-forming activity of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in collagen gel. We fabricated a linear tube of 500 microm in diameter, the inner surface of which was filled with bovine carotid artery vascular endothelial cells (BECs), in type I collagen gel as a starting point for the formation of a capillary-like network. The BECs exposed to a medium containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) migrated into the ambient gel around the tube. After 2 weeks of VEGF exposure, the distance of the migration into the ambient gel in the radial direction of the tube reached approximately 800 microm. Cross-sections of capillary-like structures composed of the migrating BECs, with a lumen-like interior space, were observed in slices of the gel around the tube stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E). These results demonstrate that this approach using a pre-established tube, which is composed of ECs, as a starting point for a self-developing capillary-like network is potentially useful for constructing 3D organs in vitro.

  14. Development of a three-dimensional bioprinter: construction of cell supporting structures using hydrogel and state-of-the-art inkjet technology.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Nakamura, Makoto; Henmi, Chizuka; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Takiura, Koki

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a new technology for producing three-dimensional (3D) biological structures composed of living cells and hydrogel in vitro, via the direct and accurate printing of cells with an inkjet printing system. Various hydrogel structures were constructed with our custom-made inkjet printer, which we termed 3D bioprinter. In the present study, we used an alginate hydrogel that was obtained through the reaction of a sodium alginate solution with a calcium chloride solution. For the construction of the gel structure, sodium alginate solution was ejected from the inkjet nozzle (SEA-Jet, Seiko Epson Corp., Suwa, Japan) and was mixed with a substrate composed of a calcium chloride solution. In our 3D bioprinter, the nozzle head can be moved in three dimensions. Owing to the development of the 3D bioprinter, an innovative fabrication method that enables the gentle and precise fixation of 3D gel structures was established using living cells as a material. To date, several 3D structures that include living cells have been fabricated, including lines, planes, laminated structures, and tubes, and now, experiments to construct various hydrogel structures are being carried out in our laboratory.

  15. The meaning and measurement of work fatigue: Development and evaluation of the Three-Dimensional Work Fatigue Inventory (3D-WFI).

    PubMed

    Frone, Michael R; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O

    2015-07-01

    Although work fatigue represents an important construct in several substantive areas, prior conceptual definitions and measures have been inadequate in a number of ways. The goals of the present study were to develop a conceptual definition and outline the desirable characteristics of a work fatigue measure, briefly examine several prior measures of work fatigue-related constructs, and develop and evaluate a new measure of work fatigue. The Three-Dimensional Work Fatigue Inventory (3D-WFI) provides separate and commensurate assessments of physical, mental, and emotional work fatigue. Results from a pilot study (n = 207) and a broader evaluative study of U.S. wage and salary workers (n = 2,477) suggest that the 3D-WFI is psychometrically sound and evinces a meaningful pattern of relations with variables that comprise the nomological network of work fatigue. As with all new measures, additional research is required to evaluate fully the utility of the 3D-WFI in research on work fatigue.

  16. Software Development Cost Estimating Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    Hill AFB, UT Researching Blueprinting Technical writing I t l i i / ditin erna rev ew ng e ng Naval Center for Cost Analysis (NCCA), Arlington, VA...development processes Software estimating models Defense Acquisition Framework Data collection Acronyms T i lerm no ogy References Systems & Software...Designed for readability and comprehension Large right margin for notes Systems & Software Technology Conference 921 April 2009 Part I - Basics

  17. Development of three-dimensional lung multicellular spheroids in air- and liquid-interface culture for the evaluation of anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Meenach, Samantha A; Tsoras, Alexandra N; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M; Hilt, J Zach; Anderson, Kimberly W

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) lung multicellular spheroids (MCS) in liquid-covered culture (LCC) and air-interface culture (AIC) conditions have both been developed for the evaluation of aerosol anticancer therapeutics in solution and aerosols, respectively. The MCS were formed by seeding lung cancer cells on top of collagen where they formed spheroids due to the prevalence of cell-to-cell interactions. LCC MCS were exposed to paclitaxel (PTX) in media whereas AIC MCS were exposed to dry powder PEGylated phospholipid aerosol microparticles containing paclitaxel. The difference in viability for 2D versus 3D culture for both LCC and AIC was evaluated along with the effects of the particles on lung epithelium via transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. For LCC and AIC conditions, the 3D spheroids were more resistant to treatment with higher IC50 values for A549 and H358 cell lines. TEER results initially indicated a decrease in resistance upon drug or particle exposure, however, these values increased over the course of several days indicating the ability of the cells to recover. Overall, these studies offer a comprehensive in vitro evaluation of aerosol particles used in the treatment of lung cancer while introducing a new method for culturing lung cancer MCS in both LCC and AIC conditions.

  18. Development of a Three-Dimensional (3D) Printed Biodegradable Cage to Convert Morselized Corticocancellous Bone Chips into a Structured Cortical Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-Chao; Lee, Demei; Chang, Tzu-Min; Hsu, Yung-Heng; Yu, Yi-Hsun; Liu, Shih-Jung; Ueng, Steve Wen-Neng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new biodegradable polymeric cage to convert corticocancellous bone chips into a structured strut graft for treating segmental bone defects. A total of 24 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent a left femoral segmental bone defect creation. Twelve rabbits in group A underwent three-dimensional (3D) printed cage insertion, corticocancellous chips implantation, and Kirschner-wire (K-wire) fixation, while the other 12 rabbits in group B received bone chips implantation and K-wire fixation only. All rabbits received a one-week activity assessment and the initial image study at postoperative 1 week. The final image study was repeated at postoperative 12 or 24 weeks before the rabbit scarification procedure on schedule. After the animals were sacrificed, both femurs of all the rabbits were prepared for leg length ratios and 3-point bending tests. The rabbits in group A showed an increase of activities during the first week postoperatively and decreased anterior cortical disruptions in the postoperative image assessments. Additionally, higher leg length ratios and 3-point bending strengths demonstrated improved final bony ingrowths within the bone defects for rabbits in group A. In conclusion, through this bone graft converting technique, orthopedic surgeons can treat segmental bone defects by using bone chips but with imitate characters of structured cortical bone graft. PMID:27104525

  19. Resource utilization during software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  20. Software development without languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Haywood S.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic programming generally involves the construction of a formal specification; i.e., one which allows unambiguous interpretation by tools for the subsequent production of the corresponding software. Previous practical efforts in this direction have focused on the serious problems of: (1) designing the optimum specification language; and (2) mapping (translating or compiling) from this specification language to the program itself. The approach proposed bypasses the above problems. It postulates that the specification proper should be an intermediate form, with the sole function of containing information sufficient to facilitate construction of programs and also of matching documentation. Thus, the means of forming the intermediary becomes a human factors task rather than a linguistic one; human users will read documents generated from the specification, rather than the specification itself.

  1. Transcriptome Dynamics of Developing Photoreceptors in Three-Dimensional Retina Cultures Recapitulates Temporal Sequence of Human Cone and Rod Differentiation Revealing Cell Surface Markers and Gene Networks.

    PubMed

    Kaewkhaw, Rossukon; Kaya, Koray Dogan; Brooks, Matthew; Homma, Kohei; Zou, Jizhong; Chaitankar, Vijender; Rao, Mahendra; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-12-01

    The derivation of three-dimensional (3D) stratified neural retina from pluripotent stem cells has permitted investigations of human photoreceptors. We have generated a H9 human embryonic stem cell subclone that carries a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter under the control of the promoter of cone-rod homeobox (CRX), an established marker of postmitotic photoreceptor precursors. The CRXp-GFP reporter replicates endogenous CRX expression in vitro when the H9 subclone is induced to form self-organizing 3D retina-like tissue. At day 37, CRX+ photoreceptors appear in the basal or middle part of neural retina and migrate to apical side by day 67. Temporal and spatial patterns of retinal cell type markers recapitulate the predicted sequence of development. Cone gene expression is concomitant with CRX, whereas rod differentiation factor neural retina leucine zipper protein (NRL) is first observed at day 67. At day 90, robust expression of NRL and its target nuclear receptor NR2E3 is evident in many CRX+ cells, while minimal S-opsin and no rhodopsin or L/M-opsin is present. The transcriptome profile, by RNA-seq, of developing human photoreceptors is remarkably concordant with mRNA and immunohistochemistry data available for human fetal retina although many targets of CRX, including phototransduction genes, exhibit a significant delay in expression. We report on temporal changes in gene signatures, including expression of cell surface markers and transcription factors; these expression changes should assist in isolation of photoreceptors at distinct stages of differentiation and in delineating coexpression networks. Our studies establish the first global expression database of developing human photoreceptors, providing a reference map for functional studies in retinal cultures.

  2. Three-dimensional retinal organoids from mouse pluripotent stem cells mimic in vivo development with enhanced stratification and rod photoreceptor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Holly Yu; Kaya, Koray Dogan; Dong, Lijin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The generation of three-dimensional (3D) organoids with optic cup–like structures from pluripotent stem cells has created opportunities for investigating mammalian retinal development in vitro. However, retinal organoids in culture do not completely reflect the developmental state and in vivo architecture of the rod-dominant mouse retina. The goals of this study were to develop an efficient protocol for generating retinal organoids from stem cells and examine the morphogenesis of rods in vitro. Methods To assess rod photoreceptor differentiation in retinal organoids, we took advantage of Nrl-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice that show rod-specific expression of GFP directed by the promoter of leucine zipper transcription factor NRL. Using embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs and iPSCs, respectively) derived from the Nrl-GFP mouse, we were successful in establishing long-term retinal organoid cultures using modified culture conditions (called High Efficiency Hypoxia Induced Generation of Photoreceptors in Retinal Organoids, or HIPRO). Results We demonstrated efficient differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to retinal structures. More than 70% of embryoid bodies formed optic vesicles at day (D) 7, >50% produced optic cups by D10, and most of them survived until at least D35. The HIPRO organoids included distinct inner retina neurons in a somewhat stratified architecture and mature Müller glia spanning the entire retina. Almost 70% of the cells in the retinal organoids were rod photoreceptors that exhibited elongated cilia. Transcriptome profiles of GFP+ rod photoreceptors, purified from organoids at D25–35, demonstrated a high correlation with the gene profiles of purified rods from the mouse retina at P2 to P6, indicating their early state of differentiation. Conclusions The 3D retinal organoids, generated by HIPRO method, closely mimic in vivo retinogenesis and provide an efficient in vitro model to investigate photoreceptor

  3. Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

  4. Generation of three-dimensional unstructured grids by the advancing-front method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohner, Rainald; Parikh, Paresh

    1988-01-01

    The generation of three-dimensional unstructured grids using the advancing-front technique is described. While this generation technique has been shown to be effective for the generation of unstructured grids in two dimensions, its extension to three-dimensional regions required the development of surface definition software and sophisticated data structures to avoid excessive CPU-time overheads for the search operations involved. After obtaining an initial triangulation of the surfaces, tetrahedrons are generated by successively deleting faces from the generation front. Details of the mesh generation algorithm are given, together with examples and timings.

  5. Development and application of a three-dimensional Taylor-Galerkin numerical model for an air quality simulation near roadway tunnel portals

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Shin`ichi; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    Since highway traffic has become one of the major emission sources of air pollution, air pollution prediction near roadway tunnel portals is a very important subject. Although many models have been suggested to predict pollutant concentrations near roadways, almost all models have been suggested to predict pollutant concentrations near roadways, almost all models can only be applied to at-grade or cut-off straight highways. Therefore, we have developed a numerical model which can be applied to the site near roadway tunnels in complex terrain. The first stage of our study is to make a database of air quality and the meteorological condition near roadway tunnel portals. The second stage is a screening of the wind field models as described in our cooperative paper presented by Kimura et al. The third stage is an evaluation of the numerical schemes for the advection equation, mainly carried out based on the results of the rotating cone problem. In our limited comparative study, the most accurate and high-speed-computing scheme was a Taylor-Galerkin scheme. The three dimensional model based on this scheme, was developed by an operator splitting of locally one dimensional calculations. The final stage is a validation study of the proposed model. The composite model consists of a wind field model, a model for the jet stream from a tunnel portal, and a model for the diffusion and advection of pollutants. The calculated concentrations near a tunnel portal have been compared with the air tracer experimental data and good conformity could be obtained.

  6. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  7. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  8. Quasicrystalline three-dimensional foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Graner, F.; Mosseri, R.; Sadoc, J.-F.

    2017-03-01

    We present a numerical study of quasiperiodic foams, in which the bubbles are generated as duals of quasiperiodic Frank–Kasper phases. These foams are investigated as potential candidates to the celebrated Kelvin problem for the partition of three-dimensional space with equal volume bubbles and minimal surface area. Interestingly, one of the computed structures falls close to (but still slightly above) the best known Weaire–Phelan periodic candidate. In addition we find a correlation between the normalized bubble surface area and the root mean squared deviation of the number of faces, giving an additional clue to understanding the main geometrical ingredients driving the Kelvin problem.

  9. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  10. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  11. Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446

  12. Three Dimensional Particle Tracking in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megson, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Superfluid helium is a macroscopic quantum state which exhibits exotic physical properties, such as flow without friction and ballistic heat transport. Superfluid flow is irrotational except about line-like topological phase defects with quantized circulation, known as quatized vortices. The presence of these vortices and their dynamics is the dominating factor of turbulence in superfluid flows. One commonly studied regime of superfluid turbulence is thermal counterflow, where a local heat flux drives the formation and growth of a tangle of vortices. This talk will present experimental studies of counterflow turbulence performed using a multi-camera three-dimensional imaging apparatus with micron-sized ice tracer particles as well as fluorescent nanoparticles. In particular, we will discuss the measurement of three-dimensional velocties and their autocorrelations. Additionally, we are developing new techniques for optical studies of bulk superfluid helium, with particular focus on characterizing tracer particles and particle dispersal mechanisms. Funding from NSF DMR-1407472.

  13. Development and Characterization of a Rate-Dependent Three-Dimensional Macroscopic Plasticity Model Suitable for Use in Composite Impact Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Several key capabilities have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in the material/models for composite materials currently available within commercial transient dynamic finite element codes such as LS-DYNA. Some of the specific desired features that have been identified include the incorporation of both plasticity and damage within the material model, the capability of using the material model to analyze the response of both three-dimensional solid elements and two dimensional shell elements, and the ability to simulate the response of composites composed with a variety of composite architectures, including laminates, weaves and braids. In addition, a need has been expressed to have a material model that utilizes tabulated experimentally based input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to utilizing discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength) and analytical functions based on curve fitting. To begin to address these needs, an orthotropic macroscopic plasticity based model suitable for implementation within LS-DYNA has been developed. Specifically, the Tsai-Wu composite failure model has been generalized and extended to a strain-hardening based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The coefficients in the yield function are determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions, along with selected off-axis curves. Incorporating rate dependence into the yield function is achieved by using a series of tabluated input curves, each at a different constant strain rate. The non-associative flow-rule is used to compute the evolution of the effective plastic strain. Systematic procedures have been developed to determine the values of the various coefficients in the yield function and the flow rule based on the tabulated input data. An algorithm based on the radial return method has been developed to facilitate the numerical implementation of the material

  14. Three-dimensional vortex methods

    SciTech Connect

    Greengard, C.A.

    1984-08-01

    Three-dimensional vortex methods for the computation of incompressible fluid flow are presented from a unified point of view. Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms; in both of them, the vorticity is evaluated by a discretization of the spatial derivative of the flow map. The fact that the filament method, the one which is most often used in practice, can be formulated as a version of the Beale and Majda algorithm in a curved coordinate system is used to give a convergence theorem for the filament method. The method of Anderson is also discussed, in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. This remains true even when time discretization is taken into account. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed. 36 references, 4 figures.

  15. Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.

  16. Three-dimensional gauging with stereo computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kam W.; Ke, Ying; Lew, Michael S.; Obaidat, Mohammed T.

    1991-09-01

    Three-dimensional gaging involves the measurement and mapping of 3-D surfaces. Gaging accuracy depends on measurement accuracy in the images, image scale, and stereo geometry. Multiple cameras are often needed to provide adequate stereoscopic coverage of the object. This paper reports on an automatic 3-D gaging system that is being developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. A portable 3-D target field, consisting of 198 targets each identified with a bar code, is used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters of each camera. Image-processing algorithms have been developed to identify conjugate image points in stereo pair of images, and the object-space coordinates of these points are computed by stereo intersection. Software has also been developed for analysis and data editing.

  17. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  18. Three-dimensional coil inductor

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.

  19. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  20. Three-dimensional vortex methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greengard, C. A.

    1984-08-01

    Reformulations of the filament method and of the method of Beale and Majda show them to be very similar algorithms. The method of Anderson in which vorticity is evaluated by the exact differentiation of the approximate velocity field is discussed. It is shown that, in the inviscid version of this algorithm, each approximate vector of vorticity remains tangent to a material curve moving with the computed flow, with magnitude proportional to the stretching of this vortex line. It is explained that the expanding core vortex method converges to a system of equations different from the Navier-Stokes equations. Computations with the filament method of the inviscid interaction of two vortex rings are reported, both with single filaments in each ring and with a fully three-dimensional discretization of vorticity. The dependence on parameters is discussed, and convergence of the computed solutions is observed.

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Green, J D; Marion, M S; Erickson, B J; Robb, R A; Hinojosa, R

    1990-01-01

    Study of the complex anatomy and pathology of the temporal bone has traditionally used microscopy which permits analysis in only two dimensions. Recent advances in bioimaging technology have permitted visualization and reconstruction of computed tomography images in three dimensions. We have developed a technique that applies this technology in the imaging and reconstruction of human temporal bones. Data taken from serial histologic sections of the temporal bone are entered into a computer. The sections are edited and, through the use of specially developed software, a realistic three-dimensional reconstruction is produced. The reconstructed image can be rotated along any of three axes, and structures within the temporal bone can be isolated for more detailed analysis. Applications for the study of pathologic conditions of the temporal bone will be discussed.

  2. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, funded by Johnson Space Center, is investigating knowledge-based techniques for software reuse in NASA software development projects. Two prototypes have been demonstrated and a third is now in development. The approach is to build a foundation that provides passive reuse support, add a layer that uses domain-independent programming knowledge, add a layer that supports the acquisition of domain-specific programming knowledge to provide active support, and enhance maintainability and modifiability through an object-oriented approach. The development of new application software would use specification-by-reformulation, based on a cognitive theory of retrieval from very long-term memory in humans, and using an Ada code library and an object base. Current tasks include enhancements to the knowledge representation of Ada packages and abstract data types, extensions to support Ada package instantiation knowledge acquisition, integration with Ada compilers and relational databases, enhancements to the graphical user interface, and demonstration of the system with a NASA contractor-developed trajectory simulation package. Future work will focus on investigating issues involving scale-up and integration.

  3. ACCEPT: a three-dimensional finite element program for large deformation elastic-plastic-creep analysis of pressurized tubes (LWBR/AWBA Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutula, D.N.; Wiancko, B.E.

    1980-03-01

    ACCEPT is a three-dimensional finite element computer program for analysis of large-deformation elastic-plastic-creep response of Zircaloy tubes subjected to temperature, surface pressures, and axial force. A twenty-mode, tri-quadratic, isoparametric element is used along with a Zircaloy materials model. A linear time-incremental procedure with residual force correction is used to solve for the time-dependent response. The program features an algorithm which automatically chooses the time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution. A contact-separation capability allows modeling of interaction of reactor fuel rod cladding with fuel pellets or external supports.

  4. Three-dimensional scene capturing for the virtual reality display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jingsheng; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A virtual reality shooting and display system based on multiple degrees of freedom camera is designed and demonstrated. Three-dimensional scene display and the wide angle display can be achieved easily and quickly through the construction with the proposed system. The range of the viewing scene can be broaden with the image stitching process, and the display in the demonstrated system can achieve the effect of wide angle for applications of image mosaic. In the meantime, the system can realize 3D scene display, which can effectively reduce the complexity of the 3D scene generation, and provide a foundation for adding interactive characteristics for the 3D scene in the future. The system includes an adjustable bracket, computer software, and a virtual reality device. Multiple degrees of freedom of the adjustable bracket are developed to obtain 3D scene source images and mosaic source images easily. 5 degrees of freedom are realized, including rotation, lifting, translation, convergence and pitching. To realize the generation and display of three-dimensional scenes, two cameras are adjusted into a parallel state. With the process of image distortion eliminating and calibration, the image is transferred to the virtual reality device for display. In order to realize wide angle display, the cameras are adjusted into "V" type. The preprocessing includes image matching and fusion to realize image stitching. The mosaic image is transferred for virtual reality display with its image reading and display functions. The wide angle 3D scene display is realized by adjusting different states.

  5. The Advanced Software Development and Commercialization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gallopoulos, E. . Center for Supercomputing Research and Development); Canfield, T.R.; Minkoff, M.; Mueller, C.; Plaskacz, E.; Weber, D.P.; Anderson, D.M.; Therios, I.U. ); Aslam, S.; Bramley, R.; Chen, H.-C.; Cybenko, G.; Gallopoulos, E.; Gao, H.; Malony, A.; Sameh, A. . Center for Supercomputing Research

    1990-09-01

    This is the first of a series of reports pertaining to progress in the Advanced Software Development and Commercialization Project, a joint collaborative effort between the Center for Supercomputing Research and Development of the University of Illinois and the Computing and Telecommunications Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of this work is to apply techniques of parallel computing that were pioneered by University of Illinois researchers to mature computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and structural dynamics (SD) computer codes developed at Argonne. The collaboration in this project will bring this unique combination of expertise to bear, for the first time, on industrially important problems. By so doing, it will expose the strengths and weaknesses of existing techniques for parallelizing programs and will identify those problems that need to be solved in order to enable wide spread production use of parallel computers. Secondly, the increased efficiency of the CFD and SD codes themselves will enable the simulation of larger, more accurate engineering models that involve fluid and structural dynamics. In order to realize the above two goals, we are considering two production codes that have been developed at ANL and are widely used by both industry and Universities. These are COMMIX and WHAMS-3D. The first is a computational fluid dynamics code that is used for both nuclear reactor design and safety and as a design tool for the casting industry. The second is a three-dimensional structural dynamics code used in nuclear reactor safety as well as crashworthiness studies. These codes are currently available for both sequential and vector computers only. Our main goal is to port and optimize these two codes on shared memory multiprocessors. In so doing, we shall establish a process that can be followed in optimizing other sequential or vector engineering codes for parallel processors.

  6. Post-Modern Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  7. Human factors in software development

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  8. Software development environment, appendix F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The current status in the area of software development environments is assessed. The purposes of environments, the types of environments, the constituents of an environment, the issue of environment integration, and the problems which must be solved in preparing an environment are discussed. Some general maxims to guide near-term future work are proposed.

  9. Archiving a Software Development Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    an ongoing monitoring system that identifies attempts and requests for retrieval, and ensures that the attempts and requests cannot proceed without...Intelligence Division Peter Fisher has worked as a consultant, systems analyst, software developer and project manager in Australia, Holland, the USA...4 3.1.3 DRMS – Defence Records Management System

  10. UTILIZATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INFORMATION IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Satoshi

    In this research targeting road construction projects, schemes were investigated for utilizing three-dimensional (3D) data distributed in accordance with ISO (Internatio nal Organization for Standardization) and produced by 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software based on the concept of product data models. First, existing literature was classified by work stage as the context for utilizing 3D data. Next, the establishment of standards for exchanging 3D data, revising relevant systems, constructing road data models, realizing work process models, developing 3D CAD engines, and providing 3D data utilization environments are discussed, both as measures that should be undertaken and as future research topics for promoting the utilization of 3D data. Finally, the potential for utilizing 3D data in road construction projects by local government is examined, and the items to be implemented for this purpose are summarized.

  11. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  12. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered ‘quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338

  13. Three-dimensional laser microvision.

    PubMed

    Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y

    2001-04-10

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum.

  14. Three-Dimensional Laser Microvision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimotahira, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Keigo; Chu, Sun-Chun; Wah, Christopher; Costen, Furnie; Yoshikuni, Yuzo

    2001-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 m; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 m.

  15. Three-dimensional display technologies

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  16. Managing MDO Software Development Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Salas, A. O.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the NASA Langley Research Center developed a series of 'grand challenge' applications demonstrating the use of parallel and distributed computation and multidisciplinary design optimization. All but the last of these applications were focused on the high-speed civil transport vehicle; the final application focused on reusable launch vehicles. Teams of discipline experts developed these multidisciplinary applications by integrating legacy engineering analysis codes. As teams became larger and the application development became more complex with increasing levels of fidelity and numbers of disciplines, the need for applying software engineering practices became evident. This paper briefly introduces the application projects and then describes the approaches taken in project management and software engineering for each project; lessons learned are highlighted.

  17. In-lab three-dimensional printing

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Roland; Conlisk, Noel; Davies, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the microscope in 1590 by Zacharias Janssenby and Hans Lippershey gave the world a new way of visualizing details of morphogenesis and development. More recent improvements in this technology including confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) have enhanced the quality of the resultant image. These technologies also allow a representation to be made of a developing tissue’s three-dimensional (3-D) form. With all these techniques however, the image is delivered on a flat two-dimensional (2-D) screen. 3-D printing represents an exciting potential to reproduce the image not simply on a flat screen, but in a physical, palpable three-dimensional structure. Here we explore the scope that this holds for exploring and interacting with the structure of a developing organ in an entirely novel way. As well as being useful for visualization, 3-D printers are capable of rapidly and cost-effectively producing custom-made structures for use within the laboratory. We here describe the advantages of producing hardware for a tissue culture system using an inexpensive in-lab printer. PMID:22652907

  18. Software development for electromagnetic scattering of aircraft in near space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, WangLong; Han, YiPing

    2016-11-01

    By using Intel Visual Fortran and Visual Studio 2013, a software for calculating radar cross section of the metal and the plasma three-dimensional composite target are given, based on the method of MOM and FDTD. This software can calculate radar cross section of the near space aircraft covered the plasma sheath, and this work has an important strategic significance in the future.

  19. Three-dimensional turbopump flowfield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.; Belford, K. A.; Ni, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a flow prediction method applicable to rocket turbopumps. The complex nature of a flowfield in turbopumps is described and examples of flowfields are discussed to illustrate that physics based models and analytical calculation procedures based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are needed to develop reliable design procedures for turbopumps. A CFD code developed at NASA ARC was used as the base code. The turbulence model and boundary conditions in the base code were modified, respectively, to: (1) compute transitional flows and account for extra rates of strain, e.g., rotation; and (2) compute surface heat transfer coefficients and allow computation through multistage turbomachines. Benchmark quality data from two and three-dimensional cascades were used to verify the code. The predictive capabilities of the present CFD code were demonstrated by computing the flow through a radial impeller and a multistage axial flow turbine. Results of the program indicate that the present code operated in a two-dimensional mode is a cost effective alternative to full three-dimensional calculations, and that it permits realistic predictions of unsteady loadings and losses for multistage machines.

  20. Strategic planning for aircraft noise route impact analysis: A three dimensional approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.; Rowan, M. J.; Ahuja, K. K.

    1993-01-01

    The strategic routing of aircraft through navigable and controlled airspace to minimize adverse noise impact over sensitive areas is critical in the proper management and planning of the U.S. based airport system. A major objective of this phase of research is to identify, inventory, characterize, and analyze the various environmental, land planning, and regulatory data bases, along with potential three dimensional software and hardware systems that can be potentially applied for an impact assessment of any existing or planned air route. There are eight data bases that have to be assembled and developed in order to develop three dimensional aircraft route impact methodology. These data bases which cover geographical information systems, sound metrics, land use, airspace operational control measures, federal regulations and advisories, census data, and environmental attributes have been examined and aggregated. A three dimensional format is necessary for planning, analyzing space and possible noise impact, and formulating potential resolutions. The need to develop this three dimensional approach is essential due to the finite capacity of airspace for managing and planning a route system, including airport facilities. It appears that these data bases can be integrated effectively into a strategic aircraft noise routing system which should be developed as soon as possible, as part of a proactive plan applied to our FAA controlled navigable airspace for the United States.

  1. More About The Farley Three-Dimensional Braider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    Farley three-dimensional braider, undergoing development, is machine for automatic fabrication of three-dimensional braided structures. Incorporates yarns into structure at arbitrary braid angles to produce complicated shape. Braiding surface includes movable braiding segments containing pivot points, along which yarn carriers travel during braiding process. Yarn carrier travels along sequence of pivot points as braiding segments move. Combined motions position yarns for braiding onto preform. Intended for use in making fiber preforms for fiber/matrix composite parts, such as multiblade propellers. Machine also described in "Farley Three-Dimensional Braiding Machine" (LAR-13911).

  2. Three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization using discrete sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgreen, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization procedure based on discrete sensitivity analysis is extended to treat three-dimensional geometries. The function of sensitivity analysis is to directly couple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with numerical optimization techniques, which facilitates the construction of efficient direct-design methods. The development of a practical three-dimensional design procedures entails many challenges, such as: (1) the demand for significant efficiency improvements over current design methods; (2) a general and flexible three-dimensional surface representation; and (3) the efficient solution of very large systems of linear algebraic equations. It is demonstrated that each of these challenges is overcome by: (1) employing fully implicit (Newton) methods for the CFD analyses; (2) adopting a Bezier-Bernstein polynomial parameterization of two- and three-dimensional surfaces; and (3) using preconditioned conjugate gradient-like linear system solvers. Whereas each of these extensions independently yields an improvement in computational efficiency, the combined effect of implementing all the extensions simultaneously results in a significant factor of 50 decrease in computational time and a factor of eight reduction in memory over the most efficient design strategies in current use. The new aerodynamic shape optimization procedure is demonstrated in the design of both two- and three-dimensional inviscid aerodynamic problems including a two-dimensional supersonic internal/external nozzle, two-dimensional transonic airfoils (resulting in supercritical shapes), three-dimensional transport wings, and three-dimensional supersonic delta wings. Each design application results in realistic and useful optimized shapes.

  3. Software Development as Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses how software development can be used as a method for music education research. It explains how software development can externalize ideas, stimulate action and reflection, and provide evidence to support the educative value of new software-based experiences. Parallels between the interactive software development process and…

  4. A multiple node software development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinicke, P.; Nicinski, T.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Ritchie, D.; White, V.

    1987-06-01

    Experimenters on over 30 DECnet nodes at Fermilab use software developed, distributed, and maintained by the Data Acquisition Software Group. A general methodology and set of tools have been developed to distribute, use and manage the software on different sites. The methodology and tools are of interest to any group developing and using software on multiple nodes.

  5. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  6. Software based controls module development

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, v.b.; kelley, g; welch, j.c.

    1999-12-10

    A project was initiated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to implement software geometric error compensation within a PC-based machine tool controller from Manufacturing Data Systems, Inc. This project may be the first in which this type of compensation system was implemented in a commercially available machine tool controller totally in software. Previous implementations typically required using an external computer and hardware to interface through the position feedback loop of the controller because direct access to the controller software was not available. The test-bed machine for this project was a 2-axis Excello 921 T-base lathe. A mathematical error model of the lathe was created using homogeneous transformation matrices to relate the positions of the machine's slides to each other and to a world reference system. Equations describing the effects of the geometric errors were derived from the model. A software architecture was developed to support geometric error compensation for machine tools with up to 3 linear axes. Rotary axes were not supported in this implementation, but the developed architecture would not preclude their support in the future. Specific implementations will be dependent upon the configuration of the machine tool. A laser measuring system from Automated Precision, Inc. was used to characterize the lathe's geometric errors as functions of axis position and direction of motion. Multiple data files generated by the laser system were combined into a single Error File that was read at system startup and used by the compensation system to provide real-time position adjustments to the axis servos. A Renishaw Ballbar was used to evaluate the compensation system. Static positioning tests were conducted in an attempt to observe improved positioning accuracy with the compensation system enabled. These tests gave inconsistent results due to the lathe's inability to position the tool repeatably. The development of the architecture and compensation

  7. Applications of three-dimensionally scanned models in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Cha, B K; Choi, J I; Jost-Brinkmann, P G; Jeong, Y M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical applications of the three-dimensional reverse engineering technologies for the analysis of orthodontic models. The measuring accuracy and the process of the 3D model scanning technique were evaluated with respect to linear, surface and volumetric parameters. Orthodontically induced dentoalveolar changes, which have been traditionally evaluated by cephalometric analysis, were assessed by the registration function of Rapidform 2002, a 3D-reverse modeling software in scanned maxillary casts. Three-dimensional digital models are valuable alternatives to conventional casts for model analysis and also yield information which could previously be gathered only by cephalometric superimposition.

  8. Automatic measurement extraction for apparel from a three-dimensional body scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pargas, Roy P.; Staples, Nancy J.; Davis, J. Steve

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a project involving computer assisted measurement extraction from a three-dimensional (3D) noncontact fullbody scan. It explains the motivation behind the project, describes briefly the research plan and provides details on the measurement extraction software currently being developed. The software provides the user with tools to take measurements from a digitized image. In addition, a measurement extraction language allows the user to develop macros, or short programs, designed to automate the measurement extraction process. The paper concludes with a description of the current status of the project.

  9. Software Engineering: A New Component for Instructional Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J. Wey; Shen, Chung-Wei

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of software engineering for computer-based instruction (CBI) focuses on a model for instructional software development. Highlights include a multidisciplinary team approach; needs analysis; feasibility study; requirement analysis; prototype construction; design phase; implementation and development; testing and evaluation; and project…

  10. Three-dimensional television: a broadcaster's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.

  11. Three-dimensional terahertz wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-C

    2004-02-15

    Pulsed terahertz (THz) wave sensing and imaging is a coherent measurement technology. Like radar, based on the phase and amplitude of the THz pulse at each frequency, THz waves provide temporal and spectroscopic information that allows us to develop various three-dimensional (3D) terahertz tomographic imaging modalities. The 3D THz tomographic imaging methods we investigated include THz time-of-flight tomography, THz computed tomography (CT) and THz binary lens tomography. THz time-of-flight uses the THz pulses as a probe beam to temporally mark the target, and then constructs a 3D image of the target using the THz waves scattered by the target. THz CT is based on geometrical optics and inspired from X-ray CT. THz binary lens tomography uses the frequency-dependent focal-length property of binary lenses to obtain tomographic images of an object. Three-dimensional THz imaging has potential in such applications as non-destructive inspection. The interaction between a coherent THz pulse and an object provides rich information about the object under study; therefore, 3D THz imaging can be used to inspect or characterize dielectric and semiconductor objects. For example, 3D THz imaging has been used to detect and identify the defects inside a Space Shuttle insulation tile.

  12. A Legal Guide for the Software Developer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Small Business Assistance Office, St. Paul.

    This booklet has been prepared to familiarize the inventor, creator, or developer of a new computer software product or software invention with the basic legal issues involved in developing, protecting, and distributing the software in the United States. Basic types of software protection and related legal matters are discussed in detail,…

  13. Three dimensional identification card and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Li, Chao; Li, Hao; Liu, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Three dimensional Identification Card, with its three-dimensional personal image displayed and stored for personal identification, is supposed be the advanced version of the present two-dimensional identification card in the future [1]. Three dimensional Identification Card means that there are three-dimensional optical techniques are used, the personal image on ID card is displayed to be three-dimensional, so we can see three dimensional personal face. The ID card also stores the three-dimensional face information in its inside electronics chip, which might be recorded by using two-channel cameras, and it can be displayed in computer as three-dimensional images for personal identification. Three-dimensional ID card might be one interesting direction to update the present two-dimensional card in the future. Three-dimension ID card might be widely used in airport custom, entrance of hotel, school, university, as passport for on-line banking, registration of on-line game, etc...

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the naupliar musculature and a scanning electron microscopy atlas of nauplius development of Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Semmler, Henrike; Høeg, Jens T; Scholtz, Gerhard; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    An atlas of the naupliar development of the cirripede Balanus improvisus Darwin, 1854 using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is provided. Existing spikes on the hindbody increase in number with each moult and are an applicable character for identification of the different nauplius stages, as is the setation pattern of the first antennae. The naupliar musculature of B. improvisus was stained with phalloidin to visualise F-actin, followed by analysis using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with subsequent application of 3D imaging software. The larval musculature is already fully established in the first nauplius stage and remains largely unchanged during all the six nauplius stages. The musculature associated with the feeding apparatus is highly elaborated and the labrum possesses lateral muscles and distal F-actin-positive structures. The alimentary tract is entirely surrounded by circular muscles. The extrinsic limb musculature comprises muscles originating from the dorsal and the ventral sides of the head shield, respectively. The hindbody shows very prominent postero-lateral muscles that insert on the dorso-lateral side of the head shield and bend towards ventro-posterior. We conclude that the key features of the naupliar gross anatomy and muscular architecture of B. improvisus are important characters for phylogenetic inferences if analysed in a comparative evolutionary framework.

  15. Design and Development of a Framework Based on Ogc Web Services for the Visualization of Three Dimensional Large-Scale Geospatial Data Over the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatello, E.; Nozzi, A.; Rumor, M.

    2013-05-01

    This paper illustrates the key concepts behind the design and the development of a framework, based on OGC services, capable to visualize 3D large scale geospatial data streamed over the web. WebGISes are traditionally bounded to a bi-dimensional simplified representation of the reality and though they are successfully addressing the lack of flexibility and simplicity of traditional desktop clients, a lot of effort is still needed to reach desktop GIS features, like 3D visualization. The motivations behind this work lay in the widespread availability of OGC Web Services inside government organizations and in the technology support to HTML 5 and WebGL standard of the web browsers. This delivers an improved user experience, similar to desktop applications, therefore allowing to augment traditional WebGIS features with a 3D visualization framework. This work could be seen as an extension of the Cityvu project, started in 2008 with the aim of a plug-in free OGC CityGML viewer. The resulting framework has also been integrated in existing 3DGIS software products and will be made available in the next months.

  16. Postnatal mandibular cheek tooth development in the miniature pig based on two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray analyses.

    PubMed

    Ide, Yoshiaki; Nakahara, Taka; Nasu, Masanori; Matsunaga, Satoru; Iwanaga, Takehiro; Tominaga, Noriko; Tamaki, Yuichi

    2013-08-01

    The miniature pig is a useful large laboratory animal model. Various tissues and organs of miniature pigs are similar to those of humans in terms of developmental, anatomical, immunological, and physiological characteristics. The oral and maxillofacial region of miniature pigs is often used in preclinical studies of regenerative dentistry. However, there is limited information on the dentition and tooth structure of miniature pigs. The purpose of this study was to examine the time-course changes of dentition and tooth structure (especially the root) of the miniature pig mandibular cheek teeth through X-ray analyses using soft X-ray for two-dimensional observations and micro-CT for three-dimensional observations. The mandibles of male Clawn strain miniature pigs (2 weeks and 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, and 29 months of age) were used. X-ray analysis of the dentition of miniature pig cheek teeth showed that the eruption pattern of the miniature pig is diphyodont and that the replacement pattern is vertical. Previous definitions of deciduous and permanent teeth often varied and there has been no consensus on the number of teeth (dentition); however, we found that three molars are present in the deciduous dentition and that four premolars and three molars are present in the permanent dentition. Furthermore, we confirmed the number of tooth roots and root canals. We believe that these findings will be highly useful in future studies using miniature pig teeth.

  17. Development of a three-dimensional multiscale agent-based tumor model: simulating gene-protein interaction profiles, cell phenotypes and multicellular patterns in brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Athale, Chaitanya A; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2007-01-07

    Experimental evidence suggests that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated activation of the signaling protein phospholipase Cgamma plays a critical role in a cancer cell's phenotypic decision to either proliferate or to migrate at a given point in time. Here, we present a novel three-dimensional multiscale agent-based model to simulate this cellular decision process in the context of a virtual brain tumor. Each tumor cell is equipped with an EGFR gene-protein interaction network module that also connects to a simplified cell cycle description. The simulation results show that over time proliferative and migratory cell populations not only oscillate but also directly impact the spatio-temporal expansion patterns of the entire cancer system. The percentage change in the concentration of the sub-cellular interaction network's molecular components fluctuates, and, for the 'proliferation-to-migration' switch we find that the phenotype triggering molecular profile to some degree varies as the tumor system grows and the microenvironment changes. We discuss potential implications of these findings for experimental and clinical cancer research.

  18. Three-dimensional map construction.

    PubMed

    Jenks, G F; Brown, D A

    1966-11-18

    Three-dimensional maps are useful tools which have been neglected for some time. They shouldbe more commonly used, and familiarity with the techniques discussed in this article should dispel any qualms anyone might ve about needing artistic talent to nstruct them. The saving in time esulting from the use of an anamorphoser provides a further incentive. The anamorphoser transformations discussed above were all prepared by using straight slits, oriented at right angles to each other and placed so that all planes of the elements were parallel to each other. It is possible to vary these conditions in an infinite number of ways and thereby produce nonparallel tranceformations. Some of these variations are illustrated in Fig. 10. All the illustrations in Fig. 10 are transformations of the planimetric weather map shown in Fig. 8A. The variations used for the maps of Fig. 10 are as follows. (A) All planes parallel, with a curved rear slit; (B) all planes parallel, with curved slits front and rear; ( C) all planes parallel, with S-shaped rear slit; (D) all planes parallel, with an undulating rear slit; (E) all planes parallel, with curved front and undulating rear slit; (F) plane of the original rotated on the horizontal axis-both slits curved; (G) plane of the original rotated on thevertical axis- both slits curved; (H) plane of the original rotated on the horizontal axis -both slits straight. These are only a few of the many transformations which can be made with an anamorphoser, butthey do point toward some interesting possibilities. For example, it appears that maps based onone projection might be altered to satisfy the coordinates of a completely different projection. Note, for example, the change of parallels from concave to convex curves (Figs. 8A and 10A) and the change from converging meridians to diverging meridians (Figs. 8A and l0G). Similarly, the grids of maps B, F, and H of Fig. 10 approximate projections which are quite different from the original. Other

  19. A software development and evolution model based on decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, J. Christian; Dong, Jinghuan; Maly, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    Design is a complex activity whose purpose is to construct an artifact which satisfies a set of constraints and requirements. However the design process is not well understood. The software design and evolution process is the focus of interest, and a three dimensional software development space organized around a decision-making paradigm is presented. An initial instantiation of this model called 3DPM(sub p) which was partly implemented, is presented. Discussion of the use of this model in software reuse and process management is given.

  20. Development of a morphogenetically active scaffold for three-dimensional growth of bone cells: biosilica-alginate hydrogel for SaOS-2 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Schlossmacher, Ute; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric silica is formed from ortho-silicate during a sol-gel formation process, while biosilica is the product of an enzymatically driven bio-polycondensation reaction. Both polymers have recently been described as a template that induces an increased expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin in osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells; simultaneously or subsequently the cells respond with enhanced hydroxyapatite formation. In order to assess whether the biocompatible polymeric silica/biosilica can serve as a morphogenetically active matrix suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell growth, or even for 3D cell bioprinting, SaOS-2 cells were embedded into a Na-alginate-based hydrogel. Four different gelatinous hydrogel matrices were used for suspending SaOS-2 cells: (a) the hydrogel alone; (b) the hydrogel with 400 μM ortho-silicate; (c) the hydrogel supplemented with 400 μM ortho-silicate and recombinant silicatein to allow biosilica synthesis to occur; and (d) the hydrogel with ortho-silicate and BSA. The SaOS-2 cells showed an increased growth if silica/biosilica components were present in the hydrogel. Likewise intensified was the formation of hydroxyapatite nodules in the silica-containing hydrogels. After an incubation period of 2 weeks, cells present in silica-containing hydrogels showed a significantly higher expression of the genes encoding the cytokine BMP-2, the major fibrillar structural protein collagen 1 and likewise of carbonic anhydrase. It is concluded that silica, and to a larger extent biosilica, retains its morphogenetic/osteogenic potential after addition to Na-alginate-based hydrogels. This property might qualify silica hydrogels to be also used as a matrix for 3D cell printing.

  1. Three-dimensional planning in craniomaxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Palau, Josep; Prieto-Gundin, Alejandra; Cazalla, Asteria Albert; Serrano, Miguel Bejarano; Fructuoso, Gemma Garcia; Ferrandis, Francisco Parri; Baró, Alejandro Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) planning in oral and maxillofacial surgery has become a standard in the planification of a variety of conditions such as dental implants and orthognathic surgery. By using custom-made cutting and positioning guides, the virtual surgery is exported to the operating room, increasing precision and improving results. Materials and Methods: We present our experience in the treatment of craniofacial deformities with 3D planning. Software to plan the different procedures has been selected for each case, depending on the procedure (Nobel Clinician, Kodak 3DS, Simplant O&O, Dolphin 3D, Timeus, Mimics and 3-Matic). The treatment protocol is exposed step by step from virtual planning, design, and printing of the cutting and positioning guides to patients’ outcomes. Conclusions: 3D planning reduces the surgical time and allows predicting possible difficulties and complications. On the other hand, it increases preoperative planning time and needs a learning curve. The only drawback is the cost of the procedure. At present, the additional preoperative work can be justified because of surgical time reduction and more predictable results. In the future, the cost and time investment will be reduced. 3D planning is here to stay. It is already a fact in craniofacial surgery and the investment is completely justified by the risk reduction and precise results. PMID:28299272

  2. Automatic three-dimensional underground mine mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.F.; Vandapel, N.

    2006-01-15

    For several years, our research group has been developing methods for automated modeling of three-dimensional environments. In September 2002, we were given the opportunity to demonstrate our mapping capability in an underground coal mine. The opportunity arose as a result of the Quecreek mine accident, in which an inaccurate map caused miners to breach an abandoned, water-filled mine, trapping them for several days. Our field test illustrates the feasibility and potential of high-resolution 3D mapping of an underground coal mine using a cart-mounted 3D laser scanner In this paper we present our experimental setup, the automatic 3D modeling method used, and the results of the field test.

  3. Scaffolding for Three-Dimensional Embryonic Vasculogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Aday, Sezin; Ferreira, Lino S.

    Biomaterial scaffolds have great potential to support efficient vascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Vascular cell fate-specific biochemical and biophysical cues have been identified and incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials to efficiently direct embryonic vasculogenesis. The resulting vascular-like tissue can be used for regenerative medicine applications, further elucidation of biophysical and biochemical cues governing vasculogenesis, and drug discovery. In this chapter, we give an overview on the following: (1) developmental cues for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into vascular cells, (2) 3D vascular differentiation in embryoid bodies (EBs), (3) preparation of 3D scaffolds for the vascular differentiation of hESCs, and (4) the most significant studies combining scaffolding and hESCs for development of vascular-like tissue.

  4. Three dimensional carbon-nanotube polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Wang, Li-Min; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; He, Julong; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Hui-Tian; Tian, Yongjun

    2011-09-27

    Eight fascinating sp(2)- and sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes have been uncovered using a newly developed ab initio particle-swarm optimization methodology for crystal structure prediction. These crystalline allotropes can be viewed respectively as three-dimensional (3D) polymers of (4,0), (5,0), (7,0), (8,0), (9,0), (3,3), (4,4), and (6,6) carbon nanotubes, termed 3D-(n, 0) or 3D-(n, n) carbons. The ground-state energy calculations show that the carbons all have lower energies than C(60) fullerene, and some are energetically more stable than the van der Waals packing configurations of their nanotube parents. Owing to their unique configurations, they have distinctive electronic properties, high Young's moduli, high tensile strength, ultrahigh hardness, good ductility, and low density, and may be potentially applied to a variety of needs.

  5. Three-Dimensional Reflectance Traction Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher A. R.; Groves, Nicholas Scott; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D) environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress. We have also characterized the deformation field generated by invasive breast cancer cells of different morphologies in 3D collagen matrix. In contrast to employ dispersed tracing particles or fluorescently-tagged matrix proteins, our methods provide a label-free, computationally effective strategy to study the cell mechanics in native 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:27304456

  6. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  7. Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György

    2009-01-01

    The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…

  8. Experimental Internet Environment Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    Geographically distributed project teams need an Internet based collaborative work environment or "Intranet." The Virtual Research Center (VRC) is an experimental Intranet server that combines several services such as desktop conferencing, file archives, on-line publishing, and security. Using the World Wide Web (WWW) as a shared space paradigm, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) presents users with images of a lunar colony. Each project has a wing of the colony and each wing has a conference room, library, laboratory, and mail station. In FY95, the VRC development team proved the feasibility of this shared space concept by building a prototype using a Netscape commerce server and several public domain programs. Successful demonstrations of the prototype resulted in approval for a second phase. Phase 2, documented by this report, will produce a seamlessly integrated environment by introducing new technologies such as Java and Adobe Web Links to replace less efficient interface software.

  9. Software requirements: Guidance and control software development specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withers, B. Edward; Rich, Don C.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Buckland, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The software requirements for an implementation of Guidance and Control Software (GCS) are specified. The purpose of the GCS is to provide guidance and engine control to a planetary landing vehicle during its terminal descent onto a planetary surface and to communicate sensory information about that vehicle and its descent to some receiving device. The specification was developed using the structured analysis for real time system specification methodology by Hatley and Pirbhai and was based on a simulation program used to study the probability of success of the 1976 Viking Lander missions to Mars. Three versions of GCS are being generated for use in software error studies.

  10. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  11. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  12. Scaffold informatics and biomimetic design: three-dimensional medical reconstruction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Martins, Tatiana Al-Chueyr Pereira; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the concepts underlying medical imaging reconstruction and the requirements for its integration with subsequent applications as BioCAD, rapid prototyping (RP), and rapid manufacturing (RM) of implants, scaffolds, or organs. As an introduction to the problem, principles related to data acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, and interpolation are discussed. After this, some available three-dimensional medical reconstruction software tools are presented. Finally, applications of these technologies are illustrated.

  13. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Moussally, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this applied research and development project is to develop a system known as `3-D SISAR`. This system consists of a ground penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for the detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps of the object locations will be produced which can assist the development of remediation strategies and the characterization of the digface during remediation operations. It is expected that the 3-D SISAR will also prove useful for monitoring hydrocarbon based contaminant migration after remediation. The underground imaging technique being developed under this contract utilizes a spotlight mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approach which, due to its inherent stand-off capability, will permit the rapid survey of a site and achieve a high degree of productivity over large areas. When deployed from an airborne platform, the stand-off techniques is also seen as a way to overcome practical survey limitations encountered at vegetated sites.

  14. Developing Software for Corpus Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable…

  15. Three-dimensional simulations of fracture dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starchenko, Vitaliy; Marra, Cameron J.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical studies of fracture dissolution are frequently based on two-dimensional models, where the fracture geometry is represented by an aperture field h(x,y). However, it is known that such models can break down when the spatial variations in aperture are rapid or large in amplitude; for example, in a rough fracture or when instabilities in the dissolution front develop into pronounced channels (or wormholes). Here we report a finite-volume implementation of a three-dimensional reactive transport model using the OpenFOAM® toolkit. Extensions to the OpenFOAM source code have been developed which displace and then relax the mesh in response to variations in the surface concentration; up to 100-fold increases in fracture aperture are possible without remeshing. Our code has simulated field-scale fractures with physical dimensions of about 10 m. We report simulations of smooth fractures, with small, well-controlled perturbations in fracture aperture introduced at the inlet. This allows for systematic convergence studies and for detailed comparisons with results from a two-dimensional model. Initially, the fracture aperture develops similarly in both models, but as local inhomogeneities develop the results start to diverge. We investigate numerically the onset of instabilities in the dissolution of fractures with small random variations in the initial aperture field. Our results show that elliptical cross sections, which are characteristic of karstic conduits, can develop very rapidly, on time scales of 10-20 years in calcite rocks.

  16. Three-dimensional landing zone ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Goodrich, Shawn; Burns, H. N.

    2016-05-01

    Three-Dimensional Landing Zone (3D-LZ) refers to a series of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) programs to develop high-resolution, imaging ladar to address helicopter approach and landing in degraded visual environments with emphasis on brownout; cable warning and obstacle avoidance; and controlled flight into terrain. Initial efforts adapted ladar systems built for munition seekers, and success led to a the 3D-LZ Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) , a 27-month program to develop and demonstrate a ladar subsystem that could be housed with the AN/AAQ-29 FLIR turret flown on US Air Force Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Following the JCTD flight demonstration, further development focused on reducing size, weight, and power while continuing to refine the real-time geo-referencing, dust rejection, obstacle and cable avoidance, and Helicopter Terrain Awareness and Warning (HTAWS) capability demonstrated under the JCTD. This paper summarizes significant ladar technology development milestones to date, individual LADAR technologies within 3D-LZ, and results of the flight testing.

  17. Studies in heat transfer and fluid flows. High-resolution, resonance-based anemometry for high-temperature flows: Preliminary development and testing. A three-dimensional model of the Catawba Nuclear Power Plant service water pond during a hypothetical accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Son Van

    The first part of this dissertation outlines the design and preliminary development of a new liquid metal flow anemometry method, suitable for use at temperatures above the operating range of existing non-consumable probes. The proposed method will incorporate a dual-cantilever touch sensor housed within a sealed, temperature resistant ceramic Pitot tube. We describe fabrication of the device's driving and sensing electronics and fabrication of a dual-cantilever touch sensor. Tests designed to correlate forces applied to the cantilever with associated resonance frequency shifts are then detailed. The results of these experiments demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous resonance-based pressure measurements. In the second part study, a three-dimensional model of post accident flow and heat transfer in a nuclear power auxiliary cooling pond is numerically simulated. For this purpose, a three-dimensional, time dependent flow model is formulated and solved using the Fluent Software Package. Qualitative flow and heat transfer features are investigated under three sets of inlet flow conditions. Based on this study, we identify nominally optimal inlet flow conditions which provide maximal pond heat transfer following a loss-of-primary heat sink accident.

  18. Teaching Agile Software Development: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, V.; Milenkovic, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the authors' experience of teaching agile software development to students of computer science, software engineering, and other related disciplines, and comments on the implications of this and the lessons learned. It is based on the authors' eight years of experience in teaching agile software methodologies to various groups…

  19. Effective Software Engineering Leadership for Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle West, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Software is a critical component of systems ranging from simple consumer appliances to complex health, nuclear, and flight control systems. The development of quality, reliable, and effective software solutions requires the incorporation of effective software engineering processes and leadership. Processes, approaches, and methodologies for…

  20. Continuous Software Integration and Quality Control during Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Brisken, W.; Dassing, R.

    2012-12-01

    Modern software has to be stable, portable, fast, and reliable. This requires a sophisticated infrastructure supporting and providing the developers with additional information about the state and the quality of the project. That is why we have created a centralized software repository, where the whole code-base is managed and version controlled on a centralized server. Based on this, a hierarchical build system has been developed where each project and their sub-projects can be compiled by simply calling the top level Makefile. On the top of this, a nightly build system has been created where the top level Makefiles of each project are called every night. The results of the build including the compiler warnings are reported to the developers using generated HTML pages. In addition, all the source code is automatically checked using a static code analysis tool, called "cppcheck". This tool produces warnings, similar to those of a compiler, but more pedantic. The reports of this analysis are translated to HTML and reported to the developers similar to the nightly builds. Armed with this information,the developers can discover issues in their projects at an early development stage. In combination it reduces the number of possible issues in our software to ensure quality of our projects at different development stages. These checks are also offered to the community. They are currently used within the DiFX software correlator project.

  1. Insights into software development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  2. Biodynamic profiling of three-dimensional tissue growth techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Merrill, Dan; Turek, John; Nolte, David

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional tissue culture presents a more biologically relevant environment in which to perform drug development than conventional two-dimensional cell culture. However, obtaining high-content information from inside three dimensional tissue has presented an obstacle to rapid adoption of 3D tissue culture for pharmaceutical applications. Biodynamic imaging is a high-content three-dimensional optical imaging technology based on low-coherence interferometry and digital holography that uses intracellular dynamics as high-content image contrast. In this paper, we use biodynamic imaging to compare pharmaceutical responses to Taxol of three-dimensional multicellular spheroids grown by three different growth techniques: rotating bioreactor, hanging-drop and plate-grown spheroids. The three growth techniques have systematic variations among tissue cohesiveness and intracellular activity and consequently display different pharmacodynamics under identical drug dose conditions. The in vitro tissue cultures are also compared to ex vivo living biopsies. These results demonstrate that three-dimensional tissue cultures are not equivalent, and that drug-response studies must take into account the growth method.

  3. Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Aurélie; Lamb, Don C.

    2011-11-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) in biological systems is a quickly growing field. Many new technologies are being developed providing new tracking capabilities, which also lead to higher demands and expectations for SPT. Following a single biomolecule as it performs its function provides quantitative mechanistic information that cannot be obtained in classical ensemble methods. From the 3D trajectory, information is available over the diffusional behavior of the particle and precise position information can also be used to elucidate interactions of the tracked particle with its surroundings. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) SPT is a very valuable tool for investigating cellular processes. This review presents recent progress in 3D SPT, from image-based techniques toward more sophisticated feedback approaches. We focus mainly on the feedback technique known as orbital tracking. We present here a modified version of the original orbital tracking in which the intensities from two z-planes are simultaneously measured allowing a concomitant wide-field imaging. The system can track single particles with a precision down to 5 nm in the x-y plane and 7 nm in the axial direction. The capabilities of the system are demonstrated using single virus tracing to follow the infection pathway of Prototype Foamy Virus in living cells.Single particle tracking (SPT) in biological systems is a quickly growing field. Many new technologies are being developed providing new tracking capabilities, which also lead to higher demands and expectations for SPT. Following a single biomolecule as it performs its function provides quantitative mechanistic information that cannot be obtained in classical ensemble methods. From the 3D trajectory, information is available over the diffusional behavior of the particle and precise position information can also be used to elucidate interactions of the tracked particle with its surroundings. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) SPT is a very valuable tool for

  4. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1996-04-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate.

  5. Three-dimensional Diffusive Strip Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ruiz, Daniel; Meunier, Patrice; Duchemin, Laurent; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2016-11-01

    The Diffusive Strip Method (DSM) is a near-exact numerical method developed for mixing computations at large Péclet number in two-dimensions. The method consists in following stretched material lines to compute a-posteriori the resulting scalar field is extended here to three-dimensional flows, following surfaces. We describe its 3D peculiarities, and show how it applies to a simple Taylor-Couette configuration with non-rotating boundary conditions at the top end, bottom and outer cylinder. This flow produces an elaborate, although controlled, steady 3D flow which relies on the Ekman pumping arising from the rotation of the inner cylinder is both studied experimentally, and numerically modeled. A recurrent two-cells structure appears formed by stream tubes shaped as nested tori. A scalar blob in the flow experiences a Lagrangian oscillating dynamics with stretchings and compressions, driving the mixing process, and yielding both rapidly-mixed and nearly pure-diffusive regions. A triangulated-surface method is developed to calculate the blob elongation and scalar concentration PDFs through a single variable computation along the advected blob surface, capturing the rich evolution observed in the experiments.

  6. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surface to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled by Coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The ICAS fills the need for high speed automated organic analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry sensors, and also by radionuclide sensors which combines alpha, beta, and gamma counting.

  7. Generation of three-dimensional medical thermograms.

    PubMed

    Chan, F H; So, A T; Lam, F K

    1996-01-01

    To visualise non-invasively human organs in their true form and shape has intrigued mankind for centuries. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is one recent development that has brought us closer to fulfilling the age-old quest of non-invasive visualisation so that diagnoses by doctors can be efficiently enhanced. Nowadays, 3D CT and MRI images have been very popular. Thermography is an important medical imaging technique that displays the temperature distribution on the surface of a human organ and it has been proved to be significant in offering a unique physiological reflection of pathology that may confirm or enhance the anatomic findings of other diagnostic imaging modalities. It is the only imaging modality that can evaluate pain whereas plain radiographs, CT and MRI, etc. can only depict structural anatomic abnormalities that may not always coincide with patients' clinical complaints. It is against this background that 3D thermograms have been developed. A set of comprehensive calibration procedures for the 3-camera system have been designed based on different models for the optical and infrared cameras. The accuracy of the results is high enough to produce 3D thermograms that can be used to correlate with the 3D images from other medical imaging modalities. One important achievement of the system is that the resultant 3D images are absolutely dimensioned and hence, it is particularly favourable for fully autonomous applications with robots. The system can also provide an overall picture of both the structural abnormalities and nervous responses of patients.

  8. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1995-12-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations.

  9. Primary and Secondary Three Dimensional Microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, Nicolas

    Today's MEMS devices are limited more so by the batteries that supply their power than the fabrication methods used to build them. Thick battery electrodes are capable of providing adequate energy, but long and tortuous diffusion pathways lead to low power capabilities. On the other hand, thin film batteries can operate at significant current densities but require large surface areas to supply practical energy. This dilemma can be solved by either developing new high capacity materials or by engineering new battery designs that decouple power and energy. Three dimensional batteries redesign traditional configurations to create nonplanar interfaces between battery components. This can be done by introducing hierarchical structures into the electrode shape. Designs such as these provide a maximum surface area over which chemical reactions can occur. Furthermore, by maintaining small feature sizes, ion diffusion and electronic transport distances can remain minimal. Manipulating these properties ensures fast kinetics that are required for high power situations. Energy density is maximized by layering material in the vertical direction, thus ensuring a minimal footprint area. Three dimensional carbon electrodes are fabricated using basic MEMS techniques. A silicon mold is anisotropically etched to produce channels of a predetermined diameter. The channels are then filled using an infiltration technique with electrode slurry. Once dried, the mold is attached to a current collector and etched using a XeF2 process. Electrodes of varying feature sizes have been fabricated using this method with aspect ratios ranging from 3.5:1 to 7:1. 3D carbon electrodes are shown to obtain capacities over 8 mAh/cm2 at 0.1 mA/cm2, or nearly 700% higher than planar carbon electrodes. When assembled with a planar cathode, the battery cell produced an average discharge capacity of 40 J/cm 2 at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. This places the energy density values slightly less than thick

  10. Recommended approach to software development, revision 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Linda; Waligora, Sharon; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Stark, Mike; Johnson, Kevin Orlin; Cover, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines for an organized, disciplined approach to software development that is based on studies conducted by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) since 1976 are presented. It describes methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements definition and ends with acceptance testing. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and for the products produced and their reviews are presented.

  11. Manager's handbook for software development, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Methods and aids for the management of software development projects are presented. The recommendations are based on analyses and experiences of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) with flight dynamics software development. The management aspects of the following subjects are described: organizing the project, producing a development plan, estimating costs, scheduling, staffing, preparing deliverable documents, using management tools, monitoring the project, conducting reviews, auditing, testing, and certifying.

  12. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of falling liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Christopher; Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Salinas, Pablo; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    Falling liquid films down an inclined or vertical surface have rich wave dynamics, often occurring in many industrial applications, such as condensers, evaporators and chemical reactors. There are some numerical studies for falling liquid films, however most of them have focused on two-dimensional falling films or three-dimensional falling films in a periodic domain. The objective of this study is to investigate flow dynamics of fully developed three-dimensional falling films using the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with interface capturing approach. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is employed here to study this problem, which can modify and adapt unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of multiphase problems and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. Numerical examples of two-dimensional and three-dimensional falling films in a long domain with different flow conditions are presented and discussed. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).

  13. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  14. Software development: A paradigm for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1989-01-01

    A new paradigm for software development that treats software development as an experimental activity is presented. It provides built-in mechanisms for learning how to develop software better and reusing previous experience in the forms of knowledge, processes, and products. It uses models and measures to aid in the tasks of characterization, evaluation and motivation. An organization scheme is proposed for separating the project-specific focus from the organization's learning and reuse focuses of software development. The implications of this approach for corporations, research and education are discussed and some research activities currently underway at the University of Maryland that support this approach are presented.

  15. Simulation of Three-Dimensional Positive Photoresist Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barouch, E.; Bradie, B.; Babu, S. V.

    1989-12-01

    The least-action dissolution algorithm (LEAD) is applied to simulate three-dimensional positive photoresist images on reflective substrates. This algorithm avoids the ambiguities of the string algorithm and its modifications by utilizing the local validity of the eikonal description of the underlying diffusion equation to describe developer penetration with a moving boundary. The electric field and the concentration of the photoactive compound (PAC) within the photoresist film in the presence of standing waves in three dimensions are obtained from the numerically efficient WKB procedure proposed recently. The PAC concentration profile is combined with the LEAD algorithm to simulate a three dimensional one micron diameter contact hole in a single layer resist.

  16. Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.

  17. Three-dimensional external flow computations using prismatic grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahashi, Kazuhiro

    1992-12-01

    A new approach to compute external viscous flows around three dimensional configurations is proposed. A prismatic grid is used where the three dimensional surface is covered by triangles similar to the unstructured grid. The direction away from the body surface is structured so as to achieve efficient and accurate computations for high Reynolds number viscous flows. The prismatic grid is generated by a newly developed marching-type procedure in which grid spacings are controlled by a variational method. The capability of the method is demonstrated by applying it to a viscous flow computation around a complete aircraft configuration.

  18. Novel multipole Wien filter as three-dimensional spin manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yasue, T. Suzuki, M.; Koshikawa, T.; Tsuno, K.; Goto, S.; Arai, Y.

    2014-04-15

    Spin polarized electron beam is often used in material characterizations which relates to magnetism as well as in the high energy particle physics. The manipulation of the spin polarization toward the arbitrary direction is indispensable in such studies. In the present work, a novel multipole Wien filter is proposed as the three-dimensional spin manipulator, and a prototype 8-pole Wien filter is developed. It is applied to spin polarized low energy electron microscopy, and the variation of the magnetic contrast with managing the spin polarization is evaluated. It is confirmed that the novel multipole Wien filter can manipulate the spin polarization three-dimensionally.

  19. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-5: Three-Dimensional Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yodh, Arjun G.

    2008-01-01

    Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 5: Three-Dimensional Melt (BCAT-5-3DMelt) photographs initially randomized colloidal samples in microgravity to determine their resulting structure over time. BCAT-5-3D-Melt will allow the scientists to capture the kinetics (evolution) of their samples, as well as the final equilibrium state of each sample. BCAT-5-3D-Melt will look at the mechanisms of melting using three-dimensional temperature sensitive colloidal crystals. Results will help scientists develop fundamental physics concepts previously shadowed by the effects of gravity.

  20. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  1. Three-dimensional Printing in the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Wengerter, Brian C; Emre, Gulus; Park, Jea Young; Geibel, John

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal transplantation remains a life-saving option for patients with severe intestinal failure. With the advent of advanced tissue engineering techniques, great strides have been made toward manufacturing replacement tissues and organs, including the intestine, which aim to avoid transplant-related complications. The current paradigm is to seed a biocompatible support material (scaffold) with a desired cell population to generate viable replacement tissue. Although this technique has now been extended by the three-dimensional (3D) printing of geometrically complex scaffolds, the overall approach is hindered by relatively slow turnover and negative effects of residual scaffold material, which affects final clinical outcome. Methods recently developed for scaffold-free 3D bioprinting may overcome such obstacles and should allow for rapid manufacture and deployment of "bioprinted organs." Much work remains before 3D bioprinted tissues can enter clinical use. In this brief review we examine the present state and future perspectives of this nascent technology before full clinical implementation.

  2. Three-dimensional modelling of Venus photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenbach, Aurélien; Lefèvre, Franck; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Määttänen, Anni; Bekki, Slimane

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a new code of the Venus atmospheric chemistry based on our photochemical model already in use for Mars (e.g., Lefèvre et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2004). For Venus, the code also includes a parameterized treatment of cloud microphysics that computes the composition of sulphuric acid droplets and their number density based on a given droplet size distribution in altitude. We coupled this photochemical-microphysical package to the LMD general circulation model of Venus (Lebonnois et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2010) with a sedimentation module recently added. We will describe preliminary results obtained with this first three-dimensional model of the Venus photochemistry. The space and time distribution of key chemical species as well as the modelled clouds characteristics will be detailed and compared to observations performed from Venus Express and from the Earth (e.g. Knollenberg and Hunten, J. Geophys. Res., 1980 ; Wilquet et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009 ; Sandor et al., Icarus, 2012).

  3. Three-Dimensional Modelling of Venus Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenbach, A.; Lefèvre, F.; Lebonnois, S.; Maattanen, A. E.; Bekki, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a new code of the Venus atmospheric chemistry based on our photochemical model already in use for Mars (e.g., Lefèvre et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2004). For Venus, the code also includes a parameterized treatment of cloud microphysics that computes the composition of sulphuric acid droplets and their number density based on a given droplet size distribution in altitude and latitude. We coupled this photochemical-microphysical package to the LMD general circulation model of Venus (Lebonnois et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2010) with a sedimentation module that takes into account the parametrized droplet size distribution. We will describe the results obtained with this first three-dimensional model of the Venus photochemistry. The space and time distribution of key chemical species as well as the modelled clouds characteristics will be detailed and compared to observations performed from Venus Express and from the Earth (e.g. Knollenberg and Hunten, J. Geophys. Res., 1980 ; Wilquet et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009 ; Sandor et al., Icarus, 2012 ; Mahieux et al., PSS, 2014 ; Marcq et al., 2015, PSS).

  4. Three-dimensional modeling of tsunami waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional, time-dependent, nonlinear, incompressible, viscous flow calculations of realistic models of tsunami wave formation and run up have been performed using the Los Alamos-developed SOLA-3D code. The results of the SOLA calculations are compared with shallow-water, long-wave calculations for the same problems using the SWAN code. Tsunami wave formation by a continental slope subsidence has been examined using the two numerical models. The SOLA waves were slower than the SWAN waves and the interaction with the shoreline was more complicated for the SOLA waves. In the SOLA calculation, the first wave was generated by the cavity being filled along the shoreline close to the source of motion. The second wave was generated by the cavity being filled from the deep water end. The two waves interacted along the shoreline resulting in the second wave being the largest wave with a velocity greater than the first wave. The second wave overtook the first wave at later times and greater distances from the source. In the SWAN calculation, the second wave was smaller than the first wave. 6 refs.

  5. Two and three dimensional magnetotelluric inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical conductivity depends on properties such as the presence of ionic fluids in interconnected pores that are difficult to sense with other remote sensing techniques. Thus improved imaging of underground electrical structure has wide practical importance in exploring for groundwater, mineral and geothermal resources, and in assessing the diffusion of fluids in oil fields and waste sites. Because the electromagnetic inverse problem is fundamentally multi-dimensional, most imaging algorithms saturate available computer power long before they can deal with the complete data set. We have developed an algorithm to directly invert large multi-dimensional data sets that is orders of magnitude faster than competing methods. We have proven that a two-dimensional (2D) version of the algorithm is highly effective for real data and have made substantial progress towards a three-dimensional (3D) version. We are proposing to cure identified shortcomings and substantially expand the utility of the existing 2D program, overcome identified difficulties with extending our method to three-dimensions (3D) and embark on an investigation of related EM imaging techniques which may have the potential for even further increasing resolution.

  6. Three dimensional imaging with randomly distributed sensors.

    PubMed

    DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward A

    2008-04-28

    As a promising three dimensional passive imaging modality, Integral Imaging (II) has been investigated widely within the research community. In virtually all of such investigations, there is an implicit assumption that the collection of elemental images lie on a simple geometric surface (e.g. flat, concave, etc), also known as pickup surface. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for 3D II with arbitrary pickup surface geometry and randomly distributed sensor configuration. In particular, we will study the case of Synthetic Aperture Integral Imaging (SAII) with random location of cameras in space, while all cameras have parallel optical axes but different distances from the 3D scene. We assume that the sensors are randomly distributed in 3D volume of pick up space. For 3D reconstruction, a finite number of sensors with known coordinates are randomly selected from within this volume. The mathematical framework for 3D scene reconstruction is developed based on an affine transform representation of imaging under geometrical optics regime. We demonstrate the feasibility of the methods proposed here by experimental results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D imaging using randomly distributed sensors.

  7. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Young, Bruce K. F.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  8. Raising the Quality of Teaching in Public Schools of Pakistan: A Three Dimensional Analysis for Capacity Development of In-Service Teachers in Instructional Planning and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizwan, Sidra; Khan, Rehana Masrur

    2015-01-01

    In order to prepare the upcoming generation to handle the sophisticated skills required to contribute to a knowledge-based society, the teachers need to be more successful with the learners having varied needs and learning styles. Development of teachers on the basis of professional standards is part of a broader movement for the assurance of…

  9. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be construed as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  10. Topology of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.

  11. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be constrained as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  12. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  13. Software Development Life Cycle Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Daljit; Kaur, Parminder

    2011-12-01

    Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. The main cause is that software can't withstand security attacks because of vulnerabilities in it which are caused by defective specifications design and implementation. We have conducted a survey asking software developers, project managers and other people in software development about their security awareness and implementation in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The survey was open to participation for three weeks and this paper explains the survey results.

  14. Three-dimensional system dynamics simulation of rope-propelled automated people movers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nußbaumer, Christian; Schmidt, Lothar; Dietmaier, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a three-dimensional multibody system (MBS) for the dynamic simulation of rope-propelled automated people movers (RAPM). These public transport systems include guided vehicles which operate in a fully automated mode on a separate guideway. In design stage of an RAPM the optimisation of ride comfort and durability is aspired. Therefore, an elastic rope model has been implemented in a state-of-the-art MBS software. The coupling of the rope model with standard MBS elements allows for the integrated simulation of these transport systems which will enhance the prediction quality of the overall system dynamics.

  15. Changes in the dimension and volume of feline injection-site sarcomas following formalin fixation as determined by use of the ellipsoid volume formula and three-dimensional computed tomography software.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jesse L; Milovancev, Milan; Löhr, Christiane V; Nemanic, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in the dimension and volume of feline injection-site sarcomas (FISSs) before (in vivo) and after surgical excision and formalin fixation (ex vivo) as determined by measurements obtained from 2-D and 3-D CT images. SAMPLE 10 excised FISSs. PROCEDURES The maximum length, width, and depth of each FISS were measured on contrast-enhanced 2-D CT images of the tumor obtained in vivo and ex vivo. Those measurements were used to estimate tumor volume with the standard ellipsoid formula. Tumor volume was also calculated from 3-D CT images with software that used a volume-rendering algorithm. Student paired t tests were used for comparisons between the in vivo and ex vivo assessments. RESULTS Small decreases were detected in maximum tumor length, width, and depth between the in vivo and ex vivo assessments; however, tumor length was the only dimension that decreased significantly between the 2 assessments. Median tumor volume decreased significantly between the in vivo and ex vivo assessments regardless of the method used to estimate it. Tumor volume estimated by the ellipsoid formula was significantly lower than that estimated by the 3-D CT software at both assessments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that shrinkage of FISSs following excision and formalin fixation was small and may be less than that of grossly normal tissue. Tumor volume estimated by the ellipsoid formula was consistently less than that estimated by 3-D CT software and should not be used when accuracy of tumor volume is of particular concern and advanced CT imaging is available.

  16. Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.

  17. Three-dimensional displays and stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2011-08-07

    Procedures for three-dimensional image reconstruction that are based on the optical and neural apparatus of human stereoscopic vision have to be designed to work in conjunction with it. The principal methods of implementing stereo displays are described. Properties of the human visual system are outlined as they relate to depth discrimination capabilities and achieving optimal performance in stereo tasks. The concept of depth rendition is introduced to define the change in the parameters of three-dimensional configurations for cases in which the physical disposition of the stereo camera with respect to the viewed object differs from that of the observer's eyes.

  18. Fabrication of three dimensional microstructure fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ying; Ma, Jie; Chen, Zhe; Lu, Huihui; Zhong, Yongchun

    2015-05-01

    A method of fabricating three dimensional (3D) microstructured fiber is presented. Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were coated around the surface of a micro-fiber through isothermal heating evaporation induced self-assembly method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image shows that the colloidal crystal has continuous, uniform, and well-ordered face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, with [111] crystallographic direction normal to the surface of micro-fiber. This micro-fiber with three-dimensional photonic crystals structure is very useful in the applications of micro-fiber sensors or filters.

  19. Three-dimensional stochastic vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, R.; Pulvirenti, M.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known that the dynamics of point vortices approximate, under suitable limits, the two-dimensional Euler flow for an ideal fluid. To find particle models for three-dimensional flows is a more intricate problem. A stochastic version of the algorithm introduced by Beale amd Maida (1982) for simulating the behavior of a three-dimensional Euler flow is introduced here, and convergence to the Navier-Stokes (NS) flow in R exp 3 is shown. The result is based on a stochastic Lagrangian picture of the NS equations.

  20. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    13-1-0026 entitled "Three- Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics," Principal Investigator Dr. Ying-Tsong Lin. Sincerely, ;l1,J-Ju1𔃻 ~{hjM1...30/03/2016 01/01/2013-12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBERS Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics 5b, GRANT NUMBER N0001 4-13-1... Water Acoustics Dr. Ying-Tsong Lin Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543

  1. A toolbox for developing bioinformatics software

    PubMed Central

    Potrzebowski, Wojciech; Puton, Tomasz; Rother, Magdalena; Wywial, Ewa; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2012-01-01

    Creating useful software is a major activity of many scientists, including bioinformaticians. Nevertheless, software development in an academic setting is often unsystematic, which can lead to problems associated with maintenance and long-term availibility. Unfortunately, well-documented software development methodology is difficult to adopt, and technical measures that directly improve bioinformatic programming have not been described comprehensively. We have examined 22 software projects and have identified a set of practices for software development in an academic environment. We found them useful to plan a project, support the involvement of experts (e.g. experimentalists), and to promote higher quality and maintainability of the resulting programs. This article describes 12 techniques that facilitate a quick start into software engineering. We describe 3 of the 22 projects in detail and give many examples to illustrate the usage of particular techniques. We expect this toolbox to be useful for many bioinformatics programming projects and to the training of scientific programmers. PMID:21803787

  2. A toolbox for developing bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Rother, Kristian; Potrzebowski, Wojciech; Puton, Tomasz; Rother, Magdalena; Wywial, Ewa; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2012-03-01

    Creating useful software is a major activity of many scientists, including bioinformaticians. Nevertheless, software development in an academic setting is often unsystematic, which can lead to problems associated with maintenance and long-term availibility. Unfortunately, well-documented software development methodology is difficult to adopt, and technical measures that directly improve bioinformatic programming have not been described comprehensively. We have examined 22 software projects and have identified a set of practices for software development in an academic environment. We found them useful to plan a project, support the involvement of experts (e.g. experimentalists), and to promote higher quality and maintainability of the resulting programs. This article describes 12 techniques that facilitate a quick start into software engineering. We describe 3 of the 22 projects in detail and give many examples to illustrate the usage of particular techniques. We expect this toolbox to be useful for many bioinformatics programming projects and to the training of scientific programmers.

  3. View Factor Calculation for Three-Dimensional Geometries.

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-20

    Version 00 MCVIEW calculates the radiation geometric view factor between surfaces for three dimensional geometries with and without interposed third surface obstructions. It was developed to calculate view factors for input data to heat transfer analysis programs such as SCA-03/TRUMP, SCA-01/HEATING-5 and PSR-199/HEATING-6.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Object Orientation Detector Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Their Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Mohua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities to control their preferred environmental stimulation using a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed three-dimensional object orientation detection program (TDOODP, i.e. a new software program,…

  5. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  6. Developing the E-Scape Software System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Most innovations have contextual pre-cursors that prompt new ways of thinking and in their turn help to give form to the new reality. This was the case with the e-scape software development process. The origins of the system existed in software components and ideas that we had developed through previous projects, but the ultimate direction we took…

  7. Developing a Customized Teaching Assessment Software Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbrough, Mark; Stinson, Bill

    The goal of this project was to develop customized teaching analysis software that would accurately measure recorded teaching behaviors and communicate useful results quickly to the observed teacher with the goal of improving teacher performance. A computer software program, "The Evaluator," was developed that uses a Windows interface programmed…

  8. Development of a pneumatically driven active cover lid for multi-well microplates for use in perfusion three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chou, Dean; Chang, Yu-Han; Li, Ke-Cing; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Ventikos, Yiannis; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-12-16

    Before microfluidic-based cell culture models can be practically utilized for bioassays, there is a need for a transitional cell culture technique that can improve conventional cell culture models. To address this, a hybrid cell culture system integrating an active cover lid and a multi-well microplate was proposed to achieve perfusion 3-D cell culture. In this system, a microfluidic-based pneumatically-driven liquid transport mechanism was integrated into the active cover lid to realize 6-unit culture medium perfusion. Experimental results revealed that the flow of culture medium could be pneumatically driven in a flow-rate uniform manner. We used the system to successfully perform a perfusion 3-D cell culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for up to 16 days. Moreover, we investigated the effects of various cell culture models on the physiology of MSCs. The physiological nature of MSCs can vary with respect to the cell culture model used. Using the perfusion 3-D cell culture format might affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overall, we have developed a cell culture system that can achieve multi-well microplate-based perfusion 3-D cell culture in an efficient, cost-effective, and user-friendly manner. These features could facilitate the widespread application of perfusion cell culture models for cell-based assays.

  9. Development of a pneumatically driven active cover lid for multi-well microplates for use in perfusion three-dimensional cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chou, Dean; Chang, Yu-Han; Li, Ke-Cing; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Ventikos, Yiannis; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    Before microfluidic-based cell culture models can be practically utilized for bioassays, there is a need for a transitional cell culture technique that can improve conventional cell culture models. To address this, a hybrid cell culture system integrating an active cover lid and a multi-well microplate was proposed to achieve perfusion 3-D cell culture. In this system, a microfluidic-based pneumatically-driven liquid transport mechanism was integrated into the active cover lid to realize 6-unit culture medium perfusion. Experimental results revealed that the flow of culture medium could be pneumatically driven in a flow-rate uniform manner. We used the system to successfully perform a perfusion 3-D cell culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for up to 16 days. Moreover, we investigated the effects of various cell culture models on the physiology of MSCs. The physiological nature of MSCs can vary with respect to the cell culture model used. Using the perfusion 3-D cell culture format might affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overall, we have developed a cell culture system that can achieve multi-well microplate-based perfusion 3-D cell culture in an efficient, cost-effective, and user-friendly manner. These features could facilitate the widespread application of perfusion cell culture models for cell-based assays.

  10. Quantification of the three-dimensional morphology of coincidence detector neurons in the medial superior olive of gerbils during late postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Rautenberg, Philipp L; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2009-11-20

    In the mammalian medial superior olive (MSO), neurons compute the azimuthal location of sound sources by temporally precise coincidence detection. It is assumed that the dendritic morphology of MSO neurons plays a crucial role in this computational process. However, few quantitative data about the morphology of these neuronal coincidence detectors are available, limiting theoretical approaches. Such a quantitative morphological description of neurons of the mammalian MSO would also allow a comparative analysis with its avian analog, the nucleus laminaris. We used single-cell electroporation, microscopic reconstruction, and compartmentalization to extract anatomical parameters of MSO neurons and quantitatively describe their morphology and development between postnatal day 9 and 36. We found that developmental refinement occurs until P27, generating morphologically compact, cylinder-like cells with axons originating from the soma. The complexity of higher order dendrites decreases between postnatal days 9 and 21. This decrease in dendritic complexity is judged from counting and analyzing the location of dendritic branches and determining the distribution of the surface area and total length of neurons. During this developmental period, the average length of terminal branches increases about twofold, indicating an elimination of predominantly small branches. The cell volume increases more than 1.5-fold between P9 and P27, a change that can be attributed to an increase in dendritic diameter during this developmental period. The developmental profile of the morphology of MSO neurons obtained indicates that maturation is reached 2 weeks after hearing onset.

  11. A regional adaptive and assimilative three-dimensional ionospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Dario; Scotto, Carlo; Sgrigna, Vittorio

    2016-03-01

    A regional adaptive and assimilative three-dimensional (3D) ionospheric model is proposed. It is able to ingest real-time data from different ionosondes, providing the ionospheric bottomside plasma frequency fp over the Italian area. The model is constructed on the basis of empirical values for a set of ionospheric parameters Pi[base] over the considered region, some of which have an assigned variation ΔPi. The values for the ionospheric parameters actually observed at a given time at a given site will thus be Pi = Pi[base] + ΔPi. These Pi values are used as input for an electron density N(h) profiler. The latter is derived from the Advanced Ionospheric Profiler (AIP), which is software used by Autoscala as part of the process of automatic inversion of ionogram traces. The 3D model ingests ionosonde data by minimizing the root-mean-square deviation between the observed and modeled values of fp(h) profiles obtained from the associated N(h) values at the points where observations are available. The ΔPi values are obtained from this minimization procedure. The 3D model is tested using data collected at the ionospheric stations of Rome (41.8N, 12.5E) and Gibilmanna (37.9N, 14.0E), and then comparing the results against data from the ionospheric station of San Vito dei Normanni (40.6N, 18.0E). The software developed is able to produce maps of the critical frequencies foF2 and foF1, and of fp at a fixed altitude, with transverse and longitudinal cross-sections of the bottomside ionosphere in a color scale. fp(h) and associated simulated ordinary ionogram traces can easily be produced for any geographic location within the Italian region. fp values within the volume in question can also be provided.

  12. Workflow-Based Software Development Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    2013-01-01

    The Software Developer's Assistant (SDA) helps software teams more efficiently and accurately conduct or execute software processes associated with NASA mission-critical software. SDA is a process enactment platform that guides software teams through project-specific standards, processes, and procedures. Software projects are decomposed into all of their required process steps or tasks, and each task is assigned to project personnel. SDA orchestrates the performance of work required to complete all process tasks in the correct sequence. The software then notifies team members when they may begin work on their assigned tasks and provides the tools, instructions, reference materials, and supportive artifacts that allow users to compliantly perform the work. A combination of technology components captures and enacts any software process use to support the software lifecycle. It creates an adaptive workflow environment that can be modified as needed. SDA achieves software process automation through a Business Process Management (BPM) approach to managing the software lifecycle for mission-critical projects. It contains five main parts: TieFlow (workflow engine), Business Rules (rules to alter process flow), Common Repository (storage for project artifacts, versions, history, schedules, etc.), SOA (interface to allow internal, GFE, or COTS tools integration), and the Web Portal Interface (collaborative web environment

  13. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The Engineering and Technology Directorate (NE) at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is designing a new command and control system for the checkout and launch of Space Launch System (SLS) and future rockets. The purposes of the semester long internship as a remote application software developer include the design, development, integration, and verification of the software and hardware in the firing rooms, in particular with the Mobile Launcher (ML) Launch Accessories (LACC) subsystem. In addition, a software test verification procedure document was created to verify and checkout LACC software for Launch Equipment Test Facility (LETF) testing.

  14. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  15. Development of high refractive index poly(thiophene) for the fabrication of all organic three-dimensional photonic materials with a complete photonic band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew J.

    The field of photonics hopes to harness light to supercede in performance many of the functions carried out by electronics. To accomplish this, the flow of light can be controlled by means of a photonic band gap (PBG) the same way electronic band gaps can control the flow of electrons. PBGs, through the coherent backscattering of radiation, create frequency ranges in which light propagation is forbidden. A PBG is created when a wave propagates through a periodic array of materials with sufficient refractive index (n ) contrast (n1/n 2) where the dimensionality of the periodicity defines the dimensionality of the PBG. The n contrast required to open a PBG increases as the dimensionality increases. Currently, only inorganic materials have a sufficiently high n to open a complete 3-D PBG. The goal of this project is to fabricate a polymeric material with a complete 3-D PBG, to bring the tailorable physical, electrical, and optical properties of polymeric materials to 3-D PBG materials. The first step was to develop a polymer with a sufficiently high n. Because of its conjugated nature and the presence of a heavy sulfur atom in its repeat unit, poly(thiophene) (PT) is predicted to have one of the highest polymeric refractive indices with n = 3.9 at 700 nm1, but the reported n value for PT is 1.4 at 633 nm.2 This discrepancy is because the potential needed to electrosynthesize PT, the only method available to synthesize thick and high quality PT films, is higher than its degradation potential. It was found that by polymerizing thiophene with an optimized monomer concentration, proton trap concentration, and reaction temperature in a strong aprotic Lewis acid solvent, the polymerization potential could be reduced below the degradation potential of PT. The resultant PT film had a maximum n of 3.36, which is sufficiently high to open a 3-D PBG. Photonic templates were then constructed using a combination of Colvin's method3 with monodisperse spheres and mechanical

  16. 3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.M.; Ashby, E.

    1997-03-01

    Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools.

  17. Three-dimensional patterning methods and related devices

    DOEpatents

    Putnam, Morgan C.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-12-27

    Three-dimensional patterning methods of a three-dimensional microstructure, such as a semiconductor wire array, are described, in conjunction with etching and/or deposition steps to pattern the three-dimensional microstructure.

  18. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)

  19. Three-dimensional chiral photonic superlattices.

    PubMed

    Thiel, M; Fischer, H; von Freymann, G; Wegener, M

    2010-01-15

    We investigate three-dimensional photonic superlattices composed of polymeric helices in various spatial checkerboard-like arrangements. Depending on the relative phase shift and handedness of the chiral building blocks, different circular-dichroism resonances appear or are suppressed. Samples corresponding to four different configurations are fabricated by direct laser writing. The measured optical transmittance spectra are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  20. Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichert, Anke

    2001-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  1. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Three-dimensional RF structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. K.; Browman, M. J.; Weiland, T.

    1989-04-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described.

  3. Three dimensional reconnection in astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicer, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical issues related to three-dimensional reconnection and its application to the space and astrophysical environment are reviewed. Consideration is given to the meaning of reconnection in three dimensions, the way in which periodic and nonperiodic magnetic topologies alter the physics of reconnections, and the effects of chaotic magnetic fields on the reconnection process.

  4. [Three Dimensional Display in Nuclear Medicine].

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Satomi; Souma, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques to obtain a tomographic image in nuclear medicine such as PET and SPECT are widely used. It is necessary to interpreting all of the tomographic images obtained in order to accurately evaluate the individual lesion, whereas three dimensional display is often useful in order to overview and evaluate the feature of the entire lesion or disease such as the position, size and abnormal pattern. In Japan, the use of three dimensional image analysis workstation with an application of the co-registration and image fusion between the functional images such as PET or SPECT and anatomical images such as CT or MRI has been generalized. In addition, multimodality imaging system such as a PET/CT and SPECT/CT has been widespread. Therefore, it is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy using three dimensionally image fusion to functional images with poor anatomical information. In this commentary, as an example of a three dimensional display that are commonly used in nuclear medicine examination in Japan, brain regions, cardiac region and bone and tumor region will be introduced separately.

  5. Growing Three-Dimensional Cocultures Of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory process provides environmental conditions favoring simultaneous growth of cocultures of mammalian cells of more than one type. Cultures become three-dimensional tissuelike assemblies serving as organoid models of differentiation of cells. Process used, for example, to study growth of human colon cancers, starting from mixtures of normal colonic fibroblasts and partially differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  6. Three-Dimensional Pointers for Stereoscopic Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, H. J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Because class size often limits student opportunity to handle individual models, teachers use stereoscopic projections to demonstrate structural features. Describes three-dimensional pointers for use with different projection systems so teachers can indicate a particular atom or bond to entire classes, avoiding the perspective problems inherent in…

  7. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002

  8. Three-dimensional implicit lambda methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, M.; Dadone, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper derives the three dimensional lambda-formulation equations for a general orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system and provides various block-explicit and block-implicit methods for solving them, numerically. Three model problems, characterized by subsonic, supersonic and transonic flow conditions, are used to assess the reliability and compare the efficiency of the proposed methods.

  9. Developing Confidence Limits For Reliability Of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1991-01-01

    Technique developed for estimating reliability of software by use of Moranda geometric de-eutrophication model. Pivotal method enables straightforward construction of exact bounds with associated degree of statistical confidence about reliability of software. Confidence limits thus derived provide precise means of assessing quality of software. Limits take into account number of bugs found while testing and effects of sampling variation associated with random order of discovering bugs.

  10. Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-17

    applied on contracts for mission critical systems . This report provides a full lifecycle software development process standard. This version includes an...integration and test environments. 5.3 Updated requirements for system requirements analysis . v Issue Date Sections Changes 5.4 Updated...requirements for system architectural design. 5.5 Updated requirements for software requirements analysis . 5.6 Major update to software

  11. A view of software development environment issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, B.

    1985-01-01

    The unique and challenging nature of the Space Station Program requires that software standards be effectively used to control costs, facilitate enhancements and ensure safety. The Software Standards Panel identified and developed recommendations in four areas to help the Space Station Program achieve these objectives. The areas in which recommendations are offered are policy, organization, process and candidate software standards for the Space Station Program. The concensus process employed by the panel is given and recommendations are made.

  12. Three-dimensional graphic analysis for studies of neural disorders of movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Abhay; Poizner, Howard; Figel, Terry

    1992-06-01

    The analysis of human motion can be advanced by analyzing motion, not only numerically, but also graphically. We present a system for the three-dimensional graphical analysis of human motion. The system involves the integrated operation of an image acquisition unit, a robot arm for 3-D target presentation, an image reconstruction unit, graphic analysis, and animation software. A five degree of freedom robot arm is used to present single targets or target trajectories for subjects to track. All the locations are software generated based on mathematical formulation of the desired sectoring of space. Two optoelectronic cameras are used to directly sense the positions of the diodes. Three-dimensional trajectories of each point are computed from the two sets of 2-D images. The 3-D trajectories of the robot and of the subject are reconstructed and displayed on a Silicon Graphics Iris Workstation. A variety of programs display kinematic features of the hand and joint trajectories synchronized with reconstructed images of the three-dimensional trajectory paths of individual limb segments. The user has real-time interactive control over the viewing angle, size, and screen position of the limb trajectories. Image representing all 3-D target and finger positions and scatterplots of target and finger distance, azimuth, and elevation from the shoulder can also be presented. Finally, software was developed to display the reconstructed motion of the arm by representing the various segments of the arm as surfaced cylinders. Effects of light source, shading and shadowing are used for calculations of brightness over the surface of the various cylinders. The end points of each cylinder are determined by the 3-D locations of infrared diodes which were attached to the subject's limb segments. The arm is animated to reproduce the velocity patterns inherent in the digital trajectory records. There are various interactive options for viewing the moving image of the arm together with

  13. Three-dimensional shallow water system: A relaxation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Infante Sedano, Julio Ángel; Kurganov, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    We study a three-dimensional shallow water system, which is obtained from the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations after Reynolds averaging and under the simplifying hydrostatic pressure assumption. Since the three-dimensional shallow water system is generically not hyperbolic, it cannot be numerically solved using hyperbolic shock capturing schemes. At the same time, existing simple finite-difference and finite-volume methods may fail in simulations of unsteady flows with sharp gradients, such as dam-break and flood flows. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel numerical method, which is based on a relaxation approach utilized to "hyperbolize" the three-dimensional shallow water system. The extended relaxation system is hyperbolic and we develop a second-order semi-discrete central-upwind scheme for it. The proposed numerical method can preserve "lake at rest" steady states and positivity of water depth over irregular bottom topography. The accuracy, stability and robustness of the developed numerical method is verified on five numerical experiments.

  14. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  15. Educational Software--New Guidelines for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Patricia Cohen

    1984-01-01

    Discusses standards developed by the Educational Computer Service of the National Education Association that incorporate technical, educational, and documentation components to guide authors in the development of quality educational software. (Author/MBR)

  16. Towards Archetypes-Based Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piho, Gunnar; Roost, Mart; Perkins, David; Tepandi, Jaak

    We present a framework for the archetypes based engineering of domains, requirements and software (Archetypes-Based Software Development, ABD). An archetype is defined as a primordial object that occurs consistently and universally in business domains and in business software systems. An archetype pattern is a collaboration of archetypes. Archetypes and archetype patterns are used to capture conceptual information into domain specific models that are utilized by ABD. The focus of ABD is on software factories - family-based development artefacts (domain specific languages, patterns, frameworks, tools, micro processes, and others) that can be used to build the family members. We demonstrate the usage of ABD for developing laboratory information management system (LIMS) software for the Clinical and Biomedical Proteomics Group, at the Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds.

  17. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  18. Interactive Programming Support for Secure Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities originating from insecure code are one of the leading causes of security problems people face today. Unfortunately, many software developers have not been adequately trained in writing secure programs that are resistant from attacks violating program confidentiality, integrity, and availability, a style of programming…

  19. Issues in Software Development in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Thomas T.

    Noting the increase in the number of teachers developing computer software for composition instruction, this paper explores the issues that are shaping the direction of computer assistance in writing instruction. The first half of the paper deals with specific questions teachers must consider as they design software. These are divided into…

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Fenster, A; Lee, D; Sherebrin, S; Rankin, R; Downey, D

    1998-02-01

    With conventional ultrasonography, the diagnostician must view a series of two-dimensional images in order to form a mental impression of the three-dimensional anatomy, an efficient and time consuming practice prone to operator variability, which may cause variable or even incorrect diagnoses. Also, a conventional two-dimensional ultrasound image represents a thin slice of the patients anatomy at a single location and orientation, which is difficult to reproduce at a later time. These factors make conventional ultrasonography non-optimal for prospective or follow-up studies. Our efforts have focused on overcoming these deficiencies by developing three-dimensional ultrasound imaging techniques that are capable of acquiring B-mode, colour Doppler and power Doppler images of the vasculature, by using a conventional ultrasound system to acquire a series of two-dimensional images and then mathematically reconstructing them into a single three-dimensional image, which may then be viewed interactively on an inexpensive desktop computer. We report here on two approaches: (1) free-hand scanning, in which a magnetic positioning device is attached to the ultrasound transducer to record the position and orientation of each two-dimensional image needed for the three-dimensional image reconstruction; and (2) mechanical scanning, in which a motor-driven assembly is used to translate the transducer linearly across the neck, yielding a set of uniformly-spaced parallel two-dimensional images.

  1. Three dimensional audio versus head down TCAS displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Pittman, Marc T.

    1994-01-01

    The advantage of a head up auditory display was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: Standard head down traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) display, and three-dimensional (3-D) audio TCAS presentation. Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft which activated a 3-D aural advisory or a TCAS advisory. Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio TCAS condition by 500 ms.

  2. Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design of a Vertical Winnower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Lin, Saijia; Weng, Lijie

    The research states home and abroad of the winnowing technology and winnowers are reviewed in brief. For the air duct, the core component of the winnower, the relevant technical parameters in the winnowing process are calculated based on the winnowing principle. The three-dimensional computer aided design (3D-CAD) software Solidworks is applied. The designed vertical winnower is able to separate different raw materials by adjusting the air speed and has been put into practical production to separate the Chinese traditional medicine with high separating effect.

  3. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Mud Turbine for LWD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaojiang; Dong, Jingxin; Shang, Jie; Zhang, Guanqi

    Hydraulic performance analysis was discussed for a type of turbine on generator used for LWD. The simulation models were built by CFD analysis software FINE/Turbo, and full three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for impeller group. The hydraulic parameter such as power, speed and pressure drop, were calculated in two kinds of medium water and mud. Experiment was built in water environment. The error of numerical simulation was less than 6%, verified by experiment. Based on this rationalization proposals would be given to choice appropriate impellers, and the rationalization of methods would be explored.

  4. Separation behavior of boundary layers on three-dimensional wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    An inverse boundary layer procedure for calculating separated, turbulent boundary layers at infinitely long, crabbing wing was developed. The procedure was developed for calculating three dimensional, incompressible turbulent boundary layers was expanded to adiabatic, compressible flows. Example calculations with transsonic wings were made including viscose effects. In this case an approximated calculation method described for areas of separated, turbulent boundary layers, permitting calculation of this displacement thickness. The laminar boundary layer development was calculated with inclined ellipsoids.

  5. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of indium phosphide Point-Contact Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ralph O.

    1992-01-01

    The Point-Contact Solar Cell (PCSC) geometry has proven very effective for silicon cells. To date, it has not been implemented in III-V materials. In addition, modeling such a geometry is very difficult because of its three-dimensional nature. We have developed a three-dimensional finite element modeling code (FIESTA ROC). In this paper, we present results from a three-dimensional modeling study of InP point-contact solar cells.

  6. A practical implementation of turbulence models for the computation of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, Yves P.

    1991-01-01

    An upwind MUSCL-type implicit scheme for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is presented and details on the implementation for three-dimensional flows of a 'diagonal' upwind implicit operator are developed. Turbulence models for separated flows are also described with an emphasis on the numerical specificities of the Johnson-King nonequilibrium model. Good predictions of separated two- and three-dimensional flows are demonstrated.

  7. Calculation of laminar heating rates on three-dimensional configurations using the axisymmetric analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. H., II

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical method was developed for computing approximate laminar heating rates on three dimensional configurations at angle of attack. The method is based on the axisymmetric analogue which is used to reduce the three dimensional boundary layer equations along surface streamlines to an equivalent axisymmetric form by using the metric coefficient which describes streamline divergence (or convergence). The method was coupled with a three dimensional inviscid flow field program for computing surface streamline paths, metric coefficients, and boundary layer edge conditions.

  8. Three-dimensional dynamic response analysis of earth dams

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the present work has been to develop numerical techniques for the three-dimensional dynamic analysis of earth and rockfill dams and to study the dynamic behavior of embankment dams in three dimensions. A computer program suitable for the three-dimensional dynamic response analysis of earth dams was used to back-calculate the dynamic material properties of Oroville Dam from the recorded response of the dam to the August 1, 1975 Oroville earthquake. The dynamic response characteristics of earth dams which exhibit considerable three-dimensional behavior have been studied and the applicability of two-dimensional analysis to the computation of the dynamic response of such structures has been evaluated. Additionally, the effects that the degree of discretization in the cross-valley direction has on the computed three-dimensional dynamic response of earth dams have been studied. A K/sub 2/max value of 170 was found to be representative of the in-situ dynamic characteristics of the Oroville gravels. The three-dimensional effects of canyon geometry on the dynamic response of dams in triangular canyons were found to depend on the crest length to height ratio, L/H, of the dam. For dams with L/H greater than 7, these effects are small. The dynamic characteristics of these dams can, therefore, be simulated reasonably well using two-dimensional analyses. However, 2-D analyses cannot simulate correctly the dynamic response of dams in narrower canyons since the effects of canyon geometry for these dams are very pronounced.

  9. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  10. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  12. Bootstrapping the Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model.

    PubMed

    Bobev, Nikolay; El-Showk, Sheer; Mazáč, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F

    2015-07-31

    We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three dimensional conformal field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the operator product expansion of a chiral and an antichiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory, as well as the stress-tensor two-point function. We find that the latter is in an excellent agreement with an exact computation.

  13. Three-dimensional effects on airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of boundary layer flows along the walls of wind tunnels were studied to validate the transfer of two dimensional calculations to three dimensional transonic flowfield calculations. Results from trials in various wind tunnels were examind to determine the effects of the wall boundary flow on the control surfaces of an airfoil. Models sliding along a groove in the wall of a channel at sub- and transonic speeds were examined, with the finding that with either nonuniformities in the groove, or even if the channel walls are uniform, the lateral boundary layer can cause variations in the central flow region or alter the onset of shock at the transition point. Models for the effects in both turbulence and in the absence of turbulence are formulated, and it is noted that the characteristics of individual wind tunnels must be studied to quantify any existing three dimensional effects.

  14. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-09-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  15. Three-dimensional metallic boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2013-12-04

    Boron nitride (BN) and carbon are chemical analogues of each other and share similar structures such as one-dimensional nanotubes, two-dimensional nanosheets characterized by sp(2) bonding, and three-dimensional diamond structures characterized by sp(3) bonding. However, unlike carbon which can be metallic in one, two, and three dimensions, BN is an insulator, irrespective of its structure and dimensionality. On the basis of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, we propose a tetragonal phase of BN which is both dynamically stable and metallic. Analysis of its band structure, density of states, and electron localization function confirms the origin of the metallic behavior to be due to the delocalized B 2p electrons. The metallicity exhibited in the studied three-dimensional BN structures can lead to materials beyond conventional ceramics as well as to materials with potential for applications in electronic devices.

  16. Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeade, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.

  17. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper.

  18. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  19. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions.

  20. Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  1. Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  2. Real Imagery as a Three Dimensional Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    under two categories--stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays. The difference between these two displays is that autostereoscopic displays do not...require the use of special viewing glasses whereas stereoscopic displays do. In order to place a minimum incumbrance on the viewer, the autostereoscopic ...fooled into believing that the scene is three dimensional. This is accomplished even though the second view that normally comes with an autostereoscopic

  3. Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scano, A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.

  4. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  5. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2006-09-26

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  6. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA

    2001-10-02

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  7. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.; York, Jeremy

    2009-06-30

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  8. Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2003-06-24

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  9. Three Dimensional Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    to upsample the projection data in order to get sufficient image quality. Working within these memory constraints, three-dimensional images were... metallic film on the windscreen in order to block reflections from the cockpit. Photographs and scale drawings of the model are shown in Figures 11 and...as well as spurious responses in the final image. Theoretically, sufficient resolution should have been available without upsampling the original data

  10. Method and apparatus for three dimensional braiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A machine for three-dimensional braiding of fibers is provided in which carrier members travel on a curved, segmented and movable braiding surface. The carrier members are capable of independent, self-propelled motion along the braiding surface. Carrier member position on the braiding surface is controlled and monitored by computer. Also disclosed is a yarn take-up device capable of maintaining tension in the braiding fiber.

  11. Method and apparatus for three dimensional braiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A machine for three-dimensional braiding of fibers is provided in which carrier members travel on a curved, segmented and movable braiding surface. The carrier members are capable of independent, self-propelled motion along the braiding surface. Carrier member position on the braiding surface is controlled and monitored by computer. Also disclosed is a yarn take-up device capable of maintaining tension in the braiding fiber.

  12. Three-Dimensional (3D) Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-11

    witnessed by ongoing efforts in both Afghanistan and Iraq , must turn distribution challenges into opportunities by mastering Three-Dimensional (3D...sustainment. 5 Joint Logistics Functions •Supply •Services •Maintenance •Transportation • Health Service Support •General Engineering Joint Personnel...Maintenance •Transportation • Health Service Support •Explosive Ordinance Disposal •Human Resource Support •Legal Support •Religious Support •Financial

  13. Lossless compression for three-dimensional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Pearlman, William A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate and compare the performance of several three-dimensional (3D) embedded wavelet algorithms on lossless 3D image compression. The algorithms are Asymmetric Tree Three-Dimensional Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (AT-3DSPIHT), Three-Dimensional Set Partitioned Embedded bloCK (3D-SPECK), Three-Dimensional Context-Based Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet coefficients (3D-CB-EZW), and JPEG2000 Part II for multi-component images. Two kinds of images are investigated in our study -- 8-bit CT and MR medical images and 16-bit AVIRIS hyperspectral images. First, the performances by using different size of coding units are compared. It shows that increasing the size of coding unit improves the performance somewhat. Second, the performances by using different integer wavelet transforms are compared for AT-3DSPIHT, 3D-SPECK and 3D-CB-EZW. None of the considered filters always performs the best for all data sets and algorithms. At last, we compare the different lossless compression algorithms by applying integer wavelet transform on the entire image volumes. For 8-bit medical image volumes, AT-3DSPIHT performs the best almost all the time, achieving average of 12% decreases in file size compared with JPEG2000 multi-component, the second performer. For 16-bit hyperspectral images, AT-3DSPIHT always performs the best, yielding average 5.8% and 8.9% decreases in file size compared with 3D-SPECK and JPEG2000 multi-component, respectively. Two 2D compression algorithms, JPEG2000 and UNIX zip, are also included for reference, and all 3D algorithms perform much better than 2D algorithms.

  14. Three-dimensional magnetic field annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, M.; Allen, H. R.; Grundy, R. E.

    1993-11-01

    We present a family of three-dimensional nonlinear solutions for magnetic field annihilation in a current sheet, including the effects of resistivity and viscosity. The different members of the family are characterized by the imposed vorticity of the flow that brings the field lines together. Since in a three- dimensional flow the vorticity can be increased by the stretching of vortex lines (an effect that is absent in two dimensions), we find some striking differences to our previous two-dimensional analysis. In both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses, above a certain critical imposed vorticity omegacrit, the flow breaks up into cells with current sheet is completely altered. In the two-dimensional analysis, omegacrit is a steeply increasing function of the viscous Reynolds number R, whereas in the three-dimensional case, it quickly asymptotes to only omegacrit = 2v0/L where v0 and L are the characteristic velocity and length scale of the flow, respectively. The width of the current sheet, which depends on the speed at which field lines are carried into it, also responds differently to an increase in R. In two dimensions, the current sheet narrows for all vorticities, but three dimensions, it narrows when the imposed vorticity is negative and widens when it is positive. Also we find that the current density within the current sheet varies as the nature of the flow is changed, rather than being constant as in the the two-dimensional case. Finally, we find that there is a minimum value of the plasma beta betamin below which the plasma pressure is negative. For the nonsheared (neutral current sheet) case, betamin increases rapidly with the magnetic Reynolds number Rm such that this type of annihilation is only possible for a high-beta plasma. For a sheared magnetic field, however, betamin is much lower, making this type of annihilation more relevant to the sonar corona.

  15. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics Dr. Ying...model to predict acoustic fluctuations and derive sound pressure sensitivity kernels due to 3-D sound speed perturbation in the water column. The...numerical method to be utilized is a tangent linear solution to predict acoustic fluctuations due to 3-D sound speed perturbation in the water column. This

  16. Extension of a three-dimensional viscous wing flow analysis user's manual: VISTA 3-D code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Bernard C.; Chen, Shyi-Yaung; Thoren, Stephen J.; Shamroth, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    Three-dimensional unsteady viscous effects can significantly influence the performance of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. These effects are important in both flows about helicopter rotors in forward flight and flows about three-dimensional (swept and tapered) supercritical wings. A computational procedure for calculating such flow field was developed. The procedure is based upon an alternating direction technique employing the Linearized Block Implicit method for solving three-dimensional viscous flow problems. In order to demonstrate the viability of this method, two- and three-dimensional problems are computed. These include the flow over a two-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil under steady and oscillating conditions, and the steady, skewed, three-dimensional flow on a flat plate. Although actual three-dimensional flows over wings were not obtained, the ground work was laid for considering such flows. In this report a description of the computer code is given.

  17. Concept Development for Software Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

  18. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  19. Three-dimensional printing of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Barbara; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Martin, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal. Recent findings It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made. Summary Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing. PMID:27045545

  20. Reconfigurable, braced, three-dimensional DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Russell P; Heilemann, Mike; Doose, Sören; Erben, Christoph M; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2008-02-01

    DNA nanotechnology makes use of the exquisite self-recognition of DNA in order to build on a molecular scale. Although static structures may find applications in structural biology and computer science, many applications in nanomedicine and nanorobotics require the additional capacity for controlled three-dimensional movement. DNA architectures can span three dimensions and DNA devices are capable of movement, but active control of well-defined three-dimensional structures has not been achieved. We demonstrate the operation of reconfigurable DNA tetrahedra whose shapes change precisely and reversibly in response to specific molecular signals. Shape changes are confirmed by gel electrophoresis and by bulk and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. DNA tetrahedra are natural building blocks for three-dimensional construction; they may be synthesized rapidly with high yield of a single stereoisomer, and their triangulated architecture conveys structural stability. The introduction of shape-changing structural modules opens new avenues for the manipulation of matter on the nanometre scale.

  1. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  2. Theoretical Basis for CTABS80: A Computer Program for Three-Dimensional Analysis of Building Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    other enhanced versions such as XTABS and TABS77. The computer program ETABS (15) was released in 1975. The program allows three-dimensional frame...34A Program for Three-Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis of Multi- story Buildings," Structural Mechanics Software Series, Vol. II, University...Conference of Building Officials "Uniform Building Code," Whittier, California, 1979. 15. Wilson, E.L., Hollings, J.P., Dovey, H.H. " ETABS , Three

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of oxidized-LDL accumulation and HDL mass transport in a coronary artery: a proof-of-concept study for predicting the region of atherosclerotic plaque development.

    PubMed

    Sakellarios, Antonis I; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Athanasiou, Lambros S; Exarchos, Themis P; Papafaklis, Michail I; Bourantas, Christos V; Naka, Katerina K; Michalis, Lampros K; Filipovic, Nenad; Parodi, Oberdan; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) has a significant role on the atherosclerotic plaque development, while the concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDL) is considered to play an atheroprotective role according to several biochemical mechanisms. In this work, it is the first time that both LDL and HDL concentrations are taken into account in order to predict the regions prone for plaque development. Our modeling approach is based on the use of a realistic three-dimensional reconstructed pig coronary artery in two time points. Biochemical data measured in the pig were also included in order to develop a more customized model. We modeled coronary blood flow by solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the arterial lumen and plasma filtration in the arterial wall using Darcy's Law. HDL transport was modeled only in the arterial lumen using the convection-diffusion equation, while LDL transport was modeled both in the lumen and the arterial wall. An additional novelty of this work is that we model the oxidation of LDL taking into account the atheroprotective role of HDL. The results of our model were in good agreement with histological findings demonstrating that increased oxidized LDL is found near regions of advanced plaques, while non-oxidized LDL is found in regions of early plaque types.

  4. ADCIRC: An advanced three-dimensional circulation model for shelves, coasts, and estuaries. Report 3. Development of a tidal constituent database for the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Westerink, J.J.; Luettich, R.A.; Scheffner, N.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes the application of model ADCIRC-2DDI, a two-dimensional, depth-integrated, finite-element-based hydrodynamic circulation code, to the western North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea in order to develop a tidal constituent database. Issues that are emphasized in the development of the Western North Atlantic Tidal (WNAT) model include the definition of hydrodynamically simple open ocean boundaries; the use of large domains; the importance of a high degree of grid resolution in coastal regions; and the use of finite element meshes with highly varying nodal densities in order to minimize the size of the discrete problem. The development of an optimal graded finite element mesh is based on regular and graded grid convergence studies using an M2 tidal forcing function on the boundary and within the domain. The optimal graded mesh is then forced for eight diurnal and semidiurnal astronomical tidal constituents (K1, O1, PI, Ql, M2, S2, N2, and K2) on the open ocean boundary by coupling to Schwiderski's (1979; 1981 a-g) global model results as well as within the interior domain using a tidal potential forcing function. The structure of the various tides is examined and results are compared to field data at 77 stations.... Bottom stress, Finite element method, Three-dimensional model, Circulation model, Hydrodynamic model, Two-dimensional model, Direct stress solution, Numerical model.

  5. Software Developed for Analyzing High- Speed Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    2005-01-01

    COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball & Roller Bearing Analysis--Advanced High Speed, J.V. Poplawski & Associates, Bethlehem, PA) is used for the design and analysis of rolling element bearings operating at high speeds under complex mechanical and thermal loading. The code estimates bearing fatigue life by calculating three-dimensional subsurface stress fields developed within the bearing raceways. It provides a state-of-the-art interactive design environment for bearing engineers within a single easy-to-use design-analysis package. The code analyzes flexible or rigid shaft systems containing up to five bearings acted upon by radial, thrust, and moment loads in 5 degrees of freedom. Bearing types include high-speed ball, cylindrical roller, and tapered roller bearings. COBRA-AHS is the first major upgrade in 30 years of such commercially available bearing software. The upgrade was developed under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the NASA Glenn Research Center, and incorporates the results of 30 years of NASA and industry bearing research and technology.

  6. Accuracy of three-dimensional printing for manufacturing replica teeth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keun-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a recent technological development that may play a significant role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment. It can be used to fabricate skull models or study models, as well as to make replica teeth in autotransplantation or tooth impaction cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fabrication of replica teeth made by two types of 3D printing technologies. Methods Fifty extracted molar teeth were selected as samples. They were scanned to generate high-resolution 3D surface model stereolithography files. These files were converted into physical models using two types of 3D printing technologies: Fused deposition modeling (FDM) and PolyJet technology. All replica teeth were scanned and 3D images generated. Computer software compared the replica teeth to the original teeth with linear measurements, volumetric measurements, and mean deviation measurements with best-fit alignment. Paired t-tests were used to statistically analyze the measurements. Results Most measurements of teeth formed using FDM tended to be slightly smaller, while those of the PolyJet replicas tended to be slightly larger, than those of the extracted teeth. Mean deviation measurements with best-fit alignment of FDM and PolyJet group were 0.047 mm and 0.038 mm, respectively. Although there were statistically significant differences, they were regarded as clinically insignificant. Conclusions This study confirms that FDM and PolyJet technologies are accurate enough to be usable in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26445716

  7. Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional turbomachinery flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Research was performed in the general area of computational aerodynamics, with particular emphasis on the development of efficient techniques for the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for transonic flows through the complex blade passages associated with turbomachines. In particular, multigrid methods were developed, using both explicit and implicit time-stepping schemes as smoothing algorithms. The specific accomplishments of the research have included: (1) the development of an explicit multigrid method to solve the Euler equations for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows based upon the multigrid implementation of Jameson's explicit Runge-Kutta scheme (Jameson 1983); (2) the development of an implicit multigrid scheme for the three-dimensional Euler equations based upon lower-upper factorization; (3) the development of a multigrid scheme using a diagonalized alternating direction implicit (ADI) algorithm; (4) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid method to solve the Euler equations of inviscid flow for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows; and also (5) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid scheme to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional turbomachinery flows.

  8. Automated computer software development standards enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, H.P.; Formento, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Uniform Development Environment (UDE) is being investigated as a means of enforcing software engineering standards. For the programmer, it provides an environment containing the tools and utilities necessary for orderly and controlled development and maintenance of code according to requirements. In addition, it provides DoD management and developer management the tools needed for all phases of software life cycle management and control, from project planning and management, to code development, configuration management, version control, and change control. This paper reports the status of UDE development and field testing. 5 refs.

  9. In vitro development of bovine secondary follicles in two- and three-dimensional culture systems using vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Araújo, V R; Gastal, M O; Wischral, A; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and estradiol production of isolated bovine secondary follicles in two-dimensional (2D, experiment 1) and three-dimensional (3D using alginate, experiment 2) long-term culture systems in the absence (control group; only α-MEM(+)) or presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1, or GH alone, or a combination of all. A total of 363 isolated secondary follicles were cultured individually for 32 days at 38.5 °C in 5% CO2 in a humidified incubator with addition of medium (5 μL) every other day. In 2D culture system, follicular growth and antrum formation rates were higher (P < 0.05) in VEGF treatment compared with the other treatments. In 3D culture system, only estradiol concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in the GH than in the control group, whereas the other end points were similar (P > 0.05). In summary, this study demonstrated that the benefits of using a certain type of medium supplement depended on the culture system (2D vs. 3D). Vascular endothelial growth factor was an effective supplement for the in vitro culture of bovine secondary follicles when the 2D culture system was used, whereas GH only affected estradiol production using the 3D culture system. This study sheds light on advancements in methodology to facilitate subsequent studies on bovine preantral follicle development.

  10. Development of a Three-Dimensional Heat-Transfer Model for the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process Using the Finite Element Method Coupled with a Genetic Algorithm Based Identification of Uncertain Input Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, S.; de, A.

    2008-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the temperature field in weld pool and its surrounding area is important for a priori determination of the weld-pool dimensions and the weld thermal cycles. A finite element based three-dimensional (3-D) quasi-steady heat-transfer model is developed in the present work to compute temperature field in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. The numerical model considers temperature-dependent material properties and latent heat of melting and solidification. A novelty of the numerical model is that the welding heat source is considered in the form of an adaptive volumetric heat source that confirms to the size and the shape of the weld pool. The need to predefine the dimensions of the volumetric heat source is thus overcome. The numerical model is further integrated with a parent-centric recombination (PCX) operated generalized generation gap (G3) model based genetic algorithm to identify the magnitudes of process efficiency and arc radius that are usually unknown but required for the accurate estimation of the net heat input into the workpiece. The complete numerical model and the genetic algorithm based optimization code are developed indigenously using an Intel Fortran Compiler. The integrated model is validated further with a number of experimentally measured weld dimensions in GTA-welded samples in stainless steels.

  11. Numerical Simulation on Hydromechanical Coupling in Porous Media Adopting Three-Dimensional Pore-Scale Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianjun; Song, Rui; Cui, Mengmeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach of simulating hydromechanical coupling in pore-scale models of porous media is presented in this paper. Parameters of the sandstone samples, such as the stress-strain curve, Poisson's ratio, and permeability under different pore pressure and confining pressure, are tested in laboratory scale. The micro-CT scanner is employed to scan the samples for three-dimensional images, as input to construct the model. Accordingly, four physical models possessing the same pore and rock matrix characteristics as the natural sandstones are developed. Based on the micro-CT images, the three-dimensional finite element models of both rock matrix and pore space are established by MIMICS and ICEM software platform. Navier-Stokes equation and elastic constitutive equation are used as the mathematical model for simulation. A hydromechanical coupling analysis in pore-scale finite element model of porous media is simulated by ANSYS and CFX software. Hereby, permeability of sandstone samples under different pore pressure and confining pressure has been predicted. The simulation results agree well with the benchmark data. Through reproducing its stress state underground, the prediction accuracy of the porous rock permeability in pore-scale simulation is promoted. Consequently, the effects of pore pressure and confining pressure on permeability are revealed from the microscopic view. PMID:24955384

  12. Confocal Laser Microscope Scanning Applied To Three-Dimensional Studies Of Biological Specimens.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franksson, Olof; Liljeborg, Anders; Carlsson, Kjell; Forsgren, Per-Ola

    1987-08-01

    The depth-discriminating property of confocal laser microscope scanners can be used to record the three-dimensional structure of specimens. A number of thin sections (approx. 1 μm thick) can be recorded by a repeated process of image scanning and refocusing of the microscope. We have used a confocal microscope scanner in a number of feasibility studies to investigate its possibilities and limitations. It has proved to be well suited for examining fluorescent specimens with a complicated three-dimensional structure, such as nerve cells. It has also been used to study orchid seeds, as well as cell colonies, greatly facilitating evaluation of such specimens. Scanning of the specimens is performed by a focused laser beam that is deflected by rotating mirrors, and the reflected or fluorescent light from the specimen is detected. The specimen thus remains stationary during image scanning, and is only moved stepwise in the vertical direction for refocusing between successive sections. The scanned images consist of 256*256 or 512*512 pixels, each pixel containing 8 bits of data. After a scanning session a large number of digital images, representing consecutive sections of the specimen, are stored on a disk memory. In a typical case 200 such 256*256 images are stored. To display and process this information in a meaningful way requires both appropriate software and a powerful computer. The computer used is a 32-bits minicomputer equipped with an array processor (FPS 100). The necessary software was developed at our department.

  13. Numerical simulation on hydromechanical coupling in porous media adopting three-dimensional pore-scale model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianjun; Song, Rui; Cui, Mengmeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach of simulating hydromechanical coupling in pore-scale models of porous media is presented in this paper. Parameters of the sandstone samples, such as the stress-strain curve, Poisson's ratio, and permeability under different pore pressure and confining pressure, are tested in laboratory scale. The micro-CT scanner is employed to scan the samples for three-dimensional images, as input to construct the model. Accordingly, four physical models possessing the same pore and rock matrix characteristics as the natural sandstones are developed. Based on the micro-CT images, the three-dimensional finite element models of both rock matrix and pore space are established by MIMICS and ICEM software platform. Navier-Stokes equation and elastic constitutive equation are used as the mathematical model for simulation. A hydromechanical coupling analysis in pore-scale finite element model of porous media is simulated by ANSYS and CFX software. Hereby, permeability of sandstone samples under different pore pressure and confining pressure has been predicted. The simulation results agree well with the benchmark data. Through reproducing its stress state underground, the prediction accuracy of the porous rock permeability in pore-scale simulation is promoted. Consequently, the effects of pore pressure and confining pressure on permeability are revealed from the microscopic view.

  14. Creating Two-Dimensional Nets of Three-Dimensional Shapes Using "Geometer's Sketchpad"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maida, Paula

    2005-01-01

    This article is about a computer lab project in which prospective teachers used Geometer's Sketchpad software to create two-dimensional nets for three-dimensional shapes. Since this software package does not contain ready-made tools for creating non-regular or regular polygons, the students used prior knowledge and geometric facts to create their…

  15. Image analysis library software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Bryant, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Image Analysis Library consists of a collection of general purpose mathematical/statistical routines and special purpose data analysis/pattern recognition routines basic to the development of image analysis techniques for support of current and future Earth Resources Programs. Work was done to provide a collection of computer routines and associated documentation which form a part of the Image Analysis Library.

  16. A preliminary report of designing removable partial denture frameworks using a specifically developed software package.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Yong; Lü, Peijun

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a method to digitally survey and build virtual patterns for removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks using a new three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software package developed specifically for RPD design. The procedure included obtaining 3D data from partially dentate casts, deciding on the path of insertion, and modeling the shape of the components of the frameworks digitally. The completed model data were stored as stereolithography (STL) files, which are commonly used in transferring CAD/CAM models to rapid prototyping technologies. Finally, metal RPD frameworks were fabricated using a selective laser melting technique.

  17. Measures and metrics for software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The evaluations of and recommendations for the use of software development measures based on the practical and analytical experience of the Software Engineering Laboratory are discussed. The basic concepts of measurement and system of classification for measures are described. The principal classes of measures defined are explicit, analytic, and subjective. Some of the major software measurement schemes appearing in the literature are derived. The applications of specific measures in a production environment are explained. These applications include prediction and planning, review and assessment, and evaluation and selection.

  18. Developing Generic Software for Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A proposed approach to the development of software for spacecraft avionics is based partly on a concept of generic software that could be tailored to satisfy requirements for specific missions. The proposed approach would stand in contrast to the conventional approach of first defining avionics requirements for a specific mission, then developing software specific to those requirements. The proposed approach might also be adaptable to programming computers that control and monitor other complex equipment systems that range in scale from automobiles to factories. The concept of a spacecraft avionics functional model (SAFM) is a major element of the proposed approach. An SAFM would be, essentially, a systematic and hierarchical description of the functionality required of the avionics software (and hardware) for a given mission. Although the initial input information used to start the construction of an SAFM would typically amount to a high-level description, the SAFM would thereafter be decomposed to a low level. The resulting low-level version of the model would be used to develop a set of generic requirements that could be expected to include a large fraction of all requirements for a large fraction of all missions. The generic requirements would be used to develop software modules that could be included in, or excluded from, the final flight software to satisfy the requirements of a specific mission.

  19. Voro++: a three-dimensional Voronoi cell library in C++

    SciTech Connect

    Rycroft, Chris

    2009-01-15

    Voro++ is a free software library for the computation of three dimensional Voronoi cells. It is primarily designed for applications in physics and materials science, where the Voronoi tessellation can be a useful tool in the analysis of densely-packed particle systems, such as granular materials or glasses. The software comprises of several C++ classes that can be modified and incorporated into other programs. A command-line utility is also provided that can use most features of the code. Voro++ makes use of a direct cell-by-cell construction, which is particularly suited to handling special boundary conditions and walls. It employs algorithms which are tolerant for numerical precision errors, and it has been successfully employed on very large particle systems.

  20. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube based photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flicker, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells with a three dimensional (3D) morphology are an exciting new research thrust with promise to create cheaper, more efficient solar cells. This work introduces a new type of 3D PV device based on carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. These arrays are paired with the thin film heterojunction, CdTe/CdS, to form a complete 3D carbon nanotube PV device (3DCNTPV). Marriage of a complicated 3D structure with production methods traditionally used for planar CdTe solar cell is challenging. This work examines the problems associated with processing these types of cells and systematically alters production methods of the semiconductor layers and electrodes to increase the short circuit current (Isc), eliminate parasitic shunts, and increase the open circuit voltage (Voc). The main benefit of 3D solar cell is the ability to utilize multiple photon interactions with the solar cell surface. The three dimensionality allows photons to interact multiple times with the photoactive material, which increases the absorption and the overall power output over what is possible with a two dimensional (2D) morphology. To quantify the increased power output arising from these multiple photon interactions, a new absorption efficiency term, eta3D, is introduced. The theoretical basis behind this new term and how it relates to the absorption efficiency of a planar cell, eta 2D, is derived. A unique model for the average number of multiple photon impingements, Gamma, is proposed based on three categories of 3D morphology: an infinite trench, an enclosed box, and an array of towers. The derivation of eta3D and Gamma for these 3D PV devices gives a complete picture of the enhanced power output over 2D cells based on CNT array height, pitch, radius, and shape. This theory is validated by monte carlo simulations and experiment. This new type of 3D PV devices has been shown to work experimentally. The first 3DCNTPV cells created posses Isc values of 0.085 to 17.872mA/cm2 and Voc values

  1. Simulating Photons and Plasmons in a Three-dimensional Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Shvets, G.

    2002-09-03

    Three-dimensional metallic photonic structures are studied using a newly developed mixed finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) code, Curly3d. The code solves the vector Helmholtz equation as an eigenvalue problem in the unit cell of a triply periodic lattice composed of conductors and/or dielectrics. The mixed FE-FD discretization scheme ensures rapid numerical convergence of the eigenvalue and allows the code to run at low resolution. Plasmon and photonic band structure calculations are presented.

  2. Characteristic boundary conditions for three-dimensional transonic unsteady aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristic far-field boundary conditions for the three-dimensional unsteady transonic small disturbance potential equation have been developed. The boundary conditions were implemented in the XTRAN3S finite difference code and tested for a flat plate rectangular wing with a pulse in angle of attack; the freestream Mach number was 0.85. The calculated force response shows that the characteristic boundary conditions reduce disturbances that are reflected from the computational boundaries.

  3. Convection Effects in Three-dimensional Dendritic Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yili; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.

    2003-01-01

    A phase-field model is developed to simulate free dendritic growth coupled with fluid flow for a pure material in three dimensions. The preliminary results presented here illustrate the strong influence of convection on the three-dimensional (3D) dendrite growth morphology. The detailed knowledge of the flow and temperature fields in the melt around the dendrite from the simulations allows for a detailed understanding of the convection effects on dendritic growth.

  4. Advanced three-dimensional dynamic analysis by boundary element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, P. K.; Ahma, S.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced formulations of boundary element method for periodic, transient transform domain and transient time domain solution of three-dimensional solids have been implemented using a family of isoparametric boundary elements. The necessary numerical integration techniques as well as the various solution algorithms are described. The developed analysis has been incorporated in a fully general purpose computer program BEST3D which can handle up to 10 subregions. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the dynamic analyses.

  5. A Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Zheng, Yao

    2002-01-01

    DRAGONFLOW code has been developed to solve three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations over a complex geometry whose flow domain is discretized with the DRAGON grid-a combination of Chimera grid and a collection of unstructured grids. In the DRAGONFLOW suite, both OVERFLOW and USM3D are presented in form of module libraries, and a master module controls the invoking of these individual modules. This report includes essential aspects, programming structures, benchmark tests and numerical simulations.

  6. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    ACCESS provides a generic capability to develop software information system applications which are explicitly intended to facilitate software reuse. In addition, it provides the capability to retrofit existing large applications with a user friendly front end for preparation of input streams in a way that will reduce required training time, improve the productivity even of experienced users, and increase accuracy. Current and past work shows that ACCESS will be scalable to much larger object bases.

  7. Locking Down the Software Development Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    the design of a component [3] and this is critical to looking at where the threats exist and oppor- tunities for threat exposure in the in the software...focus on building functionality, not managing the change [8]. Software CM ( SCM ) is the traditional technique for controlling the content of...deliverable components and is an essential element of a robust security policy [9]. Figure 1 illustrates a traditional unit-level development process

  8. A software development environment utilizing PAMELA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flick, R. L.; Connelly, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    Hardware capability and efficiency has increased dramatically since the invention of the computer, while software programmer productivity and efficiency has remained at a relatively low level. A user-friendly, adaptable, integrated software development environment is needed to alleviate this problem. The environment should be designed around the Ada language and a design methodology which takes advantage of the features of the Ada language as the Process Abstraction Method for Embedded Large Applications (PAMELA).

  9. Software Development for Decision Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    34|"𔃻" ’’ " ’■|’■’ J - " ■»—w—"■ ■ 1 »I ■■ »I mill 1 11 1 MI independence (Category 1) or partial Independence (Categories 2 and 3) can >>e...place vandom variable 1 after decision 3 in the tree. In the nuit phase of our research, we hope to develop general algorithms for translating any...nMiu uiiim^p^M (^PLANT EFFICIENCY^ \\~r\\ |1T) % (CAPITAL COSTS Tris ^ /KW (OPERATING COSTS^) r=TTl MILLS /KWH (jmc^lTIQn-j] MILLS /KWH.*’** By

  10. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

  11. Three-dimensional ultrasonic colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2016-05-01

    Colloidal assembly represents a powerful method for the fabrication of functional materials. In this article, we describe how acoustic radiation forces can guide the assembly of colloidal particles into structures that serve as microscopic elements in novel acoustic metadevices or act as phononic crystals. Using a simple three-dimensional orthogonal system, we show that a diversity of colloidal structures with orthorhombic symmetry can be assembled with megahertz-frequency (MHz) standing pressure waves. These structures allow rapid tuning of acoustic properties and provide a new platform for dynamic metamaterial applications.

  12. Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dauchier, Jean-Michel; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-07-27

    Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

  13. Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan

    2010-11-01

    Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.

  14. Three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons.

    PubMed

    Esirkepov, Timur; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2002-12-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relativistic electromagnetic subcycle solitons were observed in 3D particle-in-cell simulations of an intense short-laser-pulse propagation in an underdense plasma. Their structure resembles that of an oscillating electric dipole with a poloidal electric field and a toroidal magnetic field that oscillate in phase with the electron density with frequency below the Langmuir frequency. On the ion time scale, the soliton undergoes a Coulomb explosion of its core, resulting in ion acceleration, and then evolves into a slowly expanding quasineutral cavity.

  15. High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.

  16. Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Gears used in current helicopters and turboprops are designed for light weight, high margins of safety, and high reliability. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question, "What happens when a failure occurs?" With gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. A crack that propagates through a rim will be catastrophic, leading to disengagement of the rotor or propeller, loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. A crack that propagates through a tooth may or may not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode may be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. One concept proposed to address bending fatigue fracture from a safety aspect is a splittooth gear design. The prime objective of this design would be to control crack propagation in a desired direction such that at least half of the tooth would remain operational should a bending failure occur. A study at the NASA Lewis Research Center analytically validated the crack-propagation failsafe characteristics of a split-tooth gear. It used a specially developed three-dimensional crack analysis program that was based on boundary element modeling and principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack shapes as well as the crack-propagation life were predicted on the basis of the calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack-propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack-growth theories. The preceding figures show the effect of the location of initial cracks on crack propagation. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth was simulated in a case study to evaluate crack-propagation paths. Tooth

  17. Electroencephalographic (EEG) control of three-dimensional movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Sarnacki, William A.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2010-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can use brain signals from the scalp (EEG), the cortical surface (ECoG), or within the cortex to restore movement control to people who are paralyzed. Like muscle-based skills, BCIs' use requires activity-dependent adaptations in the brain that maintain stable relationships between the person's intent and the signals that convey it. This study shows that humans can learn over a series of training sessions to use EEG for three-dimensional control. The responsible EEG features are focused topographically on the scalp and spectrally in specific frequency bands. People acquire simultaneous control of three independent signals (one for each dimension) and reach targets in a virtual three-dimensional space. Such BCI control in humans has not been reported previously. The results suggest that with further development noninvasive EEG-based BCIs might control the complex movements of robotic arms or neuroprostheses.

  18. Miniaturized digital holography sensor for distal three-dimensional endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolenovic, Ervin; Osten, Wolfgang; Klattenhoff, Reiner; Lai, Songcan; von Kopylow, Christoph; Jüptner, Werner

    2003-09-01

    A miniaturized sensor head for endoscopic measurements based on digital holography is described. The system was developed to measure the shape and the three-dimensional deformation of objects located at places to which there is no access by common measurement systems. A miniaturized optical sensor, including a complete digital holographic interferometer with a CCD camera, is placed at the end of a flexible endoscope. The diameter of the head is smaller than 10 mm. The system enables interferometric measurements to be made at speeds of as many as five reconstructions per second, and it can be used outside the laboratory under normal environmental conditions. Shape measurements are performed with two wavelengths for contouring, and the deformation is measured by digital holographic interferometry. To obtain full three-dimensional data in displacement measurements we illuminate the object sequentially from three different illumination directions. To increase the lateral resolution we use temporal phase shifting.

  19. Distributed agile software development for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicenec, Andreas; Parsons, Rebecca; Kitaeff, Slava; Vinsen, Kevin; Wu, Chen; Nelson, Paul; Reed, David

    2012-09-01

    The SKA software will most probably be developed by many groups distributed across the globe and coming from dierent backgrounds, like industries and research institutions. The SKA software subsystems will have to cover a very wide range of dierent areas, but still they have to react and work together like a single system to achieve the scientic goals and satisfy the challenging data ow requirements. Designing and developing such a system in a distributed fashion requires proper tools and the setup of an environment to allow for ecient detection and tracking of interface and integration issues in particular in a timely way. Agile development can provide much faster feedback mechanisms and also much tighter collaboration between the customer (scientist) and the developer. Continuous integration and continuous deployment on the other hand can provide much faster feedback of integration issues from the system level to the subsystem developers. This paper describes the results obtained from trialing a potential SKA development environment based on existing science software development processes like ALMA, the expected distribution of the groups potentially involved in the SKA development and experience gained in the development of large scale commercial software projects.

  20. Formation of three-dimensional Parylene C structures via thermoforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. J.; Chen, B.; Gupta, M.; Meng, E.

    2014-06-01

    The thermoplastic nature of Parylene C is leveraged to enable the formation of three-dimensional structures using a thermal forming (thermoforming) technique. Thermoforming involves the heating of Parylene films above its glass transition temperature while they are physically confined in the final desired conformation. Micro and macro scale three-dimensional structures composed of Parylene thin films were developed using the thermoforming process, and the resulting chemical and mechanical changes to the films were characterized. No large changes to the surface and bulk chemistries of the polymer were observed following the thermoforming process conducted in vacuum. Heat treated structures exhibited increased stiffness by a maximum of 37% depending on the treatment temperature, due to an increase in crystallinity of the Parylene polymer. This study revealed important property changes resulting from the process, namely (1) the development of high strains in thermoformed areas of small radii of curvature (30-90 µm) and (2) ˜1.5% bulk material shrinkage in thermoformed multilayered Parylene-Parylene and Parylene-metal-Parylene films. Thermoforming is a simple process whereby three-dimensional structures can be achieved from Parylene C-based thin film structures with tunable mechanical properties as a function of treatment temperature.

  1. Code System for Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Reactor Core Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERT,; BENEDETTI, L.

    2001-03-05

    Version 00 SCORE-EVET was developed to study multidimensional transient fluid flow in nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays. The conservation equations used were derived by volume averaging the transient compressible three-dimensional local continuum equations in Cartesian coordinates. No assumptions associated with subchannel flow have been incorporated into the derivation of the conservation equations. In addition to the three-dimensional fluid flow equations, the SCORE-EVET code contains a one-dimensional steady state solution scheme to initialize the flow field, steady state and transient fuel rod conduction models, and comprehensive correlation packages to describe fluid-to-fuel rod interfacial energy and momentum exchange. Velocity and pressure boundary conditions can be specified as a function of time and space to model reactor transient conditions, such as a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or flow blockage. The basic volume-averaged transient three-dimensional equations for flow in porous media are solved in their general form with constitutive relationships and boundary conditions tailored to define the porous medium as a matrix of fuel rods. By retaining generality in the form of the conservation equations, a wide range of fluid flow problem configurations, from computational regions representing a single fuel rod subchannel to multichannels, or even regions without a fuel rod, can be modeled without restrictive assumptions. The completeness of the conservation equations has allowed SCORE-EVET to be used, with modification to the constitutive relationships, to calculate three-dimensional laminar boundary layer development, flow fields in large bodies of water, and, with the addition of a turbulence model, turbulent flow in pipe expansions and tees.

  2. The three-dimensional Event-Driven Graphics Environment (3D-EDGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Jeffrey; Hahn, Roger; Schwartz, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Stanford Telecom developed the Three-Dimensional Event-Driven Graphics Environment (3D-EDGE) for NASA GSFC's (GSFC) Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS). 3D-EDGE consists of a library of object-oriented subroutines which allow engineers with little or no computer graphics experience to programmatically manipulate, render, animate, and access complex three-dimensional objects.

  3. Surface Description and Motion Control for Animated Three Dimensional Computer Generated Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Thomas Lloyd

    This study of the relationship of computer technology to character animation focuses on the advantages and constraints of developing three-dimensional characters for computer animation. Three different levels of the complexity involved in animating characters are examined: (1) a three-dimensional computer environment and simple motion within this…

  4. Life-Size Sculptural Heads: A Lesson in Three-Dimensional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students created three-dimensional self-portraits, using papier-mache, clay, and plaster, designed to develop their modeling skills as they learn about art history. Discusses how the students created their sculptures, offering detailed directions on creating the three-dimensional heads. (CMK)

  5. An Interactive Preprocessor Program with Graphics for a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Claude Hayden, III

    The development and capabilities of an interactive preprocessor program with graphics for an existing three-dimensional finite element code is presented. This preprocessor program, EDGAP3D, is designed to be used in conjunction with the Texas Three Dimensional Grain Analysis Program (TXCAP3D). The code presented in this research is capable of the…

  6. Two component-three dimensional catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.

  7. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.

  8. Three dimensional force balance of asymmetric droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Cho, Kun; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    An equilibrium contact angle of a droplet is determined by a horizontal force balance among vapor, liquid, and solid, which is known as Young's law. Conventional wetting law is valid only for axis-symmetric droplets, whereas real droplets are often asymmetric. Here we show that three-dimensional geometry must be considered for a force balance for asymmetric droplets. By visualizing asymmetric droplets placed on a free-standing membrane in air with X-ray microscopy, we are able to identify that force balances in one side and in other side control pinning behaviors during evaporation of droplets. We find that X-ray microscopy is powerful for realizing the three-dimensional force balance, which would be essential in interpretation and manipulation of wetting, spreading, and drying dynamics for asymmetric droplets. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  9. Three-dimensional singular points in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Aynur

    1988-01-01

    When three-dimensional separation occurs on a body immersed in a flow governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the geometrical surfaces formed by the three vector fields (velocity, vorticity and the skin-friction) and a scalar field (pressure) become interrelated through topological maps containing their respective singular points and extremal points. A mathematically consistent description of these singular points becomes inevitable when we want to study the geometry of the separation. A separated stream surface requires, for example, the existence of a saddle-type singular point on the skin-friction surface. This singular point is actually, in the proper language of mathematics, a saddle of index two. The index is a measure of the dimension of the outset (set leaving the singular point). Hence, when a saddle of index two is specified, a two dimensional surface that becomes separated from the osculating plane of the saddle is implied. The three-dimensional singular point is interpreted mathematically and the most common aerodynamical singular points are discussed through this perspective.

  10. Three dimensional quantum geometry and deformed symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, E.; Mourad, J.; Noui, K.

    2009-05-01

    We study a three dimensional noncommutative space emerging in the context of three dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity. Our starting point is the assumption that the isometry group is deformed to the Drinfeld double D(SU(2)). We generalize to the deformed case the construction of E3 as the quotient of its isometry group ISU(2) by SU(2). We show that the algebra of functions on E3 becomes the noncommutative algebra of SU(2) distributions, C(SU(2))∗, endowed with the convolution product. This construction gives the action of ISU(2) on the algebra and allows the determination of plane waves and coordinate functions. In particular, we show the following: (i) plane waves have bounded momenta; (ii) to a given momentum are associated several SU(2) elements leading to an effective description of ϕ ɛC(SU(2))∗ in terms of several physical scalar fields on E3; (iii) their product leads to a deformed addition rule of momenta consistent with the bound on the spectrum. We generalize to the noncommutative setting the "local" action for a scalar field. Finally, we obtain, using harmonic analysis, another useful description of the algebra as the direct sum of the algebra of matrices. The algebra of matrices inherits the action of ISU(2): rotations leave the order of the matrices invariant, whereas translations change the order in a way we explicitly determine.

  11. Engineering software development with HyperCard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    The successful and unsuccessful techniques used in the development of software using HyperCard are described. The viability of the HyperCard for engineering is evaluated and the future use of HyperCard by this particular group of developers is discussed.

  12. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  13. Global Software Development with Cloud Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yara, Pavan; Ramachandran, Ramaseshan; Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Muthuswamy, Karthik; Chandrasekar, Divya

    Offshore and outsourced distributed software development models and processes are facing challenges, previously unknown, with respect to computing capacity, bandwidth, storage, security, complexity, reliability, and business uncertainty. Clouds promise to address these challenges by adopting recent advances in virtualization, parallel and distributed systems, utility computing, and software services. In this paper, we envision a cloud-based platform that addresses some of these core problems. We outline a generic cloud architecture, its design and our first implementation results for three cloud forms - a compute cloud, a storage cloud and a cloud-based software service- in the context of global distributed software development (GSD). Our ”compute cloud” provides computational services such as continuous code integration and a compile server farm, ”storage cloud” offers storage (block or file-based) services with an on-line virtual storage service, whereas the on-line virtual labs represent a useful cloud service. We note some of the use cases for clouds in GSD, the lessons learned with our prototypes and identify challenges that must be conquered before realizing the full business benefits. We believe that in the future, software practitioners will focus more on these cloud computing platforms and see clouds as a means to supporting a ecosystem of clients, developers and other key stakeholders.

  14. Three-dimensional illumination system for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fen; Song, Yang; Qu, Xiangju; Ji, Yunjing; Li, Zhenhua; He, Anzhi

    2016-10-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) is a new developed technique for three-component threedimensional (3C-3D) velocity measurement of the flow field based on the optical tomographic reconstruction method, and has been received extensive attention of the related industries. Three-dimensional light source illuminating the tracer particles of flow field is a critical application for tomographic particle image velocimetry. Three-dimensional light source not only determines the size of measurement volume and the range of the scope of application, but also has a great influence on the image quality. In this work, we propose a rectangular light amplification system using powell lens, prisms and two reflectors. The system can be optimized if given the system parameters based on the theoretical model. The rectangular light amplification system will be verified experimentally by measuring the cross section size of the illuminated light source. A 60mm×25mm cross section of rectangular three-dimensional light source can be obtained by using the rectangular light amplification system. The experiments demonstrate the the feasibility the proposed system.

  15. Three-dimensional laser window formation for industrial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Kowalski, David

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional, compound-curvature laser windows to extreme accuracies. These windows represent an integral component of specialized nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems that are used in a variety of compressor and turbine research testing facilities. These windows are molded to the flow surface profile of turbine and compressor casings and are required to withstand extremely high pressures and temperatures. This method of glass formation could also be used to form compound-curvature mirrors that would require little polishing and for a variety of industrial applications, including research view ports for testing devices and view ports for factory machines with compound-curvature casings. Currently, sodium-alumino-silicate glass is recommended for three-dimensional laser windows because of its high strength due to chemical strengthening and its optical clarity. This paper discusses the main aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities that are associated with the formation of these windows.

  16. Three dimensional self-assembly at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracias, D. H.

    2013-05-01

    At the nanoscale, three dimensional manipulation and assembly becomes extremely challenging and also cost prohibitive. Self-assembly provides an attractive and possibly the only highly parallel methodology to structure truly three dimensional patterned materials and devices at this size scale for applications in electronics, optics, robotics and medicine. This is a concise review along with a perspective of an important and exciting field in nanotechnology and is related to a Nanoengineering Pioneer Award that I received at this SPIE symposium for my contributions to the 3D selfassembly of nanostructures. I detail a historical account of 3D self-assembly and outline important developments in this area which is put into context with the larger research areas of 3D nanofabrication, assembly and nanomanufacturing. A focus in this review is on our work as it relates to the self-assembly with lithographically patterned units; this approach provides a means for heterogeneous integration of periodic, curved and angled nanostructures with precisely defined three dimensional patterns.

  17. Three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis over airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Shamroth, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    A three-dimensional solution procedure for the approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equation was exercised in the two- and three-dimensional modes to compute the unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate corresponding to the data of Karlsson. The procedure is based on the use of a consistently split Linearized Block Implicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme. New time-dependent upstream boundary conditions were developed that yielded realistic solutions for the interior in the vicinity of the upstream boundary. Comparisons of the computation employing these boundary conditions with the data indicate that both qualitative and quantitative agreement was obtained for the mean velocity and the in phase and out of phase components of the first harmonic of the velocity. In addition, the calculation gave results for the skin friction phase angle that had expected physical behavior for large distances downstream of the inflow boundary. For the three-dimensional case, the two-dimensional data of Karlsson was considered, but in a coordinate system skewed at 45 deg to the free stream direction. The results of the calculations were in excellent agreement with the data and the two-dimensional computations.

  18. Three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis over airfoil sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Shamroth, S. J.

    1984-06-01

    A three-dimensional solution procedure for the approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equation was exercised in the two- and three-dimensional modes to compute the unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate corresponding to the data of Karlsson. The procedure is based on the use of a consistently split Linearized Block Implicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme. New time-dependent upstream boundary conditions were developed that yielded realistic solutions for the interior in the vicinity of the upstream boundary. Comparisons of the computation employing these boundary conditions with the data indicate that both qualitative and quantitative agreement was obtained for the mean velocity and the in phase and out of phase components of the first harmonic of the velocity. In addition, the calculation gave results for the skin friction phase angle that had expected physical behavior for large distances downstream of the inflow boundary. For the three-dimensional case, the two-dimensional data of Karlsson was considered, but in a coordinate system skewed at 45 deg to the free stream direction. The results of the calculations were in excellent agreement with the data and the two-dimensional computations.

  19. Measurement and visualization of three-dimensional directivity pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Georg-Erwin; Gebert, Anton; Klemenz, Harald; Ritter, Hartmut C.

    2005-09-01

    In order to optimize a new second-order multimicrophone technology for a KEMAR dummy head, a three-dimensional directivity measurement setup was developed. To minimize mechanical mass and to reduce total measurement time a C-Bow setup was used, containing 18 calibrated loudspeakers. Those small tweeters identical in construction are placed in every 10 deg of elevation in a semicircular arc of 2-m diameter. The only moving part of this setup is a full-circle rotating KEMAR. The ANSI Standard 3.35 for directional measurement is fully supported and the required 48 measuring points are completed in less than 3 min. Using this fast and simple setup, the various responses attained from different latitudes need to be weighted to calculate a three-dimensional directivity value. Utilizing an equally distributed number, for example 400 measuring points easily executable with this setup, weighting can be omitted and a three-dimensional plot with high resolution can be visualized. Additionally, two-dimensional cuts of different planes in horizontal, vertical, and sagittal direction can be displayed. Data of unaided KEMAR, as well as data from the hearing aid used during those measurements, are presented and discussed.

  20. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kan

    2014-01-01

    The Engineering and Technology Directorate (NE) at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is designing a new command and control system for the checkout and launch of Space Launch System (SLS) and future rockets. The purposes of the semester long internship as a remote application software developer include the design, development, integration, and verification of the software and hardware in the firing rooms, in particular with the Mobile Launcher (ML) Launch Accessories subsystem. In addition, a Conversion Fusion project was created to show specific approved checkout and launch engineering data for public-friendly display purposes.