Science.gov

Sample records for developing attractive magnetic

  1. Prospects for developing attractive magnetic fusion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    Comments are made pertaining to a generic magnetic fusion reactor study carried out at ORNL. A second study was made of the required reactor characteristics for attractive fusion reactors. The study concluded that both the physics and economics would be achievable with present magnetic configurations.

  2. [Near fatal attraction of ingested magnets].

    PubMed

    Munchak, Itamar; Yardeni, Dan; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Soudack-Ben Nun, Michalle; Augarten, Arie

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of intestinal perforation in a 20 month old girl following the ingestion of 2 small magnets. Ingestion of multiple magnets constitutes a unique problem. Magnets in adjacent intestinal loops may forcefully attract each other and produce pressure necrosis of the bowel wall, leading to perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. Therefore, these children should be observed carefully. Early surgical intervention should be considered when clinical symptoms develop, especially when, on sequential abdominal radiographs, there is no change in the magnets' location. Since toys with small magnets are ubiquitous, efforts should be made to increase parents' awareness on the one hand, and to alert toy manufacturers on the other hand.

  3. An Attractive Materials Process: Exploring High Magnetic Field Processing for Developing Customized Microstructures with Enhanced Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Jaramillo, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A

    2007-01-01

    Multiple facets of an innovative research endeavor involving high magnetic field processing will be highlighted for this very promising technology initiative for materials and process development. This approach has both scientific and industrial relevance with significant energy savings and environmental benefit ramifications and represents a major step towards achieving materials by design goals for the next generation of materials encompassing both structural and functional material applications. Our experimental and modeling research efforts are clearly demonstrating that phase stability (conventional phase diagrams) can be dramatically altered through the application of an ultrahigh magnetic field. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength is being shown to provide a very robust mechanism to develop and tailor enhanced microstructures (even potential bulk nanostructures through accelerated product phase nucleation and transformation kinetics) with potentially superior properties. The broad goals for this research are to demonstrate and document the influence of ultrahigh magnetic field processing on the phase equilibria and kinetics for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic material systems and to develop predictive capability based on first principle calculations.

  4. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  5. Properties of magnetically attractive experimental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Hirano, S; Yasukawa, H; Nomoto, R; Moriyama, K; Hirasawa, T

    1996-12-01

    SUS444 stainless steel filled chemically cured resin composites that can attract magnet were fabricated. The filler was treated with various concentrations of silane. The experimental composite was easy to handle and showed a good shelf life. The maximal properties obtained are as follows; The attraction force to a magnetic attachment was 1/3-1/4 lower than the commercially available magnet-keeper system for dental magnetic attachment. Flexural strength and Knoop hardness of the composite were 76MPa (7.7 kgf/mm2) and 64 KHN. These values were lower than the commercially available chemically cured composite used as a reference. Eluted metal from the composite in 1% lactic acid solution for 7 days showed 0.7 mg/cm2, but in 0.9% NaCl solution for 7 days, it could not be detected.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of attractive magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebbale, K. V.; Taylor, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a ferromagnetic shaft suspended by the force of attraction of 1, 2, or 4 independent electromagnets is presented. Each model includes a state variable feedback controller which has been designed using the pole placement method. The constitutive relationships for the magnets are derived analytically from magnetic circuit theory, and the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal are included using Maxwell's field relations. A rotor suspended by four electro-magnets with closed loop feedback is shown to have nine equilibrium points within the bearing clearance space. As the rotor spin speed increases, the system is shown to pass through a Hopf bifurcation (a flutter instability). Using center manifold theory, this bifurcation can be shown to be of the subcritical type, indicating an unstable limit cycle below the critical speed. The bearing is very sensitive to initial conditions, and the equilibrium position is easily upset by transient excitation. The results are confirmed by numerical simulation.

  7. Magnetic Attractions: Desegregating a Minority School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, James Earl; Walton, Kathleen O'D.

    1988-01-01

    Politicians and chambers of commerce in Prince George's County, Maryland, recognized the need to improve opportunities for and achievement by Black students. Magnet and compensatory programs were implemented, as well as the "Comer School Development Program," which places special emphasis on parental involvement. (MLW)

  8. Magnet Trade Books: Attracting and Repelling Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    A series of magnet trade books were analyzed against a validated list of magnet concepts (Barrow, 1990a) and their Flesch (1974) Readability was determined. These trade books were used to supplement a second grade unit on magnetism locally constructed from AIM's "Mostly Magnets" (1991). All trade books accurately described how like and unlike…

  9. Physical Attraction: The Mysteries of Magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Stohr, Joachim

    2004-12-14

    Most people have intuitive associations with the word 'magnetism' based on everyday life: refrigerator magnets, the compass, north and south poles, or someone's 'magnetic personality'. Few people, however, realize how complicated the phenomenon really is, how much research still deals with the topic today, and how much it penetrates our modern industrialized world - from electricity, wireless communication at the speed of light to magnetic sensors in cars and data storage in computers. Stohr's lecture will provide a glimpse at the magic and science behind magnetism: its long history, scientific breakthroughs in its understanding, and its use in our modern society. In the process Stohr will show how research at SSRL/SLAC is addressing some of the forefront issues in magnetism research and technology today.

  10. [Magnets, pacemaker and defibrillator: fatal attraction?].

    PubMed

    Bergamin, C; Graf, D

    2015-05-27

    This article aims at clarifying the effects of a clinical magnet on pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. The effects of electromagnetic interferences on such devices, including interferences linked to electrosurgery and magnetic resonance imaging are also discussed. In general, a magnet provokes a distinctive effect on a pacemaker by converting it into an asynchronous mode of pacing, and on an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator by suspending its own antitachyarythmia therapies without affecting the pacing. In the operating room, the magnet has to be used cautiously with precisely defined protocols which respect the type of the device used, the type of intervention planned, the presence or absence of EMI and the pacing-dependency of the patient.

  11. The Magnetic Attraction of Honeybee Navigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, David

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the division of labor, defenses, genetics and evolution, communication, and navigation power of honeybees. The scientific and cross-curricular themes that can be offered using the economically important honeybee are described. Research that suggests that bees may be flying magnets is also discussed. (KR)

  12. The Magnetic Attraction of Honeybee Navigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, David

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the division of labor, defenses, genetics and evolution, communication, and navigation power of honeybees. The scientific and cross-curricular themes that can be offered using the economically important honeybee are described. Research that suggests that bees may be flying magnets is also discussed. (KR)

  13. Magnetic water treatment: A coming attraction?

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, L.

    1995-10-01

    United Airlines and pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company are among a number of users that are controlling scale and corrosion in cooling tower loops with magnetic water treatment, a controversial technology that has met with skepticism, disbelief, and claims of fraud. Experts and hundreds of published papers disagree on whether magnetic water treatment works, and if so, how. No scientific theory has proven how magnets can treat water, nor are there documented, reproducible laboratory test results. Field experience is mixed, with some installations working well and others failing. Despite the controversy and the lack of an adequately documented theoretical underpinning, the existence of large, apparently successful installations lends credence to the view that at least some magnetic water treatment systems are effective. The stakes are high. Most large HVAC systems are currently treated with chemicals. These chemicals generally work well, but they are costly, in many cases are environmentally damaging, and are subject to increasingly strict regulations. A reliable, low-cost, and more environmentally benign alternative that eliminates or sharply reduces the need for chemical treatment would have obvious benefits. Based on the review of the literature, discussions with users, vendors, and independent analysts, and tours of several apparently successful installations, E Source believes that this technology works in some cases and warrants further investigation. They caution prospective users to shop carefully and to select vendors with an established track record.

  14. Magnetism and Electricity Activity "Attracts" Student Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity and magnetism are intimately linked, this relationship forming the basis of the modern electric utility system and the generation of bulk electrical energy. There is rich literature from which to teach students the basics, but nothing drives the point home like having them learn from firsthand experience--and that is what this…

  15. Magnetism and Electricity Activity "Attracts" Student Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity and magnetism are intimately linked, this relationship forming the basis of the modern electric utility system and the generation of bulk electrical energy. There is rich literature from which to teach students the basics, but nothing drives the point home like having them learn from firsthand experience--and that is what this…

  16. Nano Goes Magnetic to Attract Big Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Glenn Research Center has combined state-of-the-art electrical designs with complex, computer-aided analyses to develop some of today s most advanced power systems, in space and on Earth. The center s Power and On-Board Propulsion Technology Division is the brain behind many of these power systems. For space, this division builds technologies that help power the International Space Station, the Hubble Space Telescope, and Earth-orbiting satellites. For Earth, it has woven advanced aerospace power concepts into commercial energy applications that include solar and nuclear power generation, battery and fuel cell energy storage, communications and telecommunications satellites, cryocoolers, hybrid and electric vehicles, and heating and air-conditioning systems.

  17. Attracting Capital: Magnets, Charters, and School Referendum Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shober, Arnold F.

    2011-01-01

    Does school choice enhance the ability of school districts to raise revenue? School districts use charter and magnet schools to attract and retain students, but does choice improve the odds for school districts seeking increased taxing authority at the polls? If those parents who choose schools are attentive to district policies, then increasing…

  18. Attracting Capital: Magnets, Charters, and School Referendum Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shober, Arnold F.

    2011-01-01

    Does school choice enhance the ability of school districts to raise revenue? School districts use charter and magnet schools to attract and retain students, but does choice improve the odds for school districts seeking increased taxing authority at the polls? If those parents who choose schools are attentive to district policies, then increasing…

  19. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  20. Hidden attraction: a menacing meal of magnets and batteries.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie C; Murray, Karen F; Javid, Patrick J

    2012-08-01

    Magnet and button battery ingestions are increasingly common, and can result in significant morbidity. Timely identification of hazardous foreign body ingestions can be difficult in non-verbal and non-disclosing children. We aim to present a case that demonstrates some of the challenges around identifying and correctly locating magnets and batteries, and the importance of prompt identification and removal. We describe an older child with the covert ingestion of multiple magnets and batteries, with magnets that attracted across the stomach and a loop of jejunum. Mild symptoms and signs resulted in a delayed diagnosis and serious consequences. Radiographs suggested a gastric location of the foreign bodies. Health care workers should consider the possibility of battery or magnet ingestions in children with vomiting and abdominal pain, even when well-appearing. Like esophageal batteries, multiple gastrointestinal magnets and combined magnet-battery ingestions can cause significant morbidity, and prompt identification is important. Providers should ask verbal children for ingestion histories, and consider radiographs when symptoms are atypical or persistent. Like esophageal batteries, gastrointestinal magnet-battery ingestions should be removed promptly to prevent complications. Caregivers should supervise or limit the use of toys that include magnets and batteries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Swallowed magnets and batteries: a dangerous but not unexpected attraction.

    PubMed

    Teague, Warwick Jonathan; Vaughan, Elizabeth Mary; McHoney, Merrill; McCabe, Amanda Jayne

    2013-04-10

    An 18-month-old boy was witnessed swallowing a cluster of five magnetic toy balls. He was coincidentally noted on plain x-rays to have also recently swallowed a watch battery and a small screw. Initial outpatient management with serial review and x-rays was unsuccessful, and delayed inpatient surgical care by 9 days. Although the child never manifested features of systemic or gastrointestinal upset, emergency laparotomy confirmed a resultant jejunocolic fistula. This case demonstrates how clinical assessment of children who have swallowed magnets separately from each other can be falsely reassuring, and highlights the potential dangers of outpatient management. We recommend children who have swallowed separately >1 magnetic objects (or >1 objects capable of magnetic attraction) be managed as inpatients with active observation and timely foreign body removal.

  2. Swallowed magnets and batteries: a dangerous but not unexpected attraction

    PubMed Central

    Teague, Warwick Jonathan; Vaughan, Elizabeth Mary; McHoney, Merrill; McCabe, Amanda Jayne

    2013-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy was witnessed swallowing a cluster of five magnetic toy balls. He was coincidentally noted on plain x-rays to have also recently swallowed a watch battery and a small screw. Initial outpatient management with serial review and x-rays was unsuccessful, and delayed inpatient surgical care by 9 days. Although the child never manifested features of systemic or gastrointestinal upset, emergency laparotomy confirmed a resultant jejunocolic fistula. This case demonstrates how clinical assessment of children who have swallowed magnets separately from each other can be falsely reassuring, and highlights the potential dangers of outpatient management. We recommend children who have swallowed separately >1 magnetic objects (or >1 objects capable of magnetic attraction) be managed as inpatients with active observation and timely foreign body removal. PMID:23580685

  3. Attraction, merger, reflection, and annihilation in magnetic droplet soliton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, M. D.; Bookman, L. D.; Hoefer, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    The interaction behaviors of solitons are defining characteristics of these nonlinear, coherent structures. Due to recent experimental observations, thin ferromagnetic films offer a promising medium in which to study the scattering properties of two-dimensional magnetic droplet solitons, particle-like, precessing dipoles. Here, a rich set of two-droplet interaction behaviors are classified through micromagnetic simulations. Repulsive and attractive interaction dynamics are generically determined by the relative phase and speeds of the two droplets and can be classified into four types: (1) merger into a breather bound state, (2) counterpropagation trapped along the axis of symmetry, (3) reflection, and (4) violent droplet annihilation into spin wave radiation and a breather. Utilizing a nonlinear method of images, it is demonstrated that these dynamics describe repulsive/attractive scattering of a single droplet off of a magnetic boundary with pinned/free spin boundary conditions, respectively. These results explain the mechanism by which propagating and stationary droplets can be stabilized in a confined ferromagnet.

  4. Future Developments for Science Parks: Attracting and Developing Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadorin, Eduardo; Johansson, Sten G.; Klofsten, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, science parks have developed and improved their processes to offer better support to their tenants and promote the growth of the region in which they are located. Since regional growth is closely associated with groups of talented people, science parks carry out various activities at the company or individual level to attract and…

  5. On the analytical form of the Earth's magnetic attraction expressed as a function of time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlheim-Gyllenskold, V.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to express the Earth's magnetic attraction in simple analytical form using observations during the 16th to 19th centuries. Observations of the magnetic inclination in the 16th and 17th centuries are discussed.

  6. The Magnetic Dipole as an Attractive Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, John M.

    1997-11-01

    Stability for low β plasma confined by closed B field lines is PV^γ = C_0, P = pressure, V = flux tube volume, γ is c_p/cv = 5/3. Kesner(J. Kesner, Innovative Confinement Concepts Workshop, Mar. 3-6, 1997) proposed a levitated current ring with the plasma stabilized by this condition as an alternate fusion reactor. Such a reactor has many attractive features; at radii large compared to the ring radius, V goes like r^4; the stability condition is Pr^20/3 = C_1. If nr^4 = C_2, then interchanges keep the density constant. The temperature can drop according to Tr^8/3 = C_3. If the chamber is ten times the ring radius, the density can drop from 10^14 near the ring to 10^10 at the edge and the temperature can drop from 50 keV near the ring to 100 eV at the edge. This plasma should present no problems for a divertor. Reacting plasma near the ring will heat it, upsetting the stability relation and cause convection to carry burnt plasma out; it will cool as it expands. At the same time the convection will bring in fresh fuel from the outside which will be compressed and heated to ignition. A super conducting ring design that can float in reacting D-He^3 for 16 hours exists(J.M. Dawson, FUSION, edited by Edward Teller, Vol. 1, Magnetic Confinement, Part, Ch. 16, Academic Press, 1981).

  7. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  8. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  9. A study on the changes in attractive force of magnetic attachments for overdenture.

    PubMed

    Leem, Han-Wool; Cho, In-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Choi, Yu-Sung

    2016-02-01

    Although magnetic attachment is used frequently for overdenture, it is reported that attractive force can be decreased by abrasion and corrosion. The purpose of this study was to establish the clinical basis about considerations and long term prognosis of overdenture using magnetic attachments by investigating the change in attractive force of magnetic attachment applied to the patients. Among the patients treated with overdenture using magnetic attachments in Dankook University Dental Hospital, attractive force records of 61 magnetic attachments of 20 subjects who re-visited from July 2013 to June 2014 were analyzed. Dental magnet tester (Aichi Micro Intelligent Co., Aichi, Japan) was used for measurement. The magnetic attachments used in this study were Magfit IP-B Flat, Magfit DX400, Magfit DX600 and Magfit DX800 (Aichi Steel Co., Aichi, Japan) filled with Neodymium (NdFeB), a rare-earth magnet. Reduction ratio of attractive force had no significant correlation with conditional variables to which attachments were applied, and was higher when the maintenance period was longer (P<.05, r=.361). Reduction ratio of attractive force was significantly higher in the subject group in which attachments were used over 9 years than within 9 years (P<.05). Furthermore, 16.39% of total magnetic attachments showed detachment of keeper or assembly. Attractive force of magnetic attachment is maintained regardless of conditional variables and reduction ratio increased as the maintenance period became longer. Further study on adhesive material, attachment method and design improvement to prevent detachment of magnetic attachment is needed.

  10. Magnets, children and the bowel: a dangerous attraction?

    PubMed

    George, Anil Thomas; Motiwale, Sandeep

    2012-10-14

    Reports of magnet ingestion are increasing rapidly globally. However, multiple magnet ingestion, the subsequent potential complications and the importance of the early identification and proper management remain both under-recognized and underestimated. Published literature on such cases could possibly represent only the tip of an iceberg with press reports, web blogs and government documents highlighting further occurrence of many more such incidents. The increasing number of complications worldwide being reported secondary to magnet ingestion point not only to an acute lack of awareness about this condition among the medical profession but also among parents and carers who will be in most cases the first to pick up on magnet ingestion. There still seems to be no consensus on the management of magnet ingestion with several algorithms being proposed for management. Prevention of this condition remains a much better option than cure. Proper education and improved awareness among parents and carers and frontline medical staff is key in addressing this rapidly emerging problem. The goal of managing such cases of suspected magnet ingestion should be aimed at reducing delays between ingestion time, diagnosis time and intervention time.

  11. Magnets, children and the bowel: A dangerous attraction?

    PubMed Central

    George, Anil Thomas; Motiwale, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Reports of magnet ingestion are increasing rapidly globally. However, multiple magnet ingestion, the subsequent potential complications and the importance of the early identification and proper management remain both under-recognized and underestimated. Published literature on such cases could possibly represent only the tip of an iceberg with press reports, web blogs and government documents highlighting further occurrence of many more such incidents. The increasing number of complications worldwide being reported secondary to magnet ingestion point not only to an acute lack of awareness about this condition among the medical profession but also among parents and carers who will be in most cases the first to pick up on magnet ingestion. There still seems to be no consensus on the management of magnet ingestion with several algorithms being proposed for management. Prevention of this condition remains a much better option than cure. Proper education and improved awareness among parents and carers and frontline medical staff is key in addressing this rapidly emerging problem. The goal of managing such cases of suspected magnet ingestion should be aimed at reducing delays between ingestion time, diagnosis time and intervention time. PMID:23082048

  12. Corrigendum: Like a Magnet: Catharsis Beliefs Attract Angry People to Violent Video Games.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Bushman, B. J., & Whitaker, J. L. (2010). Like a magnet: Catharsis beliefs attract angry people to violent video games. Psychological Science, 21, 790-792. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797610369494). © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. A study on the changes in attractive force of magnetic attachments for overdenture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Choi, Yu-Sung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Although magnetic attachment is used frequently for overdenture, it is reported that attractive force can be decreased by abrasion and corrosion. The purpose of this study was to establish the clinical basis about considerations and long term prognosis of overdenture using magnetic attachments by investigating the change in attractive force of magnetic attachment applied to the patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Among the patients treated with overdenture using magnetic attachments in Dankook University Dental Hospital, attractive force records of 61 magnetic attachments of 20 subjects who re-visited from July 2013 to June 2014 were analyzed. Dental magnet tester (Aichi Micro Intelligent Co., Aichi, Japan) was used for measurement. The magnetic attachments used in this study were Magfit IP-B Flat, Magfit DX400, Magfit DX600 and Magfit DX800 (Aichi Steel Co., Aichi, Japan) filled with Neodymium (NdFeB), a rare-earth magnet. RESULTS Reduction ratio of attractive force had no significant correlation with conditional variables to which attachments were applied, and was higher when the maintenance period was longer (P<.05, r=.361). Reduction ratio of attractive force was significantly higher in the subject group in which attachments were used over 9 years than within 9 years (P<.05). Furthermore, 16.39% of total magnetic attachments showed detachment of keeper or assembly. CONCLUSION Attractive force of magnetic attachment is maintained regardless of conditional variables and reduction ratio increased as the maintenance period became longer. Further study on adhesive material, attachment method and design improvement to prevent detachment of magnetic attachment is needed. PMID:26949482

  14. The mutual attraction of magnetic knots. [solar hydromagnetic instability in sunspot regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1978-01-01

    It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability. The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side.

  15. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  16. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  17. Magnetic Refrigeration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardoff, D. D.; Johnson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is being developed to determine whether it may be used as an alternative to the Joule-Thomson circuit of a closed cycle refrigerator for providing 4 K refrigeration. An engineering model 4-15 K magnetic refrigerator has been designed and is being fabricated. This article describes the overall design of the magnetic refrigerator.

  18. Separation of two attractive ferromagnetic ellipsoidal particles by hydrodynamic interactions under alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Micheline; Bossis, Georges

    2017-06-01

    In applications where magnetic particles are used to detect and dose targeted molecules, it is of major importance to prevent particle clustering and aggregation during the capture stage in order to maximize the capture rate. Elongated ferromagnetic particles can be more interesting than spherical ones due to their large magnetic moment, which facilitates their separation by magnets or the detection by optical measurement of their orientation relaxation time. Under alternating magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of elongated ferromagnetic particles results from the balance between magnetic torque that tends to align the particle axis with the field direction and viscous torque. As for their translational motion, it results from a competition between direct magnetic particle-particle interactions and solvent-flow-mediated hydrodynamic interactions. Due to particle anisotropy, this may lead to intricate translation-rotation couplings. Using numerical simulations and theoretical modeling of the system, we show that two ellipsoidal magnetic particles, initially in a head-to-tail attractive configuration resulting from their remnant magnetization, can repel each other due to hydrodynamic interactions when alternating field is operated. The separation takes place in a range of low frequencies fc 1magnetic field to particle magnetization strength, whereas fc 1 tends to zero when this ratio increases.

  19. Crossover from impurity to valence band in diluted magnetic semiconductors: Role of Coulomb attraction by acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Florentin; Sen, Cengiz; Dagotto, Elbio R; Moreo, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    The crossover between an impurity band (IB) and a valence band (VB) regime as a function of the magnetic impurity concentration in a model for diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) is studied systematically by taking into consideration the Coulomb attraction between the carriers and the magnetic impurities. The density of states and the ferromagnetic transition temperature of a spin-fermion model applied to DMSs are evaluated using dynamical mean-field theory and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. It is shown that the addition of a square-well-like attractive potential can generate an IB at small enough Mn doping x for values of the p-d exchange J that are not strong enough to generate one by themselves. We observe that the IB merges with the VB when x>=xc where xc is a function of J and the Coulomb strength V. Using MC simulations, we demonstrate that the range of the Coulomb attraction plays an important role. While the on-site attraction, which has been used in previous numerical simulations, effectively renormalizes J for all values of x, an unphysical result, a nearest-neighbor range attraction renormalizes J only at very low dopings, i.e., until the bound holes wave functions start to overlap. Thus, our results indicate that the Coulomb attraction can be neglected to study Mn-doped GaSb, GaAs, and GaP in the relevant doping regimes, but it should be included in the case of Mn-doped GaN, which is expected to be in the IB regime.

  20. Developing Bisexual Attract-and-Kill for Polyphagous Insects: Ecological Rationale versus Pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Peter C; Del Socorro, Alice P; Hawes, Anthony J; Binns, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the principles of bisexual attract-and-kill, in which females as well as males are targeted with an attractant, such as a blend of plant volatiles, combined with a toxicant. While the advantages of this strategy have been apparent for over a century, there are few products available to farmers for inclusion in integrated pest management schemes. We describe the development, registration, and commercialization of one such product, Magnet(®), which was targeted against Helicoverpa armigera and H. punctigera in Australian cotton. We advocate an empirical rather than theoretical approach to selecting and blending plant volatiles for such products, and emphasise the importance of field studies on ecologically realistic scales of time and space. The properties required of insecticide partners also are discussed. We describe the studies that were necessary to provide data for registration of the Magnet(®) product. These included evidence of efficacy, including local and area-wide impacts on the target pest, non-target impacts, and safety for consumers and applicators. In the decade required for commercial development, the target market for Magnet(®) has been greatly reduced by the widespread adoption of transgenic insect-resistant cotton in Australia. We discuss potential applications in resistance management for transgenic cotton, and for other pests in cotton and other crops.

  1. Experimental signature of the attractive Coulomb force between positive and negative magnetic monopoles in spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, C.; Giblin, S. R.; Lhotel, E.; Prabhakaran, D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Matsuhira, K.; Bramwell, S. T.

    2016-07-01

    A non-Ohmic current that grows exponentially with the square root of applied electric field is well known from thermionic field emission (the Schottky effect), electrolytes (the second Wien effect) and semiconductors (the Poole-Frenkel effect). It is a universal signature of the attractive Coulomb force between positive and negative electrical charges, which is revealed as the charges are driven in opposite directions by the force of an applied electric field. Here we apply thermal quenches to spin ice to prepare metastable populations of bound pairs of positive and negative emergent magnetic monopoles at millikelvin temperatures. We find that the application of a magnetic field results in a universal exponential-root field growth of magnetic current, thus confirming the microscopic Coulomb force between the magnetic monopole quasiparticles and establishing a magnetic analogue of the Poole-Frenkel effect. At temperatures above 300 mK, gradual restoration of kinetic monopole equilibria causes the non-Ohmic current to smoothly evolve into the high-field Wien effect for magnetic monopoles, as confirmed by comparison to a recent and rigorous theory of the Wien effect in spin ice. Our results extend the universality of the exponential-root field form into magnetism and illustrate the power of emergent particle kinetics to describe far-from-equilibrium response in complex systems.

  2. Development of semiochemical attractants for monitoring and controlling Chlorophorus caragana.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shixiang; Liu, Xinhai; Cao, Chuanjian; Luo, Youqing; Ren, Lili; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophorus caragana is an important wood-boring pest that infests Caragana korshinskii. The larvae bore into the stems to the point of hollowing them out, causing the whole tree to wither and even die. To control these infestations, volatile compounds were collected from C. korshinskii and used in electroantennography to ascertain which plant semiochemicals could be used to trap adult C. caragana in the field. Isophorone, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, 3-pentanone, dibutyl phthalate, and diisobutyl phthalate were the main volatile compounds produced by C. korshinskii. These compounds induced dose-dependent electrophysiological responses in the antennae of adult C. caragana to some degree. Accordingly, 58 different compound mixtures were tested in field trapping experiments over two consecutive years. Isophorone was most attractive to adult insects. In the field, the best traps were funnel-shaped ones hanging at a height of 1 m. The trapping efficiency was 63.8%. Adult beetles appear between mid June and late August, with an eclosion peak in mid July. The prototype trapping system developed could be used as a tool to monitor and control C. caragana adults.

  3. Retirement Migration as a Community Development Option. Attracting Retirees as a Community Development Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner; Glasgow, Nina L.

    1990-01-01

    Cook explores the feasibility of a strategy to attract retirees to rural areas using amenities, service availability, and cost-of-living factors. Glasgow examines growth in nonmetropolitan retirement counties and considers strategies for community development. (SK)

  4. Halbach Magnetic Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has a wealth of experience in Halbach array technology through the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The goals of the program include improving aircraft efficiency, reliability, and safety. The concept of a Halbach magnetically levitated electric aircraft motor will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels, increase efficiency and reliability, reduce maintenance and decrease operating noise levels. Experimental hardware systems were developed in the GRC Engineering Development Division to validate the basic principles described herein and the theoretical work that was performed. A number of Halbach Magnetic rotors have been developed and tested under this program. A separate test hardware setup was developed to characterize each of the rotors. A second hardware setup was developed to test the levitation characteristics of the rotors. Each system focused around a unique Halbach array rotor. Each rotor required original design and fabrication techniques. A 4 in. diameter rotor was developed to test the radial levitation effects for use as a magnetic bearing. To show scalability from the 4 in. rotor, a 1 in. rotor was developed to also test radial levitation effects. The next rotor to be developed was 20 in. in diameter again to show scalability from the 4 in. rotor. An axial rotor was developed to determine the force that could be generated to position the rotor axially while it is rotating. With both radial and axial magnetic bearings, the rotor would be completely suspended magnetically. The purpose of this report is to document the development of a series of Halbach magnetic rotors to be used in testing. The design, fabrication and assembly of the rotors will be discussed as well as the hardware developed to test the rotors.

  5. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.

  6. High Temperature Superconducting Magnets with Active Control for Attraction Levitation Transport Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Jenkins, Richard G.; Goodall, Roger M.; Macleod, Colin; ElAbbar, Abdallah A.; Campbell, Archie M.

    1996-01-01

    A research program, involving 3 British universities, directed at quantifying the controllability of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnets for use in attraction levitation transport systems will be described. The work includes measurement of loss mechanisms for iron cored HTS magnets which need to produce a flux density of approx. 1 tesla in the airgap between the magnet poles and a ferromagnetic rail. This flux density needs to be maintained and this is done by introducing small variations of the magnet current using a feedback loop, at frequencies up to 10 Hz to compensate for load changes, track variation etc. The test magnet assemblies constructed so far will be described and the studies and modelling of designs for a practical levitation demonstrator (using commercially obtained HTS tape) will be discussed with particular emphasis on how the field distribution and its components, e.g., the component vector normal to the broad face of the tape, can radically affect design philosophy compared to the classical electrical engineering approach. Although specifically aimed at levitation transport the controllability data obtained have implications for a much wider range of applications.

  7. Organic synthesis via magnetic attraction: benign and sustainable protocols using magnetic nanoferrites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic nano-catalysts have been prepared using simple modification of iron ferrites wherein their quasi-homogeneous state, because of nm size range, facilitates the catalysis process as increased surface is available for reaction; the easy separation of the catalysts by externa...

  8. Organic synthesis via magnetic attraction: benign and sustainable protocols using magnetic nanoferrites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic nano-catalysts have been prepared using simple modification of iron ferrites wherein their quasi-homogeneous state, because of nm size range, facilitates the catalysis process as increased surface is available for reaction; the easy separation of the catalysts by externa...

  9. Magnetic Suspension Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin

    1998-01-01

    This Cooperative Agreement, intended to support focused research efforts in the area of magnetic suspension systems, was initiated between NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Old Dominion University (ODU) starting January 1, 1997. The original proposal called for a three-year effort, but funding for the second year proved to be unavailable, leading to termination of the agreement following a 5-month no-cost extension. This report covers work completed during the entire 17-month period of the award. This research built on work that had taken place over recent years involving both NASA LARC and the Principal Investigator (PI). The research was of a rather fundamental nature, although specific applications were kept in mind at all times, such as wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS), space payload pointing and vibration isolation systems, magnetic bearings for unconventional applications, magnetically levitated ground transportation and electromagnetic launch systems. Fundamental work was undertaken in areas such as the development of optimized magnetic configurations, analysis and modelling of eddy current effects, control strategies for magnetically levitated wind tunnel models and system calibration procedures. Despite the termination of this Cooperative Agreement, several aspects of the research work are currently continuing with alternative forms of support.

  10. A peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Ye, Xiongying; Wu, Kang; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a membrane peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls for lab-on-a-chip applications. The fabrication process is based on standard soft lithography technology and bonding of a PDMS layer with a PMMA substrate. A linear flow rate range ∼490 μL/min was obtained by simply varying the rotation speed of a DC motor, and a maximum back pressure of 592 Pa was achieved at a rotation speed of 43 rpm. The flow rate of the pump can also be adjusted by using steel balls with different diameters or changing the number of balls. Nevertheless, the micro pump can also work in high speed mode. A high back pressure up to 10 kPa was achieved at 500 rpm using a high speed DC motor, and an utmost flow rate up to 5 mL/min was reached.

  11. A Peristaltic Micro Pump Driven by a Rotating Motor with Magnetically Attracted Steel Balls

    PubMed Central

    Du, Min; Ye, Xiongying; Wu, Kang; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a membrane peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls for lab-on-a-chip applications. The fabrication process is based on standard soft lithography technology and bonding of a PDMS layer with a PMMA substrate. A linear flow rate range ∼490 μL/min was obtained by simply varying the rotation speed of a DC motor, and a maximum back pressure of 592 Pa was achieved at a rotation speed of 43 rpm. The flow rate of the pump can also be adjusted by using steel balls with different diameters or changing the number of balls. Nevertheless, the micro pump can also work in high speed mode. A high back pressure up to 10 kPa was achieved at 500 rpm using a high speed DC motor, and an utmost flow rate up to 5 mL/min was reached. PMID:22574035

  12. A 2 Tesla Full Scale High Performance Periodic Permanent Magnet Model for Attractive (228 KN) and repulsive Maglev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stekly, Z. J. J.; Gardner, C.; Domigan, P.; Baker, J.; Hass, M.; McDonald, C.; Wu, C.; Farrell, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two 214.5 cm. long high performance periodic (26 cm period) permanent magnet half-assemblies were designed and constructed for use as a wiggler using Nd-B-Fe and vanadium permendur as hard and soft magnetic materials by Field Effects, a division of Intermagnetics General Corporation. Placing these assemblies in a supporting structure with a 2.1 cm pole to pole separation resulted in a periodic field with a maximum value of 2.04 T. This is believed to be the highest field ever achieved by this type of device. The attractive force between the two 602 kg magnet assemblies is 228 kN, providing enough force for suspension of a 45,500 kg vehicle. If used in an attractive maglev system with an appropriate flat iron rail, one assembly will generate the same force with a gap of 1.05 cm leading to a lift to weight ratio of 38.6, not including the vehicle attachment structure. This permanent magnet compares well with superconducting systems which have lift to weight ratios in the range of 5 to 10. This paper describes the magnet assemblies and their measured magnetic performance. The measured magnetic field and resulting attractive magnetic force have a negative spring characteristic. Appropriate control coils are necessary to provide stable operation. The estimated performance of the assemblies in a stable repulsive mode, with eddy currents in a conducting guideway, is also discussed.

  13. History and development of food-based attractants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult tephrids require sugar and protein for survival and for development of eggs, and volatile chemicals from these substances are the basis for food-based lures developed as baits for these pests. In this chapter, we discuss food-based lures that mimic food sources for adults other than host fruit...

  14. Recognition, Development and Correlates of Self-Defined Physical Attractiveness among Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris; Reagan, Mary A.

    A study was conducted to investigate issues related to the development of preschool children's self-definitions of attractiveness. Research questions were (1) At what ages can children state a self-definition of attractiveness? (2) Are self-definitions temporally stable? (3) To what degree are children's self-judgments similar to judgments made of…

  15. Frustrating a correlated superconductor: the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Engelbrecht, Jan R.

    2000-03-01

    At the Mean Field level (G. Murthy and R. Shankar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 7) (1995), the frustration due to an external field first makes the uniform BCS ground state unstable to an incommensurate (qne0) superconducting state and then to a spin-polarized Fermi Liquid state. Our interest is how fluctuations modify this picture, as well as the normal state of this system which has a quantum critical point. We use the Fluctuation-Exchange Approximation for the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model, to study this system beyond the Mean-Field level. Earlier work in zero field has shown that this numerical method successfully captures the critical scaling of the KT superconducting transition upon cooling in the normal state. Here we investigate how the pair-breaking external field modifies this picture, and the development of incommensurate pairing.

  16. The nature and development of sex attractant specificity in cockroaches of the genus Periplaneta. IV. electrophysiological study of attractant specificity and its determination by juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Schafer, R

    1977-02-01

    The antennae of male Periplaneta americana acquire a large number of olfactory receptors at the adult stage. Electrophysiological methods (single unit and electroantennogram recording) show that a portion of the receptors added at the adult ecdysis are sex attractant receptors. Sex attractant receptors are not present in large numbers on larval and adult female antennae. The differentiation of pheromone receptors is inhibited during normal larval development by juvenile hormone. Topical application of juvenile hormone-mimic to male antennae during the terminal larval instar inhibits their development. Comparative electrophysiological studies indicate a high degree of cross-reactivity of the P. americana sex attractant among four other species within the genus Periplaneta.

  17. Enduring Attraction: America’s Dependence On and Need to Secure Its Supply of Permanent Magnets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    copper, zinc , and chrome) and even greater than several precious metals (gold, silver, and platinum).7 Nevertheless, these deposits are not...traditional ferrite magnet, a NdFeB magnet has over ten times the magnetic energy product.14 Accordingly, a much smaller amount of magnet is required for any

  18. Enduring Attraction: America’s Dependence on and Need to Secure Its Supply of Permanent Magnets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    earth‟s crust, about the same as some major industrial metals (copper, zinc , and chrome) and even greater than several precious metals (gold, silver...powerful commercial magnet available. Compared to an equal mass of traditional ferrite magnet, a NdFeB magnet has over ten times the magnetic energy

  19. Developing Students' Ideas about Magnets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a series of activities designed to encourage fourth to sixth-grade students to develop their conceptions of magnets. Through scaffolding activities and facilitation from the teacher, students will be able to generate, evaluate, and refine their explanations for how magnets work. Students can gradually develop sophisticated…

  20. Developing Students' Ideas about Magnets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a series of activities designed to encourage fourth to sixth-grade students to develop their conceptions of magnets. Through scaffolding activities and facilitation from the teacher, students will be able to generate, evaluate, and refine their explanations for how magnets work. Students can gradually develop sophisticated…

  1. An Active Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Joseph C.; Buzzelli, Cary

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit on magnetism that utilizes hands-on activities in which students make hypotheses for discrepant behavior, discover whether a magnet attracts one object through another, measure the strength of magnets, explore levitating paper clips, and play a game dependent on magnetic attraction. (MDH)

  2. Economically attractive route for the preparation of high quality magnetic nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Fernando B; Couto, Ricardo A; Kiyohara, Pedro K; Machado, Giovanna; Masunaga, Sueli H; Jardim, Renato F; Rossi, Liane M

    2017-03-17

    The thermal decomposition (TD) methods are among the most successful in obtaining magnetic nanoparticles with a high degree of control of size and narrow particle size distribution. Here we investigated the TD of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine, and a series of alcohols in order to disclose their role and also investigate economically attractive alternatives for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles without compromising their size and shape control. We have found that some affordable and reasonably less priced alcohols, such as 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, may replace the commonly used and expensive 1,2-hexadecanediol, providing an economically attractive route for the synthesis of high quality magnetic nanoparticles. The relative cost for the preparation of Fe3O4 NPs is reduced to only 21% and 9% of the original cost when using 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, respectively.

  3. Economically attractive route for the preparation of high quality magnetic nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effenberger, Fernando B.; Couto, Ricardo A.; Kiyohara, Pedro K.; Machado, Giovanna; Masunaga, Sueli H.; Jardim, Renato F.; Rossi, Liane M.

    2017-03-01

    The thermal decomposition (TD) methods are among the most successful in obtaining magnetic nanoparticles with a high degree of control of size and narrow particle size distribution. Here we investigated the TD of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine, and a series of alcohols in order to disclose their role and also investigate economically attractive alternatives for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles without compromising their size and shape control. We have found that some affordable and reasonably less priced alcohols, such as 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, may replace the commonly used and expensive 1,2-hexadecanediol, providing an economically attractive route for the synthesis of high quality magnetic nanoparticles. The relative cost for the preparation of Fe3O4 NPs is reduced to only 21% and 9% of the original cost when using 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, respectively.

  4. Developing photoreceptor-based models of visual attraction in riverine tsetse, for use in the engineering of more-attractive polyester fabrics for control devices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Riverine tsetse transmit the parasites that cause the most prevalent form of human African trypanosomiasis, Gambian HAT. In response to the imperative for cheap and efficient tsetse control, insecticide-treated ‘tiny targets’ have been developed through refinement of tsetse attractants based on blue fabric panels. However, modern blue polyesters used for this purpose attract many less tsetse than traditional phthalogen blue cottons. Therefore, colour engineering polyesters for improved attractiveness has great potential for tiny target development. Because flies have markedly different photoreceptor spectral sensitivities from humans, and the responses of these photoreceptors provide the inputs to their visually guided behaviours, it is essential that polyester colour engineering be guided by fly photoreceptor-based explanations of tsetse attraction. To this end, tsetse attraction to differently coloured fabrics was recently modelled using the calculated excitations elicited in a generic set of fly photoreceptors as predictors. However, electrophysiological data from tsetse indicate the potential for modified spectral sensitivities versus the generic pattern, and processing of fly photoreceptor responses within segregated achromatic and chromatic channels has long been hypothesised. Thus, I constructed photoreceptor-based models explaining the attraction of G. f. fuscipes to differently coloured tiny targets recorded in a previously published investigation, under differing assumptions about tsetse spectral sensitivities and organisation of visual processing. Models separating photoreceptor responses into achromatic and chromatic channels explained attraction better than earlier models combining weighted photoreceptor responses in a single mechanism, regardless of the spectral sensitivities assumed. However, common principles for fabric colour engineering were evident across the complete set of models examined, and were consistent with earlier work. Tools for

  5. Enduring Attraction: America’s Dependence On and Need to Secure Its Supply of Permanent Magnets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    actually relatively abundant throughout the earth’s crust, about the same as some major industrial metals (copper, zinc , and chrome) and even greater than...an equal mass of traditional ferrite magnet, an NdFeB magnet has over 10 times the magnetic energy product.14 Accordingly, a much smaller amount of

  6. Flywheel Magnetic Suspension Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Sifford, Curtiss; Thomas, Erwin; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Provenza, Andrew; Kascak, Albert; Montague, Gerald; Lei, Shuliang; Kim, Yeonkyu; Sun, Guangyoung; Chon, ChonHee; Tucker, Randy; Preuss, Jason; Li, Ming; Minihan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of many areas of the flywheel magnetic suspension (MS) R&D being performed at the Texas A&M Vibration Control and Electromechanics Lab (TAMU-VCEL). This includes system response prediction, actuator optimization and redundancy, controller realizations and stages, sensor enhancements and backup bearing reliability.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z.; Suh, B.J.; Roukes, M.L.; Midzor, M.; Wigen, P.E.; Childress, J.R.

    1999-06-03

    Our objectives were to develop the Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope (MRFM) into an instrument capable of scientific studies of buried structures in technologically and scientifically important electronic materials such as magnetic multilayer materials. This work resulted in the successful demonstration of MRFM-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a microscopic characterization tool for thin magnetic films. Strong FMR spectra obtained from microscopic Co thin films (500 and 1000 angstroms thick and 40 x 200 microns in lateral extent) allowed us to observe variations in sample inhomogeneity and magnetic anisotropy field. We demonstrated lateral imaging in microscopic FMR for the first time using a novel approach employing a spatially selective local field generated by a small magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet. These successful applications of the MRFM in materials studies provided the basis for our successful proposal to DOE/BES to employ the MRF M in studies of buried interfaces in magnetic materials.

  8. Discovery and Development of Chemical Attractants Used to Trap Pestiferous Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter; Zhang, Qing-He

    2016-07-01

    Chemical attractants for trapping temperate social wasps have been discovered during the screening of chemicals as attractants for flies, the study of pentatomid bug pheromones, and the testing of volatiles of fermented sweet baits. Wasp attraction to these chemicals seems to be related to either food-finding or prey-finding behavior. Of these attractive chemicals, commercial lures marketed in North America for trapping wasps generally contain heptyl butyrate, or the combination of acetic acid and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Heptyl butyrate is a very good attractant for two major pest wasp species in North America and minor wasp pests in the Vespula rufa species group. The combination of acetic acid with isobutanol attracted nearly all North American pest species of social wasps, including yellowjackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula), a hornet (Vespa crabro), and several paper wasps (Polistes spp.). The testing of wasp chemical attractants in different geographic areas demonstrated responses of many wasp taxa and showed a broad potential scope for the marketing of trap lures. Comparisons of compounds structurally similar to isobutanol revealed similar activity with 2-methyl-1-butanol, which is now used commercially because of a vapor pressure that is more favorable than isobutanol for formulations and dispensers. Doses and concentrations needed for good wasp catches were determined for heptyl butyrate, acetic acid, isobutanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol, either formulated in water or dispensed from a controlled release device. Trap designs were developed based on consumer considerations; visual appeal, ease and safety of use, and low environmental impact. The resultant lures and traps are marketed in numerous physical and on-line retail outlets throughout the United States and southern Canada.

  9. Particle size distribution, concentration, and magnetic attraction affect transport of polymer-modified Fe(0) nanoparticles in sand columns.

    PubMed

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Kim, Hye-Jin; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Illangasekare, Tissa; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2009-07-01

    The effect of particle concentration, size distribution (polydispersity) and magnetic attractive forces (Fe(0) content) on agglomeration and transport of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) modified NZVI was studied in water-saturated sand (d(p) = 300 microm) columns. Particle concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 6 g/L in 5 mM NaCl/5 mM NaHCO3 at a pore water velocity of 3.2 x 10(-4) m/s. Three NZVI dispersions with different intrinsic particle size distributions obtained from sequential sedimentation are compared. The influence of magnetic attraction (Fe(0) content) on NZVI agglomeration and deposition in porous media is assessed by comparing the deposition behavior of PSS-modified NZVI (magnetic) having different Fe(0) contents with PSS-modified hematite (nonmagnetic) with the same surface modifier. At low particle concentration (30 mg/L) all particles were mobile in sand columns regardless of size or magnetic attractive forces. At high concentration (1 to 6 g/L), deposition of the relatively monodisperse dispersion containing PSS-modified NZVI (hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) = 24 nm) with the lowest Fe(0) content (4 wt%) is low (attachment efficiency (alpha) = 2.5 x 10(-3)), insensitive to particle concentration, and similar to PSS-modified hematite. At 1 to 6 g/L, the attachment efficiency of polydisperse dispersions containing both primary particles and sintered aggregates (R(H) from 15 to 260 nm) of PSS-modified NZVI with a range of Fe(0) content (10-60%) is greater (alpha = 1.2 x 10(-2) to 7.2 x 10(-2) and is sensitive to particle size distribution. The greater attachment for larger, more polydisperse Fe(0) nanoparticles with higher Fe(0) content is a result of their agglomeration during transport in porous media because the magnetic attractive force between particles increases with the sixth power of particle/agglomerate radius. A filtration model that considers agglomeration in porous media and subsequent deposition explains the observed transport of polydisperse PSS

  10. Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers: Background Report for the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Wilcox, Danielle; Palmaffy, Tyce; Tracy, Christopher; Yiamouyiannis, Zeus; Ostermeier, Amy; Garcia, Lenore Yaffee

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a balanced picture of the debate on teacher quality in the U.S. and focuses on the aspects of teacher policy dealing with attracting, recruiting, developing and retaining effective teachers by synthesizing relevant research, identifying innovative and successful policy practices, facilitating exchanges of lessons among…

  11. [Development and transition of magnetic attachments--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Hirata, M

    1997-12-01

    In the 1950 s, a new method of using magnets for the retainers of removable partial dentures (RPDs) was developed. It utilized magnetic attractive force instead of mechanical friction. However, the magnets used in those days were Alnico, Ferrite and/or Pt-Cobalt magnets and their retentive force was not strong enough to stabilize the dentures. Therefore, they gradually went out of use. In the middle of the 1970 s, Samarium Cobalt magnets, which have strong magnetic characteristics, were developed and introduced into dental field. In 1976, Sasaki first applied the samarium cobalt magnets to the retainers of PPDs. While in 1981, Mizutani, et al. first used well-fitted ferromagnetic alloy and the magnet for the purpose of stabilizing the RPD. Since then, many researchers have developed devices such as the magnetic retainer and the closed field magnetic attachment placed on the market in 1992. Now, as for the popular retainer of RPD, one can easily use a smaller yet stronger magnetic attachment which uses Neodium rather than Samarium Cobalt magnet.

  12. Feasibility of using high temperature superconducting magnets and conventional magnetic loop antennas to attract or repel objects at the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randhawa, Manjit S.

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken to see if magnetic forces can be used at the Space Station to attract or repel spacecrafts such as the Orbital Manuevering Vehicle (OMV) or the Orbiter. A large magnet, in the form of a current loop, is assumed to be placed at the Space Station and another one on the spacecraft. The expression for the force between the two dipoles (loops) is obtained. Using a force of 15 Newtons (3.4 pounds) in order to move the spacecraft, the number of ampere-turn needed in the current loops was calculated at various distances between them. The expression for the force of attraction between a current loop and a soft magnetic material was also examined and the number of amp-turn needed to provide a force of one-tenth of a pound at various distances is also calculated. This one tenth of a pound force would be used in a life line system for the retrieval of an adrift crewman or tool at the Space Station. The feasibility of using conventional antenna on the Station and the incoming vehicle for attraction or repulsion was also examined.

  13. Feasibility of using high temperature superconducting magnets and conventional magnetic loop antennas to attract or repel objects at the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randhawa, Manjit S.

    1989-02-01

    A study was undertaken to see if magnetic forces can be used at the Space Station to attract or repel spacecrafts such as the Orbital Manuevering Vehicle (OMV) or the Orbiter. A large magnet, in the form of a current loop, is assumed to be placed at the Space Station and another one on the spacecraft. The expression for the force between the two dipoles (loops) is obtained. Using a force of 15 Newtons (3.4 pounds) in order to move the spacecraft, the number of ampere-turn needed in the current loops was calculated at various distances between them. The expression for the force of attraction between a current loop and a soft magnetic material was also examined and the number of amp-turn needed to provide a force of one-tenth of a pound at various distances is also calculated. This one tenth of a pound force would be used in a life line system for the retrieval of an adrift crewman or tool at the Space Station. The feasibility of using conventional antenna on the Station and the incoming vehicle for attraction or repulsion was also examined.

  14. Science Can Be Attractive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties of neodymium magnets and magnets in general and how magnets can be used to teach students important scientific principles, such as attraction, repulsion, and polarity; the role of magnetic forces in electronic communications and computers; the magnetic properties of the earth and compasses; and the relationship between…

  15. Science Can Be Attractive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties of neodymium magnets and magnets in general and how magnets can be used to teach students important scientific principles, such as attraction, repulsion, and polarity; the role of magnetic forces in electronic communications and computers; the magnetic properties of the earth and compasses; and the relationship between…

  16. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    DOEpatents

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  17. Attracting Diverse Students to a Magnet School: Risking Aspirations or Swallowing One's Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Amanda; Shoho, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    This case study focuses on the ethics of advocating for a social justice perspective versus jeopardizing one's career aspirations. There are numerous subplots to this case involving the start-up of a new magnet school, including its leaders' concerns for meeting accountability measures and representing racially diverse, limited English proficient,…

  18. How Magnets Attract and Repel: Interessement in a Technology Commercialization Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinuzzi, Clay; Nelson, Scott; Thomson, Keela S.; Lorenzini, Francesca; French, Rosemary A.; Pogue, Gregory; London, Noelle

    2016-01-01

    K6015, a South Korean firm seeking to commercialize its magnet technology in the US market, entered a technology commercialization training program structured as a competition. Through this program, K6015 (and others in the program) used several genres to progressively interest different sets of stakeholders. To understand how K6015 applied these…

  19. How Magnets Attract and Repel: Interessement in a Technology Commercialization Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinuzzi, Clay; Nelson, Scott; Thomson, Keela S.; Lorenzini, Francesca; French, Rosemary A.; Pogue, Gregory; London, Noelle

    2016-01-01

    K6015, a South Korean firm seeking to commercialize its magnet technology in the US market, entered a technology commercialization training program structured as a competition. Through this program, K6015 (and others in the program) used several genres to progressively interest different sets of stakeholders. To understand how K6015 applied these…

  20. Attracting Diverse Students to a Magnet School: Risking Aspirations or Swallowing One's Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Amanda; Shoho, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    This case study focuses on the ethics of advocating for a social justice perspective versus jeopardizing one's career aspirations. There are numerous subplots to this case involving the start-up of a new magnet school, including its leaders' concerns for meeting accountability measures and representing racially diverse, limited English proficient,…

  1. Magnetic attraction leading to a small bowel obstruction in a child.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Stephen J; Torgenson, Marcus; Holsti, Maija; Black, Richard E

    2007-12-01

    Foreign body ingestion in small children is common yet only 1% of cases require operative management of associated complications (Arana et al. in Eur J Pediatr 160:468-472, 2001). A 6-year-old boy was referred to our institution with a 12 h history of abdominal pain. This pain was diffuse and crampy in nature and associated with multiple episodes of non-bilious, non-bloody emesis. On evaluation he was stable and his abdomen demonstrated slight distention and tenderness without peritoneal signs. Plain abdominal radiographs demonstrated some distended loops of small bowel and a radio-opaque foreign object within the mid-abdomen. A small bowel obstruction secondary to foreign body ingestion was diagnosed and an emergent laparotomy performed. Upon exploration, a transition zone was noted near the ileocecal valve. Further exploration revealed the obstruction to be caused secondary to the apposition of two small (8 mm) magnets, one in the proximal ileum and the other near the ileocecal valve, resulting in an internal hernia. The magnets were easily separated relieving the obstruction and both were removed via two small bowel enterotomies. After being presented with the magnets, his parents suspected that they came from the clothes of a Polly Pocket (Mattel, Inc., El Segundo, CA) doll. The patient had an uneventful post-operative course and was discharged to home on the second post-operative day. This case demonstrates the complications that may occur with multiple magnet ingestion. It highlights the need for close observation and early surgical intervention in children with a suspected history of foreign body ingestion, a clinical picture of gastrointestinal distress, and radiographic evidence of a radio-opaque foreign object.

  2. Static and dynamic phases for magnetic vortex matter with attractive and repulsive interactions.

    PubMed

    Drocco, J A; Olson Reichhardt, C J; Reichhardt, C; Bishop, A R

    2013-08-28

    Exotic vortex states with long range attraction and short range repulsion have recently been proposed to arise in certain superconducting hybrid structures such as type-I/type-II layered systems as well as multi-band superconductors. In previous work it has been shown that such systems can form clump or phase separated states, but little is known about how they behave in the presence of pinning and under an applied drive. Using large scale simulations we examine the static and dynamic properties of such vortex states interacting with random and periodic pinning. In the absence of pinning this system does not form patterns but instead undergoes complete phase separation. When pinning is present there is a transition from inhomogeneous to homogeneous vortex configurations similar to a wetting phenomenon. Under an applied drive, a dynamical dewetting process can occur from a strongly pinned homogeneous state into pattern forming states, such as moving stripes that are aligned with the direction of drive or moving labyrinth or clump phases. We show that a signature of the exotic vortex interactions observable with transport measurements is a robust double peak feature in the differential resistance curves. Our results should be valuable for determining whether such vortex interactions are occurring in these systems and also for addressing the general problem of systems with competing interactions in the presence of random and periodic pinning.

  3. Plain s-Wave Superconductivity near Magnetic Criticality: Enhancement of Attractive Electron-Boson Coupling Vertex Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazai, Rina; Yamakawa, Youichi; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Recent experiments revealed that the plain s-wave state without any sign-reversal emerges in various metals near magnetic criticality. To understand this counter-intuitive phenomenon, we study the gap equation for the multiorbital Hubbard-Holstein model, by analyzing the vertex correction (VC) due to the higher-order electron-correlation effects. We find that the phonon-mediated orbital fluctuations are magnified by the VC for the susceptibility (χ-VC). In addition, the charge-channel attractive interaction is enlarged by the VC for the coupling-constant (U-VC), which is significant when the interaction has prominent q-dependences; therefore the Migdal theorem fails. Due to both χ-VC and U-VC, the plain s-wave state is caused by the small electron-phonon interaction near the magnetic criticality against the repulsive Coulomb interaction. We find that the direct Coulomb repulsion for the plain s-wave Cooper pair is strongly reduced by the "multiorbital screening effect".

  4. Development of semiochemical attractants for monitoring bean seed beetle, Bruchus rufimanus.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Toby J A; Martin, Janet L; Smart, Lesley E; Pickett, John A

    2011-10-01

    Bruchus rufimanus is a serious pest of field beans. The objective here was to develop a semiochemical-baited trapping system to facilitate monitoring of the pest. Volatile compounds that were electrophysiologically active with the antennae of B. rufimanus females were identified from headspace samples of Vicia faba flowers and from male B. rufimanus. Selected headspace samples and synthetic compounds were tested in olfactometer bioassays. The semiochemicals were then formulated in lures for traps and evaluated in a field trapping experiment. Cone traps baited with a three-component blend of floral volatiles, releasing (R)-linalool (17.7 mg day(-1)), cinnamyl alcohol (0.4 mg day(-1)) and cinnamaldehyde (0.77 mg day(-1)), caught significantly more of both sexes of B. rufimanus than unbaited control traps. A male volatile, 1-undecene, was EAG active with female antennae. It was attractive to females in an olfactometer, indicating that it is a sex pheromone. However, in the field it only enhanced trap catches if it was released together with the floral volatiles. The blends of semiochemicals identified were shown to be attractive in cone traps under field conditions. The prototype trapping system developed could be used as a monitoring tool to determine infestation levels of B. rufimanus in bean fields. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Visual attraction in Drosophila larvae develops during a critical period and is modulated by crowding conditions.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Zoe; Sundby, Kelsey; Glier, Sarah; McDaniels, Jennifer; Nystrom, Taylor; Mukherjee, Suvadip; Acton, Scott T; Condron, Barry

    2015-10-01

    The development of social behavior is poorly understood. Many animals adjust their behavior to environmental conditions based on a social context. Despite having relatively simple visual systems, Drosophila larvae are capable of identifying and are attracted to the movements of other larvae. Here, we show that Drosophila larval visual recognition is encoded by the movements of nearby larvae, experienced during a specific developmental critical period. Exposure to moving larvae, only during a specific period, is sufficient for later visual recognition of movement. Larvae exposed to wild-type body movements, during the critical period, are not attracted to the movements of tubby mutants, which have altered morphology. However, exposure to tubby, during the critical period, results in tubby recognition at the expense of wild-type recognition indicating that this is true learning. Visual recognition is not learned in excessively crowded conditions, and this is emulated by exposure, during the critical period, to food previously used by crowded larvae. We propose that Drosophila larvae have a distinct critical period, during which they assess both social and resource conditions, and that this irreversibly determines later visually guided social behavior. This model provides a platform towards understanding the regulation and development of social behavior.

  6. Implementation of ELECTRE Method in Determining the Priority of a Sustainable Tourist Attraction Development in Gorontalo Regency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawir, S.; Manda, R.; Rahman, T.; Fatmah, A. U.

    2017-03-01

    Prioritizing the development of a tourist attraction in Gorontalo regency is necessary, due to the limited budget allocation and the spread of tourist attractions that make it difficult to managed and supervised. Decision support system (DSS) that implementing Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) such as Elimination Et Choix Traduisant La Realite (ELECTRE) method is required to assist the local government to make decision what kind of tourist attraction is the priority to developed. The purpose of this research is to help the local government in determine the priority of a sustainable tourist attraction development in Gorontalo regency. ELECTRE method is used to assess and rank the tourist attractions based on the advantages and disadvantages trough paired comparison on the same criteria. The process of collecting data is through interviews and literature review. The calculations of ELECTRE method obtained that the Reksonegoro Tourism Village or Soekarno Landing Site Museum is the most potential tourist attraction to be a priority for sustainable development. The result is provided sensible and straightforward rankings and, importantly, the decision makers more objective in determining the priority of a sustainable tourist attractions development.

  7. Rules of Attraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles.

    Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  8. Rules of Attraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles.

    Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  9. Attracting, Developing, and Maintaining Human Capital: A New Model for Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development," a 2011 book by Timothy Bartik, Senior Economist at the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, provides a new evidence-based approach for effective economic development. This approach is designed to support business growth and job creation by improving…

  10. Vancomycin-sensitive bacteria trigger development of colitis-associated colon cancer by attracting neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuriko; Ito, Sachiko; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease confers an increased risk of developing colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). During the active colitis or developing tumor stage, commensal bacteria show dynamic translocation. However, whether alteration of the bacterial composition in the gut causes CAC is still unclear. To clarify the effect of commensal bacteria on CAC development, we employed an azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine CAC model treated with or without antibiotics. In addition, we analyzed the effects of antibiotics on infiltration of myeloid cells, colonic inflammatory responses, and colorectal cancer formation. We found that vancomycin treatment dramatically suppressed tumor development. In addition, AOM/DSS treatment greatly induced the infiltration of Gr-1high/CD11bhigh neutrophils to the colon, which led to the production of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Vancomycin treatment suppressed the infiltration of neutrophils induced by AOM/DSS. Moreover, vancomycin treatment greatly reduced the colon injury and DNA damage caused by AOM/DSS-induced NO radicals. Our results indicate that vancomycin-sensitive bacteria induced colon inflammation and DNA damage by attracting neutrophils into damaged colon tissue, thus promoting tumor formation. PMID:27050089

  11. Vancomycin-sensitive bacteria trigger development of colitis-associated colon cancer by attracting neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuriko; Ito, Sachiko; Isobe, Ken-ichi

    2016-04-06

    Inflammatory bowel disease confers an increased risk of developing colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). During the active colitis or developing tumor stage, commensal bacteria show dynamic translocation. However, whether alteration of the bacterial composition in the gut causes CAC is still unclear. To clarify the effect of commensal bacteria on CAC development, we employed an azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine CAC model treated with or without antibiotics. In addition, we analyzed the effects of antibiotics on infiltration of myeloid cells, colonic inflammatory responses, and colorectal cancer formation. We found that vancomycin treatment dramatically suppressed tumor development. In addition, AOM/DSS treatment greatly induced the infiltration of Gr-1(high)/CD11b(high) neutrophils to the colon, which led to the production of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Vancomycin treatment suppressed the infiltration of neutrophils induced by AOM/DSS. Moreover, vancomycin treatment greatly reduced the colon injury and DNA damage caused by AOM/DSS-induced NO radicals. Our results indicate that vancomycin-sensitive bacteria induced colon inflammation and DNA damage by attracting neutrophils into damaged colon tissue, thus promoting tumor formation.

  12. Development of portable superconducting bulk magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saho, N.; Nishijima, N.; Tanaka, H.; Sasaki, A.

    2009-10-01

    Recently a magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) has been developing to navigate magnetic seeded drugs around diseased parts of the human body. To improve the magnetic drug delivery performance, a portable high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet system with high magnetic fields has been developed. This magnet system mainly consists of small bulk high temperature superconductors and a compact cryocooler. The materials of the high temperature superconductor are rare earth 123 single domain compounds (Gd-Ba-Cu-O). The bulk magnet was activated successfully using field-cooling magnetization under the superconducting solenoid magnet. The magnetic flux densities at the surface of the vacuum chambers that contain bulk magnets reached 5.07 T and 6.76 T using the static magnetic fields of 6 T and 10 T superconducting solenoid magnets, respectively. A cryocooler cooled them to 38.1 K and 39.1 K. It was clarified that the magnetic gradient was approximately 10 T/m at a position located 50 mm from the surface of the vacuum chambers.

  13. Attracting, Retaining, and Developing Quality Teachers in Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This collection of articles gathers reprinted materials on teacher attraction and retention for small and rural school districts. The material is organized in two sections: (1) Attracting and Retaining Quality Teachers and (2) Challenging and Enriching Current Staff. Reprints from a number of publications present strategies for addressing the…

  14. Development of an improved attractive lure for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Peter de Groot; Stephen Burke; David Wakarchuk; Robert A. Haack; Reginald Nott; Taylor Scarr

    2003-01-01

    1) The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic pest of pine, Pinus spp., and was first discovered in North America in 1992. 2) Although primary attraction to host volatiles has been clearly demonstrated for T. piniperda, the existence and role of secondary attraction to...

  15. Development of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering model of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel was designed, fabricated, and tested under laboratory conditions. The basic unit consisted of two magnet bearings, a sculptured aluminum rotor, brushless dc spin motor, and electronics. The magnet bearings, utilizing rare-earth cobltrat-samarium magnets were active radially and passive axially. The results of the program showed that momentum wheels with magnetic bearings are feasible and operable, and that magnetic bearings of this type are capable of being used for applications where high capacity, high stiffness, and low power consumption are required. The tests performed developed criteria for improved performance for future designs.

  16. Development of a mosquito attractant blend of small molecules against host-seeking Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Saratha, R; Mathew, Nisha

    2016-04-01

    A mosquito's dependence on olfaction in the hunt for human host could be efficiently exploited to protect humans from mosquito bites. The present study is undertaken to make the most attractant compound blend for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to lure them to traps. Eleven molecules (M1-M11) at different dilutions were screened for attractancy against non-blood-fed adult female mosquitoes in an olfactometer. The results showed that the attractancy was dependent on both the chemical nature of the molecule and the strength of the odor. Out of 11 molecules screened, 9 showed significant attractancy (P < 0.05) when tested individually. The attractancy was in the order of M11 > M7 > M6 > M10 > M9 > M3 > M2 > M1 > M4 with attractancy indices (AIs) 86.11, 55.93, 55.17, 54, 52.94, 52, 50, 43.64, and 32, respectively, at the optimum dilutions. Seven blends (I-VII) were made and were screened for attractancy against Ae. aegypti. All the blends showed significant attractancy (P < 0.05). The attractancy was in the order of blend VII > III > IV > I > VI > V > II with AIs 96.63, 89.19, 65, 57.89, 56.1, 47.13, and 44.44, respectively. Among the seven blends, blend VII with constituent molecules M6, M9, M10, and M11 is the most promising with an AI value of 96.63. This blend will be useful in luring the host-seeking mosquitoes to traps. The field efficacy of these attractant blends may be explored in the future.

  17. Present Status of the KSTAR Superconducting Magnet System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keeman; H, K. Park; K, R. Park; B, S. Lim; S, I. Lee; M, K. Kim; Y, Chu; W, H. Chung; S, H. Baek; J Y, Choi; H, Yonekawa; A, Chertovskikh; Y, B. Chang; J, S. Kim; C, S. Kim; D, J. Kim; N, H. Song; K, P. Kim; Y, J. Song; I, S. Woo; W, S. Han; D, K. Lee; Y, K. Oh; K, W. Cho; J, S. Park; G, S. Lee; H, J. Lee; T, K. Ko; S, J. Lee

    2004-10-01

    The mission of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) project is to develop an advanced steady-state superconducting tokamak for establishing a scientific and technological basis for an attractive fusion reactor. Because one of the KSTAR mission is to achieve a steady-state operation, the use of superconducting coils is an obvious choice for the magnet system. The KSTAR superconducting magnet system consists of 16 Toroidal Field (TF) coils and 14 Poloidal Field (PF) coils. Internally-cooled Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are put into use in both the TF and PF coil systems. The TF coil system provides a field of 3.5 T at the plasma center and the PF coil system is able to provide a flux swing of 17 V-sec. The major achievement in KSTAR magnet-system development includes the development of CICC, the development of a full-size TF model coil, the development of a coil system for background magnetic-field generation, the construction of a large-scale superconducting magnet and CICC test facility. TF and PF coils are in the stage of fabrication to pave the way for the scheduled completion of KSTAR by the end of 2006.

  18. Development and implementation of attractiveness Level E criteria and the plutonium disposition methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Robinson, M.A.

    1998-03-01

    Historically, the Department of Energy used the Economic Discard Limits (EDLs), those Special Nuclear Material (SNM) concentrations in residue matrices below which production of new SNM was more economic than SNM recovery, as a basis for discard decisions. In 1994, a joint team from DOE Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Management (EM) determined that the EDLs were no longer a valid discriminator and directed that SNM disposition consider instead 12 specific criteria, foremost of which are waste minimization, environmental impacts, safety, proliferation concerns, and cost. In response, the Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a technical basis for determining SNM bearing materials unattractive for proliferation purposes and a quantitative method for predicting materials disposition consequences as a basis for decision making called the plutonium disposition methodology. The objective of attractiveness Level E criteria is to insure that waste is unattractive for proliferation or terrorist purposes. Level E criteria is about 0.17 kg Pu per 208 liter drum (requiring diversion of a minimum of 54 drums, assuming 100% recovery efficiency).

  19. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2015-09-01

    This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the 'waste handling and disposal sector' (13) over the past ten years (2004-2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO2eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves 'not financially attractive' without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bufoni, André Luiz

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects.

  1. Perception study about visitors related to development of Rowo Bayu attractions in Kecamatan Songgon Banyuwangi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahayu, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The development of tourism was a process of sustainability, and it was not stand-alone activity because it must involve various sectors. Tourism planning must take into consideration the existing condition and supporting capacity because it should create a long-term mutual interaction in achieving goals such as increasing community welfare and ensuring the sustainability of environmental supporting capacity in the future. Rowo Bayu Tourist Object was greatly potential to be developed into historical and also natural objects of scenery. Some historical heritages of Tawangalun Palace were exposed beautifully by the marsh and this situation could be cultivated into water-based tourism. However, Rowo Bayu Tourist Object still lacked of supporting facilities such as security post, parking lot, cleaning service, prayer house, and others that led only to the inconvenience of the visitors. In this research, the perception of visitors on importance and satisfaction rates of tourist object-related variables was measured. These variables included attraction, accomodation, accessibility, facility, information, and utility, which were then subjected to the analysis technique of IPA. Result of analysis found 14 attributes that were important for tourist object development but in bad condition. These attributes were: the availability of security guard, the availability of food and beverage providers, the availability of transportation modes to the tourist object, the availability of parking lot, the availability of toilet, the availability of garbage can, the availability of information center, the availability of prayer house, the availability of ATM, the availability of fuel-station (SPBU), the availability of tourist object promotion tools, the availability of tour guide, the availability of electricity, and the signal strength of mobile phones. After IPA was finished, it was followed by AHP analysis.

  2. Attractive action of FGF-signaling contributes to the postnatal developing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cuccioli, V; Bueno, C; Belvindrah, R; Lledo, P-M; Martinez, S

    2015-04-01

    During brain development neural cell migration is a crucial, well-orchestrated, process, which leads to the proper whole brain structural organization. As development proceeds, new neurons are continuously produced, and this protracted neurogenesis is maintained throughout life in specialized germinative areas inside the telencephalon: the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. In the anterior SVZ, newly generated neurons migrate through long distances, along the rostral migratory stream (RMS), before reaching their final destinations in the olfactory bulb (OB). Intriguingly, recent observations pointed out the existence of other postnatal tangential routes of migration alternative to the RMS but still starting from the SVZ. The presence of such dynamic and heterogeneous cell movements contributes to important features in the postnatal brain such as neural cell replacement and plasticity in cortical regions. In this work, we asked whether a caudal migratory pathway starting from the caudal SVZ continues through life. Strikingly, in vivo analysis of this caudal migration revealed the presence of a postnatal contribution of SVZ to the hippocampus. In vitro studies of the caudal migratory stream revealed the role of FGF signaling in attracting caudally the migrating neuroblasts during postnatal stages. Our findings demonstrate a postnatal neuronal contribution from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) CGE-SVZ to the hippocampus through an FGF-dependent migrating mechanism. All together our data emphasizes the emerging idea that a developmental program is still operating in discrete domains of the postnatal brain and may contribute to the regulation of neural cell replacement processes in physiological plasticity and/or pathological circumstances.

  3. Facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. Slip instability development and earthquake nucleation as a dynamical system's fixed-point attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    A fault's transition from slow creep to the propagation of an earthquake-generating dynamic rupture is thought to start as a quasi-static slip instability. Here we examine how such an instability develops on a sliding interface whose strength is governed by a slip rate- and state-dependent friction, where the state variable evolves according to the aging law. We find that the development occurs as the attraction of a dynamical system to a fixed point. The fixed points are such that the state of slip and the rate at which velocity diverges (and its spatial distribution) are known. The fixed points are independent of the manner of external forcing and the values of slip rate and state before the onset of instability. For a fault under uniform normal stress and frictional properties, the sole parameter that determines the fixed point (to within a translational invariance) is the ratio of the frictional parameters, a/b (where, for steady-state rate weakening, 0develop in a chaotic fashion. The fixed-point solutions, as well as the critical thresholds concerning their stability, depend on the configuration of slip (e.g., in/anti-plane or mixed-mode slip) and the elastic environment in which the interface is embedded (e.g., a slip surface between elastic half-spaces or one lying below and parallel to a free surface); solving for a fixed point reduces to the solution of an equivalent problem of an equilibrium slip-weakening fracture; and fixed-point stability is determined by linear stability analysis. Solutions of

  5. Development of an attractant-baited trap for Oxythyrea funesta Poda (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós

    2008-01-01

    In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.

  6. The Appetitive Aggression Scale—development of an instrument for the assessment of human's attraction to violence.

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Roland; Elbert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Several instruments, notably Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire, have been developed for the assessment of aggressive behavior. However, in these instruments, the focus has been on reactive rather than instrumental forms of aggression, even though men in particular may find aggressive behavior attractive. A questionnaire or structured interview for the systematic assessment of the attraction to violence is not yet available. Objective We, therefore, developed a freely available short form for the assessment of a person's attraction to violent and planned forms of aggression based on reports of former combatants on the attraction to violence and the characteristics of instrumental aggression described in the literature. Method The Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) was administered to nine samples drawn from different populations, with a total of 1,632 former combatants and participants from war-affected regions (1,193 male and 439 female respondents). Results From the initial set of 31 items, a selection of 15 items was extracted to improve the scale's psychometric properties and assess the construct of appetitive aggression validly with respect to content. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.85 was appropriate. All items loaded significantly on a single factor accounting for 32% of the total variance. Further analysis revealed that the scale measures a specific construct that can be distinguished from other concepts of human aggression. Conclusions With the AAS, we present an easily administrable tool for the assessment of the attraction to violence. PMID:22893817

  7. The discovery and development of chemical attractants used to trap pestiferous wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Social wasps are a stinging hazard, including in fruit crops where they also do direct feeding damage to trees and fruits, and at tall structures such as towers where some species form mating and overwintering aggregations. Chemical attractants are of use against these wasps as lures for traps and b...

  8. Blending synthetic pheromones of cerambycid beetles to develop trap lures that simultaneously attract multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joseph C H; Mitchell, Robert F; Striman, Becca L; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated attraction of cerambycid beetle species to blends of known cerambycid pheromones to determine whether such blends could be used as effective trap lures for detecting and monitoring multiple species simultaneously. Pheromone-baited traps captured 1,358 cerambycid beetles of which 1,101 (81.1%) belonged to three species in the subfamily Cerambycinae: Neoclytus acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Beetles of these species were significantly attracted to synthetic blends that contained their pheromone components (isomers of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, 2,3-hexanediol, or both), despite the presence of pheromone components of different species, including other isomers of 2,3-hexanediol, (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate, and citral. In some cases, attraction was partially inhibited by the pheromone components of heterospecific species, whereas for N. acuminatus, attraction was completely inhibited when blends contained (2R*,3S*)-hexanediol, the racemic mixture of diastereomers of its pheromone, (2S,3S)-hexanediol. Among the remaining beetles captured were three species in the subfamily Lamiinae: Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman), Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer), and Lepturges angulatus (LeConte). All three lamiine species were previously known to be attracted to (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate and were captured in significant numbers by blends containing that compound. Our results suggest that different types of cerambycid pheromones can be combined to create effective multispecies lures for use in surveillance programs that target exotic cerambycid species.

  9. Development of magnetic eddy current testing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Toyokazu; Suetsugu, Hidehiko

    2017-02-01

    IRIS (Internal Rotary Inspection System) has become a major maintenance inspection technique for the heat exchanger and reactor tubes. It is known that IRIS has a high precision of evaluation thickness, however there are a few disadvantages, such as slow inspection speed. Therefore, we have developed a magnetic eddy current flaw testing technique which combines a magnetic array forming a strong magnetic field, 4 coil structures for controlling the generation area of the eddy currents, and a desorption yoke structure to control the magnetizing force. In this presentation, details of this technique and practical application will be elaborated.

  10. Development of high temperature superconductors for magnetic field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The key requirement for magnetic field applications of high temperature superconductor (HTS) materials is to have conductors with high transport critical current density available for magnet builders. After 3 or 4 years of being without any such object, conductor makers have had recent success in producing simple conductor prototypes. These have permitted the construction of simple HTS magnets having self fields exceeding 1 tesla at 4K. Thus the scientific feasibility of making powerful HTS magnets has been demonstrated. Attention to the technological aspects of making HTS conductors for magnets with strong flux pinning and reduced superconducting granularity is now sensible and attractive. However, extrinsic defects such as filament sausaging, cracking, misaligned grains and other perturbation to long range current flow must be controlled at a low level if the benefit of intrinsic improvements to the critical current density is to be maintained in the conductor form. Due to the great complexity of the HTS materials, there is sometimes confusion as to whether a given sample has an intrinsically or extrinsically limited critical current density. Systematic microstructure variation experiments and resistive transition analysis are shown to be particularly helpful in this phase of conductor development.

  11. Development of high temperature superconductors for magnetic field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The key requirement for magnetic field applications of high temperature superconductor (HTS) materials is to have conductors with high transport critical current density available for magnet builders. After 3 or 4 years of being without any such object, conductor makers have had recent success in producing simple conductor prototypes. These have permitted the construction of simple HTS magnets having self fields exceeding 1 tesla at 4K. Thus the scientific feasibility of making powerful HTS magnets has been demonstrated. Attention to the technological aspects of making HTS conductors for magnets with strong flux pinning and reduced superconducting granularity is now sensible and attractive. However, extrinsic defects such as filament sausaging, cracking, misaligned grains and other perturbation to long range current flow must be controlled at a low level if the benefit of intrinsic improvements to the critical current density is to be maintained in the conductor form. Due to the great complexity of the HTS materials, there is sometimes confusion as to whether a given sample has an intrinsically or extrinsically limited critical current density. Systematic microstructure variation experiments and resistive transition analysis are shown to be particularly helpful in this phase of conductor development.

  12. Development of electroplated magnetic materials for MEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myung, N. V.; Sumadjo, P. T. A.; Park, D. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic materials have thus far found the most utility in magnetic-MEMS, because the technologies necessary for depositing and micromachining them have been well developed previously by the data storage industry.

  13. Development of EPA`s new methods to quantify vector attraction of wastewater sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, J.B.; Bhide, V.; Smith, J.E. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    EPA`s 1979 and 1993 sludge regulations require that sewage sludge be reduced in vector attraction before it can be applied to the land. In the 1979 regulation, satisfactory vector attraction reduction (VAR) could be demonstrated if treatment processes reduced the volatile solids content of sludge by 38%. The 1993 regulation adds two alternative test methods for aerobic sludges for determining whether VAR has been adequate. In the first method, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of the sludge must be <1.5 mg O{sub 2}/hr/g total solids, and in the second method, the additional volatile solids reduction (AVSR) that occurs when the sludge is further digested for 30 days must be <15%. Experimentation with the new tests is described. Comparisons among the three methods showed that the 38% VSR requirement and the SOUR test were equivalent only near 20{degree}C. The AVSR test was more conservative than either of the other tests. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Inland waterway ports nodal attraction indices relevant in development strategies on regional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Burciu, Ş.; Oprea, C.; Ilie, A.; Rosca, M.

    2016-08-01

    Present paper aims to propose a set of ranking indices and related criteria, concerning mainly spatial analysis, for the inland waterway port, with special view on inland ports of Danube. Commonly, the attraction potential of a certain transport node is assessed by its spatial accessibility indices considering both spatial features of the location provided by the networks that connect into that node and its economic potential defining the level of traffic flows depending on the economic centers of its hinterland. Paper starts with a overview of the critical needs that are required for potential sites to become inland waterway ports and presents nodal functions that coexist at different levels, leading to a port hierarchy from the points of view of: capacity, connection to hinterland, traffic structure and volume. After a brief review of the key inland waterway port ranking criterion, a selection of nodal attraction measures is made. Particular considerations for the Danube inland port case follows proposed methodology concerning indices of performance for network scale and centrality. As expected, the shorter the distance from an inland port to the nearest access point the greater accessibility. Major differences in ranking, dependent on selected criterion, were registered.

  15. Development of multistage magnetic deposition microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nath, Pulak; Strelnik, Joseph; Vasanji, Amit; Moore, Lee R; Williams, P Stephen; Zborowski, Maciej; Roy, Shuvo; Fleischman, Aaron J

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic deposition microscropy (MDM) combines magnetic deposition and optical analysis of magnetically tagged cells into a single platform. Our multistage MDM uses enclosed microfabricated channels and a magnet assembly comprising four zones in series. The enclosed channels alleviate the problem plaguing previous versions of MDM: scouring of the cell deposition layer by the air-liquid interface as the channel is drained. The four-zone magnet assembly was designed to maximize capture efficiency, and experiments yielded total capture efficiencies of >99% of fluorescent- and magnetically-labeled Jurkat cells at reasonable throughputs (10(3) cells/min). A digital image processing protocol was developed to measure the average pixel intensities of the deposited cells in different zones, indicative of the marker expression. Preliminary findings indicate that the multistage MDM may be suitable for depositing cells and particles in successive zones according to their magnetic properties (e.g., magnetic susceptibilities or magnetophoretic mobilities). The overall goal is to allow the screening of multiple disease conditions in a single platform.

  16. Minor components in the sex pheromone of legume podborer: Maruca vitrata development of an attractive blend.

    PubMed

    Downham, M C A; Hall, D R; Chamberlain, D J; Cork, A; Farman, D I; Tamò, M; Dahounto, D; Datinon, B; Adetonah, S

    2003-04-01

    The legume podborer, Maruca vitrata (syn. M. testulalis) (F.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pantropical pest of legume crops. Sex pheromone was collected by gland extraction or trapping of volatiles from virgin female moths originating in India, West Africa, or Taiwan. Analysis by GC-EAG and GC-MS confirmed previously published findings that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal is the most abundant EAG-active component with 2-5% of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol also present. At least one other EAG response was detected at retention times typical of monounsaturated hexadecenals or tetradecenyl acetates, but neither could be detected by GC-MS. Laboratory wind-tunnel bioassays and a field bioassay of blends of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal with (E,E )-10,12-hexadecadienol and a range of monounsaturated hexadecenal and tetradecenyl acetate isomers indicated greatest attraction of males was to those including (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol and (E)-10-hexadecenal as minor components. In subsequent trapping experiments in cowpea fields in Benin, traps baited with a three-component blend of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal and these two minor components in a 100:5:5 ratio caught significantly more males than traps baited with the major component alone, either two-component blend, or virgin female moths. Further blend optimization experiments did not produce a more attractive blend. No significant differences in catches were found between traps baited with polyethylene vials or rubber septa, or between lures containing 0.01 and 0.1 mg of synthetic pheromone. Significant numbers of female M. vitrata moths, up to 50% of total catches, were trapped with synthetic blends but not with virgin females. At present there is no clear explanation for this almost unprecedented finding, but the phenomenon may improve the predictive power of traps for population monitoring.

  17. Development of HTS Magnet for Rotating Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaki, Kenji; Koyanagi, Kei; Takayama, S. Shigeki; Ishii, Yusuke; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Ogitsu, Toru; iwata, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    The effectiveness of heavy-ion radiotherapy for cancer treatment has been recognized by medical experts and the public. However, due to the large size of the equipment, this therapy has not been widely adopted. In particular, the rotating gantries used to irradiate patients with the heavy-ion beams from any direction may be as heavy as 600 tons in our estimation. By employing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires in these rotating gantries and increasing the magnetic field generated by the deflecting coils, the total weight of the rotating gantry can be reduced to around the weight of those used for proton radiotherapy. A project for developing an HTS deflecting magnet for heavy-ion radiotherapy has been underway since 2013, supported by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED). The aim of this project is to develop fundamental technologies for designing and fabricating HTS deflecting magnets, such as irregular magnetic field estimating techniques, design technology for HTS magnets, high-precision HTS coil winding technology, AC loss estimating techniques, and thermal runaway estimating techniques and to fabricate a small model of an HTS deflecting magnet and evaluate its performance. In this paper, the project's progress will be described.

  18. [Sexual attraction: its dimensionality].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, María Angeles; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a new Sexual Attraction Questionnaire (SAQ) [Cuestionario de Atracción Sexual, CAS]. The goal was to determine whether sexual attraction could be represented as two different clusters (Attraction to men and Attraction to women), which would imply two negatively correlated factors or a bipolar one. Three studies were carried out with 182, 118, and 425 participants, respectively. Cluster and exploratory factor analyses were performed. The results obtained show satisfactory psychometric properties for the SAQ, the two clusters, and the two predicted negatively related factors or the bipolar factor. Results are discussed in the context of the different conceptions of sexual attraction and the fourfold typology: attracted to both sexes, to men, to women, or to neither sex.

  19. Eigenvalue Attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2016-02-01

    We prove that the complex conjugate (c.c.) eigenvalues of a smoothly varying real matrix attract (Eq. 15). We offer a dynamical perspective on the motion and interaction of the eigenvalues in the complex plane, derive their governing equations and discuss applications. C.c. pairs closest to the real axis, or those that are ill-conditioned, attract most strongly and can collide to become exactly real. As an application we consider random perturbations of a fixed matrix M. If M is Normal, the total expected force on any eigenvalue is shown to be only the attraction of its c.c. (Eq. 24) and when M is circulant the strength of interaction can be related to the power spectrum of white noise. We extend this by calculating the expected force (Eq. 41) for real stochastic processes with zero-mean and independent intervals. To quantify the dominance of the c.c. attraction, we calculate the variance of other forces. We apply the results to the Hatano-Nelson model and provide other numerical illustrations. It is our hope that the simple dynamical perspective herein might help better understanding of the aggregation and low density of the eigenvalues of real random matrices on and near the real line respectively. In the appendix we provide a Matlab code for plotting the trajectories of the eigenvalues.

  20. Attracting Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jay

    1979-01-01

    The artcile answers some questions frequently asked by growing numbers of bird and animal feeders regarding what types of feeders and seed to use and what kinds of birds can be attracted to a given area. It discusses problems which can arise from this enjoyable year-round recreation. (SB)

  1. Attracting Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jay

    1979-01-01

    The artcile answers some questions frequently asked by growing numbers of bird and animal feeders regarding what types of feeders and seed to use and what kinds of birds can be attracted to a given area. It discusses problems which can arise from this enjoyable year-round recreation. (SB)

  2. Proximity detector circuits: an attractive alternative to tunnel diode oscillators for contactless measurements in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Altarawneh, Moaz M; Mielke, Charles H

    2009-01-01

    A new radio frequency oscillator circuit based on a proximity detector integrated circuit is described as an alternative for the traditional tunnel diode oscillator used for pulsed magnetic field measurements at low temperatures. The new circuit has been successfully applied to measure the superconducting upper critical field in Ba{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystfl.ls up to 60 T. The new circuit design avoids many of the problems associated with tunnel diode circuits while keeping the advantages of contact less measurements in pulsed magnets.

  3. Developments in electrical machines using permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, B. J.

    1996-05-01

    The availability of high-field permanent-magnet materials has created opportunities for the development of electrical machines with advantageous properties including high efficiency, compact size, low weight and brushless operation. The paper reports the design and performance of a number of motors and generators which have recently been developed and demonstrated.

  4. Development of a CO2 releasing co-formulation 1 based on starch, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Beauveria bassiana attractive towards western corn rootworm larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CO2 is known as an attractant for many soil-dwelling pests. To implement an attract-and-kill strategy for soil pest control, CO2 emitting formulations need to be developed. This work aimed at the development of a slow release bead system in order to bridge the gap between application and hatching of...

  5. An Application of Project-Based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerdpol, Sakon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a research entitled, " An Application of Project-based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province. It was intended to develop young local tour guides on Tai Phuan's culture and tourist attractions in…

  6. Conductor Development for High Field Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Higley, H.C.

    2000-03-01

    Historically, improvements in dipole magnet performance have been paced by improvements in the superconductor available for use in these magnets. The critical conductor performance parameters for dipole magnets include current density, piece length, effective filament size, and cost. Each of these parameters is important for efficient, cost effective dipoles, with critical current density being perhaps the most important. Several promising magnet designs for the next hadron collider or a muon collider require fields of 12 T or higber, i.e. beyond the reach of NbTi. The conductor options include Nb{sub 3}Sn, Nb{sub 3}Al, or the high temperature superconductors. Although these conductors have the potential to provide the combination of performance and cost required, none of them have been developed sufficiently at this point to satisfy all the requirements. This paper will review the status of each class of advanced conductor and discuss the remaining problems that require solutions before these new conductors can be considered as practical. In particular, the plans for a new program to develop Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al conductors for high energy physics applications will be presented. Also, the development of a multikiloamp Bi-2212 cable for dipole magnet applications will be reported.

  7. Attractiveness and Psychological Development. Teacher Education Forum; Volume 4, Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Robert; Salvia, John

    An investigation of the relationship between appearance and psychological development is presented in this paper. The central hypothesis of the investigation is that appearance is an important stimulus property in the psychological development of children, and as such has an effect on an individual's response to his environment as well as the…

  8. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  9. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  10. Interpersonal Attraction as a Communication Accomplishment: Development of a Measure of Affinity-Seeking Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes five studies that developed and validated a self-report instrument for assessing affinity-seeking skills. Indicates that the Affinity-Seeking Instrument, which is comprised of two scales, (1) has internal consistency, a stable factor structure, and concurrent discriminant validity; and (2) measures social tendencies that are observable…

  11. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles.

  12. Development of a complex floral trait: The pollinator-attracting petal spots of the beetle daisy, Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Meredith M; Rudall, Paula J; Ellis, Allan G; Savolainen, Vincent; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperms possess a variety of complex floral traits that attract animal pollinators. Dark petal spots have evolved independently many times across the angiosperm phylogeny and have been shown to attract insect pollinators from several lineages. Here we present new data on the ontogeny and morphological complexity of the elaborate insect-mimicking petal spots of the South African daisy species, Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), commonly known as the beetle daisy, although it is fly-pollinated. Using light and scanning electron microscopy and histology, we identified three distinct specialized cell types of the petal epidermis that compose the petal spot. Sophisticated patterning of pigments, cuticular elaborations, and multicellular papillate trichomes make the G. diffusa petal spot a uniquely complex three-dimensional floral ornament. Examination of young inflorescence meristems revealed that G. diffusa ray florets develop (and probably also initiate) basipetally, in the opposite direction to the disc florets-a developmental phenomenon that has been found in some other daisies, but which contradicts conventional theories of daisy inflorescence architecture. Using these ontogenetic and morphological data, we have identified the mechanism by which G. diffusa patterns its insect-mimicking petal spots, and we propose a testable model for the genetic regulation of petal spot identity.

  13. Recent developments in lanthanide single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingjing; Guo, Mei; Tang, Jinkui

    2017-09-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) exhibiting slow relaxation of magnetization of purely molecular origin are highly attractive owing to their potential applications in spintronic devices, high-density information storage and quantum computing. Particularly, lanthanide SMMs have been playing a major role in the advancement of this field because of the large intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of lanthanide metal ions. In this Focus Review, some recent breakthroughs that are changing the perspective of the field will be highlighted with special emphasis on the synthetic strategies towards the design of high-performance SMMs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cap mesenchyme cell swarming during kidney development is influenced by attraction, repulsion, and adhesion to the ureteric tip.

    PubMed

    Combes, Alexander N; Lefevre, James G; Wilson, Sean; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Little, Melissa H

    2016-10-15

    Morphogenesis of the mammalian kidney requires reciprocal interactions between two cellular domains at the periphery of the developing organ: the tips of the epithelial ureteric tree and adjacent regions of cap mesenchyme. While the presence of the cap mesenchyme is essential for ureteric branching, how it is specifically maintained at the tips is unclear. Using ex vivo timelapse imaging we show that cells of the cap mesenchyme are highly motile. Individual cap mesenchyme cells move within and between cap domains. They also attach and detach from the ureteric tip across time. Timelapse tracks collected for >800 cells showed evidence that this movement was largely stochastic, with cell autonomous migration influenced by opposing attractive, repulsive and cell adhesion cues. The resulting swarming behaviour maintains a distinct cap mesenchyme domain while facilitating dynamic remodelling in response to underlying changes in the tip. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A diffusible signal attracts olfactory sensory axons toward their target in the developing brain of the moth.

    PubMed

    Oland, Lynne A; Pott, Wendy M; Howard, Charles T; Inlow, Mark; Buckingham, Jocelyn

    2003-07-01

    The signals that olfactory receptor axons use to navigate to their target in the CNS are still not well understood. In the moth Manduca sexta, the primary olfactory pathway develops postembryonically, and the receptor axons navigate from an experimentally accessible sensory epithelium to the brain along a pathway long enough for detailed study of regions in which axon behavior changes. The current experiments ask whether diffusible factors contribute to receptor axon guidance. Explants were made from the antennal receptor epithelium and co-cultured in a collagen gel matrix with slices of various regions of the brain. Receptor axons were attracted toward the central regions of the brain, including the protocerebrum and antennal lobe. Receptor axons growing into a slice of the most proximal region of the antennal nerve, where axon sorting normally occurs, showed no directional preference. When the antennal lobe was included in the slice, the receptor axons entering the sorting region grew directly toward the antennal lobe. Taken together with the previous in vivo experiments, the current results suggest that an attractive diffusible factor can serve as one cue to direct misrouted olfactory receptor axons toward the medial regions of the brain, where local cues guide them to the antennal lobe. They also suggest that under normal circumstances, in which the receptor axons follow a pre-existing pupal nerve to the antennal lobe, the diffusible factor emanating from the lobe acts in parallel and at short range to maintain the fidelity of the path into the antennal lobe. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 56: 24-40, 2003

  16. Development of superconducting magnet systems for HIFExperiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbi, Gian Luca; Faltens, A.; Leitzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Martovets ky, N.; Chiesa, L.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Hwang, P.; Hinson, W.; Meinke, R.

    2004-07-27

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing superconducting focusing quadrupoles for near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. Following the fabrication and testing of several models, a baseline quadrupole design was selected and further optimized. The first prototype of the optimized design achieved a conductor-limited gradient of 132 T/m in a 70 mm bore, with measured field harmonics within 10 parts in 10{sup 4}. In parallel, a compact focusing doublet was fabricated and tested using two of the first-generation quadrupoles. After assembly in the cryostat, both magnets reached their conductor-limited quench current. Further optimization steps are currently underway to improve the performance of the magnet system and reduce its cost. They include the fabrication and testing of a new prototype quadrupole with reduced field errors as well as improvements of the cryostat design for the focusing doublet. The prototype units will be installed in the HCX beamline at LBNL, to perform accelerator physics experiments and gain operational experience. Successful results in the present phase will make superconducting magnets a viable option for the next generation of integrated beam experiments.

  17. The Changing Attractiveness of European Higher Education in the Next Decade: Current Developments, Future Challenges and Major Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the different senses of the attractiveness of European systems and institutions for students, academics, the labour market and the economy, drawing attention to emergent tensions between different university stakeholders. Universities not only need to be attractive to increasingly differentiated student populations, but…

  18. Development of magnetic device for cell separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haik, Yousef; Pai, Vinay; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1999-04-01

    A magnetic device that separates red blood cells from the whole blood on a continuous basis is presented. The device utilizes permanent magnets in alternating spatial arrangements. Red blood cells are coupled with magnetic microspheres to facilitate the magnetic separation. Effectiveness of red blood cells separation and purity of plasma solution was improved using the device over conventional centrifugal methods.

  19. Magnet Schools. Recent Developments and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Nolan, Ed.; And Others

    This two-part anthology of research summaries examines the potential of magnet schools to provide equal education and educational access for minority group children and reviews successful magnet programs. Part 1, "Magnet Schools, Desegregation, and Choice," contains the following chapters: (1) "Using Magnet Schools for…

  20. Three decades of superconducting magnet development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desportes, Henri

    Superconducting Magnet Technology was born in the early 1960's after thediscovery by Kunzler of the high field properties of new superconductors, Nb 3Sn and Nb Zr. The technology advanced vigorously, mainly under the strong incentive of High Energy and Plasma Physics, and spread out to many areas of Physics and of practical applications. The paper retraces some of the adventurous developments leading to the present state-of-the-art. The new era of high T c superconductors is still in the expectant stage for such applications.

  1. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM.

  2. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  3. Development of instrumentation for magnetic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, S.

    1991-09-23

    The use of failure-prone components in critical applications has been traditionally governed by removing such components from service prior to the expiration of their predicted life expectancy. Such early retirement of materials does not guarantee that a particular sample will not fail in actual usage. The increasing cost of such life expectancy based operation and increased demand for improved reliability in industrial settings has necessitated an alternate form of quality control. Modern applications employ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), also known as nondestructive testing (NDT), as a means of monitoring the levels and growth of defects in a material throughout its operational life. This thesis describes the modifications made to existing instrumentation used for magnetic measurements at the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. Development of a new portable instrument is also given. An overview of the structure and operation of this instrumentation is presented. This thesis discusses the application of the magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen measurement techniques, described in Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively, to a number of ferromagnetic specimens. Specifically, measurements were made on a number of railroad steel specimens for fatigue characterization, and on specimens of Damascus steel and Terfenol-D for materials evaluation. 60 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Correlates of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisbell, Marshall

    A study assessed the relationship of the independent variables of interpersonal attraction to the dependent variables of feeling good, relational safety, and uncertainty level. Subjects were 75 elementary and secondary school teachers, 61 communication students, 18 child development professionals, and 8 service club members. Each subject completed…

  5. Development of peristaltic crawling robot using magnetic fluid on the basis of locomotion mechanism of earthworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Norihiko; Nakamura, Taro

    2002-11-01

    The field of bio-engineering with the aim of developing new machines, which utilizes the motion and control of organisms as a model, is attracting attention. This technology is pursued by paying attention to various shapes and movements of organisms and autonomous system of organisms in acting in response to environment surrounding them, and by mechanically elucidating the locomotion mechanism, propulsive mechanism, nerve system and sensation system of these organisms. On the other hand, in the field of hydrodynamics, magnetic fluid that changes its apparent viscosity depending on magnetic field has been developed, and its utilization is under trial in various fields. We paid attention to the peristaltic crawling of earthworm as transport function in place of wheels or ambulation, and have developed a micro robot running inside a tube using magnetic fluid. In this micro robot, a cell corresponding to earthworm's segment is composed of a natural rubber tube sealed with water-based magnetic fluid, and the cells are connected with elastic rods made of natural rubber. The feature of this micro robot is that its structure is simply composed of, and it can be controlled with external wireless force, by providing it with moving magnetism from the outside. This paper presents the analytical result of the peristaltic crawling of an actual earthworm and the evaluation result of transport mechanism of a prototype micro robot moved by external magnetic field.

  6. Developing Glassy Magnets from Simulated Composition of Martian Soil for Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Ray, C. S.; Rogers, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term exploration goals of NASA include developing human habitation on Mars and conducting scientific investigations on Mars and other planetary bodies. In situ resource processing is a key objective in this area. We focus on the possibility of making magnetic glasses in situ for potential applications development. The paper will focus on ongoing work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on making magnetic glass from Mars soil simulants and its characterization. Analysis of the glass morphology, strength, chemistry and resulting magnetic properties will provide a fundamental understanding of the synthesized material that can be used for potential applications development. in an effort to characterize the magnetic properties of the Mars glasses, a series of tests were performed at NASA MSFC. Preliminary tests indicated that the glasses were attracted to a magnet and also had a small amount of residual magnetism. They were opaque (almost black in color). As the first step, a sample of Mars 1 glass (approx.1 mm x 1 mm x 5 mm length) was machined, weighed and its hysteresis curve was measured using a Vibration Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Next, a small furnace was designed and built and the sample was baked in a graphite (reducing agent) crucible at 800 C in an Argon atmosphere for 3 hours in the presence of a uniform, transverse (transverse to the 5mm length of the sample) magnetic field of 0.37 Tesla. The treated sample showed reddening on the outside and showed substantially increased residual magnetism. This sample was again analyzed in the VSM. The data clearly showed that some chemical change occurred during the heat treatment (color change) and that both the glasses have useful magnetic properties. Although no orientation effects of the magnetic field were considered, the data showed the following: 1. Both glass samples are primarily soft magnets and display ferromagnetic behavior (hysteresis, saturation, etc.) 2. The treated glass has improved saturation

  7. Developing Glassy Magnets from Simulated Composition of Martian Soil for Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Ray, C. S.; Rogers, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term exploration goals of NASA include developing human habitation on Mars and conducting scientific investigations on Mars and other planetary bodies. In situ resource processing is a key objective in this area. We focus on the possibility of making magnetic glasses in situ for potential applications development. The paper will focus on ongoing work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on making magnetic glass from Mars soil simulants and its characterization. Analysis of the glass morphology, strength, chemistry and resulting magnetic properties will provide a fundamental understanding of the synthesized material that can be used for potential applications development. in an effort to characterize the magnetic properties of the Mars glasses, a series of tests were performed at NASA MSFC. Preliminary tests indicated that the glasses were attracted to a magnet and also had a small amount of residual magnetism. They were opaque (almost black in color). As the first step, a sample of Mars 1 glass (approx.1 mm x 1 mm x 5 mm length) was machined, weighed and its hysteresis curve was measured using a Vibration Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Next, a small furnace was designed and built and the sample was baked in a graphite (reducing agent) crucible at 800 C in an Argon atmosphere for 3 hours in the presence of a uniform, transverse (transverse to the 5mm length of the sample) magnetic field of 0.37 Tesla. The treated sample showed reddening on the outside and showed substantially increased residual magnetism. This sample was again analyzed in the VSM. The data clearly showed that some chemical change occurred during the heat treatment (color change) and that both the glasses have useful magnetic properties. Although no orientation effects of the magnetic field were considered, the data showed the following: 1. Both glass samples are primarily soft magnets and display ferromagnetic behavior (hysteresis, saturation, etc.) 2. The treated glass has improved saturation

  8. Field study on the attraction and development of insects on human meconium and breast-fed-infant feces.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Grant D

    2014-09-01

    Urogenital myiasis of newborn infants, although rare, is usually considered to indicate neglect due to attraction of flies to feces; however, infant feces have not been determined to attract insects. Human meconium and breast-fed-infant feces were used to determine attractiveness to insects and to examine subsequent colonization and growth patterns of insect larvae. Despite small amounts of fecal material present, adults of Lucilia sericata arrived at breast-fed-infant feces within five minutes; insects were rarely observed on meconium. Oviposition and growth of L. sericata larvae occurred only on breast-fed-infant feces; however, the larvae did not progress beyond the second instar. These data suggest that urogenital myiasis by L. sericata in newborn human infants within the first few days postpartum would not be expected, but desiccation and depletion of infested feces may provide a possible pathway for urogenital myiasis in older newborn infants. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Design and Development of a Segmented Magnet Homopolar Torque Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    centrifugal, electromagnetic 9. magnetic fluid 10. surface tension - wetted/non-wetted surfaces 11. solidification - thermal, chemical B. Conducting...developing a metallic (liquid metal) magnetic - fluid shaft-seal for large turbine- generators. It was concluded that the magnetic liquid metal...effort and a program of that nature is under consideration. (Design with a con- ductive magnetic fluid must also consider the possibility of

  10. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, D. P.; Halloran, S. T.; Owings, R. R.; da Silva, F. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  11. Women's Drinking Decisions in Heterosocial Situations: Development and Validation of Scenarios to Assess Influence of Attraction and Risk-Awareness.

    PubMed

    Noel, Nora E; Ogle, Richard L; Maisto, Stephen A; Jackson, Lee A; Loomis, Randi B; Heaton, Jennifer A

    2016-07-12

    These three related studies created a set of ecologically valid scenarios for assessing relative associations of both attraction and sexual coercion risk-recognition in college women's heterosocial situational drinking decisions. The first study constructed nine scenarios using input from heterosexual drinking women in the age cohort (18-30) most likely to experience alcohol-related sexual coercion. In the second study, 50 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) assessed the salience of three important dimensions (attraction, risk, and realism) in these scenarios. The third study was a factor analysis (and a follow-up confirmatory factor analysis) of the elements of coercion-risk as perceived by the target group with two female samples recruited 1 year apart (Sample 1: N = 157, ages 18-29); Sample 2: N = 157, ages 18-30). Results confirmed that the scenarios could be a useful vehicle for assessing how women balance out risk and attraction to make in-the moment heterosocial drinking decisions. The factor analysis showed participants perceived two types of situations, based on whether the male character was "Familiar" or "Just Met" and perceived themselves as happier and more excited with Familiar males. However, in contrast to HIV risk studies, Familiar males were perceived as higher risk for unwanted sex. Future research will use the six scenarios that emerged from the factor analysis to study how attraction and risk perception differentially affect young adult women's social drinking decisions.

  12. Novel magnetic tips developed for the switching magnetization magnetic force microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Cambel, V.; Elias, P.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Martaus, J.; Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Kostic, I.; Materials Science Division; Slovak Academy of Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Using micromagnetic calculations we search for optimal magnetic properties of novel magnetic tips to be used for a Switching Magnetization Magnetic Force Microscopy (SM-MFM), a novel technique based on two-pass scanning with reversed tip magnetization. Within the technique the sum of two scans images local atomic forces and their difference maps the local magnetic forces. The tip magnetization is switched during the scanning by a small magnetic field. The technology of novel low-coercitive magnetic tips is proposed. For best performance the tips must exhibit low magnetic moment, low switching field, and single-domain state at remanence. Such tips are equipped with Permalloy objects of a precise shape that are defined on their tilted sides. We calculate switching fields of such tips by solving the micromagnetic problem to find the optimum shape and dimensions of the Permalloy objects located on the tips. Among them, hexagon was found as the best shape for the tips.

  13. Development of magnetic chromatography to sort polydisperse nanoparticles in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Forge, Delphine; Gossuin, Yves; Roch, Alain; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N

    2010-01-01

    Whatever the strategy of synthesis, nanoparticles in magnetic fluids commonly feature a broad size distribution. However, the presence of several size populations in ferrofluids is often problematic because of the close relationship between the efficiency of the nanoparticles and their physicochemical properties. In this work, a magnetic size sorting procedure is developed in order to reduce this polydispersity, using the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. This magnetic sorting with an adjustable magnetic field allows isolation of the small superparamagnetic particles as well as the larger particles. Magnetometry, nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles and transmission electron microscopy were successfully used to check the efficiency of the magnetic sorting procedure, which was shown to work as a 'magnetic' chromatography.

  14. Perpendicular magnetic recording—Its development and realization—

    PubMed Central

    IWASAKI, Shun-ichi

    2009-01-01

    The principle of conventional magnetic recording is that magnetic fields are applied parallel to the plane of the magnetic medium. As described in this paper, the invention and development of a new method of placing the magnetized information perpendicular to the plane of the magnetic recording medium is presented. The yield in the mass production of high-density hard disk drives (HDDs) for perpendicular recording is much higher than that of HDDs for conventional recording. Consequently, it is estimated that as many as 75% of the 500 million HDDs to be shipped this year will use this technology. PMID:19212097

  15. Vortex attraction and the formation of sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    A downdraft vortex ring in a stratified atmosphere exhibits universal attraction for nearby vertical magnetic flux bundles. It is speculated that the magnetic fields emerging through the surface of the sun are individually encircled by one or more subsurface vortex rings, providing an important part of the observed clustering of magnetic fibrils to form pores and sunspots.

  16. Development of Modeling and Simulation for Magnetic Particle Inspection Using Finite Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun-Youl

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a widely used nondestructive inspection method for aerospace applications essentially limited to experiment-based approaches. The analysis of MPI characteristics that affect sensitivity and reliability contributes not only reductions in inspection design cost and time but also improvement of analysis of experimental data. Magnetic particles are easily attracted toward a high magnetic field gradient. Selection of a magnetic field source, which produces a magnetic field gradient large enough to detect a defect in a test sample or component, is an important factor in magnetic particle inspection. In this work a finite element method (FEM) has been employed for numerical calculation of the MPI simulation technique. The FEM method is known to be suitable for complicated geometries such as defects in samples. This thesis describes the research that is aimed at providing a quantitative scientific basis for magnetic particle inspection. A new FEM solver for MPI simulation has been developed in this research for not only nonlinear reversible permeability materials but also irreversible hysteresis materials that are described by the Jiles-Atherton model. The material is assumed to have isotropic ferromagnetic properties in this research (i.e., the magnetic properties of the material are identical in all directions in a single crystal). In the research, with a direct current field mode, an MPI situation has been simulated to measure the estimated volume of magnetic particles around defect sites before and after removing any external current fields. Currently, this new MPI simulation package is limited to solving problems with the single current source from either a solenoid or an axial directional current rod.

  17. Package compatibility and substrate dependence of granular soft magnetic material CoFeHfO developed by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Li Liangliang; Wang, Shan X.; Hwang, K.-P.; Min, Yongki; Mao Ming; Schneider, Thomas; Bubber, Randhir

    2006-04-15

    Integration of magnetic passive components into package has been attracting more interests recently, but efficient package-compatible magnetic materials are needed. We have developed a package-compatible granular material, CoFeHfO, on a printed circuit board by reactive sputtering and investigated the substrate dependence of its soft magnetic property. Atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray-scattering-diffraction spectra show that a rough substrate surface degrades the magnetic property of CoFeHfO thin films with almost the same crystal microstructure. With surface planarization by chemical-mechanical polishing, soft magnetic material CoFeHfO can be realized on the package substrate. This material is promising for future applications in package.

  18. Development of extrusion molded Nd-Fe-B magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, M.; Ikuma, K. ); Watanabe, R.; Iwasa, T.; Miyadera, H.; McAloon, K.

    1993-01-01

    A new manufacturing process for extrusion molded magnets, composed of isotropic Nd-Fe-B powder and Nylon-12, has been developed. This newly developed extrusion molding process has several interesting features. First, the extruded product contains 72% by volume magnetic powder and yields a (BH)[sub max] of 8.0 MGO[sub e]. Second, through the addition of an anti-oxidant, the viscosity of the magnetic powder-nylon compound remains almost constant during molding. Third, by means of a specially cooled outlet, which is separated from the heated die by a thermal insulator, an optimized temperature profile is obtained which yields uniformly smooth extrusion molded magnets. Both long thin-walled magnets and small arc-shaped (kawala) magnets are easily molded by this new process.

  19. Being Sexually Attracted to Minors: Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Houtepen, Jenny A B M; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-02

    This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in nonclinical pedophiles. Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings. Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control.

  20. Magnetic refrigeration: recent developments and alternative configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanza, Morgan; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Yonnet, Jean-Paul; Legait, Ulrich; Roudaut, Julien

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic refrigeration, based on magnetocaloric effect, is an upcoming environmentaly friendly technology with a high potential to improve energy efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. It is a multidisciplinary research theme and its real emergence requires, to overcome scientific and technical issues related to both material and system. This paper presents the state of the art in magnetic cooling, the main recent works achieved and discusses in more details the thermodynamic phenomenon according to the G2Elab experience in the field. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  1. Developing Glassy Magnets from Simulated Composition of Martian Soil for Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Ray, Chandra; Rogers, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The long-term exploration goals of NASA include developing human habitation on Mars and conducting scientific investigations on Mars and other planetary bodies. In situ resource processing is a key objective in this area We focus OR the possibility of making magnetic glasses in situ for potential applications development. The paper will focus on ongoing work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on making magnetic glass h m Mars soil simulants and its characterization. Analysis of the glass morphology, strength, chemistry and resulting magnetic properties will provide a fi.mdamenta1 understanding ofthe synthesized materiai that can be used for pomtiai appiications cieveiopment. In an effort to characterize the magnetic properbes of the Mars glasses, a series of tests were performed at NASA MSFC. Preliminary tests indicated that the glasses were attracted to a magnet and also had a small amount of residual magnetism. They were opaque (almost black in color). As the first step, a sample of Mars 1 glass (-lm x lmm x 5 mm length) was machined, weighed and its hysteresis curve was measured using a Vibration Sample Magnetometer 0. Next, a small furnace was designed and built and the sample was baked in a graphite (reducing agent) crucible at 800 C in an Argon atmosphere for 3 hours in the presence of a uniform, transverse (transverse to the 5mm length of the sample) magnetic field of 0.37 Tesla. The treated sample showed reddening on the outside and showed substantially increased residual magnetism. This sample was again analyzed in the VSM. The data clearly showed that some chemical change occurred during the heat treatment (color change) and that both the glasses have useful magnetic properties. Although no orientation effects of the magnetic field were considered, the data showed the following: 1. Both glass samples are primarily soft magnets and display ferromagnetic behavior (hysteresis, saturation, etc.) 2. The treated glass has improved saturation magnetism (order

  2. Developing Glassy Magnets from Simulated Composition of Martian Soil for Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Ray, Chandra; Rogers, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The long-term exploration goals of NASA include developing human habitation on Mars and conducting scientific investigations on Mars and other planetary bodies. In situ resource processing is a key objective in this area We focus OR the possibility of making magnetic glasses in situ for potential applications development. The paper will focus on ongoing work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on making magnetic glass h m Mars soil simulants and its characterization. Analysis of the glass morphology, strength, chemistry and resulting magnetic properties will provide a fi.mdamenta1 understanding ofthe synthesized materiai that can be used for pomtiai appiications cieveiopment. In an effort to characterize the magnetic properbes of the Mars glasses, a series of tests were performed at NASA MSFC. Preliminary tests indicated that the glasses were attracted to a magnet and also had a small amount of residual magnetism. They were opaque (almost black in color). As the first step, a sample of Mars 1 glass (-lm x lmm x 5 mm length) was machined, weighed and its hysteresis curve was measured using a Vibration Sample Magnetometer 0. Next, a small furnace was designed and built and the sample was baked in a graphite (reducing agent) crucible at 800 C in an Argon atmosphere for 3 hours in the presence of a uniform, transverse (transverse to the 5mm length of the sample) magnetic field of 0.37 Tesla. The treated sample showed reddening on the outside and showed substantially increased residual magnetism. This sample was again analyzed in the VSM. The data clearly showed that some chemical change occurred during the heat treatment (color change) and that both the glasses have useful magnetic properties. Although no orientation effects of the magnetic field were considered, the data showed the following: 1. Both glass samples are primarily soft magnets and display ferromagnetic behavior (hysteresis, saturation, etc.) 2. The treated glass has improved saturation magnetism (order

  3. [Development of RF coil of permanent magnet mini-magnetic resonance imager and mouse imaging experiments].

    PubMed

    Hou, Shulian; Xie, Huantong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Guangxin; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Shiyu

    2014-10-01

    In the development of radio frequency (RF) coils for better quality of the mini-type permanent magnetic resonance imager for using in the small animal imaging, the solenoid RF coil has a special advantage for permanent magnetic system based on analyses of various types.of RF coils. However, it is not satisfied for imaging if the RF coils are directly used. By theoretical analyses of the magnetic field properties produced from the solenoid coil, the research direction was determined by careful studies to raise further the uniformity of the magnetic field coil, receiving coil sensitivity for signals and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The method had certain advantages and avoided some shortcomings of the other different coil types, such as, birdcage coil, saddle shaped coil and phased array coil by using the alloy materials (from our own patent). The RF coils were designed, developed and made for keeled applicable to permanent magnet-type magnetic resonance imager, multi-coil combination-type, single-channel overall RF receiving coil, and applied for a patent. Mounted on three instruments (25 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.5 T or 1.5 T, and 50 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.48 T), we performed experiments with mice, rats, and nude mice bearing tumors. The experimental results indicated that the RF receiving coil was fully applicable to the permanent magnet-type imaging system.

  4. Development of Small-sized Fluid Control Valve with Self-holding Function Using Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Ueda, Hirofumi

    Recently, force feedback devices in virtual reality and power assisted nursing care systems have received much attention and active research. In such a control system, an actuator and a driving device such as a control valve are mounted on the human body. In this condition, the size and weight of the control valve become serious problems. At the same time, the valve should be operated with lower energy consumption because of using a limited electrical power. The typical electro magnetic solenoid valve drives its spool using a larger solenoid to open the valve. The complex construction of the valve for sealing makes its miniaturization and the fabrication of a low cost valve more difficult. In addition, the solenoid in the valve consumes more electrical power while the valve is kept opening. The purpose of our study is to develop a small-sized, lightweight, lower energy consumption and flexible control valve that can be safe enough to mount on the human body at a lower cost. In our pervious study, we proposed and tested the control valve that can open using a vibration motor. In this study, we propose and test a new type of fluid control valve with a self-holding function. The new valve uses a permanent magnet ball. It has a cylindrical magnet and two solenoids. The self-holding function of the valve is done as follows. When one side of the solenoid is stimulated by the current momentarily, the solenoid gives a repulsive force to the cylindrical magnet. The magnet moves toward the opposite side of the solenoid and is attracted to the iron core. Then, the magnet ball moves toward the cylindrical magnet and opens the orifice. The valve can keep open without electrical energy. As a result, the valve with the extremely lower energy consumption can be developed.

  5. Assessing facial attractiveness: individual decisions and evolutionary constraints

    PubMed Central

    Kocsor, Ferenc; Feldmann, Adam; Bereczkei, Tamas; Kállai, János

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that facial attractiveness, as a highly salient social cue, influences behavioral responses. It has also been found that attractive faces evoke distinctive neural activation compared to unattractive or neutral faces. Objectives Our aim was to design a face recognition task where individual preferences for facial cues are controlled for, and to create conditions that are more similar to natural circumstances in terms of decision making. Design In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, subjects were shown attractive and unattractive faces, categorized on the basis of their own individual ratings. Results Statistical analysis of all subjects showed elevated brain activation for attractive opposite-sex faces in contrast to less attractive ones in regions that previously have been reported to show enhanced activation with increasing attractiveness level (e.g. the medial and superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, and anterior cingular cortex). Besides these, females showed additional brain activation in areas thought to be involved in basic emotions and desires (insula), detection of facial emotions (superior temporal gyrus), and memory retrieval (hippocampus). Conclusions From these data, we speculate that because of the risks involving mate choice faced by women during evolutionary times, selection might have preferred the development of an elaborated neural system in females to assess the attractiveness and social value of male faces. PMID:24693356

  6. Development and Testing of a Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a revolutionary Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing. The objective of this work is to develop a viable non-contact magnetic bearing utilizing Halbach arrays for all-electric flight, and many other applications. This concept will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate many of the concerns and limitations encountered in conventional axial bearings such as bearing wear, leaks, seals and friction loss. The Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is inherently stable and requires no active feedback control system or superconductivity as required in many magnetic bearing designs. The Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is useful for very high speed applications including turbines, instrumentation, medical applications, manufacturing equipment, and space power systems such as flywheels. Magnetic fields suspend and support a rotor assembly within a stator. Advanced technologies developed for particle accelerators, and currently under development for maglev trains and rocket launchers, served as the basis for this application. Experimental hardware was successfully designed and developed to validate the basic principles and analyses. The report concludes that the implementation of Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings can provide significant improvements in rotational system performance and reliability.

  7. Development and Testing of an Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a revolutionary Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing. The objective of this work is to develop a viable non-contact magnetic thrust bearing utilizing Halbach arrays for all-electric flight, and many other applications. This concept will help to reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate many of the concerns and limitations encountered in conventional axial bearings such as bearing wear, leaks, seals and friction loss. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is inherently stable and requires no active feedback control system or superconductivity as required in many magnetic bearing designs. The Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is useful for very high speed applications including turbines, instrumentation, medical systems, computer memory systems, and space power systems such as flywheels. Magnetic fields suspend and support a rotor assembly within a stator. Advanced technologies developed for particle accelerators, and currently under development for maglev trains and rocket launchers, served as the basis for this application. Experimental hardware was successfully designed and developed to validate the basic principles and analyses. The report concludes that the implementation of Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings can provide significant improvements in rotational system performance and reliability.

  8. Towards developing a compact model for magnetization switching in straintronics magnetic random access memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barangi, Mahmood; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki

    2016-08-01

    Strain-mediated magnetization switching in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) by exploiting a combination of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction has been proposed as an energy efficient alternative to spin transfer torque (STT) and field induced magnetization switching methods in MTJ-based magnetic random access memories (MRAM). Theoretical studies have shown the inherent advantages of strain-assisted switching, and the dynamic response of the magnetization has been modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. However, an attempt to use LLG for simulating dynamics of individual elements in large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAM leads to extremely time-consuming calculations. Hence, a compact analytical solution, predicting the flipping delay of the magnetization vector in the nanomagnet under stress, combined with a liberal approximation of the LLG dynamics in the straintronics MTJ, can lead to a simplified model of the device suited for fast large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAMs. In this work, a tensor-based approach is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the stressed nanomagnet. First, using the developed method, the effect of stress on the switching behavior of the magnetization is investigated to realize the margins between the underdamped and overdamped regimes. The latter helps the designer realize the oscillatory behavior of the magnetization when settling along the minor axis, and the dependency of oscillations on the stress level and the damping factor. Next, a theoretical model to predict the flipping delay of the magnetization vector is developed and tested against LLG-based numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of findings. Lastly, the obtained delay is incorporated into the approximate solutions of the LLG dynamics, in order to create a compact model to liberally and quickly simulate the magnetization dynamics of the MTJ under stress. Using the developed delay equation, the

  9. Towards developing a compact model for magnetization switching in straintronics magnetic random access memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barangi, Mahmood Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki

    2016-08-21

    Strain-mediated magnetization switching in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) by exploiting a combination of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction has been proposed as an energy efficient alternative to spin transfer torque (STT) and field induced magnetization switching methods in MTJ-based magnetic random access memories (MRAM). Theoretical studies have shown the inherent advantages of strain-assisted switching, and the dynamic response of the magnetization has been modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. However, an attempt to use LLG for simulating dynamics of individual elements in large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAM leads to extremely time-consuming calculations. Hence, a compact analytical solution, predicting the flipping delay of the magnetization vector in the nanomagnet under stress, combined with a liberal approximation of the LLG dynamics in the straintronics MTJ, can lead to a simplified model of the device suited for fast large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAMs. In this work, a tensor-based approach is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the stressed nanomagnet. First, using the developed method, the effect of stress on the switching behavior of the magnetization is investigated to realize the margins between the underdamped and overdamped regimes. The latter helps the designer realize the oscillatory behavior of the magnetization when settling along the minor axis, and the dependency of oscillations on the stress level and the damping factor. Next, a theoretical model to predict the flipping delay of the magnetization vector is developed and tested against LLG-based numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of findings. Lastly, the obtained delay is incorporated into the approximate solutions of the LLG dynamics, in order to create a compact model to liberally and quickly simulate the magnetization dynamics of the MTJ under stress. Using the developed delay equation, the

  10. Status of high temperature superconductor development for accelerator magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirabayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    High temperature superconductors are still under development for various applications. As far as conductors for magnets are concerned, the development has just been started. Small coils wound by silver sheathed Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 oxide conductors have been reported by a few authors. Essential properties of high T(sub c) superconductors like pinning force, coherent length, intergrain coupling, weak link, thermal property, AC loss and mechanical strength are still not sufficiently understandable. In this talk, a review is given with comparison between the present achievement and the final requirement for high T(sub c) superconductors, which could be particularly used in accelerator magnets. Discussions on how to develop high T(sub c) superconductors for accelerator magnets are included with key parameters of essential properties. A proposal of how to make a prototype accelerator magnet with high T(sub c) superconductors with prospect for future development is also given.

  11. Growth and Magnetic characterization of 1D Permalloy Nanowires using self developed AAO Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Khan, G. G.; Das, B.; Mandal, K.

    2015-02-01

    1D Permalloy refers to an alloy of Ni and Fe with 80% and 20% composition respectively. 1D Permalloy nanowires are particularly attractive because of their high permeability, low coercivity, near zero magnetostriction and high anisotropic magnetoresistance. Because of low magnetostriction of Permalloy shape anisotropy plays a very important role. As a result, the nanowires show unidirectional anisotropy along their length. Because of this property, they can be used in many applications such as recording head sensors, magnetic storage devices etc. In the present work 1D Permalloy nanowires arrays were fabricated into the pores of self engineered Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates by a simple electrodeposition technique (EDT). By varying the Anodization voltage and the parameters of the electrolytic solutions we developed various AAO templates with different average pore diameters. We developed the 1D Permalloy NW's of different diameters depending on the pore size arrangement of AAO templates by varying the deposition conditions. Structural characterization of AAO templates and 1D Permalloy NW's was performed by Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM & SEM). XRD studies of 1D Permalloy NW's shows their fcc crystalline structure and the AAO template was found to be amorphous in nature. Magnetic studies show the 1D Permalloy NW's arrays to have obvious anisotropy, and the easy axis was found to be parallel to the nanowires axis. We performed the angular dependence measurement of 1D Permalloy NW's. When the applied magnetic field was parallel to the nanowires, the coercivity (Hc) and the maximum remanent ratio (Mr/Ms) were considerably higher than those while the magnetic field perpendicular to the nanowires. 1D Permalloy NW's developed in this work are expected to be utilize in magnetic memory and magnetic recording devices.

  12. Design and Development of a Segmented Magnet Homopolar Torque Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    IchineVr^V5^ thl ^^^P" concept in large homopolar crLt^ in th^ fi /I蔾’ ^^^C’ a^ electrodynamic power losses created in the fluid during machine...AD-A008 843 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A SEGMENTED MAGNET HOMOPOLAR TORQUE CONVERTER C. J. Mole, et al Westinghouse Electric Corporation...This program is for the research and development of a new mechanical power trans- mission concept: the segmented magnet homopolar torque converter

  13. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Phantom Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses strong magnetic fields and radiofrequency pulses to produce images of proton locations and properties. Image contrast reflects relative density of excited water protons, differences in relaxation times of water protons due to surrounding structure, and the sequence of RF pulses used to excite the water protons. MRI can be used to quantitatively measure longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) spin relaxation times, measure tissue volumes, track motion of water molecules (flow/diffusion), measure temperature, assess susceptibility differences, create maps of tissue electrical properties, etc. This talk will focus on quantitative measurement of relaxation times, diffusion and electrical properties. Diffusion MRI varies the homogeneous magnetic field using an initial gradient, followed by a refocusing gradient with the same magnitude with opposite direction: protons begin to precess at different rates, depending on the applied gradient, and will disperse. The refocusing gradient cannot refocus spins that have moved between gradient pulses, and the apparent proton diffusion can be calculated from the signal attenuation. Typically, gradient pulses are applied in three orthogonal directions to calculate a bulk diffusion coefficient. Tissue electrical properties can be mapped by measuring the complex RF transmit and receive fields (B1 +, B1-). New methods estimate local electrical conductivity from in vivo B1 + phase measurements based on the homogeneous Helmholtz equation. Quantitative relaxation measurements, diffusion and electrical properties can distinguish healthy tissue from malignant tumor from benign tumor or identify the time of a particular event, e.g. a stroke. In this talk, I will describe how the NIST system, diffusion, and breast phantoms help validate these important measurements.

  14. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  15. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  16. Development of reliable 70 T pulsed magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagutin, A.; Rosseel, K.; Herlach, F.; Vanacken, J.; Bruynseraede, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A capacitor-driven pulsed magnet coil has been designed to generate fields in the 70-75 T range, with a life expectancy of at least 100 pulses, thus qualifying as a '75 T class user magnet'. The bore is 10 mm and the rise time used in our experiments is 4 ms. The coil consists of two coaxial sections: the inner section, where stresses are highest, is made with CuNb microcomposite wire and optimized Zylon reinforcement; the outer section is made with soft copper and glass fibre composite. In the inner section, the stress in each layer is self-contained, while the stresses induced in the outer section are transmitted to a thick shell made from steel and carbon fibre composite. The cross section of the copper wires is adjusted to redistribute the heating evenly between the inner and the outer section. Another innovative design feature is a system for axial compression that can be easily retightened during coil training. Two nearly identical coils were manufactured and tested to 72 T this is a limit imposed due to overheating when using our 10 kV, 0.5 MJ capacitor bank (at an energy of 380 kJ). At 75 T, the calculated von Mises stress in the Zylon composite is 2.6 GPa, well below the UTS of more than 3 GPa, and the CuNb wire is still in an elastic state.

  17. Development of fast cooling pulsed magnets at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Quqin; Zhao, Jianlong; Jiang, Fan; Li, Liang; Xu, Qiang; Herlach, Fritz

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed magnets with fast cooling channels have been developed at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. Between the inner and outer sections of a coil wound with a continuous length of CuNb wire, G10 rods with cross section 4 mm × 5 mm were inserted as spacers around the entire circumference, parallel to the coil axis. The free space between adjacent rods is 6 mm. The liquid nitrogen flows freely in the channels between these rods, and in the direction perpendicular to the rods through grooves provided in the rods. For a typical 60 T pulsed magnetic field with pulse duration of 40 ms, the cooling time between subsequent pulses is reduced from 160 min to 35 min. Subsequently, the same technology was applied to a 50 T magnet with 300 ms pulse duration. The cooling time of this magnet was reduced from 480 min to 65 min.

  18. High Temperature, Permanent Magnet Biased, Fault Tolerant, Homopolar Magnetic Bearing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Tucker, Randall; Kenny, Andrew; Kang, Kyung-Dae; Ghandi, Varun; Liu, Jinfang; Choi, Heeju; Provenza, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a magnetic bearing designed to operate at 1,000 F. A novel feature of this high temperature magnetic bearing is its homopolar construction which incorporates state of the art high temperature, 1,000 F, permanent magnets. A second feature is its fault tolerance capability which provides the desired control forces with over one-half of the coils failed. The construction and design methodology of the bearing is outlined and test results are shown. The agreement between a 3D finite element, magnetic field based prediction for force is shown to be in good agreement with predictions at room and high temperature. A 5 axis test rig will be complete soon to provide a means to test the magnetic bearings at high temperature and speed.

  19. Development of fast cooling pulsed magnets at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Quqin; Zhao, Jianlong; Jiang, Fan; Li, Liang; Xu, Qiang; Herlach, Fritz

    2013-12-15

    Pulsed magnets with fast cooling channels have been developed at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. Between the inner and outer sections of a coil wound with a continuous length of CuNb wire, G10 rods with cross section 4 mm × 5 mm were inserted as spacers around the entire circumference, parallel to the coil axis. The free space between adjacent rods is 6 mm. The liquid nitrogen flows freely in the channels between these rods, and in the direction perpendicular to the rods through grooves provided in the rods. For a typical 60 T pulsed magnetic field with pulse duration of 40 ms, the cooling time between subsequent pulses is reduced from 160 min to 35 min. Subsequently, the same technology was applied to a 50 T magnet with 300 ms pulse duration. The cooling time of this magnet was reduced from 480 min to 65 min.

  20. Development of fast cooling pulsed magnets at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Quqin; Zhao, Jianlong; Jiang, Fan; Li, Liang; Xu, Qiang; Herlach, Fritz

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed magnets with fast cooling channels have been developed at the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center. Between the inner and outer sections of a coil wound with a continuous length of CuNb wire, G10 rods with cross section 4 mm × 5 mm were inserted as spacers around the entire circumference, parallel to the coil axis. The free space between adjacent rods is 6 mm. The liquid nitrogen flows freely in the channels between these rods, and in the direction perpendicular to the rods through grooves provided in the rods. For a typical 60 T pulsed magnetic field with pulse duration of 40 ms, the cooling time between subsequent pulses is reduced from 160 min to 35 min. Subsequently, the same technology was applied to a 50 T magnet with 300 ms pulse duration. The cooling time of this magnet was reduced from 480 min to 65 min.

  1. Extended use of superconducting magnets for bio-medical development

    SciTech Connect

    Stoynev, Stoyan E.

    2015-05-19

    Magnetic fields interact with biological cells affecting them in variety of ways which are usually hard to predict. Among them, it was observed that strong fields can align dividing cells in a preferred direction. It was also demonstrated that dividing cancer cells are effectively destroyed by applying electric fields in vivo with a success rate dependent on the cell-to-field orientation. Based on these facts, the present note aims to suggest the use of magnetic and electric fields for improved cancer treatment. Several possibilities of generating the electric fields inside the magnetic field volume are reviewed, main tentative approaches are described and discussed. Most if not all of them require special magnet configuration research which can be based on existing magnet systems in operation or in development.

  2. Materials Development and Spin Transport Study of Magnetic Insulator Based Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chi

    The subfield of magnetic insulator (MI) based spintronics is playing a substantial role in modern solid state physics research. Spin current in the MI is propagated in spin wave with a much longer decay length than spin-polarized carriers in conducting ferromagnet. In the MI-based hetereostructures, the adjacent non-magnetic materials can be magnetized in proximity of MI. Therefore, it is a promising system to study exotic transport phenomena such as quantum Anomalous Hall effect in topological insulator and graphene. Rare-earth Iron garnet (ReIG), a class of magnetic insulators with large electronic bandgap and high Curie temperature, stands out among various magnetic insulator materials and have attracted a great deal of attention in recent magnetic insulator based spintronics research. The first chapter of this dissertation gives a brief introduction to the spintronics research by introducing some essential concepts in the spintronics field and the most recent spin transport phenomena. The second chapter of this dissertation summarizes my work in the materials development of ReIG ferrimagnetic insulators, including exquisite control of high quality ultra-flat yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films with extremely low magnetic damping and engineering of strain induced robust perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thulium iron garnet (TIG) and Bi-doped YIG films. The last chapter of this dissertation shows a systematic study in various ReIG based heterostructures, mainly divided into groups: ReIG (YIG & TIG)/heavy metal bilayers (Pd & Pt) and ReIG (YIG & TIG)/Dirac systems (graphene & topological insulator). The magneto-transport study disentangles the contribution from a spin current origin and proximity induced magnetism. Furthermore, the demonstration in the proximity coupling induced high-temperature ferromagnetic phase in low-dimensional Dirac systems, i.e. graphene and topological insulator surface states, provides new possibilities in the future spintronics

  3. Davis Street Magnet School: Linking Child Development with Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Fay E.; Maholmes, Valerie; Murray, Edward T.; Nathan, Lola

    1998-01-01

    Describes the School Development Program of the Davis Street Magnet School, New Haven (Connecticut), a Comer school since the late 1980s. The program uses a number of strategies to develop literacy among students identified as problem readers. This Comerian approach enhances student development along six developmental pathways and strengthens…

  4. Fault Tolerant Magnetic Bearing Testing and Conical Magnetic Bearing Development for Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Clark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    During the six month tenure of the grant, activities included continued research of hydrostatic bearings as a viable backup-bearing solution for a magnetically levitated shaft system in extreme temperature environments (1000 F), developmental upgrades of the fault-tolerant magnetic bearing rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center, and assisting in the development of a conical magnetic bearing for extreme temperature environments, particularly turbomachinery. It leveraged work from the ongoing Smart Efficient Components (SEC) and the Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) program at NASA Glenn Research Center. The effort was useful in providing technology for more efficient and powerful gas turbine engines.

  5. Fault Tolerant Magnetic Bearing Testing and Conical Magnetic Bearing Development for Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Clark, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    During the six month tenure of the grant, activities included continued research of hydrostatic bearings as a viable backup-bearing solution for a magnetically levitated shaft system in extreme temperature environments (1000 F), developmental upgrades of the fault-tolerant magnetic bearing rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center, and assisting in the development of a conical magnetic bearing for extreme temperature environments, particularly turbomachinery. It leveraged work from the ongoing Smart Efficient Components (SEC) and the Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) program at NASA Glenn Research Center. The effort was useful in providing technology for more efficient and powerful gas turbine engines.

  6. Chaotic magnetic field lines and spontaneous development of current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Dasgupta, B.; Janaki, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    The performed magnetohydrodynamic simulations aim to assess the influence of chaotic magnetic field lines on spontaneous generation of current sheets in an evolving viscous magnetofluid with infinite electrical conductivity. Suitable non-force-free initial fields having chaotic magnetic field lines are constructed by superposing two Arnold-Beltrami-Childress magnetic fields. The construction is such that the superposed field is devoid of any three or two-dimensional magnetic nulls, which are potential sites of current sheet development. Consequently, the notion of spontaneity can be attributed to any current sheet generated by the evolving magnetofluid. Moreover, to ensure the development to be spontaneous, the simulations are performed in congruence with Parker's magnetostatic theorem which necessitates an attainment of a terminal quasi-steady state and maintenance of flux-freezing to high fidelity. Importantly, the paper establishes spontaneous onset of volume distributed current sheets to be positively proportional to the strength of chaos in magnetic field lines. Evolution of more chaotic field lines is found to develop stronger current sheets which are more volume distributed. These localized current sheets are characterized by intense volume current density and hence a large electric field in the presence of magnetic diffusivity. An interesting scenario then develops, where more chaotic field lines can accelerate charged particles to greater kinetic energies than the field lines which are less chaotic.

  7. Development of an electrical model for integrated magnetic inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechir, M. B.; Yaya, D. D.; Youssouf, M. K.; Soultan, M.; Capraro, S.; Siblini, A.; Chatelon, J. P.; Rousseau, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the current trend consists in the development of new technologies with the aim of reducing volume, weight as well as production cost. With the aim of decreasing occupied component area, it will be interesting to use magnetic materials to confine the fields. Therefore, our works concern the modelling and the characterization of magnetic planar inductors. The proposed model is detailed for inductors fabricated with one magnetic layer. The model can take into account, the capacitance between turns and the capacitance between the last turn and the ground plane, the magnetic permeability, the skin and proximity effects of the conductors according to the frequency. The structure of optimization developed to extract the parameters of the model will be presented. Results of extracted parameters are compared with the simulation parameters. A good correlation is observed on Y11 and Y12 parameters on all the broad band frequency.

  8. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  9. Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-01-01

    Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

  10. High-field Magnet Development toward the High Luminosity LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The upcoming Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will rely on the use of Accelerator Quality Nb3Sn Magnets which have been the focus of an intense R&D effort in the last decade. This contribution will describe the R&D and results of Nb3Sn Accelerator Quality High Field Magnets development efforts, with emphasis on the activities considered for the HL-LHC upgrades.

  11. Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-01-01

    Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

  12. Creating kampong as tourist attractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, N.; Utama, R.; Hidayat, A. R. T.; Zamrony, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Tourism attractions become one of the main components and they drive the tourism activity in a region. The quality of tourism attractions would affect tourists’ visits. Tourism power can basically be built on any conditions which can attract people to visit. Towns is full of activities which include their economic, social, cultural and physical features, if they are presented properly, they can be a tourist attraction. Kampung City, as a form of urban settlement, has the potential to be developed as a tourism attraction. Kampung is not only a physical area of housing but it has also productive activities. Even the city’s economic activities are also influenced by the productive activities of its Kampung. The shape of Kampung which varies in physical, social, economic and cultural raises special characteristics of each Kampung. When it is linked with the city’s tourism activities, these special characteristics of course could be one of the attractions to attract tourists. This paper studies about one of Kampung in the Malang City. Administratively located in the Penanggungan Village Lowokwaru District, but the potential will just be focused on RW 4. Main productive activities of this village are pottery. In contrast to ceramics, pottery is made from clay and its uniqueness in color and shape. Based on the history of pottery in the Malang, it is concentrated in Penanggungan Village. But along with its development, pottery is decreasingly in demand and number of craftsmen is dwindling. Based on these circumstances, a concept is prepared to raise the image of the region as the Kampung of pottery and to repack it as a tourism attraction of the city.

  13. MHD magnet technology development program summary, September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The program of MHD magnet technology development conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past five years is summarized. The general strategy is explained, the various parts of the program are described and the results are discussed. Subjects covered include component analysis, research and development aimed at improving the technology base, preparation of reference designs for commercial-scale magnets with associated design evaluations, manufacturability studies and cost estimations, the detail design and procurement of MHD test facility magnets involving transfer of technology to industry, investigations of accessory subsystem characteristics and magnet-flow-train interfacing considerations and the establishment of tentative recommendations for design standards, quality assurance procedures and safety procedures. A systematic approach (framework) developed to aid in the selection of the most suitable commercial-scale magnet designs is presented and the program status as of September 1982 is reported. Recommendations are made for future work needed to complete the design evaluation and selection process and to provide a sound technological base for the detail design and construction of commercial-scale MHD magnets. 85 references.

  14. Space Magnets Attracting Interest on Earth: Applications of Physical and Biological Techniques In the Study of Gravisensing and Response System of Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.; Boody, April; Cox, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The BioTube/Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) research is designed to provide insight into the organization and operation of the gravity sensing systems of plants and other small organisms. This experiment on STS-107 uses magnetic fields to manipulate sensory cells in plant roots, thus using magnetic fields as a tool to study gravity-related phenomena. The experiment will be located in the SPACEHAB module and is about the size of a household microwave oven. The goal of the experiment is to improve our understanding of the basic phenomenon of how plants respond to gravity. The BioTube/MFA experiment specifically examines how gravitational forces serve as a directional signal for growth in the low-gravity environment of space. As with all basic research, this study will contribute to an improved understanding of how plants grow and will have important implications for improving plant growth and productivity on Earth. In BioTube/MFA, magnetic fields will be used to determine whether the distribution of subcellular starch grains, called amyloplasts, within plant cells predicts the direction in which roots will grow and curve in microgravity.

  15. Space Magnets Attracting Interest on Earth: Applications of Physical and Biological Techniques In the Study of Gravisensing and Response System of Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.; Boody, April; Cox, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The BioTube/Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) research is designed to provide insight into the organization and operation of the gravity sensing systems of plants and other small organisms. This experiment on STS-107 uses magnetic fields to manipulate sensory cells in plant roots, thus using magnetic fields as a tool to study gravity-related phenomena. The experiment will be located in the SPACEHAB module and is about the size of a household microwave oven. The goal of the experiment is to improve our understanding of the basic phenomenon of how plants respond to gravity. The BioTube/MFA experiment specifically examines how gravitational forces serve as a directional signal for growth in the low-gravity environment of space. As with all basic research, this study will contribute to an improved understanding of how plants grow and will have important implications for improving plant growth and productivity on Earth. In BioTube/MFA, magnetic fields will be used to determine whether the distribution of subcellular starch grains, called amyloplasts, within plant cells predicts the direction in which roots will grow and curve in microgravity.

  16. Magnet and conductor developments for the Mirror Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-10-09

    The conductor development and the magnet design and construction for the MFTF are described. Future plans for the Mirror Program and their influence on the associated superconductor development program are discussed. Included is a summary of the progress being made to develop large, high-field, multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductors and the feasibility of building a 12-T yin-yang set of coils for the machine to follow MFTF. In a further look into the future, possible magnetic configurations and requirements for mirror reactors are surveyed.

  17. Recent Developments in Magnetically Coupled Vane Pumps for Tritium Service

    SciTech Connect

    Capuder, F. C.; Quigley, L. T.; Baker, C. K.

    1985-04-01

    Despite advances in shaft sealing, a totally reliable shaft seal for two-stage vane pumps has never been developed. Therefore, the magnetically coupled vane pump drive was developed to solve the critical problem of tritium leakage at the shaft seals of vane pumps. As a result, radioactive contamination of the work area and loss of valuable material can now be prevented.

  18. Development of magnetic nanoparticle based calorimetric assay for the detection of bovine mastitis in cow milk.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Raja; Al Attas, Sana; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Zourob, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    Mastitis in dairy cattle is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue. Mastitis increases plasmin levels, leading to an increased proteolysis of milk proteins such as casein, resulting in a significant decrease in milk quality and related dairy products. Due to its key-role in mastitis, we used plasmin proteolytic activity as a biomarker for the detection of mastitis in bovine mastitic milk. Inspired by earlier studies on protease activity using mastitic milk samples, we developed a simple colorimetric assay to distinguish mastitic milk from milk derived from healthy animals. The plasmin substrate coupled to magnetic nanoparticles form a black self-assembled monolayer on a gold sensor surface. In the presence of increased levels of plasmin, the substrate is cleaved and the peptide fragment attached to the magnetic beads, will be attracted by the magnet which is present under the sensor strips revealing the golden surface. We found the area of the golden color surface proportional to plasmin activity. The sensitivity of this method was determined to be 1 ng/ml of plasmin in vitro. Next, we tested the biosensor using mastitis positive milk of which infection is confirmed by bacterial cultures. This newly developed colorimetric biosensor has high potential in applications for the diagnosis of mastitis with potential spin offs to health, food and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing Antitumor Magnetic Hyperthermia: Principles, Materials and Devices.

    PubMed

    Tishin, Alexander M; Shtil, Alexander A; Pyatakov, Alexander P; Zverev, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Methods of local or loco-regional anticancer treatment are of the utmost importance because the therapeutic 'power' is applied directly to the disease site. Consequently, general toxicity is minimized. Hyperthermia, that is, a sustained increase of intratumoral temperature up to 45oC, has been investigated as a perspective treatment modality alone and/or in combination with ionizing radiation or chemotherapy. Still, the surrounding tissues can be damaged by the external heat. Development of new materials and devices gave rise to methods of inducing hyperthermia by a high frequency magnetic or electromagnetic field applied to the tumor with exogenous nanosized particles captured within it. The idea of this approach is the release of local heat in the vicinity of the magnetic nanoparticle in a time-varying magnetic field due to transfer of external magnetic field energy into the heat. Therefore, tumor cells are heated whereas the peritumoral non-malignant tissues are spared. This review analyzes recent advances in understanding physical principles that underlie magnetic hyperthermia as well as novel approaches to obtain nanoparticles with optimized physico-chemical, toxicological and tumoricidal properties. Special focus is made on the construction of devices for therapeutic purposes. The review covers recent patents and general literature sources regarding magnetic hyperthermia, the developing approach to treat otherwise intractable malignancies. </p><p>.

  20. Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction.

  1. Developments in materials for high-field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Hill, M.A.; Walsh, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    Results of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory`s program of characterization of materials and fabrication techniques used in the construction of high-field pulsed magnets are reported. High-field pulsed magnets require conductors with high mechanical strength (750 MPa or greater YS at 77K) and high electrical conductivity (70% IACS or greater at RT). Electrical insulation and resin systems for vacuum impregnation with high compressive strength (500 MPa at 77K) and moderate thermal conductivity (1kW/mK at 77K) are also required. Developments and future plans for the characterization of new magnet material systems are discussed. Testing result are reported: Mechanical and fatigue testing, electrical conductivity testing and thermal expansion measurements of high strength, high conductivity conductors at cryogenic and room temperature, mechanical testing of a coil support material at cryogenic and room temperature, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity tests of an electrical insulating system at cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Development of a peristaltic crawling robot using magnetic fluid on the basis of the locomotion mechanism of the earthworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Norihiko; Nakamura, Taro

    2004-06-01

    In the field of bio-engineering the aim of developing new machines which utilize the motion and control of organisms as a model is attracting attention. This technology is pursued by paying attention to various shapes and movements of organisms and autonomous system of organisms that act in response to the environment surrounding them, and by mechanically elucidating the locomotion mechanism, propulsive mechanism, nerve system and sensation system for these organisms. On the other hand, in the field of hydrodynamics, magnetic fluid that changes its apparent viscosity depending on the magnetic field has been developed, and its utilization is under trial in various fields. Attention has been paid to the peristaltic crawling of the earthworm as a transport function in place of wheels or ambulation, and based on these observations a micro-robot running inside a tube using magnetic fluid has been developed. In this micro-robot, individual cells corresponding to the earthworm's segment are composed of a natural rubber tube sealed with water-based magnetic fluid, and several cells are connected with elastic rods made of natural rubber. The feature of this micro-robot is that its structure is simply composed, and it can be controlled with external wireless force, by providing it with moving magnetism from the outside. This paper presents the analytical result on the peristaltic crawling of an actual earthworm and the evaluation result for the transport mechanism of a prototype micro-robot moved by an external magnetic field.

  3. Development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetic random access memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Chen, Eugene; Koutny, William

    2003-05-01

    We report on the development and process control of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. It is demonstrated that MTJs with high magnetoresistance ˜40% at 300 mV, resistance-area product (RA) ˜1-3 kΩ μm2, low intrinsic interlayer coupling (Hin) ˜2-3 Oe, and excellent bit switching characteristics can be developed and fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry into MRAM devices. MTJ uniformity and repeatability level suitable for mass production has been demonstrated with the advanced processing and monitoring techniques.

  4. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa{trademark} MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  5. Development of magnetically levitated high speed transport system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Kazuo

    1996-07-01

    In Japan, huge passenger traffic moves through the Tokyo-Osaka corridor and the demand is mounting on one more high speed line besides the Tokaido Shinkansen. A magnetically levitated vehicle (JR Maglev) using superconducting magnets has been developed for the Tokyo-Osaka superspeed express. JR Maglev has many advantages over conventional rail systems. This paper describes the necessity of one more high speed line in this corridor, the reason the author chose Maglev, the scheme of this system, history of the development and outline of the new Yamanashi test line project.

  6. Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhukova, Valentina; Ipatov, Mihail; Zhukov, Arcady

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 μm in diameter) have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m) with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR) and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications. PMID:22291562

  7. U. S. developers join magnetic rail push

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1993-08-01

    This article examines the state of development of maglev trains in the USA. The topics of the article include an overview of the various European and Japanese types, an all American concept, and overcoming competition. The article includes a sidebar on at test run of the Intercityexpress, a high-speed wheel-on-rail train along the northeast of the USA scheduled for fall of 1993.

  8. Are Attractive People Rewarding? Sex Differences in the Neural Substrates of Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, J.; Heatherton, T. F.; Whalen, P. J.; Kelley, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the neural substrates of facial attractiveness judgments. Based on the extant behavioral literature, it was hypothesized that brain regions involved in identifying the potential reward value of a stimulus would be more active when males viewed attractive females than when females viewed attractive males. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment during which participants provided explicit attractiveness judgments for faces of the opposite sex. These individual ratings were subsequently used to perform analyses aimed at identifying the brain regions preferentially responsive to attractive faces for both sex groups. The results revealed that brain regions comprising the putative reward circuitry (e.g., Nucleus Accumbens [NAcc], Orbitofrontal Cortex [OFC]) showed a linear increase in activation with increased judgments of attractiveness. However, further analysis also revealed sex differences in the recruitment of OFC which distinguished attractive and unattractive faces only for male participants. PMID:18211242

  9. The embryonic development of frogs under strong DC magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, S.; Harada, K.; Shiodawa, K.

    1984-09-01

    Possible influence of d.c. magnetic fields in the early embryonic development of frogs was studied. Embryos of African clawed toads, Xenopus laevis, were exposed to 1.0 T magnetic fields with different gradients of a range from 10 T/m to 10/sup 3/ T/m either during cleavage to neurula stage, blastula to neurula stage, or neurula to tail bud stage. The developmental processes of embryos during and after magnetic field exposures were followed to examine a possibility of teratogenic effects. The results suggest that the magnetic field exerts no harmful or modifying effects on the important morphogenetic movements such as gastrulation and neurulation. However, it was observed that embryos which were exposed to the gradient magnetic fields during cleavage to neurula stage occasionally developed into tadpoles with reduced pigmentation or some axial anomalies such as the formation of curled tail. Tadpoles with edema or microcephaly were also observed. Compared with the control, the rate of malformation was higher by about 35 %. The influence of oxygen concentration in Ringer's solution on the embryonic development was also studied, and toxicity of oxygen with high concentration is discussed.

  10. Conical Magnetic Bearing Development and Magnetic Bearing Testing for Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jansen, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The main proposed research of this grant were: to design a high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility, to test the high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing facility to higher speeds, to investigate different backup bearing designs and materials, to retrofit the high-temperature test facility with a magnetic thrust bearing, to evaluate test bearings at various conditions, and test several lubricants using a spiral orbit tribometer. A high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility has been fully developed using Solidworks. The facility can reuse many of the parts of the current high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing, helping to reduce overall build costs. The facility has the ability to measure bearing force capacity in the X, Y, and Z directions through a novel bearing mounting design. The high temperature coils and laminations, a main component of the facility, are based upon the current radial design and can be fabricated at Texas A&M University. The coil design was highly successful in the radial magnetic bearing. Vendors were contacted about fabrication of the high temperature lamination stack. Stress analysis was done on the laminations. Some of the components were procured, but due to budget cuts, the facility build up was stopped.

  11. Development of a superconducting bulk magnet for NMR and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tamada, Daiki; Yanagi, Yousuke; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Takahiro; Utumi, Hiroaki; Kose, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    A superconducting bulk magnet composed of six vertically stacked annular single-domain c-axis-oriented Eu-Ba-Cu-O crystals was energized to 4.74 T using a conventional superconducting magnet for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Shim coils, gradient coils, and radio frequency coils for high resolution NMR and MRI were installed in the 23 mm-diameter room-temperature bore of the bulk magnet. A 6.9 ppm peak-to-peak homogeneous region suitable for MRI was achieved in the central cylindrical region (6.2 mm diameter, 9.1 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a single layer shim coil. A 21 Hz spectral resolution that can be used for high resolution NMR spectroscopy was obtained in the central cylindrical region (1.3 mm diameter, 4 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a multichannel shim coil. A clear 3D MR image dataset of a chemically fixed mouse fetus with (50 μm)3 voxel resolution was obtained in 5.5 h. We therefore concluded that the cryogen-free superconducting bulk magnet developed in this study is useful for high-resolution desktop NMR, MRI and mobile NMR device.

  12. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  13. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  14. American Cockroach Sex Attractant.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Beroza, M

    1965-02-12

    The structure (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclopropyl propionate) previously assigned to the sex attractant of the American cockroach has now been shown by additional physical and chemical data and biological inactivity of the synthetic preparation to be incorrect. The structure of this attractant remains to be determined.

  15. Assertiveness and Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, David M.; And Others

    Earlier research investigating the relationship between physical attractiveness and assertiveness found that physically attractive females were more assertive than other females. To investigate this relationship further and to broaden the scope of the study, 69 students were videotaped in groups of five to ten while responding to open-ended…

  16. Developments at the High Field Magnet Laboratory in Nijmegen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perenboom, J. A. A. J.; Maan, J. C.; van Breukelen, M. R.; Wiegers, S. A. J.; den Ouden, A.; Wulffers, C. A.; van der Zande, W. J.; Jongma, R. T.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Redlich, B.

    2013-03-01

    The High Field Magnet Laboratory at the Radboud University Nijmegen is rapidly expanding its capabilities. The developments encompass both organizational changes and new possibilities for research. The organization of the HFML was strengthened as a consequence of stronger participation of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), and an increase of the core-funding. This change makes that HFML is now considered on a national level as large research facility that operates at an international scale. At the same time work is underway to build new and powerful magnets, and provide electromagnetic radiation for magneto-spectroscopic studies. Electromagnetic radiation in the infrared and far-infrared spectrum will soon be available in the HFML with wavelengths between 3 μm and 1.5 mm, produced by the `FELIX' facility, comprising the long-wavelength free electron laser `FLARE' that in September 2011 produced its first light and the free electron lasers that have been moved from Rijnhuizen to Nijmegen. In magnet technology great strides are made to make magnets available for the user community with unprecedented performance: late in 2012 we hope to commission a new all-resistive magnet system that will generate a steady magnetic field as high as 38 T, by fully exploiting the maximum power of the installation, i.e. 20 MW, and using all available improvements in the design and construction of `Florida-Bitter' resistive magnets. We are also well underway with the design of a 45 T hybrid magnet system, using Nb3Sn superconductors and wind-and-react Cable-in-Conduit technology.

  17. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  18. Electromagnetic design, engineering development and magnetic qualification of a horizontal layered scaled magnet for physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, Praveen; Teotia, Vikas; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K.

    2014-07-01

    Neutrino detectors around the world have shown evidence that these weakly interacting, little-understood particles are not really mass less, as was thought so far. Not only do they have non-zero masses, different species (or flavors) of neutrinos seem to mix and oscillate into one another as they traverse through the cosmos. If this is true, this is not only one of the first pieces of evidence for physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of Particle Physics, but would also have great impact on diverse fields such as nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. It is thus imperative to study the details of the interactions of these particles. These will be detected by means of an iron calorimeter (ICAL), comprising detectors sandwiched in alternate layers of soft magnetic iron. The iron core is magnetized to allow bending of the charged particles. The direction and the energy of the original incoming neutrino, that caused the interaction, can then be accurately determined. Racetrack coils through slots cut in the iron core create a uniform magnetic field in the iron core. A highly uniform magnetic field in the soft iron core is required to accurately determine the mass and energy of incident particle. The charged particles bend in this magnetic field; oppositely charged particles bending in opposite directions. The charge, energy and momentum of the emitted particle is thus determined. An electromagnet was designed as a laboratory facility for conducting experimental studies in particle physics. This paper discusses the electromagnetic design, development, fabrication, magnetic qualification and magnetic measurement issues of an electromagnet developed for physics studies. (author)

  19. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangang; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  20. Development of novel magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2011-03-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values.

  1. Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Shiraz M.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values. PMID:24619487

  2. Development of Novel Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Shiraz M; Giustini, Andrew J; Baker, Ian; Hoopes, P Jack

    2011-02-23

    Advances in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia are opening new doors in cancer therapy. As a standalone or adjuvant therapy this new modality has the opportunity significantly advance thermal medicine. Major advantages of using magnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are their highly localized power deposition and the fact that the alternating magnetic fields (AMF) used to excite them can penetrate deeply into the body without harmful effect. One limitation, however, which hinders the technology, is the problem of inductive heating of normal tissue by the AMF if the frequency and fields strength are not appropriately matched to the tissue. Restricting AMF amplitude and frequency limits the heat dose which can be selectively applied to cancerous tissue via the magnetic nanoparticle, thus lowering therapeutic effect. In an effort to address this problem, particles with optimized magnetic properties must be developed. Using particles with higher saturation magnetizations and coercivity will enhance hysteresis heating increasing particle power density at milder AMF strengths and frequencies. In this study we used oil in water microemulsions to develop nanoparticles with zero-valent Fe cores and magnetite shells. The superior magnetic properties of zero-valent Fe give these particles the potential for improved SAR over pure magnetite particles. Silane and subsequently dextran have been attached to the particle surface in order to provide a biocompatible surfactant coating. The heating capability of the particles was tested in-vivo using a mouse tumor model. Although we determined that the final stage of synthesis, purification of the dextran coated particles, permits significant corrosion/oxidation of the iron core to hematite, the particles can effectively heat tumor tissue. Improving the purification procedure will allow the generation Fe/Fe3O4 with superior SAR values.

  3. Gating of Sema3E/PlexinD1 Signaling by Neuropilin-1 Switches Axonal Repulsion to Attraction during Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Sophie; Cohen, Samia; Yoshida, Yutaka; Fekrane, Lylia; Livet, Jean; Gayet, Odile; Segu, Louis; Buhot, Marie-Christine; Jessell, Thomas M.; Henderson, Christopher E.; Mann, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Summary The establishment of functional neural circuits requires the guidance of axons in response to the actions of secreted and cell-surface molecules such as the semaphorins and their neuropilin and plexin receptors. Semaphorin 3E, acting through its receptor PlexinD1, elicits repulsion in non-neuronal systems. Sema3E and PlexinD1 are expressed in the brain but their functions are unknown. Here, we show that Sema3E/PlexinD1 signaling plays an important role in initial development of descending axon tracts in the forebrain. Early errors in axonal projections are reflected in behavioral deficits in Sema3E null-mutant mice. Two distinct signaling mechanisms can be distinguished downstream of Sema3E. Some corticofugal and striatonigral axons express PlexinD1 but not neuropilin-1, and for these neurons Sema3E acts as a repellent. In contrast, subiculo-mammillary neurons co-express neuropilin-1 and PlexinD1, and for these Sema3E acts as an attractant. The extracellular domain of neuropilin-1 is sufficient to convert repulsive signaling by PlexinD1 to attraction. Our data therefore reveal a novel “gating” function of neuropilins in semaphorin-plexin signaling during the assembly of forebrain neuronal circuits. PMID:18054858

  4. United States Research and Development effort on ITER magnet tasks

    DOE PAGES

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N.; Reierson, Wayne T.

    2011-01-22

    This study presents the status of research and development (R&D) magnet tasks that are being performed in support of the U.S. ITER Project Office (USIPO) commitment to provide a central solenoid assembly and toroidal field conductor for the ITER machine to be constructed in Cadarache, France. The following development tasks are presented: winding development, inlets and outlets development, internal and bus joints development and testing, insulation development and qualification, vacuum-pressure impregnation, bus supports, and intermodule structure and materials characterization.

  5. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  6. Ranking facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Knight, Helen; Keith, Olly

    2005-08-01

    The first aim of this investigation was to assemble a group of photographs of 30 male and 30 female faces representing a standardized spectrum of facial attractiveness, against which orthognathic treatment outcomes could be compared. The second aim was to investigate the influence of the relationship between ANB differences and anterior lower face height (ALFH) percentages on facial attractiveness. The initial sample comprised standardized photographs of 41 female and 35 male Caucasian subjects. From these, the photographs of two groups of 30 male and 30 female subjects were compiled. A panel of six clinicians and six non-clinicians ranked the photographs. The results showed there to be a good level of reliability for each assessor when ranking the photographs on two occasions, particularly for the clinicians (female subjects r = 0.76-0.97, male subjects r = 0.72-0.94). Agreement among individuals within each group was also high, particularly when ranking facial attractiveness in male subjects (female subjects r = 0.57-0.84, male subjects r = 0.91-0.94). Antero-posterior (AP) discrepancies, as measured by soft tissue ANB, showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, a trend emerged that would suggest that in faces where the ANB varies widely from 5 degrees, the face is considered less attractive. The ALFH percentage also showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, there was a trend that suggested that greater ALFH percentages are considered less attractive in female faces, while in males the opposite trend was seen. Either of the two series of ranked photographs as judged by clinicians and non-clinicians could be used as a standard against which facial attractiveness could be assessed, as both were in total agreement about the most attractive faces. However, to judge the outcome of orthognathic treatment, the series of ranked photographs produced by the non-clinician group should be used as the 'standard' to reflect lay

  7. Malformations of cortical development: 3T magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Ince, Selami; Akgun, Veysel; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ozcan, Emrah; Tasar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images. PMID:26516429

  8. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  9. Development of magnetic-field-driven artificial cilium array with magnetic orientation in each cilium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marume, Ryuma; Tsumori, Fujio; Kudo, Kentaro; Osada, Toshiko; Shinagawa, Kazunari

    2017-06-01

    Artificial cilia actuated by an applied magnetic field have been developed. In our previous report, we demonstrated actuated cilia of a few millimeters scale, which were fabricated by cutting a magnetic elastomer sheet. The fabricated artificial cilia worked similarly to natural cilia; however, they had a much larger structure than natural ones, and showed difficulty for use in pumping systems in micro-total analysis systems (µTAS) fields. Thus, our goal is further miniaturization. In this study, we introduce a new process of fabricating smaller pillar structures with a magnetic orientation in each pillar by ultraviolet (UV) laser machining. We also give different orientations to groups of pillars by the alternate laser machining of the mold and casting processes.

  10. New magnetic fluid developed with natural organic compounds biocompatible.

    PubMed

    Santos, J G; Silveira, L B; Fegueredo, P H S; Araújo, B F; Peternele, W S; Rodriguez, A F R; Vilela, E C; Garg, V K; Oliveira, A C; Azevedo, R B; Morais, P C

    2012-06-01

    This work was developed with an aqueous suspension of maghemite nanoparticles and colloidal emulsions with nanoparticles of magnetite. The nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The first was the magnetic emulsion nanoparticles of maghemite dispersed in the aqueous extract obtained from the leaf embauba (Cecropia Obtusifolia), whose tree is native to Central and South America. Thereby achieving the magnetic fluid extract embauba stabilized with ionic buffer solution pH 7.4. A second emulsion was prepared with colloidal magnetite nanoparticles with surfaces previously coated with oleic acid as a means of dispersing and using the oil extracted from in nature seed Andiroba (Carapa Guianensis), tree of the Brazilian Amazon. These new magnetic fluids the nanoparticles were characterized by Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) to determine the coating layer of molecules on the surfaces of nanoparticles. In aqueous ionic magnetic fluid Cecropia Obtusifolia (MFCO) chlorogenic acid contributes to the electron density in the presence of four groups alcohols, a ketone group and a carboxylic group. In magnetic fluid-based oil andiroba MFAD PAS spectra show that oleic acid molecules are tightly linked on the surface of the nanoparticles.

  11. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  12. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures.

  13. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  14. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Irwin

    1971-01-01

    This study shows a high and disquieting degree of similarity in physical attractiveness between dating partners, and suggests also that more similar partners tend to form stronger romantic attachments. (Author)

  15. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  16. An Attractive Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Evan; Hughes, Allan E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes electricity experiments which can be used for such purposes as determining the magnetic field of a magnet, making an electromagnet, and showing the repulsion of like poles of a magnet. Includes list of materials needed, procedures used, and instructional strategies. (JN)

  17. An Attractive Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Evan; Hughes, Allan E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes electricity experiments which can be used for such purposes as determining the magnetic field of a magnet, making an electromagnet, and showing the repulsion of like poles of a magnet. Includes list of materials needed, procedures used, and instructional strategies. (JN)

  18. Discovery of mosquito attractants and attraction-inhibitors invited talk on attractants and repellents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. A small component of this research program has aimed at the discovery of attractants that can be used to produce potent lures for haematophagous arthropods, with a primary f...

  19. Development of training modules for magnetic particle inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Daigo; Eisenmann, David J.; Enyart, Darrel; Nakagawa, Norio; Lo, Chester; Orman, David

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a nondestructive evaluation technique used with ferromagnetic materials. Although the application of this method may appear straightforward, MPI combines the complicated nature of electromagnetics, metallurgical material effects, fluid-particle motion dynamics, and physiological human factors into a single inspection. To fully appreciate industry specifications such as ASTM E-1444, users should develop a basic understanding of the many factors that are involved in MPI. We have developed a series of MPI training modules that are aimed at addressing this requirement. The modules not only offer qualitative explanations, but also show quantitative explanations in terms of measurement and numerical simulation data in many instances. There are five modules in all. Module ♯1 shows characteristics of waveforms and magnetizing methods. This allows MPI practitioners to make optimum choice of waveform and magnetizing method. Module ♯2 explains how material properties relate to the magnetic characteristics. Module ♯3 shows the strength of the excitation field or the flux leakage from a crack and how it compares to the detectability of a crack by MPI. Module ♯4 shows how specimen status may influence defect detection. Module ♯5 shows the effects of particle properties on defect detection.

  20. The attracting power of the gaze of politicians is modulated by the personality and ideological attitude of their voters: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, Valentina; Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Macaluso, Emiliano; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-10-01

    Observing someone rapidly moving their eyes induces reflexive shifts of overt and covert attention in the onlooker. Previous studies have shown that this process can be modulated by the onlooker's personality, as well as by the social features of the person depicted in the cued face. Here, we investigated whether an individual's preference for social dominance orientation, in-group perceived similarity (PS), and political affiliation of the cued-face modulated neural activity within specific nodes of the social attention network. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants were requested to perform a gaze-following task to investigate whether the directional gaze of various Italian political personages might influence the oculomotor behaviour of in-group or out-group voters. After scanning, we acquired measures of PS in personality traits with each political personage and preference for social dominance orientation. Behavioural data showed that higher gaze interference for in-group than out-group political personages was predicted by a higher preference for social hierarchy. Higher blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in incongruent vs. congruent conditions was found in areas associated with orienting to socially salient events and monitoring response conflict, namely the left frontal eye field, right supramarginal gyrus, mid-cingulate cortex and left anterior insula. Interestingly, higher ratings of PS with the in-group and less preference for social hierarchy predicted increased activity in the left frontal eye field during distracting gaze movements of in-group as compared with out-group political personages. Our results suggest that neural activity in the social orienting circuit is modulated by higher-order social dimensions, such as in-group PS and individual differences in ideological attitudes.

  1. Development of a prototype magnetically suspended rotor ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Bearnson, G B; Maslen, E H; Olsen, D B; Allaire, P E; Khanwilkar, P S; Long, J W; Kim, H C

    1996-01-01

    A continuous flow centrifugal blood pump with magnetically suspended impeller has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system can be functionally divided into three subsystem designs: 1) centrifugal pump and flow paths, 2) magnetic bearings, and 3) brushless DC motor. The centrifugal pump is a Francis vane type design with a designed operating point of 6 L/min flow and 100 mmHg pressure rise at 2,300 RPM. Peak hydraulic efficiency is over 50%. The magnetic bearing system is an all active design with five axes of control. Rotor position sensors were developed as part of the system to provide feedback to a proportional-integral-derivative controller. The motor is a sensorless brushless DC motor. Back electromotive force voltage generated by the motor is used to provide commutation for the motor. No slots are employed in the motor design in order to reduce the radial force that the bearings must generate. Tests pumping blood in vitro were very encouraging; an index of hemolysis of 0.0086 +/- 0.0012 was measured. Further design refinement is needed to reduce power dissipation and size of the device. The concept of using magnetic bearings in a blood pump shows promise in a long-term implantable blood pump.

  2. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques.

  3. Design and development of a momentum wheel with magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veillette, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering model momentum wheel with radial magnetic bearings has been designed and developed and successfully operated to a speed of approximately 500 rad/sec. This speed corresponds to a maximum angular momentum of 83 Nm-sec which is 83% of the design value. The maximum momentum achieved was limited by the suspension servo bandwidth and this, in turn, was limited by the lowest structural resonance of the rotor.

  4. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  5. MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  6. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  7. Development of a suspension type sliding planar motion table using magnetic fluid lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghui; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hijikata, Wataru; Morimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    A sliding planar motion table system that can be used for the lens driving actuator of a laser cutting machine was developed. The system uses magnetic fluid as the lubricant to avoid the leakage of lubricating oil under the table and reduce environmental pollution. The motion table is suspended from the guide surface by an attractive force generated by electromagnets to reduce the contact and frictional forces between the table and the guide surface. The table is capable of movement in one rotational and two translational directions over the guide surface using six electromagnets and three non-contact displacement sensors. Experimental results showed that the magnetic suspension of the table reduced the friction by 82.1% compared to the friction that would otherwise be generated by the dead weight of the table. Circular motion within a diameter of 2 mm was achieved with resolutions of 5 μm and 20 μrad in the translational and rotational directions, respectively. A bandwidth of higher than 100 Hz was also achieved in the three movement directions.

  8. Development of a suspension type sliding planar motion table using magnetic fluid lubrication.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinghui; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hijikata, Wataru; Morimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    A sliding planar motion table system that can be used for the lens driving actuator of a laser cutting machine was developed. The system uses magnetic fluid as the lubricant to avoid the leakage of lubricating oil under the table and reduce environmental pollution. The motion table is suspended from the guide surface by an attractive force generated by electromagnets to reduce the contact and frictional forces between the table and the guide surface. The table is capable of movement in one rotational and two translational directions over the guide surface using six electromagnets and three non-contact displacement sensors. Experimental results showed that the magnetic suspension of the table reduced the friction by 82.1% compared to the friction that would otherwise be generated by the dead weight of the table. Circular motion within a diameter of 2 mm was achieved with resolutions of 5 μm and 20 μrad in the translational and rotational directions, respectively. A bandwidth of higher than 100 Hz was also achieved in the three movement directions.

  9. Developing a magnetism conceptual survey and assessing gender differences in student understanding of magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a research-based conceptual multiple-choice survey of magnetism. We also discuss the use of the survey to investigate gender differences in students' difficulties with concepts related to magnetism. We find that while there was no gender difference on the pre-test. However, female students performed significantly worse than male students when the survey was given as a post-test in traditionally taught calculus-based introductory physics courses with similar results in both the regular and honors versions of the course. In the algebra-based courses, the performance of female and male students has no statistical difference on the pre-test or the post-test.

  10. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  11. Phase Development and Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Bioglass Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, A. C.; Leventouri, Th.; Thompson, J. R.

    2003-03-01

    The major phases that develop in ferromagnetic glass-ceramics are Fe_3O_4, Ca_3(PO_4)2 and CaSiO_3. The biocompatibility properties of the systems are associated with the calcium phosphate that forms apatite in a physiological environment. The magnetite phase in a bioglass ceramic makes it a possible candidate for hyperthermic treatment of animal bone cancer. The qualitative and quantitative development of the phases in systems with various starting concentrations and heat treatment parameters was studied by powder x-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement methods. It was found that the magnetic properties of each system are strongly correlated with the corresponding structural properties.

  12. The Development of Drift Wave Turbulence in Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtrie, L.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    An important feature in collisionless magnetic reconnection is the development of sharp discontinuities along the separatrices bounding the Alfvenic outflow. The typical scale length of these features is ρs (the Larmor radius based on the sound speed) for guide field reconnection. Temperature gradients in the inflowing plasma (as might be found in the magnetopause) can lead to instabilities at these separatrices, specifically drift wave turbulence. We present standalone 2D and 3D PIC simulations of drift wave turbulence to investigate scaling properties and growth rates. Further investigations of the relative importance of drift wave turbulence in the development of reconnection will also be considered.

  13. Development of a microcomputer-based magnetic heading sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores the development of a flux-gate magnetic heading reference using a single-chip microcomputer to process heading information and to present it to the pilot in appropriate form. This instrument is intended to replace the conventional combination of mechanical compass and directional gyroscope currently in use in general aviation aircraft, at appreciable savings in cost and reduction in maintenance. Design of the sensing element, the signal processing electronics, and the computer algorithms which calculate the magnetic heading of the aircraft from the magnetometer data have been integrated in such a way as to minimize hardware requirements and simplify calibration procedures. Damping and deviation errors are avoided by the inherent design of the device, and a technique for compensating for northerly-turning-error is described.

  14. Development of a microcomputer-based magnetic heading sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper explores the development of a flux-gate magnetic heading reference using a single-chip microcomputer to process heading information and to present it to the pilot in appropriate form. This instrument is intended to replace the conventional combination of mechanical compass and directional gyroscope currently in use in general aviation aircraft, at appreciable savings in cost and reduction in maintenance. Design of the sensing element, the signal processing electronics, and the computer algorithms which calculate the magnetic heading of the aircraft from the magnetometer data have been integrated in such a way as to minimize hardware requirements and simplify calibration procedures. Damping and deviation errors are avoided by the inherent design of the device, and a technique for compensating for northerly-turning-error is described.

  15. Development of a microcomputer-based magnetic heading sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores the development of a flux-gate magnetic heading reference using a single-chip microcomputer to process heading information and to present it to the pilot in appropriate form. This instrument is intended to replace the conventional combination of mechanical compass and directional gyroscope currently in use in general aviation aircraft, at appreciable savings in cost and reduction in maintenance. Design of the sensing element, the signal processing electronics, and the computer algorithms which calculate the magnetic heading of the aircraft from the magnetometer data have been integrated in such a way as to minimize hardware requirements and simplify calibration procedures. Damping and deviation errors are avoided by the inherent design of the device, and a technique for compensating for northerly-turning-error is described.

  16. Magnetic bearing development for support of satellite flywheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Li, Mu; Kenny, Andrew; Lei, Shuliang; Havelka, Danny; Kascak, Albert

    1998-01-01

    The use of magnetic bearings (MB) for support of space based flywheels can provide significant improvement in efficiency due to reduction in drag torque. A NASA supported program directed through the Texas A&M Center for Space Power has been formed to advance the technology of MB's for satellite flywheel applications. The five areas of the program are: (a) Magnetic Field Simulation, (b) MB controller Development, (c) Electromechanical Rotordynamics Modeling, (d) Testing and (e) Technology Exchange. Planned innovations in these tasks include eddy current drag torque and power loss determination including moving conductor effects, digital (DSP) based control for high speed operation, MATLAB-based coupled flexible rotor/controller/actuator electromechanical model with fuzzy logic nonlinear control, and ultra high speed>100 krpm measurement of drag torque. The paper examines these areas and provides an overview of the project.

  17. Development of Microfabricated Magnetic Actuators for Removing Cellular Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Selene A; Lee, Hyowon; Pinney, James R; Khialeeva, Elvira; Bergsneider, Marvin; Judy, Jack W

    2011-05-01

    Here we report on the development of torsional magnetic microactuators for displacing biological materials in implantable catheters. Static and dynamic behaviors of the devices were characterized in air and in fluid using optical experimental methods. The devices were capable of achieving large deflections (>60°) and had resonant frequencies that ranged from 70 Hz to 1.5 kHz in fluid. The effect of long-term actuation (>2.5 · 10(8) cycles) was quantified using resonant shift as the metric (Δf < 2%). Cell-clearing capabilities of the devices were evaluated by examining the effect of actuation on a layer of aggressively growing adherent cells. On average, actuated microdevices removed 37.4% of the adherent cell layer grown over the actuator surface. The effect of actuation time, deflection angle, and beam geometry were evaluated. The experimental results indicate that physical removal of adherent cells at the microscale is feasible using magnetic microactuation.

  18. Attracting Philosophy Students--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A., Ed.

    This is the first in a series of occasional papers designed as a vehicle for the collection and dissemination of ideas for increasing philosophy course enrollments in two-year colleges. A project of the Subcommittee on Attracting Philosophy Students of the American Philosophical Association's Committee on Teaching Philosophy in Two-Year Colleges,…

  19. Adolescent Attraction to Cults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Eagan

    1998-01-01

    Details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. and distinguishes functions of cults and the term "cult." Identifies various cults, and describes the process of involvement. Notes that in the absence of authentic, stabilizing standards, some youth are especially vulnerable. Provides recommendations for adults working with…

  20. Development of High Performance Permanent Magnets Based on Nd-Fe-B System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, F.

    2000-09-01

    Rare earth iron boron magnets based on Nd2Fe14B type is the most powerful permanent magnets, which have outstanding magnetic properties in the vicinity of room temperature. Production of NdFeB is carried out by two distinctly different processes. These include the conventional powder - sintering process and consolidation of rapidly solidified powders. The latter is used to produce both bonded and anisotropic bulk magnets. NdFeB sintered magnets essentially consist of three basic phases; Nd2Fe14B(Φ) Nd1Fe4B4 phase (η) and Nd-rich phase (n). Therefore, the magnetic properties of the magnets strongly depend on their microstructure. The current focus of NdFeB magnet research and development is on improvement of the magnetic properties such as the magnetic remanence (Br) and intrinsic coercivity (Hci), corrosion resistance and temperature characteristics of sintered magnets and rapidly solidified (melt spinning) magnets. Since the discovery of NdFeB magnets, their performance has been continuously enhanced and the current maximum energy product is achieved to be 444 kJ/m3 (55.8 MGOe). Other processes also have been used for improving microstructure for developing high energy product NdFeB magnets. These processes include: i) mechanical alloying process of metals which uses an inter-diffusional reaction magnet, ii) HDDR process (hydrogenation, disprorportionation, desorption, recombination) of magnet powder, and iii) nanocrystalline composite magnet (exchange-coupled) which are composed of magnetically hard and soft grains. The negative side of the NdFeB magnet is their low corrosion resistance. They are sensitive to attack by both climatic and corrosive environments, resulting in deterioration of the hard magnetic properties of the magnet. In this paper the development of the high-energy product NdFeB based magnets in terms of improved microstructure and magnet processing methods is reviewed.

  1. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Cameron Russell

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  2. Marketing to attract women.

    PubMed

    Dearing, R H

    1987-01-01

    Patient care and marketing programs sensitive to women can help Catholic facilities increase maternity care patient volumes. Four factors influence hospitals' ability to attract women. Women today are better educated and more sophisticated than ever before about health care needs, and they have more providers from which to choose. With limited resources, providers must be discriminating in the type of services they deliver and how. Finally, women make most of the health care decisions for the families. To attract women, providers should offer them personalized care, participation in decisions, information about treatment, attractive facilities, convenience, and affordable costs. Many providers believe Catholic facilities fail to attract maternity patients because they do not perform tubal ligations; however, parents generally see childbirth as a separate event from sterilization. Providers also believe that non-Catholic patients will not use their facilities, but today's patients choose a hospital because of what it offers, not sponsorship. Some patients may not choose Catholic facilities because they see them as less progressive, but this image can be corrected through marketing Catholic facilities' common strengths include their focus on care rather than profit, their compassionate, individualized care, the image of women caring for women, and their stability. Catholic facilities have built on their strengths to attract women patients by reinforcing positive perceptions with innovative programs, marketing directly to women, educating physicians in how to respond to women's needs, increasing linkages with all women in the community, ensuring that the mission of care is reflected in the physical plant, using a marketing program to help employees carry out compassionate care, and surveying patients for feedback on how their needs are met.

  3. Development of a dc motor with virtually zero powered magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The development of magnetic bearings for use in direct current electric motors is discussed. The characteristics of the magnets used in the construction of the bearings are described. A magnetic bearing using steel armoring on permanent magnets was selected for performance tests. The specifications of the motor are presented. The test equipment used in the evaluation is described.

  4. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  5. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  6. Development of a micro nuclear magnetic resonance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshevsky, Artem

    Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to on-line/in-line control of industrial processes is currently limited by equipment costs and requirements for installation. A superconducting magnet generating strong fields is the most expensive part of a typical NMR instrument. In industrial environments, fringe magnetic fields make accommodation of NMR instruments difficult. However, a portable, low-cost and low-field magnetic resonance system can be used in virtually any environment. Development of a number of hardware components for a portable, low-cost NMR instrument is reported in this dissertation. Chapter one provides a discussion on a miniaturized Helmholtz spiral radio-frequency (RF) coil (average diameter equal to 3.5 mm) and an NMR probe built around a capillary (outer diameter = 1.59 mm and inner diameter = 1.02 mm) for flow imaging. Experiments of NMR spectroscopy, static and dynamic (flow) imaging, conducted with the use of the miniaturized coil, are described. Chapter two presents a microfabricated package of two biaxial gradient coils and a Helmholtz RF coil. Planar configuration of discrete wires was used to create magnetic field gradients. Performance of the microfabricated gradient coils while imaging water flow compared well with a commercial gradient set of much larger size. Chapter three reports on flow imaging experiments with power law fluids (aqueous solutions of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) of different viscosities, carried out in the NMR probe with the miniaturized RF coil and capillary. Viscosities of the CMC solutions were determined based on the curve fits of the velocity profiles and simultaneous measurements of the flow rates. The curve fits were carried out according to the power law model equations. The NMR viscosity measurements compared well with measurements of the same CMC samples, performed on a conventional rotational rheometer. A portable, home-built transceiver, designed for NMR applications utilizing a

  7. Formulation development and evaluation of metronidazole magnetic nanosuspension as a magnetic-targeted and polymeric-controlled drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, Subbiah; Selvamani, Palanisamy; Kumar, Chelladurai Senthil; Sharavanan, Palaniappan; Suganya, Govindan; Beniwal, Vijender Singh; Rao, Poduri Rama

    2009-05-01

    A nanosuspension of magnetically tagged metronidazole was developed by the solvent displacement method coupled with ultrasonication and was evaluated for its physicochemical properties. The drug release from metronidazole magnetic nanosuspension at pH 1.2 and 7.0 shows maximum correlation coefficient for zero order and Higuchi model, respectively. The anthelmintic activity of the formulated metronidazole magnetic nanosuspension was evaluated on Indian earthworms (Pheretima poi). Metronidazole magnetic nanosuspension at a dose of 10 and 50 mg/ml shortened by 31% and 34%, respectively, the mean time to death of the earthworms when compared against a non-magnetic metronidazole suspension. Thus, the developed metronidazole magnetic nanosuspension showed potent, controlled and targeted drug action and might be a good therapeutic avenue in combating infectious GI disorders.

  8. Perpendicular magnetic recording—Its development and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Shun-ichi

    2012-02-01

    Development of perpendicular magnetic recording is summarized along with learning from the research study. The early stage of perpendicular recording was conducted with the research philosophy of complementarity between perpendicular and horizontal recordings. Although present production of the perpendicular recording HDDs exceeds 600 million per year, development of perpendicular recording experienced the valley of death in the 1990s. The difficult period was overcome by the collaboration system of industrial and academic communities. The research on perpendicular recording brought about development of new research model as well as the historical view of the development of technology and innovation. The huge influence of perpendicular recording on society also taught us the relationship between science and technology with culture and civilization.

  9. Development of a 700 MHz low-/high- temperature superconductor nuclear magnetic resonance magnet: Test results and spatial homogeneity improvement

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, S.; Bascuñán, J.; Lee, H.; Bobrov, E. S.; Kim, W.; Iwasa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet development, a magnet configuration comprising an insert wound with high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and a background-field magnet wound with low-temperature superconductor (LTS) has been proven viable for NMR magnets. This new LTS/HTS magnet configuration opens the way for development of 1 GHz and above NMR magnets. Specifically, a 700 MHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet (LH700), consisting of a 600 MHz LTS magnet (L600) and a 100 MHz HTS insert (H100), has been designed, built, and successfully tested, and its magnetic field characteristics were measured and analyzed. A field homogeneity of 172 ppm in a cylindrical mapping volume of 17 mm diameter by 30 mm long was measured at 692 MHz and corresponding 1H NMR signal with 1.9 kHz half-width was captured. Two techniques, room-temperature and ferromagnetic shimming, were analytically examined to investigate if they would be effective for further improving spatial field homogeneity of the LH700. PMID:18315337

  10. Development of a 700 MHz low-/high- temperature superconductor nuclear magnetic resonance magnet: test results and spatial homogeneity improvement.

    PubMed

    Hahn, S; Bascuñán, J; Lee, H; Bobrov, E S; Kim, W; Iwasa, Y

    2008-02-01

    For the first time in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet development, a magnet configuration comprising an insert wound with high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and a background-field magnet wound with low-temperature superconductor (LTS) has been proven viable for NMR magnets. This new LTS/HTS magnet configuration opens the way for development of 1 GHz and above NMR magnets. Specifically, a 700 MHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet (LH700), consisting of a 600 MHz LTS magnet (L600) and a 100 MHz HTS insert (H100), has been designed, built, and successfully tested, and its magnetic field characteristics were measured and analyzed. A field homogeneity of 172 ppm in a cylindrical mapping volume of 17 mm diameter by 30 mm long was measured at 692 MHz and corresponding 1H NMR signal with 1.9 kHz half-width was captured. Two techniques, room-temperature and ferromagnetic shimming, were analytically examined to investigate if they would be effective for further improving spatial field homogeneity of the LH700.

  11. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters with a Critical Temperature Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. R.; Choi, J.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, H. L.; Kim, I. W.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. K.; Oh, S. Y.; Sala, E.; So, J. H.; Yoon, W. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the progress in the development of meander-shaped metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) with a critical temperature switch. A niobium meander-shaped coil in an MMC is arranged to form a superconducting loop. It is to measure the change in magnetization and to apply a persistent current that magnetizes the MMC sensor material. In this work, part of the superconducting loop is fabricated with another superconducting material with its transition temperature (T_C) lower than that of niobium. A persistent current can be injected in the loop while reducing the temperature from above to below the T_C of the switch. Aluminum (Al) wires and an alloy of molybdenum and germanium (MoGe) were tested as critical temperature switch. The test with the Al switch demonstrated the temperature switch concept for meander-shaped MMCs that require a large field current. Microfabricated MoGe switches showed a T_C near 4.3 K, but only 7 mA of persistent current could be charged due to MoGe film discontinuity. This issue requires further improvement in the fabrication procedure.

  12. Magnetic and inertial fusion status and development plans

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.; Storm, E.

    1987-12-04

    Controlled fusion, pursued by investigators in both the magnetic and inertial confinement research programs, continues to be a strong candidate as an intrinsically safe and virtually inexhaustible long-term energy source. We describe the status of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion in terms of the accomplishments made by the research programs for each concept. The improvement in plasma parameters (most frequently discussed in terms of the Tn tau product of ion temperature, T, density, n, and confinement time, tau) can be linked with the construction and operation of experimental facilities. The scientific progress exhibited by larger scale fusion experiments within the US, such as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Fusion Test Reactor for magnetic studies and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Nova laser for inertial studies, has been optimized by the theoretical advances in plasma and computational physics. Both TFTR and Nova have exhibited ion temperatures in excess of 10 keV at confinement parameters of n tau near 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ . sec. At slightly lower temperatures (near a few keV), the value of n tau has exceeded 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ . sec in both devices. Near-term development plans in fusion research include experiments within the US, Europe, and Japan to improve the plasma performance to reach conditions where the rate of fusion energy production equals or exceeds the heating power incident upon the plasma. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Klein, Márcia R F; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time.

  14. [The development of extrahepatic portacaval shunt device based on magnetic compression technique through the interventional procedure].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Lv, Yi; Ma, Jia; Liu, Wenyan; Li, Jianhui; Ma, Feng; Wang, Haohua

    2013-11-01

    A device of extrahepatic portacaval shunt is introduced. This device is composed of the daughter and parent magnets and the vascular interventional operation equipment. It is based on the principle of magnetic compression technology, through the intervention approach the daughter and mother magnet are moved to the portal vein and inferior vena cava, respectively. Then the two magnets attract and compress the vessel walls of portal vein and inferior vena cava. Two weeks later, the magnets are detached from the vessel wall with a RUPS-set and the portacaval shunt is established. It is mainly used for the treatment of portal hypertension. It belongs to the interventional operation, there is no any foreign body remaining after the portacaval shunt is established, which can maintain long-term patency. Futhermore the portacaval shunt will not be expanded, therefore it can significantly reduce the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy.

  15. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  16. [Contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging: development and problems].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi-kai

    2002-09-01

    In spite of the inherent versatility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), researchers and clinicians from both home and aboard have made great achievements in developing safe and effective contrast agents. Many new agents are expected to be available for clinical use in the near future. It is of clinical importance that the agents should expand the diagnostic utility of MRI, improve the detection of tiny lesions and help evaluate specific tissue or organ functions. This article aims to examine current status of contrast agents for MRI and the problems waiting for solutions.

  17. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Alimentary Tract Development in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Ian J.; Goodman, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive 3D magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to investigate metamorphosis of the alimentary tract of Manduca sexta from the larval to the adult stage. The larval midgut contracts in volume immediately following cessation of feeding and then greatly enlarges during the late pharate pupal period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the foregut and hindgut of the pharate pupa undergo ecdysis considerably earlier than the external exoskeleton. Expansion of air sacs in the early pupa and development of flight muscles several days later appear to orient the midgut into its adult position in the abdomen. The crop, an adult auxiliary storage organ, begins development as a dorsal outgrowth of the foregut. This coincides with a reported increase in pupal ecdysteroid titers. An outgrowth of the hindgut, the rectal sac, appears several days later and continues to expand until it nearly fills the dorsal half of the abdominal cavity. This development correlates with a second rise in pupal ecdysteroid titers. In the pharate pupa, the presence of paramagnetic species renders the silk glands hyperintense. PMID:27280776

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Alimentary Tract Development in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Ian J; Goodman, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive 3D magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to investigate metamorphosis of the alimentary tract of Manduca sexta from the larval to the adult stage. The larval midgut contracts in volume immediately following cessation of feeding and then greatly enlarges during the late pharate pupal period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the foregut and hindgut of the pharate pupa undergo ecdysis considerably earlier than the external exoskeleton. Expansion of air sacs in the early pupa and development of flight muscles several days later appear to orient the midgut into its adult position in the abdomen. The crop, an adult auxiliary storage organ, begins development as a dorsal outgrowth of the foregut. This coincides with a reported increase in pupal ecdysteroid titers. An outgrowth of the hindgut, the rectal sac, appears several days later and continues to expand until it nearly fills the dorsal half of the abdominal cavity. This development correlates with a second rise in pupal ecdysteroid titers. In the pharate pupa, the presence of paramagnetic species renders the silk glands hyperintense.

  20. Antipsychotics and physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-10-01

    Antipsychotics are effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia, but they may induce adverse effects, some of which-those that impact negatively on physical appearance-have not been sufficiently discussed in the psychiatric literature. Through a narrative review, to catalog antipsychotic side effects that interfere with physical attractiveness and to suggest ways of addressing them. PubMed databases were searched for information on the association between "antipsychotic side effects" and "attractiveness" using those two search phrases plus the following terms: "weight," "teeth," "skin," "hair," "eyes," "gait," "voice," "odor." Data from relevant qualitative and quantitative articles were considered, contextualized, and summarized. Antipsychotics, as a group, increase weight and may lead to dry mouth and bad breath, cataracts, hirsutism, acne, and voice changes; they may disturb symmetry of gait and heighten the risk for tics and spasms and incontinence, potentially undermining a person's attractiveness. Clinicians need to be aware of the impact of therapeutic drugs on appearance and how important this issue is to patients. Early in treatment, they need to plan preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  1. In vivo studies of brain development by magnetic resonance techniques.

    PubMed

    Inder, T E; Huppi, P S

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the morphological development of the human brain has largely come from neuropathological studies obtained postmortem. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have recently allowed the provision of detailed structural, metabolic, and functional information in vivo on the human brain. These techniques have been utilized in studies from premature infants to adults and have provided invaluable data on the sequence of normal human brain development. This article will focus on MR techniques including conventional structural MR imaging techniques, quantitative morphometric MR techniques, diffusion weighted MR techniques, and MR spectroscopy. In order to understand the potential applications and limitations of MR techniques, relevant physical and biological principles for each of the MR techniques are first reviewed. This is followed by a review of the understanding of the sequence of normal brain development utilizing these techniques. MRDD Research Reviews 6:59-67, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Magnetic Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordua, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses common as well as uncommon minerals that are attracted to a hand magnet. Included in the discussion are answers to the following questions: (1) What causes this attraction? and (2) How many different minerals respond to a hand magnet? (ZWH)

  3. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs’ response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs’ superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs’ response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle’s MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles’ iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles’ suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and

  4. Magnetic particle imaging: current developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Duschka, Robert L; Ahlborg, Mandy; Bringout, Gael; Debbeler, Christina; Graeser, Matthias; Kaethner, Christian; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin; Medimagh, Hanne; Stelzner, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M; Haegele, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel imaging method that was first proposed by Gleich and Weizenecker in 2005. Applying static and dynamic magnetic fields, MPI exploits the unique characteristics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs' response allows a three-dimensional visualization of their distribution in space with a superb contrast, a very high temporal and good spatial resolution. Essentially, it is the SPIONs' superparamagnetic characteristics, the fact that they are magnetically saturable, and the harmonic composition of the SPIONs' response that make MPI possible at all. As SPIONs are the essential element of MPI, the development of customized nanoparticles is pursued with the greatest effort by many groups. Their objective is the creation of a SPION or a conglomerate of particles that will feature a much higher MPI performance than nanoparticles currently available commercially. A particle's MPI performance and suitability is characterized by parameters such as the strength of its MPI signal, its biocompatibility, or its pharmacokinetics. Some of the most important adjuster bolts to tune them are the particles' iron core and hydrodynamic diameter, their anisotropy, the composition of the particles' suspension, and their coating. As a three-dimensional, real-time imaging modality that is free of ionizing radiation, MPI appears ideally suited for applications such as vascular imaging and interventions as well as cellular and targeted imaging. A number of different theories and technical approaches on the way to the actual implementation of the basic concept of MPI have been seen in the last few years. Research groups around the world are working on different scanner geometries, from closed bore systems to single-sided scanners, and use reconstruction methods that are either based on actual calibration measurements or on theoretical models. This review aims at giving an overview of current developments and future directions

  5. Development and testing of a synchronous micropump based on electroplated coils and microfabricated polymer magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halhouli, A. T. Al; Kilani, M. I.; Waldschik, A.; Phataralaoha, A.; Büttgenbach, S.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the concept, fabrication, activation and testing of a novel synchronous micropump based on microfabricated copper coils and polymer magnets are presented. The pump works by the synchronized rotation of two polymer magnets in an annular SU-8 microfluidic channel. Magnet rotation is achieved by sequentially activating a set of planar coils to repel or attract the first magnet (traveling magnet) through the channel, while the second one is anchored between the inlet and the outlet ports. At the end of each pumping cycle, the magnets exchange their anchored and traveling functions. The synchronization of magnet rotation has been achieved through programming two activation schemes that proved the high dependence of the pump operation and performance on employed activation scheme parameters. The magnetic forces exerted from electroplated coils on the polymer magnet were tested experimentally using a three-dimensional force sensor. Different coil dimensions have been investigated. A maximum force of 658 µN at an applied current of 138 mA was achieved. The micropump has successfully pumped water with rotational speeds up to 83.33 rpm. Water flow rates in the range of 17.3 µL min-1 at 31.25 rpm to 158.7 µL min-1 at 83.33 rpm were achieved.

  6. Development of chicken embryos in a pulsed magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, E.; Chacon, L.; House, D.; Koch, B.A.; Koch, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    Six independent experiments of common design were performed in laboratories in Canada, Spain, Sweden, and the United States of America. Fertilized eggs of domestic chickens were incubated as controls or in a pulsed magnetic field (PMF); embryos were then examined for developmental anomalies. Identical equipment in each laboratory consisted of two incubators, each containing a Helmholtz coil and electronic devices to develop, control, and monitor the pulsed field and to monitor temperature, relative humidity and vibrations. A unipolar, pulsed, magnetic field was applied to experimental eggs during 48 h of incubation. In each laboratory, ten eggs were simultaneously sham exposed in a control incubator (pulse generator not activated) while the PMF was applied to ten eggs in the other incubator. The procedure was repeated ten times in each laboratory, and incubators were alternately used as a control device or as an active source of the PMF. After a 48-h exposure, the eggs were evaluated for fertility. All embryos were then assayed in the blind for development, morphology, and stage of maturity. In five of six laboratories, more exposed embryos exhibited structural anomalies than did controls, although puntatively significant differences were observed in only two laboratories, and the significance of the difference in a third laboratory was only marginal.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A PRECISE MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ESCALLIER,J.; GANETIS,G.; JAIN,A.; LOUIE,W.; MARONE,A.; THOMAS,R.

    2003-06-15

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require precise measurement of the time-dependent fields. In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the typical level of accuracy for accelerators, {Delta} B/B better than 0.01%. To meet this need, we have begun development of a system containing 16 stationary pickup windings that will be sampled at a high rate. It is hoped that harmonics through the decapole can be measured with this system. Precise measurement of the time-dependent harmonics requires that both the pickup windings and the voltmeters be nearly identical. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards are being used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADC's for voltmeters. In addition, new software must be developed for the analysis. The paper will present a status report on this work.

  8. Development and Test of TQC models, LARP Technological Quadrupole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, A.R.; Sabbi, G.

    2008-06-01

    In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, two-layer quadrupole models (TQC and TQS) with 90mm aperture are being constructed at Fermilab and LBNL within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). This paper describes the development and test of TQC01b, the second TQC model, and the experience during construction of TQE02 and TQC02, subsequent models in the series. ANSYS analysis of the mechanical structure, its underlying assumptions, and changes based on experience with TQC01 are presented and discussed. Construction experience, in-process measurements, and modifications to the assembly since TQC01 are described. The test results presented here include magnet strain and quench performance during training of TQC01b, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate dependence.

  9. Iron-Nickel-Based SuperMagnets: Multiscale Development of L10 Materials for Rare Earth-Free Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Northeastern University will develop bulk quantities of rare-earth-free permanent magnets with an iron-nickel crystal structure for use in the electric motors of renewable power generators and EVs. These materials could offer magnetic properties that are equivalent to today’s best commercial magnets, but with a significant cost reduction and diminished environmental impact. This iron-nickel crystal structure, which is only found naturally in meteorites and developed over billions of years in space, will be artificially synthesized by the Northeastern University team. Its material structure will be replicated with the assistance of alloying elements introduced to help it achieve superior magnetic properties. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate bulk magnetic properties that can be fabricated at the industrial scale.

  10. Are Brazil Nuts Attractive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Duncan A.; Swift, Michael R.; Bowley, R. M.; King, P. J.

    2004-11-01

    We present event-driven simulation results for single and multiple intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Under our vibratory conditions, the mean vertical position of a single intruder is governed primarily by a buoyancylike effect. Multiple intruders also exhibit buoyancy governed behavior; however, multiple neutrally buoyant intruders cluster spontaneously and undergo horizontal segregation. These effects can be understood by considering the dynamics of two neutrally buoyant intruders. We have measured an attractive force between such intruders which has a range of five intruder diameters, and we provide a mechanistic explanation for the origins of this force.

  11. Biobutanol: an attractive biofuel.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Biofuels are an attractive means to prevent a further increase of carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, gasoline is blended with ethanol at various percentages. However, butanol has several advantages over ethanol, such as higher energy content, lower water absorption, better blending ability, and use in conventional combustion engines without modification. Like ethanol, it can be produced fermentatively or petrochemically. Current crude oil prices render the biotechnological process economic again. The best-studied bacterium to perform a butanol fermentation is Clostridium acetobutylicum. Its genome has been sequenced, and the regulation of solvent formation is under intensive investigation. This opens the possibility to engineer recombinant strains with superior biobutanol-producing ability.

  12. Development and evaluation of an attractive self-marking ovitrap to measure dispersal and determine skip oviposition in Aedes albopictus(Diptera:Culicidae) field populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding mosquito of public health importance. Its oviposition behavior has been assessed in outdoor conditions, but only with laboratory-reared specimens. We used an attractive self-marking oviposition device to assess Ae. albopictus skip oviposition behavi...

  13. Development of miniature moving magnet cryocooler SX040

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Rosenhagen, C.; Schreiter, A.; Möhl, C.

    2011-06-01

    State of the art high performance cooled IR systems need to have more than just excellent E/O performance. Minimum size weight and power (SWaP) are the design goals to meet our forces' mission requirements. Key enabler for minimum SWaP of IR imagers is the operation temperature of the focal plane array (FPA) employed. State of the art MCT or InAsSb nBn technology has the potential to rise the FPA temperature from 77 K to 130-150 K (high operation temperature HOT) depending on the specific cut-off wavelength. Using a HOT FPA will significantly lower SWaP and keep those parameters finally dominated by the employed cryocooler. Therefore compact high performance cryocoolers are mandatory. For highest MTTF life AIM developed its Flexure Bearing Moving Magnet product family "SF". Such coolers achieve more than 20000 h MTTF with Stirling type expander and more than 5 years MTTF life with Pulse Tube coldfinger (like for Space applications). To keep the high lifetime potential but to significantly improve SWaP AIM is developing its "SX" type cooler family. The new SX040 cooler incorporates a highly efficient dual piston Moving Magnet driving mechanism resulting in very compact compressor of less than 100mm length. The cooler's high lifetime is also achieved by placing the coils outside the helium vessel as usual for moving magnet motors. The mating ¼" expander is extremely compact with less than 63 mm length. This allows a total dewar length from optical window to expander warm end of less than 100 mm even for large cold shields. The cooler is optimized for HOT detectors with operating temperatures exceeding 95 K. While this kind of cooler is the perfect match for many applications, handheld sights or targeting devices for the dismounted soldier are even more challenging with respect to SWaP. AIM therefore started to develop an even smaller cooler type with single piston and balancer. This paper gives an overview on the development of this new compact cryocooler. Technical

  14. Development of High-Field Permanent Magnetic Circuits for NMRI/MRI and Imaging on Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The high-field permanent magnetic circuits of 1.2 T and 1.5 T with novel magnetic focusing and curved-surface correction are developed. The permanent magnetic circuit comprises a magnetic yoke, main magnetic steel, nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles, plugging magnetic steel, and side magnetic steel. In this work, a novel shimming method is proposed for the effective correction of base magnetic field (B 0) inhomogeneities, which is based on passive shimming on the telescope aspheric cutting, grinding, and fine processing technology of the nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles and active shimming adding higher-order gradient coils. Meanwhile, the magnetic resonance imaging dedicated alloy with high-saturation magnetic field induction intensity and high electrical resistivity is developed, and nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles which are made of the dedicated alloy have very good anti-eddy-current effect. In addition, the large temperature coefficient problem of permanent magnet can be effectively controlled by using a high quality temperature controller and deuterium external locking technique. Combining our patents such as gradient coil, RF coil, and integration computer software, two kinds of small animal Micro-MRI instruments are developed, by which the high quality MRI images of mice were obtained.

  15. Development of High-Field Permanent Magnetic Circuits for NMRI/MRI and Imaging on Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The high-field permanent magnetic circuits of 1.2 T and 1.5 T with novel magnetic focusing and curved-surface correction are developed. The permanent magnetic circuit comprises a magnetic yoke, main magnetic steel, nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles, plugging magnetic steel, and side magnetic steel. In this work, a novel shimming method is proposed for the effective correction of base magnetic field (B 0) inhomogeneities, which is based on passive shimming on the telescope aspheric cutting, grinding, and fine processing technology of the nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles and active shimming adding higher-order gradient coils. Meanwhile, the magnetic resonance imaging dedicated alloy with high-saturation magnetic field induction intensity and high electrical resistivity is developed, and nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles which are made of the dedicated alloy have very good anti-eddy-current effect. In addition, the large temperature coefficient problem of permanent magnet can be effectively controlled by using a high quality temperature controller and deuterium external locking technique. Combining our patents such as gradient coil, RF coil, and integration computer software, two kinds of small animal Micro-MRI instruments are developed, by which the high quality MRI images of mice were obtained. PMID:27034951

  16. Development of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators for a swashplateless helicopter rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Ronald Newton

    Actuator concepts utilizing NiMnGa, ferromagnetic shape memory alloy are investigated for potential use on a smart rotor for trailing edge flap actuation. With their high energy density, large dynamic stroke, and wide operating bandwidth, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) like NiMnGa, seem like attractive candidates for smart rotor actuators, potentially able to fulfill the requirements for both primary rotor control and vibration suppression. However, because of the recent discovery of the material, current experimental data and analytical tools are limited. To rectify these shortcomings, an extensive set of detailed experiments were conducted on samples of NiMnGa to characterize the response of the alloy for a wide variety of mechanical and magnetic loading conditions. Measurements of the material performance parameters such as power density, damping properties, magneto-mechanical coupling, and transduction efficiency were included. Once characterized, the experimental data were used to develop a series of analytical tools to predict the behavior of the material. A model, developed in parallel to thermal shape memory alloy models is proposed to predict the quasi-static stress-strain behavior. A simple, low frequency, parameter based model was also developed to predict the alloy's dynamic strain response. A method for developing conceptual actuators utilizing NiMnGa as the actuation element was proposed. This approach incorporates experimental data into a process that down-selects a series of possible actuator configurations to obtain a single configuration optimized for volumetric and weight considerations. The proposed actuator was designed to deliver 2 mm of stroke and 60 N of force at an actuation frequency of 50 Hz. However, to generate the 1.0 T magnetic field, the actuator mass was determined to be 2.8 kg and required a minimum of 320 Watts of power for operation. The mass of the NiMnGa element was only 18.3 g. It was concluded that although the Ni

  17. Magnetically operated check valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed having, in one aspect, a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  18. Magnetically operated check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor); Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed. The valve is comprised of a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  19. Magnetically operated check valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed. The valve is comprised of a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  20. Mathematical developments regarding the general theory of the Earth magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, A.

    1983-01-01

    A literature survey on the Earth's magnetic field, citing the works of Gauss, Erman-Petersen, Quintus Icilius and Neumayer is presented. The general formulas for the representation of the potential and components of the Earth's magnetic force are presented. An analytical representation of magnetic condition of the Earth based on observations is also made.

  1. Development and evaluation of essentials of magnetism tool.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Schmalenberg, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Staff nurses in 14 magnet hospitals identified 8 attributes associated with the original concept of magnetism as essential to their ability to give quality care. The 8 Essentials of Magnetism (EOM) tool was generated from participant observation and interviews with 289 magnet hospital staff nurses. The psychometric properties of the EOM tool were established in a study involving 3602 staff nurses in 16 magnet and 10 nonmagnet hospitals. The authors discuss the EOM tool and its use in diagnosing elements needed in the environment to produce what staff nurses say is essential for productivity of quality patient care.

  2. Observer-Based Magnetic Bearing Controller Developed for Aerospace Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Dzu K.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of a versatile, observer-based magnetic bearing controller for aerospace flywheels was successfully developed and demonstrated on a magnetic bearing test rig (see the photograph) and an actual flywheel module. The objective of this development included a fast, yet low risk, control development process, and a robust, high-performance controller for a large variety of flywheels. This required a good system model, an efficient development procedure, and a model-based controller that addressed the key problems associated with flywheel and bearing imbalance, sensor error, and vibration. The model used in this control development and tuning procedure included the flexible rotor dynamics and motor-induced vibrations. Such a model was essential for low-risk scheduling of speed-dependent control parameters and for reliable evaluation of novel control strategies. The successfully tested control prototype utilized an extended Kalman filter to estimate the true rotor principal-axis motion from the raw sensor position feedback. For control refinement, the extended Kalman filter also estimated and eliminated the combined effects of mass-imbalance and sensor runouts from the input data. A key advantage of the design based on the extended Kalman filter is its ability to accurately estimate both the rotor's principal-axis position and gyroscopic rates with the least amount of phase lag. This is important for control parameter scheduling to dampen the gyroscopic motions. Because of large uncertainties in the magnetic bearing and imbalance characteristics, this state-estimation scheme alone is insufficient for containing the rotor motion within the desired 1-mil excursion radius. A nonlinear gain adjustment based on an estimation of the principal-axis orbit size was needed to provide a coarse (nonoptimal), but robust, control of the orbit growth. Control current minimization was achieved with a (steepest gradient) search of synchronous errors in the principal

  3. Development of superconducting magnetic bearing for flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Nagashima, Ken; Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Nakao, Kengo; Horiuch, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    We have been developing a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) that has high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils and bulks for a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) that have an output capability of 300 kW and a storage capacity of 100 kW h (Nagashima et al., 2008, Hasegawa et al., 2015) [1,2]. The world largest-class FESS with a SMB has been completed and test operation has started. A CFRP flywheel rotor that had a diameter of 2 m and weight of 4000 kg had a capability to be rotated at a maximum speed of 6000 min-1. The SMB using superconducting material both for its rotor and stator is capable of supporting the flywheel that had the heavy weight and the high seed rotation mentioned above. This paper describes the design of the SMB and results of the cooling test of the SMB.

  4. Novel Hall sensors developed for magnetic field imaging systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Cambel, V.; Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Bartolome, E.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Soltys, J.; Materials Science Division; Slovak Academy of Sciences; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona

    2007-09-01

    We report here on the fabrication and application of novel planar Hall sensors based on shallow InGaP/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure with a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) as an active layer. The sensors are developed for two kinds of experiments. In the first one, magnetic samples are placed directly on the Hall sensor. Room temperature experiments of permalloy objects evaporated onto the sensor are presented. In the second experiment, the sensor scans close over a multigranular superconducting sample prepared on a YBCO thin film. Large-area and high-resolution scanning experiments were performed at 4.2 K with the Hall probe scanning system in a liquid helium flow cryostat.

  5. Magnetic fields: how is plant growth and development impacted?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Dobránszki, Judit

    2016-03-01

    This review provides detailed insight on the effects of magnetic fields on germination, growth, development, and yield of plants focusing on ex vitro growth and development and discussing the possible physiological and biochemical responses. The MFs considered in this review range from the nanoTesla (nT) to geomagnetic levels, up to very strong MFs greater than 15 Tesla (T) and also super-weak MFs (near 0 T). The theoretical bases of the action of MFs on plant growth, which are complex, are not discussed here and thus far, there is limited mathematical background about the action of MFs on plant growth. MFs can positively influence the morphogenesis of several plants which allows them to be used in practical situations. MFs have thus far been shown to modify seed germination and affect seedling growth and development in a wide range of plants, including field, fodder, and industrial crops; cereals and pseudo-cereals; grasses; herbs and medicinal plants; horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, ornamentals); trees; and model crops. This is important since MFs may constitute a non-residual and non-toxic stimulus. In addition to presenting and summarizing the effects of MFs on plant growth and development, we also provide possible physiological and biochemical explanations for these responses including stress-related responses of plants, explanations based on dia-, para-, and ferromagnetism, oriented movements of substances, and cellular and molecular changes.

  6. Development of rotating magnetic field coil system in the HIST spherical torus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Yamada, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Nishioka, T.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2007-11-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) is one of most attractive methods to achieve non-inductive current drive in spherical torus devices. The current drive mechanism of CHI relies on MHD relaxation process of rotating kink behavior [1], so that there is a possibility to control the CHI by using an externally applied rotating magnetic field (RMF). We have recently started to develop a RMF coil system in the HIST spherical torus device. Eight coils are located above and below the midplane at four toroidal locations so that the RMF is resonant with n = 1 rotating kink mode driven by the CHI. In addition, the RMF coil set is installed inside a flux conserver of 5 mm thickness (cut-off frequency ˜ 170 Hz) so that the RMF penetrates into the plasma. The coil winding is made of 20 turns of enameled copper circular wires (1.5 mm^2 conductor cross section), covered with a thin stainless steal case of 0.5 mm thickness (cut-off frequency ˜ 710 kHz). The RMF system is driven by an IGBT inverter power supply (nominal current: 1 kA, nominal voltage: 1 kV) with an operating frequency band from 10 kHz to 30 kHz. The estimated amplitude of RMF neglecting effects of image current at the flux conserver is a few tens Gauss at around the magnetic axis. A preliminary experimental result will be shown in the conference. [1] M. Nagata, et al., Physics of Plasmas 10, 2932 (2003).

  7. Development of high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using an advanced magnetic field geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Takahiro; Yagyu, Daisuke; Saito, Shigeru Ohno, Yasunori; Itoh, Masatoshi; Uhara, Yoshio; Miura, Tsutomu; Nakano, Hirofumi

    2015-11-15

    A permanent magnet in a new magnetic field geometry (namely, with the magnetization in the radial direction) was fabricated and used for high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using Penning discharge. Because of the development of this magnet, the discharge current and deposition rate were increased two to three times in comparison with the values attainable with a magnet in the conventional geometry. This improvement was because the available space for effective discharge of the energetic electrons for the ionization increased because the magnetic field distribution increased in both the axial and radial directions of discharge.

  8. Status of magnet power supply development for the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, D.

    1989-01-01

    To simplify installation and speed testing of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring magnets, vacuum chambers and magnet power supplies, a modular approach was developed. All but the dipole magnets are independently controlled. Pulse width modulated dc-to-dc converters are used to power the individual magnets, with 12-pulse power supplies providing the raw dc to the converters. A magnet support base is the heart of a module and may hold as many as 7 magnets with 8 individually powered coils. The dc-to-dc converters are part of each magnet base module. This paper will show the modular approach which is used for the storage ring magnet systems and will give the test results of the prototype topology for the dc-to-dc converters that are being built and tested to power 680 quadrupole and sextupole magnets. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Counterion-Induced Attraction between Rigid Polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gro Bruinsma, R.F.; Gro Mashl, R.J.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1997-03-01

    We report on results of long-time Brownian-dynamics simulations of electrostatic interactions between two rigid polyelectrolyte rods. We find that the interaction can be both repulsive, as obtained from mean-field theory, and attractive. The onset of attraction depends not only on the fixed charge density of the rod, but also on its radius. The attractive force is found to be due to the development of positional correlations between the counterions condensed on the two rods, for which we propose a simple analytical model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Design and development of a new magnetic sensor for stress measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggelopoulos, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the design and the development of a new magnetic sensor for stress measurements using the magnetic Barkhausen noise and the magnetic permeability techniques in ferromagnetic steels. Both techniques together, become an important nondestructive technique, due to its exceptional material and stress characterization capabilities. The correlation of the two methods was investigated. Conclusions were derived based on the experimental results.

  11. Fetal Hippocampal Development: Analysis by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Francois Dominique; Habas, Piotr; Kim, Kio; Corbett-Detig, James; Xu, Duan; Studholme, Colin; Glenn, Orit A.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampal formation plays an important role in learning and memory, however data on its development in utero in humans is limited. This study was performed to evaluate hippocampal development in healthy fetuses using 3D reconstructed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A cohort of 20 healthy pregnant women underwent prenatal MRI at a median gestational age of 24.9 weeks (range 21.3-31.9 weeks); 6 of the women also had a second fetal MRI performed at a 6 week interval. Routine 2D ultrafast T2-weighted images were used to reconstruct a 3D volume image, which was then used to manually segment the right and left hippocampi. Total hippocampal volume was calculated for each subject and compared against gestational age. There was a linear increase in total hippocampal volume with increasing gestational age (P<0.001). For subjects scanned twice, there was an increase in hippocampal size on the second fetal MRI (P=0.0004). This represents the first volumetric study of fetal hippocampal development in vivo. This normative volumetric data will be helpful for future comparison studies of suspected developmental abnormalities of hippocampal structure and function. PMID:21270675

  12. Communication and Culture: Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lydia Ledesma; Emry, Robert A.

    Cultural differences in interpersonal attraction were studied using 93 black, 112 Chicano, and 112 white college students who completed 40 Likert-type rating scales for each of four concepts of attraction (intimate, friendship, acquaintance, and stranger attraction). When a factor solution was generated, differences were noted in the amount of…

  13. Perceived Attractiveness and Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Adams and Cohen (1974) demonstrated that facial attractiveness was a salient factor in differential student-teacher interactions. This research investigates further the interaction between teachers and children perceived to be attractive or unattractive by those teachers. It was hypothesized that attractive children would exhibit more "positive,"…

  14. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 31, Magnet sensors. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.M.

    1995-08-18

    The requirement for magnet sensors to verify the TF magnet system operation and aid in diagnostic assessment are defined. However, generally one does not specify such a system in the absence of a definition of the local I&C system. Also, one would expect that there would be great benefit (economy, redundancy, compatibility, etc.) in specifying common components for all of the magnet system. Thus specifying the sensors requirement we have tried to be flexible to accommodate future adjustments to these systems.

  15. Magnetic Micro/Nano Structures for Biological Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Ming-Shinn; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Jiann-Yeu; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2016-05-01

    Biomanipulation based on micro/nano structures is an attractive approach for biotechnology. To manipulate biological systems by magnetic forces, the magnetic labeling technology utilized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a common rule. Ferrofluid, well-dispersed MNPs, can be used for magnetic modification of the surface or as molds to form organized microstructures. For magnetic-based micro/nano structures, different methods to modulate magnetic field at the microscale have been developed. Specifically, this review focused on a new strategy which uses the concept of micromagnetism of patterned magnetic thin film with specific domain walls configurations to generate stable magnetic poles for cell patterning.

  16. Development of Cellular Magnetic Dipoles in Magnetotactic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Faivre, Damien; Fischer, Anna; Garcia-Rubio, Inés; Mastrogiacomo, Giovanni; Gehring, Andreas U.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria benefit from their ability to form cellular magnetic dipoles by assembling stable single-domain ferromagnetic particles in chains as a means to navigate along Earth's magnetic field lines on their way to favorable habitats. We studied the assembly of nanosized membrane-encapsulated magnetite particles (magnetosomes) by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy using Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense cultured in a time-resolved experimental setting. The spectroscopic data show that 1), magnetic particle growth is not synchronized; 2), the increase in particle numbers is insufficient to build up cellular magnetic dipoles; and 3), dipoles of assembled magnetosome blocks occur when the first magnetite particles reach a stable single-domain state. These stable single-domain particles can act as magnetic docks to stabilize the remaining and/or newly nucleated superparamagnetic particles in their adjacencies. We postulate that docking is a key mechanism for building the functional cellular magnetic dipole, which in turn is required for magnetotaxis in bacteria. PMID:20713012

  17. Quantifying male attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marques Dos Santos, Miguel; Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Genetic models of sexual selection are concerned with a dynamic process in which female preference and male trait values coevolve. We present a rigorous method for characterizing evolutionary endpoints of this process in phenotypic terms. In our phenotypic characterization the mate-choice strategy of female population members determines how attractive females should find each male, and a population is evolutionarily stable if population members are actually behaving in this way. This provides a justification of phenotypic explanations of sexual selection and the insights into sexual selection that they provide. Furthermore, the phenotypic approach also has enormous advantages over a genetic approach when computing evolutionarily stable mate-choice strategies, especially when strategies are allowed to be complex time-dependent preference rules. For simplicity and clarity our analysis deals with haploid mate-choice genetics and a male trait that is inherited phenotypically, for example by vertical cultural transmission. The method is, however, easily extendible to other cases. An example illustrates that the sexy son phenomenon can occur when there is phenotypic inheritance of the male trait. PMID:14561306

  18. Chemistry of sex attraction.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, W L

    1995-01-01

    The chemical communication system used to attract mates involves not only the overt chemical signals but also indirectly a great deal of chemistry in the emitter and receiver. As an example, in emitting female moths, this includes enzymes (and cofactors, mRNA, genes) of the pheromone biosynthetic pathways, hormones (and genes) involved in controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving male moths, this includes the chemistry of pheromone transportation in antennal olfactory hairs (binding proteins and sensillar esterases) and the chemistry of signal transduction, which includes specific dendritic pheromone receptors and a rapid inositol triphosphate second messenger signal. A fluctuating plume structure is an integral part of the signal since the antennal receptors need intermittent stimulation to sustain upwind flight. Input from the hundreds of thousands of sensory cells is processed and integrated with other modalities in the central nervous system, but many unknown factors modulate the information before it is fed to motor neurons for behavioral responses. An unknown brain control center for pheromone perception is discussed relative to data from behavioral-threshold studies showing modulation by biogenic amines, such as octopamine and serotonin, from genetic studies on pheromone discrimination, and from behavioral and electrophysiological studies with behavioral antagonists. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7816846

  19. [Effect of an alternating magnetic field on the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats].

    PubMed

    Markov, Kh M; Petrichuk, S V; Zavrieva, M K; Suslova, G F; Nartsissov, R P

    1984-12-01

    The effect of varying magnetic field on the development of spontaneous hypertension was studied in experiments on Okamoto rats. The influence of magnetic field during antenatal development caused persistent changes in lymphocyte and organ metabolism and accelerated the appearance of spontaneous hypertension in rats. Based on enzymatic activity of lymphocytes it is possible to predict the development of spontaneous arterial hypertension.

  20. Theoretical Development, Design and Testing of a Magnetic Fuel Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    magnetic gas passing through a magnetic field is described for generation of electrical power. The first stage of this thesis explores the...Colorado, 1992 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the...Gamani Kurunasiri Thesis Co-Advisor John Powers Chairman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering iii

  1. Planning and Developing Magnet Schools: Experiences and Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K., Ed.; Messier, Paul R., Ed.

    This document consists of nine papers which discuss the planning and design, implementation and maintenance, and evaluation of magnet schools. They are based on practical experience with magnet schools, which first appeared in the early 1970s. By 1982, the movement had grown to include more than 1,200 schools in 140 urban school districts, and the…

  2. You must have been a beautiful baby: ratings of infant facial attractiveness fail to predict ratings of adult attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Marissa A; Shortall, Jennifer C; Dispenza, Franco; Gallup, Gordon G

    2011-12-01

    Facial attractiveness has been studied extensively, but little research has examined the stability of facial attractiveness of individuals across different stages of development. We conducted a study examining the relationship between facial attractiveness in infants (age 24 months and under) and the same individuals as young adults (age 16-18 years) using infant and adult photographs from high school yearbooks. Contrary to expectations, independent raters' assessments of infant facial attractiveness did not correlate with adult facial attractiveness. These results are discussed in terms of the adaptive function of heightened attractiveness in infancy, which likely evolved to elicit and maintain parental care.

  3. The LHC magnet system and its status of development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bona, Maurizio; Perin, Romeo; Vlogaert, Jos

    1995-01-01

    CERN is preparing for the construction of a new high energy accelerator/collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This new facility will mainly consist of two superconducting magnetic beam channels, 27 km long, to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel. The magnetic system comprises about 1200 twin-aperture dipoles, 13.145 m long, with an operational field of 8.65 T, about 600 quadrupoles, 3 m long, and a very large number of other superconducting magnetic components. A general description of the system is given together with the main features of the design of the regular lattice magnets. The paper also describes the present state of the magnet R & D program. Results from short model work, as well as from full scale prototypes will be presented, including the recently tested 10 m long full-scale prototype dipole manufactured in industry.

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Attractive Self-Marking Ovitrap to Measure Dispersal and Determine Skip Oviposition in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Field Populations

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Timothy J.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Hogsette, Jerome A.; Kline, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding species with considerable public health importance. To date, Ae. albopictus oviposition behavior has been assessed in outdoor conditions, but only with laboratory-reared specimens. In outdoor large-cage and field studies, we used an attractive self-marking ovipositional device to assess Ae. albopictus skip oviposition behavior. In field studies, 37 wild Ae. albopictus that visited an attractive self-marking ovisite were subsequently captured at a sticky ovitrap within a 4-d period. Because the average Ae. albopictus gonotrophic period is 4.5–6 d, the wild-caught Ae. albopictus visited at least two oviposition sites within a single gonotrophic period. This provided field-based indirect evidence of skip oviposition. The mean distance traveled (MDT) during the 20-d evaluations ranged from 58 to 78 m. The maximum observed distance traveled was 149 m, which was the outer edge of our trapping ability. As populations of Ae. albopictus increased, the MDT during the 4- and 20-d post-marking period increased significantly. Additional observations of wild-marked and captured Aedes triseriatus (Say) are discussed. PMID:26534725

  5. Development and Evaluation of an Attractive Self-Marking Ovitrap to Measure Dispersal and Determine Skip Oviposition in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Field Populations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy J; Kaufman, Phillip E; Tatem, Andrew J; Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding species with considerable public health importance. To date, Ae. albopictus oviposition behavior has been assessed in outdoor conditions, but only with laboratory-reared specimens. In outdoor large-cage and field studies, we used an attractive self-marking ovipositional device to assess Ae. albopictus skip oviposition behavior. In field studies, 37 wild Ae. albopictus that visited an attractive self-marking ovisite were subsequently captured at a sticky ovitrap within a 4-d period. Because the average Ae. albopictus gonotrophic period is 4.5-6 d, the wild-caught Ae. albopictus visited at least two oviposition sites within a single gonotrophic period. This provided field-based indirect evidence of skip oviposition. The mean distance traveled (MDT) during the 20-d evaluations ranged from 58 to 78 m. The maximum observed distance traveled was 149 m, which was the outer edge of our trapping ability. As populations of Ae. albopictus increased, the MDT during the 4- and 20-d post-marking period increased significantly. Additional observations of wild-marked and captured Aedes triseriatus (Say) are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Early embryonic development of frogs under intense magnetic fields up to 8 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Iwasaka, M.; Shiokawa, K.

    1994-05-01

    A possible influence of intense magnetic fields on the embryonic development of frogs was studied in reference to a potential hazard in magnetic resonance imaging technology. Some of the most serious hazardous effects that could be induced by intense magnetic fields are teratogenic effects on developing embryos. In the present experiment, the possible influence of intense magnetic fields up to 8 T on the early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis was studied. Embryos were exposed to magnetic fields up to 8 T for the period from the precleavage stage to neurula in a small glass vial. Embryos were then cultured in Brown-Caston's medium until the feeding-tadpole stage. No apparent teratogenic effects were observed when embryos were cultured for 20 h from the stage of uncleaved fertilized egg to the neurula stage under magnetic fields of 8 T. We conclude that static magnetic fields up to 8 T do not appreciably affect the rapid cleavage and the following cell multiplication and differentiation in Xenopus laevis. We have also studied the early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis in a 40 nT magnetic field, or 1/1000 of the earth's magnetic field, and obtained negative results. Thus, again under this very low magnetic field, fertilized eggs developed normally and formed tadpoles with no appreciable abnormality.

  7. Making vasectomy attractive.

    PubMed

    Herndon, N

    1992-08-01

    In 1989, Pro-Pater, a private, nonprofit family planning organization in Brazil, used attractive ads with the message Vasectomy, An Act of Love to promote vasectomy. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. Word of mouth communication among friends, neighbors, and relatives who had vasectomies maintained these high levels. This type of communication reduced the fear that often involves vasectomies because men hear from men they know and trust that vasectomies are harmless and do not deprive them of potency. In Sao Paulo, the percentage of men familiar with vasectomies and how they are performed increased after the campaign, but in Salvador, knowledge did not increase even though the number of vasectomies in Pro-Pater clinics increased. Organizations in Colombia and Guatemala have also been effective in educating men about vasectomies. These successes were especially relevant in Latin American where machismo has been an obstacle of family planning programs. The no-scalpel technique 1st introduced in China in 1974 reduces the fear of vasectomy and has fewer complications than the conventional technique. Further trained physicians can perform the no-scalpel technique in about 10 minutes compared with 15 minutes for the conventional technique. In 1987 during a 1-day festival in Thailand, physicians averaged 57 no-scalpel vasectomies/day compared with only 33 for conventional vasectomies. This technique has not spread to Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, the US, and some countries in Asia and Africa. Extensive research does not indicate that vasectomy has an increased risk of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, and myocardial infarction. Physicians are working on ways to improve vasectomy.

  8. Development of a temperature-variable magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0 T yokeless permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Y.; Tamada, D.; Kose, K.

    2011-10-01

    A temperature variable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a temperature variable thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with temperature was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with temperature, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of temperature from -5 °C to 45 °C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different temperatures demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties.

  9. Development of a temperature-variable magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0T yokeless permanent magnet.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Tamada, D; Kose, K

    2011-10-01

    A temperature variable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a temperature variable thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with temperature was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with temperature, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of temperature from -5°C to 45°C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different temperatures demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties.

  10. Design and development of a novel nuclear magnetic resonance detection for the gas phase ions by magnetic resonance acceleration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuke, K.; Tona, M.; Fujihara, A.; Sakurai, M.; Ishikawa, H.

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is a well-established powerful tool to study the physical and chemical properties of a wide range of materials. However, presently, NMR applications are essentially limited to materials in the condensed phase. Although magnetic resonance was originally demonstrated in gas phase molecular beam experiments, no application to gas phase molecular ions has yet been demonstrated. Here, we present a novel principle of NMR detection for gas phase ions based on a "magnetic resonance acceleration" technique and describe the design and construction of an apparatus which we are developing. We also present an experimental technique and some results on the formation and manipulation of cold ion packets in a strong magnetic field, which are the key innovations to detect NMR signal using the present method. We expect this novel method to lead new realm for the study of mass-selected gas-phase ions with interesting applications in both fundamental and applied sciences.

  11. Beyond initial attraction: physical attractiveness in newlywed marriage.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2008-02-01

    Physical appearance plays a crucial role in shaping new relationships, but does it continue to affect established relationships, such as marriage? In the current study, the authors examined how observer ratings of each spouse's facial attractiveness and the difference between those ratings were associated with (a) observations of social support behavior and (b) reports of marital satisfaction. In contrast to the robust and almost universally positive effects of levels of attractiveness on new relationships, the only association between levels of attractiveness and the outcomes of these marriages was that attractive husbands were less satisfied. Further, in contrast to the importance of matched attractiveness to new relationships, similarity in attractiveness was unrelated to spouses' satisfaction and behavior. Instead, the relative difference between partners' levels of attractiveness appeared to be most important in predicting marital behavior, such that both spouses behaved more positively in relationships in which wives were more attractive than their husbands, but they behaved more negatively in relationships in which husbands were more attractive than their wives. These results highlight the importance of dyadic examinations of the effects of spouses' qualities on their marriages.

  12. Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Regulator Developed for a Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2002-01-01

    Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control is a modern state-space technique for designing optimal dynamic regulators. It enables us to trade off regulation performance and control effort, and to take into account process and measurement noise. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed an LQG control for a fault-tolerant magnetic bearing suspension rig to optimize system performance and to reduce the sensor and processing noise. The LQG regulator consists of an optimal state-feedback gain and a Kalman state estimator. The first design step is to seek a state-feedback law that minimizes the cost function of regulation performance, which is measured by a quadratic performance criterion with user-specified weighting matrices, and to define the tradeoff between regulation performance and control effort. The next design step is to derive a state estimator using a Kalman filter because the optimal state feedback cannot be implemented without full state measurement. Since the Kalman filter is an optimal estimator when dealing with Gaussian white noise, it minimizes the asymptotic covariance of the estimation error.

  13. Development of a novel centrifugal pump: magnetic rotary pump.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, S; Yambe, T; Sonobe, T; Kobayashi, S; Nitta, S

    1997-07-01

    The rotational axis of the centrifugal pump has some associated problems such as blood destruction and sealing between the axis and pump housing. To improve upon these deficits we have developed a new type of blood pump, the magnetic rotary pump (MRP). The MRP has an original design with no rotational axis and no impellers. We made a prototype MRP and examined its hemodynamics in mock circulation. The prototype MRP flow rate is only 1.0 L/min with an afterload of 30 mm Hg, and we have made some modifications in the size and drive mechanisms from these results. The modified MRP can achieve high flow rates and rotational speeds (6.0 L/min with an afterload of 100 mm Hg, 2,000 rpm) in a mock circuit, and the modified MRP was used for left heart assistance in an acute animal experiment. The MRP could maintain the hemodynamics of an anesthetized adult goat. These results suggest that the MRP needs to be improved in several areas, but the MRP may be useful as a blood pump.

  14. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Victoria; Rivens, Ian; Collins, David J.; Leach, Martin O.; ter Haar, Gail R.

    2014-01-01

    A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle. PMID:25177702

  15. Developing hyperpolarized krypton-83 for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Zackary I.

    This dissertation discusses the production of highly nonequilibrium nuclear spin polarization, referred to as hyperpolarization or hp, in the nuclear spin I = 9/2 noble gas isotope krypton-83 using spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP). This nonequilibrium polarization yields nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals that are enhanced three or more orders of magnitude above those of thermally polarized krypton and enables experiments that would otherwise be impossible. Krypton-83 possesses a nuclear electric quadrupole moment that dominates the longitudinal (T1) relaxation due to coupling of the quadrupole moment to fluctuating electric field gradients generated by distortions to the spherical symmetry of the electronic environment. Relaxation slows polarization buildup and limits the maximum signal intensity but makes krypton-83 a sensitive probe of its environment. The gas-phase krypton-83 longitudinal relaxation rate increases linearly with total gas density due to binary collisions. Density independent relaxation, caused by the formation of krypton-krypton van der Waals molecules and surface adsorption, also contributes to the observed rate. Buffer gases suppress van der Waals molecule mediated relaxation by breaking apart the weakly bound krypton dimers. Surface relaxation is gas composition independent and therefore more difficult to suppress. However, this relaxation mechanism makes hp krypton-83 sensitive to important surface properties including surface-to-volume ratio, surface chemistry, and surface temperature. The presence of surfaces with high krypton adsorption affinities (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces) accelerates the relaxation times and can produce T1 contrast in hp krypton-83 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tobacco smoke deposited on surfaces generates strong T1 contrast allowing the observation of smoke deposition with spatial resolution. Conversely, water adsorption on surfaces significantly lengths the T1 times due competitive surface adsorption

  16. Further Development of an Optimal Design Approach Applied to Axial Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloodgood, V. Dale, Jr.; Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    2000-01-01

    Classical design methods involved in magnetic bearings and magnetic suspension systems have always had their limitations. Because of this, the overall effectiveness of a design has always relied heavily on the skill and experience of the individual designer. This paper combines two approaches that have been developed to aid the accuracy and efficiency of magnetostatic design. The first approach integrates classical magnetic circuit theory with modern optimization theory to increase design efficiency. The second approach uses loss factors to increase the accuracy of classical magnetic circuit theory. As an example, an axial magnetic thrust bearing is designed for minimum power.

  17. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  18. Status of superconducting magnet development (SSC, RHIC, LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer, P.

    1993-12-31

    This paper summarize recent superconducting accelerator magnet construction and test activities at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSC), the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (LHC), and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven (RHIC). Future plan are also presented.

  19. Embryonic development of Xenopus laevis under static magnetic fields up to 6.34 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Shiokawa, K.; Iwamoto, M.

    1990-05-01

    A possible influence of intense magnetic fields on the embryonic development of frogs was studied in reference to a potential hazardous problem in magnetic resonance imaging technology. Fertilized eggs of African clawed toads, Xenopus laevis, were cultured in Amphibian Ringer solution under static magnetic fields up to 6.34 T for varying lengths of time, and their cleavage and early embryonic development were followed to examine the possibility of teratogenic effects. Fertilized eggs cultured under the static magnetic field for 6 h followed normal course of cleavage and normally developed into feeding tadpoles. Results were unchanged even when fertilized eggs were cultured for 18 h from the cleavage stage to the neurula stage under a magnetic field of 4.5 T. We conclude that static magnetic fields up to 6.34 T do not affect appreciably the rapid cleavage and the following cell multiplication and differentiation in Xenopus laevis.

  20. Developments in deep brain stimulation using time dependent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, L.J.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Jiles, D.C.

    2012-03-07

    The effect of head model complexity upon the strength of field in different brain regions for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been investigated. Experimental measurements were used to verify the validity of magnetic field calculations and induced electric field calculations for three 3D human head models of varying complexity. Results show the inability for simplified head models to accurately determine the site of high fields that lead to neuronal stimulation and highlight the necessity for realistic head modeling for TMS applications.

  1. Research developing closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Computer inputs were interfaced to the magnetic balance outputs to provide computer position control and data acquisition. The use of parameter identification of a means of determining dynamic characteristics was investigated. The thyraton and motor generator power supplies for the pitch and yaw degrees of freedom were repaired. Topics covered include: choice of a method for handling dynamic system data; applications to the magnetic balance; the computer interface; and wind tunnel tests, results, and error analysis.

  2. The historical development of the magnetic method in exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nabighian, M.N.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Hansen, R.O.; LaFehr, T.R.; Li, Y.; Peirce, J.W.; Phillips, J.D.; Ruder, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic method, perhaps the oldest of geophysical exploration techniques, blossomed after the advent of airborne surveys in World War II. With improvements in instrumentation, navigation, and platform compensation, it is now possible to map the entire crustal section at a variety of scales, from strongly magnetic basement at regional scale to weakly magnetic sedimentary contacts at local scale. Methods of data filtering, display, and interpretation have also advanced, especially with the availability of low-cost, high-performance personal computers and color raster graphics. The magnetic method is the primary exploration tool in the search for minerals. In other arenas, the magnetic method has evolved from its sole use for mapping basement structure to include a wide range of new applications, such as locating intrasedimentary faults, defining subtle lithologic contacts, mapping salt domes in weakly magnetic sediments, and better defining targets through 3D inversion. These new applications have increased the method's utility in all realms of exploration - in the search for minerals, oil and gas, geothermal resources, and groundwater, and for a variety of other purposes such as natural hazards assessment, mapping impact structures, and engineering and environmental studies. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of cellular magnetic dipoles in magnetotactic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Damien; Fischer, Anna; Garcia-Rubio, Inés; Mastrogiacomo, Giovanni; Gehring, Andreas U

    2010-08-09

    Magnetotactic bacteria benefit from their ability to form cellular magnetic dipoles by assembling stable single-domain ferromagnetic particles in chains as a means to navigate along Earth's magnetic field lines on their way to favorable habitats. We studied the assembly of nanosized membrane-encapsulated magnetite particles (magnetosomes) by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy using Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense cultured in a time-resolved experimental setting. The spectroscopic data show that 1), magnetic particle growth is not synchronized; 2), the increase in particle numbers is insufficient to build up cellular magnetic dipoles; and 3), dipoles of assembled magnetosome blocks occur when the first magnetite particles reach a stable single-domain state. These stable single-domain particles can act as magnetic docks to stabilize the remaining and/or newly nucleated superparamagnetic particles in their adjacencies. We postulate that docking is a key mechanism for building the functional cellular magnetic dipole, which in turn is required for magnetotaxis in bacteria. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetically extracted microstructural development along the length of Co nanowire arrays: The interplay between deposition frequency and magnetic coercivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazer, A. H.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.

    2016-09-01

    Providing practical implications for developing the design and optimizing the performance of hard magnets based on nanowires (NWs) requires an in-depth understanding of the processes in fabrication and magnetic parameters. Here, an electrochemical deposition technique with different frequencies is used to fabricate 50 nm diameter Co NW arrays into the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates. The resulting NWs with dendrites at the base are subsequently exposed to a chemical etching with which to prepare cylindrical Co NWs with an aspect ratio of 200. In this way, the coercivity at room temperature increases up to 20% for different deposition frequencies, indicating the occurrence of a magnetic hardening along the NW length. Decreasing the length of the cylindrical NWs in ascending order whilst also using a successive magnetometry, the deposition frequency is found to be an important parameter in further enhancing the initial coercivity up to 65% in the length range of 10 to 3 μm. The first-order reversal curve diagrams evaluated along the NW length evidence the elimination of a soft magnetic phase and the formation of harder magnetic domains when reducing the length. Alternatively, X-ray diffraction patterns show improvements in the crystallinity along the [002] direction, pertaining to the alignment of the hexagonal close-packed c-axis of cobalt and long axis of NWs when reducing the length. These results may address the growing need for the creative design and low cost fabrication of rare-earth-free permanent magnets with high coercivity and availability.

  5. Development of Wind-and-React Bi-2212 Accelerator Magnet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D. R.; English, C. D.; Felice, H.; Hannaford, C. R.; Prestemon, S. O.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R. M.; Hikichi, Y.; Nishioka, J.; Hasegawa, T.

    2007-08-28

    We report on the progress in our R&D program, targeted to develop the technology for the application of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) in accelerator magnets. The program uses subscale coils, wound from insulated cables, to study suitable materials, heat treatment homogeneity, stability, and effects of magnetic field and thermal and electro-magnetic loads. We have addressed material and reaction related issues and report on the fabrication, heat treatment, and analysis of subscale Bi-2212 coils. Such coils can carry a current on the order of 5000 A and generate, in various support structures, magnetic fields from 2.6 to 9.9 T. Successful coils are therefore targeted towards a hybrid Nb3Sn-HTS magnet which will demonstrate the feasibility of Bi-2212 for accelerator magnets, and open a new magnetic field realm, beyond what is achievable with Nb3Sn.

  6. Design, Development & Functional Validation of Magnets system in support of 42 GHz Gyrotron in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Raj, P.; Prasad, U.; Ghate, M.; Khristi, Y.; Panchal, A.; Bhavsar, D.; Banudha, M.; Kedia, S.; Sharma, A. N.; Kanabar, D.; Parghi, B.

    2017-07-01

    A multi institutional initiative is underway towards the development of 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron system in India under the frame work of Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. Indigenous realization comprising of design, fabrication, prototypes and functional validations of an appropriate Magnet System is one of the primary technological objective of these initiatives. The 42 GHz gyrotron magnet system comprises of a warm gun magnet, a NbTi/Cu based high homogenous superconducting cavity magnet and three warm collector magnets. The superconducting cavity magnet has been housed inside a low loss cryostat. The magnet system has been designed in accordance with gyrotron physics and engineering considerations respecting highly homogenous spatial field profile as well as maintaining steep gradient as per the compression and velocity ratios between the emission and resonator regions. The designed magnet system further ensures the co-linearity of the magnetic axis with that of the beam axis with custom winding techniques apart from a smooth collection of beam with the collector magnet profiles. The designed magnets have been wound after several R & D validations. The superconducting magnet has been housed inside a low loss designed cryostat with in-built radial and axial alignment flexibilities to certain extent. The cryostat further houses liquid helium port, liquid nitrogen ports, current communication ports, ports for monitoring helium level and other instrumentations apart from over-pressure safety intensive burst disks etc. The entire magnet system comprising of warm and superconducting magnets has been installed and integrated in the Gyrotron test set-up. The magnet system has been aligned in both warm and when the superconducting cavity magnet is cold. The integrated geometric axes have been experimentally ensured as well as the field profiles have been measured with the magnets being charged. Under experimental conditions, all magnets including

  7. Magnetic particle hyperthermia: nanoparticle magnetism and materials development for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergt, Rudolf; Dutz, Silvio; Müller, Robert; Zeisberger, Matthias

    2006-09-01

    Loss processes in magnetic nanoparticles are discussed with respect to optimization of the specific loss power (SLP) for application in tumour hyperthermia. Several types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles representative for different preparation methods (wet chemical precipitation, grinding, bacterial synthesis, magnetic size fractionation) are the subject of a comparative study of structural and magnetic properties. Since the specific loss power useful for hyperthermia is restricted by serious limitations of the alternating field amplitude and frequency, the effects of the latter are investigated experimentally in detail. The dependence of the SLP on the mean particle size is studied over a broad size range from superparamagnetic up to multidomain particles, and guidelines for achieving large SLP under the constraints valid for the field parameters are derived. Particles with the mean size of 18 nm having a narrow size distribution proved particularly useful. In particular, very high heating power may be delivered by bacterial magnetosomes, the best sample of which showed nearly 1 kW g-1 at 410 kHz and 10 kA m-1. This value may even be exceeded by metallic magnetic particles, as indicated by measurements on cobalt particles.

  8. Development of a Magnetic Attachment Method for Bionic Eye Applications.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kate; Meffin, Hamish; Burns, Owen; Abbott, Carla J; Allen, Penelope J; Opie, Nicholas L; McGowan, Ceara; Yeoh, Jonathan; Ahnood, Arman; Luu, Chi D; Cicione, Rosemary; Saunders, Alexia L; McPhedran, Michelle; Cardamone, Lisa; Villalobos, Joel; Garrett, David J; Nayagam, David A X; Apollo, Nicholas V; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Stacey, Alastair; Escudie, Mathilde; Lichter, Samantha; Shepherd, Robert K; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Successful visual prostheses require stable, long-term attachment. Epiretinal prostheses, in particular, require attachment methods to fix the prosthesis onto the retina. The most common method is fixation with a retinal tack; however, tacks cause retinal trauma, and surgical proficiency is important to ensure optimal placement of the prosthesis near the macula. Accordingly, alternate attachment methods are required. In this study, we detail a novel method of magnetic attachment for an epiretinal prosthesis using two prostheses components positioned on opposing sides of the retina. The magnetic attachment technique was piloted in a feline animal model (chronic, nonrecovery implantation). We also detail a new method to reliably control the magnet coupling force using heat. It was found that the force exerted upon the tissue that separates the two components could be minimized as the measured force is proportionately smaller at the working distance. We thus detail, for the first time, a surgical method using customized magnets to position and affix an epiretinal prosthesis on the retina. The position of the epiretinal prosthesis is reliable, and its location on the retina is accurately controlled by the placement of a secondary magnet in the suprachoroidal location. The electrode position above the retina is less than 50 microns at the center of the device, although there were pressure points seen at the two edges due to curvature misalignment. The degree of retinal compression found in this study was unacceptably high; nevertheless, the normal structure of the retina remained intact under the electrodes.

  9. Development of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation system for highly viscous fluid for practical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    In the industrial plants processing highly viscous fluid such as foods or industrial products, it is necessary to remove the metallic wear debris originating from pipe in manufacturing line which triggers quality loss. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system which consists of superconducting magnet to remove the metallic wear debris. The magnetic separation experiment and the particle trajectory simulation were conducted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a model material (viscosity coefficient was 10 Pa s, which is 10,000 times higher than that in water). In order to develop a magnetic separation system for practical use, the particle trajectory simulation by using solenoidal superconducting magnet was conducted, and the possibility of the magnetic separation for removing ferromagnetic stainless steel (SUS) particles in highly viscous fluid of 10 Pa s was indicated. Based on the results, the number of filters to obtain required separation efficiency was examined to design the practical separation system.

  10. Continuous development of current sheets near and away from magnetic nulls

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.

    2016-04-15

    The presented computations compare the strength of current sheets which develop near and away from the magnetic nulls. To ensure the spontaneous generation of current sheets, the computations are performed congruently with Parker's magnetostatic theorem. The simulations evince current sheets near two dimensional and three dimensional magnetic nulls as well as away from them. An important finding of this work is in the demonstration of comparative scaling of peak current density with numerical resolution, for these different types of current sheets. The results document current sheets near two dimensional magnetic nulls to have larger strength while exhibiting a stronger scaling than the current sheets close to three dimensional magnetic nulls or away from any magnetic null. The comparative scaling points to a scenario where the magnetic topology near a developing current sheet is important for energetics of the subsequent reconnection.

  11. The Measurement of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, James C.; McCain, Thomas A.

    This paper reports a factor analytic investigation of the interpersonal attraction construct. Two hundred-fifteen subjects completed 30 Likert-type, 7-step scales concerning an acquaintance. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions of the interpersonal attraction construct which were labeled "task,""social," and "physical." Obtained internal…

  12. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gregory L.

    1980-01-01

    Among college students who were casual or serious daters, greater relative attractiveness was positively correlated with greater relative availability of opposite-sexed friends and negatively correlated with worrying about partner's potential involvement with others. A 9-month follow-up revealed that similarity of attractiveness was predictive of…

  13. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  14. Personality Mediators of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles D.; And Others

    The current study was an examination of the effect of personality variables on the relationship between attitude disagreement and attraction. Attraction was measured in a neutral situation, designed to maximize any existing affective predispositions toward attitude agreement-disagreements. Subjects were placed in an ambiguous face-to-face…

  15. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  16. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  17. Application of iron magnetic nanoparticles in protein immobilization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiakun; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Yuejun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Sun, Mi

    2014-08-04

    Due to their properties such as superparamagnetism, high surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio, easy separation under external magnetic fields, iron magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention in the past few decades. Various modification methods have been developed to produce biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles for protein immobilization. This review provides an updated and integrated focus on the fabrication and characterization of suitable magnetic iron nanoparticle-based nano-active materials for protein immobilization.

  18. Development of Magnet Technologies for HTS Insert Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Rainer; Uglietti, Davide; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; March, Stephen; Marinucci, Claudio; Stepanov, Boris; Glowa, Natalia

    An existing Nb3Sn laboratory magnet generating a magnetic field of 12 T is intended to be upgraded to 16 T by means of the use of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert coil. An outline design of the HTS insert coil is presented. In the design, the aspects of the maximum achievable operation current, the required copper cross-section to ensure a hot spot temperature below 200 K and the resulting forces and stresses have been considered. The length of the insert coil has been selected in such a way that the field uniformity will be better than 1% within a sphere of 3 cm diameter. The protection of the whole magnet system (LTS & HTS insert) is briefly described.

  19. Development of Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection in a Magnetic Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Can; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Rongsheng; Guo, Fan; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, San; Wang, Shui

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we report that the electron Kelvin–Helmholtz instability is unstable in the current layer associated with a large-scale magnetic island, which is formed in multiple X-line guide field reconnections. The current sheet is fragmented into many small current sheets with widths down to the order of the electron inertial length. Secondary magnetic reconnection then occurs in these fragmented current sheets, which leads to a turbulent state. The electrons are highly energized in such a process.

  20. Advances In Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1994-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum reviews state of technology of magnetic bearings, focusing mainly on attractive bearings rather than repulsive, eddy-current, or Lorentz bearings. Attractive bearings offer greater load capacities and preferred for aerospace machinery.

  1. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  2. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  3. Recent developments in semiprocessed cold rolled magnetic lamination steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilinski, E. J.

    2006-09-01

    Over the past 10 years the magnetic property performance of semi-processed cold rolled magnetic lamination steels in North America have approached those of nonoriented, semi-processed silicon steel. This improvement was accomplished via higher alloy levels in conjunction with hot band annealing. New temper rolling strategies can produce weakly oriented steels tailored to specific applications, such as small transformers used in fluorescent lighting ballasts. Recently, production trials for 0.0138 in product cold rolled on tin mills has been undertaken. Efforts to further improve properties through a better understanding of texture control and via implementation of new production processes, such as thin slab or strip casting, continue.

  4. Development of Magnetic Nanomaterials and Devices for Biological Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-30

    J.F. Chen, M.H. Yu, D. Caruntu, 14) “Magnetic modulation of drug release from magnetic collagen hydrogels ,” C.J. O’Connor, and W.L. Zhou, J... hydrogels ,” Vania M. De Paoli, Silvia H. De Paoli Lacerdi, Bruce Ingber, Brian Cushing and Nitsa Rosenzweig, Langmuir Published on web 05.13.2006 25...fixative, hemisected eyes for frozen sections were cryoprotected in PBS containing 30% sucrose overnight at 4 °C. Frozen sections were used for

  5. Development of closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.; Ramohalli, G.; Way, P.

    1982-01-01

    This research was undertaken with the goal of demonstrating closed loop control of the roll degree of freedom on the NASA prototype magnetic suspension and balance system at the MIT Aerophysics Laboratory, thus, showing feasibility for a roll control system for any large magnetic balance system which might be built in the future. During the research under this grant, study was directed toward the several areas of torque generation, position sensing, model construction and control system design. These effects were then integrated to produce successful closed loop operation of the analogue roll control system. This experience indicated the desirability of microprocessor control for the angular degrees of freedom.

  6. Development of MnBi permanent magnet: Neutron diffraction of MnBi powder

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, J.; Choi, J. P.; Li, G.; Polikarpov, E.; Darsell, J.; Kramer, M. J.; Zarkevich, N. A.; Wang, L. L.; Johnson, D. D.; Marinescu, M.; Huang, Q. Z.; Wu, H.; Vuong, N. V.; Liu, J. P.

    2014-05-07

    MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain because of the rather drastic peritectic reaction between Mn and Bi. In this paper, we report our effort on synthesizing high purity MnBi compound using conventional powder metallurgical approaches. Neutron diffraction was carried out to investigate the crystal and nuclear structure of the obtained powder. The result shows that the purity of the obtained powder is about 91 wt. % at 300 K, and the magnetic moment of the Mn atom in MnBi lattice is 4.424 and 4.013 μB at 50 K and 300 K, respectively.

  7. Development of MnBi permanent magnet: neutron diffraction of MnBi powder

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Li, Guosheng; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Darsell, Jens T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Zarkevich, Nikolai; Wang, L. L.; Johnson, D. D.; Marinescu, Melania; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Vuong, Nguyen V.; Liu, J.Ping

    2014-03-05

    MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain because of the rather drastic peritectic reaction between Mn and Bi. In this paper, we report our effort on synthesizing high purity MnBi compound using conventional powder metallurgical approaches. Neutron diffraction was carried out to investigate the crystal and nuclear structure of the obtained power. The result shows that the purity of the obtained powder is about 91wt.% at 300K, and the magnetic moment of the Mn atom in MnBi lattice is 4.424 and 4.013 μB at 50 K and 300 K respectively.

  8. Development of Novel Magnetic Metal Oxide Films and Carbon Nanotube Materials for Magnetic Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-23

    narrowing of the loop at the zero 420 magnetization axes. Lopez-Urias, et al [25] reported formation of helical spin configurations during...he learned the modeling and computer assisted design (CAD) software called 585 SolidWork . Using that modeling package, he was able to design and 3D

  9. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-07

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T − ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  10. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-07

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (φ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T - φ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and φ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of φ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  11. Development of contrast enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lex, L

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful new diagnostic tool in medicine. In MRI there is a great need to improve the specific identification of different tissues i.e. to enhance the contrast between them. This review tries to cover most of the approaches known for solving this problem.

  12. Development of superconducting magnet for high-field MR systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zanming; van Oort, Johannes M.; Zou, Mark X.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we describe the development of superconducting magnets for high-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) by various businesses and institutions in China. As the Chinese MR market rapidly expands, many foreign and domestic companies and research institutions are joining the race to meet the burgeoning demand by developing key MRI components for various magnetic field configurations. After providing a brief introduction to research on MRI superconducting magnets that dates back to the 1980s, the first large-bore 1.5 T superconducting magnet with 50-cm DSV for whole-body MRI - successfully developed and manufactured by AllTech Medical Systems in Chengdu, China-is presented and its specifications are described.

  13. Inflection Points in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technology-35 Years of Collaborative Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael L; Griswold, Mark A; Henkelman, Mark; Hennig, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    The technology for clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced with remarkable speed and in such a manner reflecting the influence of 3 forces-collaboration between disciplines, collaboration between academia and industry, and the enabling of software applications by hardware. The forces are evident in the key developments from the past and emerging trends for the future highlighted in this review article. These developments are associated with MRI system attributes, such as wider, shorter, and stronger magnets; specialty magnets and hybrid devices; k space; and the notion that magnetic field gradients perform a Fourier transform on the spatial distribution of magnetization, phased-array coils and parallel imaging, the user interface, the wide range of contrast possible, and applications that exploit motion-induced phase shifts. An attempt is made to show connections between these developments and how the 3 forces mentioned previously will continue to shape the technology used so productively in clinical MRI.

  14. Development of a flaw detection material for the magnetic particle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnokova, A. A.; Kalayeva, S. Z.; Ivanova, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The issues of increasing the effectiveness of the magnetic particle method of nondestructive testing by using a new flaw detection material is considered in the paper. The requirements for flaw detection materials are determined, which ensure the effectiveness of the inspection method. A new flaw detection material - magnetic fluids from iron-containing waste products - has been developed.

  15. The effect of low temperature cryocoolers on the development of low temperature superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2000-08-05

    The commercial development of reliable 4 K cryocoolers improves the future prospects for magnets made from low temperature superconductors (LTS). The hope of the developers of high temperature superconductors (HTS) has been to replace liquid helium cooled LTS magnets with HTS magnets that operate at or near liquid nitrogen temperature. There has been limited success in this endeavor, but continued problems with HTS conductors have greatly slowed progress toward this goal. The development of cryocoolers that reliably operate below 4 K will allow magnets made from LTS conductor to remain very competitive for many years to come. A key enabling technology for the use of low temperature cryocoolers on LTS magnets has been the development of HTS leads. This report describes the characteristics of LTS magnets that can be successfully melded to low-temperature cryocoolers. This report will also show when it is not appropriate to consider the use of low-temperature cryocoolers to cool magnets made with LTS conductor. A couple of specific examples of LTS magnets where cryocoolers can be used are given.

  16. Configurations and control of magnetic fields for manipulating magnetic particles in microfluidic applications: magnet systems and manipulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Quanliang; Han, Xiaotao; Li, Liang

    2014-08-07

    The use of a magnetic field for manipulating the motion of magnetic particles in microchannels has attracted increasing attention in microfluidic applications. Generation of a flexible and controllable magnetic field plays a crucial role in making better use of the particle manipulation technology. Recent advances in the development of magnet systems and magnetic field control methods have shown that it has great potential for effective and accurate manipulation of particles in microfluidic systems. Starting with the analysis of magnetic forces acting on the particles, this review gives the configurations and evaluations of three main types of magnet system proposed in microfluidic applications. The interaction mechanisms of magnetic particles with magnetic fields are also discussed.

  17. Development of nanostructured magnetic capsules by means of the layer by layer technique.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Oscar L; Parigi, Enrico; Habibi, Neda; Pastorino, Laura; Caneva Soumetz, Federico; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2010-01-01

    Nanomagnetic particles have been already taken into account as drug carriers thank to the possibility to control their movement to a specific location where the treatment is required by means of high gradient magnetic fields (HGMF). In this work the layer-by-layer technique (LbL) and nanomagnetic particles were used to developed innovative nanostructured magnetic capsules (NSMC). Their potential application as magnetic drug carriers was investigated under the influence of both static and oscillating magnetic fields used respectively to control capsule displacement and shell permeability. The assembly process of the nanostructured magnetic capsules, its characterization by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), and the results obtained under the influence of the magnetic fields are presented.

  18. Development of Wind-and-React Bi-2212 Accelerator MagnetTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.R.; English, C.D.; Felice,H.; Hannaford, C.R.; Prestemon, S.O.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.; Hikichi,Y.; Nishioka, J.; Hasegawa, T.

    2007-08-28

    We report on the progress in our R&D program, targetedto develop the technology for the application of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212)in accelerator magnets. The program uses subscale coils, wound frominsulated cables, to study suitable materials, heat treatmenthomogeneity, stability, and effects ofmagnetic field and thermal andelectro-magnetic loads. We have addressed material and reaction relatedissues and report onthe fabrication, heat treatment, and analysis ofsubscale Bi-2212 coils. Such coils can carry a current on the order of5000 A and generate, in various support structures, magnetic fields from2.6 to 9.9 T. Successful coils are therefore targeted towards a hybridNb3Sn-HTS magnet which will demonstrate the feasibility of Bi-2212 foraccelerator magnets, and open a new magnetic field realm, beyond what isachievable with Nb3Sn.

  19. The development of magnetic degradable DP-Bioglass for hyperthermia cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Wei; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Wang, Wei-Ren; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lou, Pei-Jen; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Young, Tai-Horng

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a novel magnetic degradable material was developed by adding Fe ions into DP-Bioglass (Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2)) as thermoseed for hyperthermia cancer therapy under an alternating magnetic field. We have investigated the properties of developed magnetic DP-Bioglass including morphology, chemical composition, and magnetism. The degradability was conducted by measuring the released concentrations of Na, Ca, Si, P, and Fe ions. The biocompatibility was analyzed by biological assays, and the functional hyperthermia effect to cancer cells was evaluated by in vitro cell culture test. In the results, the morphology of synthesized magnetic DP-Bioglass was revealed in sphere and rod shape with particle size around 50-100 nm. From the hysteresis loop analysis, it showed that the group of Fe/Bioglass = 0.2 possessed the maximum magnetization property. When cultured with fibroblasts, the magnetic DP-Bioglass had no significant influence on cell viability and mediated low cytotoxicity. The thermal-induced property demonstrated that after exposure to an alternating magnetic field, the cell number of human Caucasian lung carcinoma cells (A549) was significantly decreased when temperature was increasing to 45 degrees C. In brief, successfully incorporated with Fe ions by sol-gel method, this magnetic degradable DP-Bioglass possessed the potential and properties of hyperthermia effect to lung carcinoma cells.

  20. Radiation Storm vs. The Magnetic Shield: Superheroes of Magnetism & Space Weather Education - A Model for Teacher Professional Development Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. M.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic and electric fields and phenomena play important roles in various situations in astronomy, planetary science, and Earth science. Students often lack an intuitive sense of electromagnetic phenomena, and therefore struggle with the complexities of planetary and stellar magnetic fields. Hands-on magnetism activities can provide students with an intuitive grasp of the basics of magnetism, preparing them for more challenging conceptual studies of magnetic phenomena. For the past six years, we have been presenting a professional development workshop for teachers covering the topics of magnetism and space weather. The workshop, which has been conducted more than 20 times for a range of audiences, blends together several simple hands-on activities, background information on space weather and geomagnetism, a collection of images, animations, and interactives that illustrate important concepts, and guidance about specific links between these topics and national science education standards. These workshops have been very well-received, and have consistently been rated highly by participants in surveys. We believe the methods used in these workshops can be applied to other topics in science education and to astronomy and Earth science education specifically. In this presentation, we will describe our magnetism and space weather workshop, including some of the hands-on activities. We will describe successful aspects of the workshop and comment on ways we think this approach could be replicated for other topics. We will also display some of the interactives, graphics, and animations shown during the workshops. Resources have been added to the workshop over the years in response to recurring questions from teachers; we will comment on this process and how it might be applied to other topics. The activities and extensive background content used or referenced in the workshop are available for free on the Windows to the Universe web site (www.windows2universe.org). Hands on

  1. Development of Thermoelectric and Permanent Magnet Nanoparticles for Clean Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phi-Khanh

    The global trend towards energy efficiency and environmental sustainability has generated a strong demand for clean energy technologies. Among the many energy solutions, the work in this dissertation contributes to two strategic goals: the reduction of fuel consumption in the transportation sector, and the increase of domestic wind power capacity. The key barriers to achieving these goals are materials challenges. Automobiles can be made more efficient by thermoelectric conversion of waste heat from the engine into electricity that can be used to power electrical components in the vehicle. Vehicles can forego petroleum fuel altogether by using electric or hybrid motors. Unfortunately, the conversion efficiency of current thermoelectric technology is too low to be considered economically feasible, and the permanent magnets used in electric vehicle motors and wind turbine generators require critical rare-earth elements that are economically unstable (often referred to as the "rare-earth crisis"). In order to combat these challenges, a "spark erosion" technique was utilized for producing nanoparticles that improve thermoelectric efficiency and contribute to the development of electromotors that do not require rare-earths. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, I describe the utilization of spark erosion for producing high-quality thermoelectric nanoparticles at a remarkably high rate and with enhanced thermoelectric properties. The technique was employed to synthesize p-type bismuth-antimony telluride (BST) and n-type skutterudite nanoparticles, using a relatively small laboratory apparatus, with low energy consumption. The compacted BST nanocomposite samples made from these nanoparticles exhibit a well-defined, 20--50 nm size nanograin microstructure, and show an enhanced Figure of merit, ZT, of 1.36 at 360 K due to a reduction in lattice thermal conductivity. The skutterudite nanocomposites also show reduced thermal conductivity but still require enhancement in the

  2. Recent developments in processing HTS silver-clad Bi-2223 tapes, coils and test magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Balachandran, U.; Iwasa, Y.; Yunus, M.

    1993-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made in fabricating Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires and tapes with high critical current densities that are attractive for electric power and high-field magnet applications. Powder-in-tube processed silver-clad Bi-2223 short tape samples, small coils and test magnets have been fabricated and measured at liquid nitrogen (77K), pumped liquid nitrogen (64 K), liquid neon (27K) and liquid helium (4.2K) temperatures. Optimization of thermo-mechanical process parameters have yielded J{sub c}`s in the superconducting core > 4.0 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K zero field and > 2.0 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2K, zero field. Long lengths (up to 70 m) of mono-core conductors were fabricated and tested to carry significant amounts of current (23 A, {approximately}15,000 A/cm{sup 2}) at liquid nitrogen temperature. Recent test magnets assembled from pancake wound coils were measured to generate magnetic fields as high as 2.6, 1.8 and 0.36 Tesla at 4.2K, 27K and 77K respectively. These results show promise towards practical utilization of HTS materials.

  3. Progress Toward Attractive Stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, G H; Brown, T G; Gates, D A; Lu, K P; Zarnstorff, M C; Boozer, A H; Harris, J H; Meneghini, O; Mynick, H E; Pomphrey, N; Reiman, A H; Xanthopoulos, P

    2011-01-05

    The quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) concept offers a promising path to a more compact stellarator reactor, closer in linear dimensions to tokamak reactors than previous stellarator designs. Concept improvements are needed, however, to make it more maintainable and more compatible with high plant availability. Using the ARIES-CS design as a starting point, compact stellarator designs with improved maintenance characteristics have been developed. While the ARIES-CS features a through-the-port maintenance scheme, we have investigated configuration changes to enable a sector-maintenance approach, as envisioned for example in ARIES AT. Three approaches are reported. The first is to make tradeoffs within the QAS design space, giving greater emphasis to maintainability criteria. The second approach is to improve the optimization tools to more accurately and efficiently target the physics properties of importance. The third is to employ a hybrid coil topology, so that the plasma shaping functions of the main coils are shared more optimally, either with passive conductors made of high-temperature superconductor or with local compensation coils, allowing the main coils to become simpler. Optimization tools are being improved to test these approaches.

  4. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  5. Visualization of human prenatal development by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Shiota, Kohei; Yamada, Shigehito; Nakatsu-Komatsu, Tomoko; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Mizuta, Shinobu; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2007-12-15

    It is essential to visualize the structures of embryos and their internal organs three-dimensionally to analyze morphogenesis; this used to rely solely on serial histological sectioning and solid reconstruction, which were tedious and time-consuming. We have applied imaging with a magnetic resonance (MR) microscope equipped with a 2.35 T superconducting magnet to visualize human embryos; we were successful in acquiring high-resolution sectional images and in identifying the detailed structures of major organs. The imaging process was facilitated by using a super-parallel MR microscope. A dataset of MR images of more than 1,000 human embryos, now collected, will be important for future biomedical research and for education.

  6. Development of 20 T class superconducting magnet with large bore

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Itoh, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Wada, H.; Maeda, H. ); Kuroishi, K.; Suzuki, F.; Takizawa, T.; Tada, N. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a 20T class superconducting magnet has been constructed at the National Research Institute for Metals in Japan. Its outermost two of four coils have been operated at 4.2K. Before operating all coils at 1.8K, in saturated superfluid helium, breakdown voltages within the coils were measured. With an inner coil of preliminary design, the system should generate 20.4T in a 44mm free bore.

  7. Magnetic and inertial fusion status and development plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, D.; Storm, E.

    1987-12-01

    Controlled fusion, pursued by investigators in both the magnetic and inertial confinement research programs, continues to be a strong candidate as an intrinsically safe and virtually inexhaustible long-term energy source. We describe the status of magnetic and inertial confinement fusion in terms of the accomplishments made by the research programs for each concept. The improvement in plasma parameters (most frequently discussed in terms of the Tn tau product of ion temperature, T, density, n, and confinement time, tau) can be linked with the construction and operation of experimental facilities. The scientific progress exhibited by larger scale fusion experiments within the US, such as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Fusion Test Reactor for magnetic studies and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Nova laser for inertial studies, has been optimized by the theoretical advances in plasma and computational physics. Both the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and Nova have exhibited ion temperatures in excess of 10 keV at confinement parameters of n tau near 10 to the 13th power cm (-3) sec. At slightly lower temperatures (near a few keV), the value of n tau has exceeded 10 to the 13th power cm (-3) sec in both devices.

  8. Development of magnetic liquid metal suspensions for magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carle, Florian; Bai, Kunlun; Casara, Joshua; Vanderlick, Kyle; Brown, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate how to suspend various magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in liquid metals and characterize their properties relevant to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The suspending method uses an acid as a flux to eliminate oxidation from both metal particles and liquid, which allows the particles to be wetted and suspended into the liquid if the particles have higher conductivity than the liquid. With this process we were able to suspend a wide range of particle materials and sizes from 40 nm to 500 μ m into three different liquid metal bases and volume fractions ϕ up to the liquid-solid transition ϕc. By controlling the volume fraction of iron particles in liquid eGaIn, we increased the magnetic permeability by a factor of 5.0 and the electrical conductivity by 13% over that of the pure liquid metal, which gives these materials the potential to exhibit strong MHD effects on the laboratory scale that are usually only observable in the cores of planets and stars. By adding nonmagnetic zinc particles, we increased the viscosity by a factor of 160 while keeping the magnetic and electrical properties nearly constant, which would allow independent control of MHD effects from turbulence. We show that the suspensions flow like Newtonian fluids up to the volume fraction of the liquid-solid transition ϕc.

  9. Offset coil designs for superconducting magnets, a logical development

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-03-01

    Dipoles and quadrupoles for any new, large proton ring must be stronger, smaller and have better field shape (systematic error) than those used in the Doubler. The present two-shell designs are rigid in that the coils are too thin but cannot be relatively fatter without destroying the field quality. An examination of the coil shapes for dipoles and quadrupoles which produce perfect fields from a uniform current density shows clearly that our persistent use of a circular form for the inner surface of the coils is a poor approximation. When this is corrected by ''offsets'' there is a striking improvement both in the strength of fields and in the field quality. The same analysis makes clear that the efficient use of superconductor and the overall magnet size is determined by the perfect coil shapes. Any reasonable magnet will not differ significantly from the ideal for these parameters. This will be particularly helpful in setting design goals for very large quadrupoles. The offset two-shell dipole design preserves the mechanical features of the highly successful, resilient doubler magnets while greatly extending the performance.

  10. Environmental Esthetics and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, James T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine the effects of visual environmental esthetics on interpersonal attraction and concludes that visual esthetics influence participants' perspectives of their partners in live interpersonal communication settings. (MH)

  11. Depression, Schizophrenia, and Social Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Philip C.; Murray, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Compared the dysphoric mood induction and attraction that subjects reported after a vicarious experience with a depressed patient and a comparable experience with a schizophrenic patient. Results showed similar arousal of dysphoric mood and rejection for both patients. (RC)

  12. Attraction between hydrated hydrophilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Matej; Schneck, Emanuel; Netz, Roland R.

    2014-08-01

    According to common knowledge, hydrophilic surfaces repel via hydration forces while hydrophobic surfaces attract, but mounting experimental evidence suggests that also hydrophilic surfaces can attract. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at prescribed water chemical potential we study the crossover from hydration repulsion to hydrophobic attraction for planar polar surfaces of varying stiffness and hydrogen-bonding capability. Rescaling the partial charges of the polar surface groups, we cover the complete spectrum from very hydrophobic surfaces (characterized by contact angles θ ≃ 135°) to hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting complete wetting (θ = 0°). Indeed, for a finite range θadh < θ < 90°, we find a regime where hydrophilic surfaces attract at sub-nanometer separation and stably adhere without intervening water. The adhesive contact angle θadh depends on surface type and lies in the range 65° < θadh < 80°, in good agreement with experiments. Analysis of the total number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) formed by water and surface groups rationalizes this crossover between hydration repulsion and hydrophilic attraction in terms of a subtle balance: Highly polar surfaces repel because of strongly bound hydration water, less polar hydrophilic surfaces attract because water-water HBs are preferred over surface-water HBs. Such solvent reorganization forces presumably underlie also other important phenomena, such as selective ion adsorption to interfaces as well as ion pair formation.

  13. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  14. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  15. Magnetic resonance microscopy of prostate tissue: How basic science can inform clinical imaging development

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, Roger

    2013-03-15

    This commentary outlines how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy studies of prostate tissue samples and whole organs have shed light on a number of clinical imaging mysteries and may enable more effective development of new clinical imaging methods.

  16. Development of integrated AC-DC magnetometer using high-Tc SQUID for magnetic properties evaluation of magnetic nanoparticles in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Takagi, Ryuki; Kusaka, Toki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Tsukamoto, Yuya; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    We developed an integrated AC-DC magnetometer using a high critical temperature superconducting quantum interference device (high-Tc SQUID) to evaluate the static and dynamic magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in solution. The flux-transformer method consisted of first-order planar and axial differential coils that were constructed for static and dynamic magnetization measurements, respectively. Vibrating-sample and harmonic detection techniques were used to reduce interference from excitation magnetic fields in the static and dynamic magnetization measurements, respectively. Static and dynamic magnetization measurements were performed on commercially available iron oxide nanoparticles in diluted solutions. The magnetic responses increased with the increase in concentration of the solutions in both measurement results. The magnetization curves showed that the diamagnetic signal due to the carrier liquid of the iron oxide nanoparticles existed in a dilute solution. Biasing with a proper DC magnetic field in the dynamic magnetization measurement resulted in improved signals of the second and third harmonics. Therefore, highly sensitive magnetic characterizations of MNPs utilizing the static and dynamic magnetization measurement are possible via the developed system.

  17. Development of a fast EUV movie camera for study of magnetic reconnection in magnetically driven plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul

    2012-10-01

    The Caltech MHD driven jet experiment involves a low temperature (˜5 eV) and high density (˜10^21 m-3) plasma that travels at 10's of km/s. During and after formation, magnetic reconnections are observed together with kink and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities [1]. It has also been observed that there are highly transient EUV emissions when there is magnetic reconnection. The first EUV peak occurs when flux tubes merge during formation and the second one occurs when a Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes the jet to break off from its source electrode. It would be helpful for understanding magnetic reconnection to investigate the spatial and temporal behaviors of these EUV bursts associated with magnetic reconnection. In order to achieve this, we are developing a high speed EUV movie camera. It consists of an Al coated YAG:Ce scintillator, an Au parabolic mirror (or a multilayer coated mirror for a specific EUV wavelength) and a fast framing camera (2x10^8 fps). We tested our system using visible light from the actual plasma jet and obtained image sequence with submicron time resolution.[4pt] [1] A. L. Moser and P. M. Bellan, Nature 482, 379 (2012).

  18. 18T resistive magnet development. Conceptual design second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, K.L.; Burgeson, J.E.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the work performed on a normal conducting magnet during fiscal year 1985. Emphasis, during the study, was on refinement of the structural design and optimization of the coil current density distribution for either maximum field generation or minimum power consumption. The results have shown that one can generate a 4.4 tesla field using 6.14 megawatts or 3.1 tesla at 1.43 megawatts. The structural design has been modified to stiffen the outer turn of the conductor. The modification was confirmed to be structurally adequate by both analysis and test. 37 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Development of optical modulators for measurements of solar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of polarized light allows solar astronomers to infer the magnetic field on the Sun. The accuracy of these measurements is dependent on the stable retardation characteristics of the polarization modulators used to minimize the atmospheric effects seen in ground-based observations. This report describes the work by the Space Science Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to improve two types of polarization modulators. As a result, the timing characteristics for both electrooptic crystals (KD*Ps) and liquid crystal devices (LCDs) have been studied and will be used to enhance the capabilities of the MSFC Vector Magnetograph.

  20. Development of magnetic fabric in sedimentary rocks: insights from early compactional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lasanta, Cristina; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio M.; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2013-07-01

    The timing of development of the magnetic fabric is a major issue in the application of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a strain marker. Analysis of AMS in unconcealed synsedimentary structures can be a sound approximation to this task. In this work, three types of early compactional structures (ECS) were studied by means of AMS, since they can help to understand the timing of development of the magnetic fabric. All three types of ECS are found in fine-grained detrital rocks (to avoid other influences such as palaeocurrents), claystones and marls of the Enciso Group within the Cameros Basin (NE Spain): dinosaur footprints, load structures due to differential compaction and dish-and-flame structures associated with fluid migration related to seismites. In addition, to determine possible influences of lithology on the magnetic fabric, different rock types (siltstones and limestones) were also sampled. In general, the influence of ECS results in scattering of the three magnetic axes, higher at the margins of the structure than at its centre. This fact suggests that ECS occurs during the development of the magnetic fabric, disturbing the incipient magnetic fabric stages, and strongly conditions its later evolution during diagenesis. The later homogeneous compaction process due to sedimentary load and physicochemical processes reorient the susceptibility carriers to some extent (i.e. the magnetic fabric is still under development), but not totally, since AMS still records the previous scattering due to ECS imprint. For the Enciso Group deposits, the magnetic fabric begins to develop at the earliest stages after deposition and it stops when diagenetic processes have finished.

  1. Developing a Solar Magnetic Catalog Spanning Four Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werginz, Zachary; Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; DeLuca, Michael D.; Vargas Acosta, Juan Pablo; Vargas Dominguez, Santiago; Zhang, Jie; Longcope, Dana; Martens, Petrus C.

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) are the cornerstone of solar cycle propagation, the building blocks that give structure to the solar atmosphere, and the origin of the majority of space weather events. However, in spite of their importance, there is no homogeneous BMR catalog spanning the era of systematic solar magnetic field measurements. Here we present the results of an ongoing project to address this deficiency applying the Bipolar Active Region Detection (BARD) code to magnetograms from the 512 Channel of the Kitt Peak Vaccum Telescope, SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI.The BARD code automatically identifies BMRs and tracks them as they are rotated by differential rotation. The output of the automatic detection is supervised by a human observer to correct possible mistakes made by the automatic algorithm (like incorrect pairings and tracking mislabels). Extra passes are made to integrate fragmented regions as well as to balance the flux between BMR polarities. At the moment, our BMR database includes 6,885 unique objects (detected and tracked) belonging to four separate solar cycles (21-24).

  2. Intention of Students in Less Developed Cities in China to Opt for Undergraduate Education Abroad: Does This Vary as Their Perceptions of the Attractions of Overseas Study Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Fan-sing

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on a survey in 2007 of 12,961 senior secondary final year students in seven major cities in China, and shows that students in less developed cities manifest a stronger intention to study abroad than students in better off cities, controlling for students' other demographic characteristics and their major perceived attractions…

  3. Structural development of the Jurassic Magnetic Quiet Zone off Morocco and identification of Middle Jurassic magnetic lineations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, H. A.; Steiner, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Block, M.

    2002-10-01

    Geophysical investigations carried out during two Meteor cruises have revealed weak linear magnetic anomalies in those parts of the Jurassic Magnetic Quiet Zone (JMQZ) off Morocco that are not affected by Cenozoic igneous activity. The linear magnetic anomalies are not correlated with variations in relief or structure of oceanic crust. Using the reversal sequence M25-M41, the anomalies of the JMQZ can be modeled with a half spreading rate of 2.2 cm/yr. Extrapolation of the weak lineations back to the slope anomaly S1 results in a breakup age of 170 Ma. According to this interpretation the crust of the JMQZ off Morocco has formed during the time 170-155 Ma (Bajocian to Oxfordian). However, much lower spreading rates (around 1 cm/yr) cannot be excluded. S1 coincides with a poorly developed "seaward dipping reflector sequence" (SDRS), which is most likely its source. The SDRS corroborates the earlier claim that S1 marks the ocean-continent transition. Seaward of S1 is a 70-km-wide strip of horizontal reflectors that become landward dipping to the west in the uppermost part of the basement; it parallels S1 over a distance of 200 km and may indicate excessive magma supply within the first 2 m.y. of seafloor spreading. Similar landward dipping reflectors are observed also in the conjugate Sohm Abyssal Plain off Nova Scotia. The average magnetization of the landward dipping reflectors is much lower than that of the SDRS. A lower crustal body with a seismic velocity of ˜7.3 km/s, which formed during the Neogene beneath the eastern part of the Essaouira Rise, has only a weak magnetization (<0.5 A/m).

  4. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of high-Tc superconductor wires for magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenbrink, J.; Heine, K.; Krauth, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1991-03-01

    Bi-2212/Ag 1-mm round untextured wires have been produced with critical current densities of 1200 A/sq cm at 77 K, 0 T and up to about 2.0 x 10 to the 4th A/sq cm at 4.2 K in magnetic fields beyond 20 T. In order to achieve this, a two-step annealing procedure is necessary with a partial melting of the wire core, the melt having a composition near Bi2(Sr,Ca)2Cu1O(6+x). On cooling, the Bi2(Sr,Ca)2Cu1O(6+x) phase appears at 880 C, as revealed by in situ XRD (X-ray diffraction) measurements. Long-term annealing at 840 C leads to the transformation of this phase into the Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O(8+x) phase. The alkaline earth cuprate (Sr,Ca)14Cu24O=40 and CuO occur as major extraneous phases. Helically shaped samples yield a lower jc between 3 x 103 and maximum 1.0 x 10 to the 4th A/sq cm at 4.2 K, 10 T. Cracks due to thermal expansion mismatch with the sample holder and remaining inhomogeneities along the wire are responsible for these lower values. From I-V curves measured at 4.2 K, n-values were determined to be 20 to 25 in the interesting very-high-field region beyond 20 T. Bi-2223/Ag highly textured thin tapes yield an appreciably higher jc of 2.6 x 10 to the 4th A/sq cm at 77 K, 0 T. Temperature-dependent measurements of jc as a function of magnetic field B yielded onset of significant flux creep above 20 K, limiting the range of application in magnet technology to the temperature range up to 20 K unless an additional more effective pinning mechanism is introduced.

  6. Exploring Ultrahigh Magnetic Field Processing of Materials for Developing Customized Microstructures and Enhanced Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, GERALD M.

    2005-03-31

    Thermodynamic calculations based on Gibbs free energy in the magnetization-magnetic intensity-temperature (M-H-T) magnetic equation of state space demonstrate that significantly different phase equilibria may result for those material systems where the product and parent phases exhibit different magnetization responses. These calculations show that the Gibbs free energy is changed by a factor equal to -MdH, where M and H are the magnetization and applied field strength, respectively. Magnetic field processing is directly applicable to a multitude of alloys and compounds for dramatically influencing phase stability and phase transformations. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength promises to provide a very robust mechanism for developing and tailoring enhanced microstructures (and even nanostructures through accelerated kinetics) with superior properties for a broad spectrum of material applications. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) Advanced Materials for the Future project, ferrous alloys were studied initially since this alloy family exhibits ferromagnetism over part of its temperature range of stability and therefore would demonstrate the maximum impact of this novel processing mechanism. Additionally, with these ferrous alloys, the high-temperature parent phase, austenite, exhibits a significantly different magnetization response from the potential product phases, ferrite plus carbide or martensite; and therefore, the solid-state transformation behavior of these alloys will be dramatically influenced by the presence of ultrahigh magnetic fields. Finally, a thermodynamic calculation capability (within ThermoCalc for example) was developed during this project to enable parametric studies to be performed to predict the magnitude of the influence of magnetic processing variables on the phase stability (phase diagrams) in

  7. Development of high-gradient and open-gradient magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hise, E C

    1981-01-01

    This paper was prepared: to review the accomplishments in both high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) and open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) group during the past three years; to show, through the medium of motion pictures, the operation of the various separation methods and devices used and developed; to show qualitative results of the separation performed; and to make available, to those interested, detailed reports of the experimental procedures and the resulting data. The qualitative separation of pyritic sulfur and ash forming minerals from fine coal by high gradient magnetic separation has been demonstrated at feed rates up to one ton per hour, and in a machine that is commercially produced in sizes for feed rates up to several hundred tons per hour. The quantitative separation of pyritic sulfur and ash forming minerals from fine coal by free fall open gradient magnetic separation has been demonstrated at a laboratory scale and at 300 kg per hour in a solenoidal magnet configuration. A magnet modeling analysis has shown that an optimum magnet can be designed with practical physical constraints which can generate separating forces two to three times those of the existing solenoidal configuration and with a large processing capacity. The analytical predictions of the behavior of particles traversing these separating forces have been experimentally confirmed within 15% in existing magnets.

  8. Development of controlled solid-state alignment for alnico permanent magnets in near-final shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Kassen, Aaron G.; White, Emma M. H.; Palasyuk, Andriy; Zhou, Lin; Tang, Wei; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2017-05-01

    The 2011 price shock in the rare earth (RE) permanent magnet (PM) marketplace precipitated realization of extremely poor RE supply diversity and drove renewed research in RE-free permanent magnets such as "alnico." Essentially, alnico is an Al-Ni-Co-Fe alloy with high magnetic saturation and TC, but low coercivity. It also was last researched extensively in the 1970's. Currently alnico "9" magnets with the highest energy product (10MGOe) are manufactured by directional solidification to make highly aligned anisotropic magnets. This work developed novel powder processing techniques to improve on unaligned anisotropic alnico "8H" with elevated coercivity. Gas atomization was used to produce pre-alloyed powder for binder-assisted compression molding of near-final shape magnets that were vacuum sintered to full density (<1% porosity). Biased grain growth with resulting grain alignment was achieved during a second solution annealing step, during which a uni-axial stress was applied along the axis parallel to the magnetization direction. Evaluation of heavily stressed samples (>250g) showed reduced overall loop squareness compared to unaligned (equiaxed) 8H due to grain rotation-induced misalignment, while low stresses improved squareness and greatly improved alignment compared to equiaxed magnets, with squareness approaching 0.30 and remanence ratio as high as 0.79.

  9. Development of controlled solid-state alignment for alnico permanent magnets in near-final shape

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Iver E.; Kassen, Aaron G.; White, Emma M. H.; ...

    2017-01-09

    The 2011 price shock in the rare earth (RE) permanent magnet (PM) marketplace precipitated realization of extremely poor RE supply diversity and drove renewed research in RE-free permanent magnets such as “alnico.” Essentially, alnico is an Al-Ni-Co-Fe alloy with high magnetic saturation and TC, but low coercivity. It also was last researched extensively in the 1970’s. Currently alnico “9” magnets with the highest energy product (10MGOe) are manufactured by directional solidification to make highly aligned anisotropic magnets. This work developed novel powder processing techniques to improve on unaligned anisotropic alnico “8H” with elevated coercivity. Gas atomization was used to producemore » pre-alloyed powder for binder-assisted compression molding of near-final shape magnets that were vacuum sintered to full density (<1% porosity). Biased grain growth with resulting grain alignment was achieved during a second solution annealing step, during which a uni-axial stress was applied along the axis parallel to the magnetization direction. Lastly, evaluation of heavily stressed samples (>250g) showed reduced overall loop squareness compared to unaligned (equiaxed) 8H due to grain rotation-induced misalignment, while low stresses improved squareness and greatly improved alignment compared to equiaxed magnets, with squareness approaching 0.30 and remanence ratio as high as 0.79.« less

  10. New developments in magnetic resonance imaging of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Ernesto; Sirignano, Cesare; Catalano, Onofrio; Atteno, Mariangela; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Peluso, Rosario; Bruner, Vincenzo; Aquino, Maria Maddalena; Del Puente, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) musculoskeletal equipment allows new sequences and better images of the nail unit. The use of MRI has modified the imaging strategies used in treating inflammatory arthritis. In the case of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement, which appears as an initial lesion for the induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All patients with psoriasis, even in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes in the nail. This evidence could have a practical diagnostic value, because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have a barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low-field and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA.

  11. Development of high-stability magnet power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W. S.; Kim, M. J.; Jeong, I. W.; Kim, D. E.; Park, H. C.; Park, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    A very stable (≤10 ppm) magnet power supply (MPS) is required in an accelerator to achieve acceptable beam dynamics. Many factors affect the stability of an MPS, so design of the MPS requires much attention to noise-reduction schemes and to good processing of the signals from the feedback stage. This paper describes some design considerations for an MPS installed and operated in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory: (1) control method, (2) oversampling technology, (3) ground isolation between hardware modules and (4) low-pass filter design to reduce the switching noise and rectifier ripple components, and shows the stability of three designed devices. The MPS design considerations were verified and validated in simulations and experiments. This paper also shows the relationship between stability and measurement aperture time of digital voltage meter 3458 A to measure stability of a current.

  12. Aversion and attraction through olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory cues that predict reward or punishment are fundamental drivers of animal behavior. For example, attractive odors of palatable food or a potential mate predict reward while aversive odors of pathogen-laced food or a predator predict punishment. Aversive and attractive odors can be detected by intermingled sensory neurons that express highly related olfactory receptors and display similar central projections. These findings raise basic questions of how innate odor valence is extracted from olfactory circuits, how such circuits are developmentally endowed and modulated by state, and the relationship between innate and learned odor responses. Here, we review odors, receptors, and neural circuits associated with stimulus valence, discussing salient principles derived from studies on nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Understanding the organization of neural circuitry that mediates odor aversion and attraction will provide key insights into how the brain functions. PMID:25649823

  13. The physics of pollinator attraction.

    PubMed

    Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J

    2017-10-01

    Contents 350 I. 350 II. 350 III. 352 IV. 353 V. 353 353 References 354 SUMMARY: This Tansley Insight focuses on recent advances in our understanding of how flowers manipulate physical forces to attract animal pollinators and ensure reproductive success. Research has traditionally explored the role of chemical pigments and volatile organic compounds as cues for pollinators, but recent reports have demonstrated the importance of physical and structural means of pollinator attraction. Here we explore the role of petal microstructure in influencing floral light capture and optics, analysing colour, gloss and polarization effects. We discuss the interaction between flower, pollinator and gravity, and how petal surface structure can influence that interaction. Finally, we consider the role of electrostatic forces in pollen transfer and pollinator attraction. We conclude that this new interdisciplinary field is evolving rapidly. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Recent progress towards developing a high field, high-T(sub c) superconducting magnet for magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derochemont, L. Pierre; Oakes, Carlton E.; Squillante, Michael R.; Duan, Hong-Min; Hermann, Allen M.; Andrews, Robert J.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Maroni, Victor A.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Kelliher, Warren C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews superconducting magnets and high T(sub c) superconducting oxide ceramic materials technology to identify areas of fundamental impasse to the fabrication of components and devices that tap what are believed to be the true potential of these new materials. High T(sub c) ceramics pose problems in fundamentally different areas which need to be solved unlike low T(sub c) materials. The authors map out an experimental plan designed to research process technologies which, if suitably implemented, should allow these deficiencies to be solved. Finally, assessments are made of where and on what regimes magnetic system designers should focus their attention to advance the practical development of systems based on these new materials.

  15. Recent progress towards developing a high field, high-T(sub c) superconducting magnet for magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derochemont, L. Pierre; Oakes, Carlton E.; Squillante, Michael R.; Duan, Hong-Min; Hermann, Allen M.; Andrews, Robert J.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Maroni, Victor A.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Kelliher, Warren C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews superconducting magnets and high T(sub c) superconducting oxide ceramic materials technology to identify areas of fundamental impasse to the fabrication of components and devices that tap what are believed to be the true potential of these new materials. High T(sub c) ceramics pose problems in fundamentally different areas which need to be solved unlike low T(sub c) materials. The authors map out an experimental plan designed to research process technologies which, if suitably implemented, should allow these deficiencies to be solved. Finally, assessments are made of where and on what regimes magnetic system designers should focus their attention to advance the practical development of systems based on these new materials.

  16. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the development of odour

  17. Effective writing that attracts patients.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Doctors today not only must communicate verbally, they must also realize that the written word is important to their ability to connect with the patients that they already have and also to attract new patients. Doctors will be expected to write blogs, to create content for their Web sites, to write articles for local publications, and even to learn to express themselves in 140 characters or less (i.e., Twitter). This article presents 10 rules for selecting the right words to enhance your communication with existing patients and potentially to attract new patients to your practice.

  18. Engineered Magnetic Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Alavi Nikje, Mir Mohammad; Vakili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, engineered magnetic core-shell structures are playing an important role in the wide range of various applications. These magnetic core-shell structures have attracted considerable attention because of their unique properties and various applications. Also, the synthesis of engineered magnetic core-shell structures has attracted practical interest because of potential applications in areas such as ferrofluids, medical imaging, drug targeting and delivery, cancer therapy, separations, and catalysis. So far a large number of engineered magnetic core-shell structures have been successfully synthesized. This review article focuses on the recent progress in synthesis and characterization of engineered magnetic core-shell structures. Also, this review gives a brief description of the various application of these structures. It is hoped that this review will play some small part in helping future developments in important field.

  19. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  20. Pedogenic development and effects of wildfires in high mountain soils revealed by their magnetic properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Petrov, Petar

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic properties of Cambisols and Umbrisols from Bulgaria, developed in different altitudinal zones are expression of the complex origin of the iron oxides present - inherited from the parent rock, pedogenically formed, and in fire-affected areas - appeared as a result of mineral transformations during wildfires. We present detailed mineral magnetic study of four profiles of high-mountain soils formed during the Holocene from Rila and the Rhodopes mountains. Pedogenic magnetic enhancement with strongly magnetic superparamagnetic (SP) and larger stable single domain (SD) grains exhibits clear altitudinal separation. SP magnetite particles are in a small amount and detected only in forest soils. The Umbrisol developed immediately above the timber line contains only coarser particles. The humic horizons in the Cambisol profiles studied become progressively more enhanced with stable remanence carrying grains with increasing altitude. It is supposed that grain growth is the dominant process of pedogenic enhancement in high mountain soils. Umbrisols are characterized by weak magnetic signal in the peat-enriched uppermost levels. When affected by fire, the soil shows higher total C and N content in the upper 10cm. However, the effect of burning in magnetic signature is visible down to 15cm depth, expressed by higher content of strongly magnetic fraction as compared to unburnt soil from the same area. Significant amounts of low-crystallinity iron oxyhydroxides are also detected through iron oxalate extraction (Feo concentrations of 5 - 8 g/kg).

  1. Development of a new experimental device for long-duration magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Ryoma; Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Kento; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a universal phenomenon which determines global structure and energy conversion in magnetized plasmas. Many experimental studies have been carried out to explore the physics of magnetic reconnection in fully ionized condition. However, it is predicted that the behavior of magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized plasmas such as solar chromosphere plasma will show different behavior such as ambipolar diffusion caused by interaction with neutral particles. In this research, we are developing a new experimental device to uncover the importance of ambipolar diffusion during magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized plasmas. We employ an inverter-driven rotating magnetic fields technique, which is used for generating steady azimuthal plasma current, to establish long-duration ( 1 ms) anti-parallel reconnection with magnetic field of 5 mT in weakly ionized plasma. We will present development status and initial results from the new experimental setup. This work was supported by JSPS A3 Foresight Program ``Innovative Tokamak Plasma Startup and Current Drive in Spherical Torus'', Giant-in Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) 15H05750, 15K14279, 26287143 and the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS14KNWP004).

  2. Development of Highly Efficient Saving Processes of Rare Earth in R-T-B Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saguchi, A.; Uesugi, T.; Takigawa, Y.; Higashi, K.

    In this study, cost reduction of manufacturing R (Nd, Pr, and Dy) -T (Fe, Co)-B permanent magnets was investigated. An efficient direct melting recycle of R-T-B magnet scraps and multiple methods for saving Dy were focused. In the former, Decarburization and deoxidation of R-T-B magnet scraps were developed as a pre-treatment technique for conventional induction melting. The decarburized scraps 0.001mass% carbon or less was subsequently deoxidized by calciothermic reduction. The recycled scraps can be used as low cost alloying elements by re-melting. In the latter, the casting conditions for R-T-B alloy with small admixture of Ga and the improved pulverization process of R-T-B magnet alloy were developed. Microstructure of R-T-B magnet alloy with small admixture Ga was optimized by controlling cooling rate during solidification, and its average crystalline size was to be 5 μm. In order to obtain finer R-T-B magnet alloy powder preferable to the coercive force, conditions of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) prior to pulverization were optimized. Specific surface area of the HD magnet alloy was increased with decreasing temperature and hydrogen pressure, and its grindability was verified by Jet milling.

  3. Development and Testing of a Magnetically Actuated Capsule Endoscopy for Obesity Treatment.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh Nho; Seah, Tian En Timothy; Ho, Khek Yu; Yu, Ho Khek; Phee, Soo Jay

    2016-01-01

    Intra-gastric balloons (IGB) have become an efficient and less invasive method for obesity treatment. The use of traditional IGBs require complex insertion tools and flexible endoscopes to place and remove the balloon inside the patient's stomach, which may cause discomfort and complications to the patient. This paper introduces a new ingestible weight-loss capsule with a magnetically remote-controlled inflatable and deflatable balloon. To inflate the balloon, biocompatible effervescent chemicals are used. As the source of the actuation is provided via external magnetic fields, the magnetic capsule size can be significantly reduced compared to current weight-loss capsules in the literature. In addition, there are no limitations on the power supply. To lose weight, the obese subject needs only to swallow the magnetic capsule with a glass of water. Once the magnetic capsule has reached the patient's stomach, the balloon will be wirelessly inflated to occupy gastric space and give the feeling of satiety. The balloon can be wirelessly deflated at any time to allow the magnetic capsule to travel down the intestine and exit the body via normal peristalsis. The optimal ratio between the acid and base to provide the desired gas volume is experimentally evaluated and presented. A prototype capsule (9.6mm x 27mm) is developed and experimentally validated in ex-vivo experiments. The unique ease of delivery and expulsion of the proposed magnetic capsule is slated to make this development a good treatment option for people seeking to lose excess weight.

  4. A latest developed all permanent magnet ECRIS for atomic physics research at IMP

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.T.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Wang, H.; Ma, B.H.; Li, J.Y.; Zhang, X.Z.; Feng, Y.C.; Guo, X.H.; Li, X.X.; Ma, X.W.; Song, M.T.; Zhan, W.L.

    2006-03-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources have been used for atomic physics research for a long time. With the development of atomic physics research in the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), additional high performance experimental facilities are required. A 300 kV high voltage (HV) platform has been under construction since 2003, and an all permanent magnet ECR ion source is supposed to be put on the platform. Lanzhou all permanent magnet ECR ion source No. 2 (LAPECR2) is a latest developed all permanent magnet ECRIS. It is a 900 kg weight and null-set 650 mmx562 mm outer dimension (magnetic body) ion source. The injection magnetic field of the source is 1.28 T and the extraction magnetic field is 1.07 T. This source is designed to be running at 14.5 GHz. The high magnetic field inside the plasma chamber enables the source to give good performances at 14.5 GHz. LAPECR2 source is now under commissioning in IMP. In this article, the typical parameters of the source LAPECR2 are listed, and the typical results of the preliminary commissioning are presented.

  5. Progress in the Development of the Wuhan High Magnetic Field Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Peng, T.; Ding, H. F.; Han, X. T.; Xia, Z. C.; Ding, T. H.; Wang, J. F.; Xie, J. F.; Wang, S. L.; Huang, Y.; Duan, X. Z.; Yao, K. L.; Herlach, F.; Vanacken, J.; Pan, Y.

    2010-04-01

    Since April 2008 the Wuhan High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC) has been under development at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) at Wuhan, China. It is funded by the Chinese National Development and Reformation Committee. Magnets with bore sizes from 12 to 34 mm and peak fields in the range of 50 to 80 T have been designed. The power supplies for these magnets are a capacitor bank with 12 modules of 1 MJ, 25 kV each and a 100 MVA/100 MJ flywheel pulse generator. The objective of the facility is to accommodate external users for extensive experiments in pulsed high magnetic fields. Up to seven measurement stations will be available at temperatures in the range from 50 mK to 400 K. The first prototype 1 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank with thyristors, crowbar diodes and a mechanical switch has been developed and successfully tested. For the protection of the thyristor switch, a toroidal inductor is developed to limit the current at 40 kA. Five magnets have been wound with CuNb and copper wires and internal reinforcement by Zylon fiber; external reinforcement is a stainless steel shell encased by carbon fiber composite. Two Helium flow cryostats have been successfully tested and reached temperatures down to 4.2 K. Measurement stations for magneto-transport and magnetization are in operation. The design, construction and testing of the prototype system are presented.

  6. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung Chul; Ahn, Jung Keun

    2014-02-15

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  7. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

    2014-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  8. Development of a Non-Magnetic Inertial Sensor for Vibration Stabilization in a Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Josef; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Seryi, Andrei; Chang, Allison; Partridge, Richard; /Brown U.

    2006-09-01

    One of the options for controlling vibration of the final focus magnets in a linear collider is to use active feedback based on accelerometers. While commercial geophysics sensors have noise performance that substantially exceeds the requirements for a linear collider, they are physically large, and cannot operate in the strong magnetic field of the detector. Conventional nonmagnetic sensors have excessive noise for this application. We report on the development of a non-magnetic inertial sensor, and on a novel commercial sensor both of which have demonstrated the required noise levels for this application.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with dimercaptosuccinic acid: development, characterization, and application in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Amalia; Morais, Paulo César; Bentes de Azevedo, Ricardo; Lacava, Zulmira G. M.; Villanueva, Angeles; del Puerto Morales, María

    2014-11-01

    This review intends to summarize some of the results achieved in the development of magnetic nanoparticles coated with anionic ligands, specifically dimercaptosuccinic acid applied in the biomedical area. We describe synthetic routes used to produce iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles, subsequently coated with DMSA as well as functionalization strategies for specific purposes with polymers, antibodies, and cytokines. Finally, we have collected data on biological interactions of DMSA-coated nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo, in particular cell interaction process, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution in different animal models and their promising applications in drug delivery, NMR imaging, hyperthermia, nanothermometry, magnetic separation, and bioremediation.

  10. The odorous attractant of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). I. Quantitative aspects of the response to the attractant.

    PubMed

    WHARTON, D R; MILLER, G L; WHARTON, M L

    1954-03-01

    1. Procedures have been developed for studying quantitatively the response of the male American cockroach to the odorous attractant of the female. 2. The percentage of male roaches responding to extracts of the attractant of the female has been found to vary with the log of the concentration of the attractant throughout a wide range. 3. Adaptation to the olfactory stimulus has been demonstrated. 4. A theory of adaptation is offered.

  11. Micro-fabricated magnetic microcalorimeter development for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Adams, Joseph S.; Beyer, Joern; Hseih, Wen-Ting; Rotzinger, Hannes; Seidel, George M.; Stevenson, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    X-ray microcalorimeters using magnetic sensors show great promise for use in astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. We have begun to develop technology for fabricating arrays of magnetic calorimeters for X-ray astronomy. The magnetization change in each pixel of the paramagnetic sensor material due to the heat input of an absorbed x-ray is sensed by a meander shaped coil. With this geometry it is possible to obtain excellent energy sensitivity, low magnetic cross-talk and large format arrays fabricated on wafers that are separate from the SQUID read-out. We report on the results from our prototype arrays, which are coupled to low noise 2-stage SQUIDs developed at the PTB Berlin. The first testing results are presented and the sensitivity compared with calculations.

  12. Development of Rare-Earth Free Mn-Al Permanent Magnet Employing Powder Metallurgy Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Shyam, R.; Upadhyay, N. K.; Dhar, A.

    2015-02-01

    Most widely used high-performance permanent magnets are currently based on intermetallics of rare-earths in combination with Fe and Co. Rare-earth elements required for these magnets are getting expensive by the day. Consequently, there is a thrust worldwide to develop economical rare-earth free permanent magnets. It is acknowledged that the phase in Mn-Al alloys possesses magnetic properties without the presence of ferromagnetic elements such as Fe, Co, and Ni. In the present study, we report the synthesis of magnetic phase of Mn54Al46 alloy synthesized using mechanical alloying followed by solutionizing and annealing to obtain the desired magnetic phase. It is well known that Al dissolves partially in Mn matrix hence supersaturated solid solution of Mn54Al46 alloy powder was obtained by mechanical alloying using a planetary high-energy ball mill. For this purpose elemental Mn and Al powders were ball-milled in Argon atmosphere at 400 rpm using stainless steel bowl with ball to powder ratio of 15:1. These mechanically alloyed Mn54Al46 powders were then consolidated using spark plasma sintering at 550°C for 20 min. followed by solution treatment at 1050°C for 5 hrs and then water quenched to retain high temperature phase. Subsequently, the Mn54Al46 samples were annealed in the temperature range 450°C-650°C to obtain the magnetic phase. These samples were characterized by XRD and SEM and the magnetic properties were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was observed that the magnetization and coercivity of MnAl magnets exhibited strong dependence on annealing temperature and annealing time.

  13. The Development of Magnetic Molecules for the Selective Removal of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.P.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.; Duffield, J.; Pascual, I.; Ratcliffe, N.

    2006-07-01

    'Magnetic molecules' are a new type of decontaminant for removing dilute dissolved contaminants from solution. Magnetic molecules have a specific ion exchange function to selectively react with a particular type of ionic contamination in a liquid solution. The magnetic molecules also have a very small magnetic ferritin core (ferritin is an iron-III mammalian storage protein having about 10 nm diameter), which enables the magnetic molecule to be removed from solution by magnetic filtration. The ion exchange function is attached to the magnetic ferritin core by organic reaction sequences. The ion exchange function selectively bonds to a specific type of contaminant ion. For example, ion exchange functions can selectively target radioactive contaminant ions such as cobalt, cesium and plutonium. The procedure for decontamination is that the appropriate magnetic molecule (which targets the contaminant which it is desired to remove) is added to the solution and the solution is then passed through a magnetic filter. The contaminant binds to the magnetic molecule and is then removed by the magnetic filter. The magnetic molecule/contaminant can then be recovered from the magnetic filter by back-washing. Work has been undertaken towards the development of magnetic molecules for use as radioactive decontaminants for radioactive waste management purposes. Previously we have reported on the functionalization of ferritin with the chelating agent DTPA and have shown that this can be used to bind Ca(II) in solution and separate it from Na(I) ions by the process of equilibrium dialysis. Approximately 100 DTPA molecules could be bound to the surface of the ferritin molecule. Synthetic conditions have been optimised, and which will be reported here, ferritin has been functionalized with approximately 1200 DTPA molecules per mole of ferritin and used successfully to achieve a quantitative separation of Co(II) from Cs(I) ions by equilibrium dialysis. This separation has been carried

  14. Development and Fielding of High-Speed Laser Shadowgraphy for Electro-Magnetically Driven Cylindrical Implosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    shockwave in a cylindrical geometry provides fundamental benchmarks used in the modeling of 1-D and 2-D hydrodynamic phenomena from high or solid...DEVELOPMENT AND FIELDING OF HIGH-SPEED LASER SHADOWGRAPHY FOR ELECTRO -MAGNETICALLY DRIVEN CYLINDRICAL IMPLOSIONS J. P. Roberts, G. Rodriguez...an electro -magnetically driven solid density liner implosion in Lucite is described. The laser shadowgraphy system utilizes an advanced high-energy

  15. Magnetic field measurements on bridges and development of a mobile SQUID system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Juergen; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Gampe, Uwe; Sawade, Gottfried

    1999-02-01

    The paper describes the application of Non-Destructive Testing for the detection of ruptures in the prestressing reinforcement. These damages can be detected by the non- destructive and contactless magnetic stray field measuring method. The paper presents the underlying physical principle and the results of measurements on bridges. Furthermore, the development of a multi-channel system utilizing Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices as most sensitive magnetic field detectors will be reported. First laboratory measurements indicate the potential of this new technique.

  16. The development of magnetic field line wander in gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: dependence on amplitude of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Howes, Gregory G.

    2017-06-01

    The dynamics of a turbulent plasma not only manifests the transport of energy from large to small scales, but also can lead to a tangling of the magnetic field that threads through the plasma. The resulting magnetic field line wander can have a large impact on a number of other important processes, such as the propagation of energetic particles through the turbulent plasma. Here we explore the saturation of the turbulent cascade, the development of stochasticity due to turbulent tangling of the magnetic field lines and the separation of field lines through the turbulent dynamics using nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of weakly collisional plasma turbulence, relevant to many turbulent space and astrophysical plasma environments. We determine the characteristic time 2$ for the saturation of the turbulent perpendicular magnetic energy spectrum. We find that the turbulent magnetic field becomes completely stochastic at time 2$ for strong turbulence, and at 2$ for weak turbulence. However, when the nonlinearity parameter of the turbulence, a dimensionless measure of the amplitude of the turbulence, reaches a threshold value (within the regime of weak turbulence) the magnetic field stochasticity does not fully develop, at least within the evolution time interval 22$ . Finally, we quantify the mean square displacement of magnetic field lines in the turbulent magnetic field with a functional form 2\\rangle =A(z/L\\Vert )p$ ( \\Vert $ is the correlation length parallel to the magnetic background field \\mathbf{0}$ , is the distance along \\mathbf{0}$ direction), providing functional forms of the amplitude coefficient and power-law exponent as a function of the nonlinearity parameter.

  17. Sex Attraction in Pear Psylla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from solvent extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with g...

  18. Peer assessment of dental attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ong, Egle; Brown, Rebecca A; Richmond, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the relative importance of various dental features that contribute to overall dental attractiveness and to test the validity of the concepts of golden proportion and golden percentage as applied to the human dentition. Sixty 30-year-old subjects (29 men, 31 women) were selected from the 20-year longitudinal Cardiff Survey. Color photographs of the subjects' dentitions were taken with the lips retracted so that their teeth and gums were clearly exposed. Twelve nondentists, aged 32 to 33 years, equally divided according to sex, rated the subjects' dental appearances on a 5-point Likert attractiveness scale. The maxillary anterior teeth were measured, and relevant ratios were calculated and compared with the golden proportion. Factor analyses and linear regression were used to investigate the hierarchy of dental features, and variance components analysis was used to estimate interrater agreement. Overall dental attractiveness did not depend on any particular feature of the dentition. A hierarchy of various features was established, with crown shape ranked highest, and tooth and gum color ranked lowest. The golden proportion and the golden percentage were not decisive factors in determining dental attractiveness.

  19. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  20. Olfactory cues modulate facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Demattè, M Luisa; Osterbauer, Robert; Spence, Charles

    2007-07-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate whether olfactory cues can influence people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Sixteen female participants judged the attractiveness of a series of male faces presented briefly on a computer monitor using a 9-point visual rating scale. While viewing each face, the participants were simultaneously presented with either clean air or else with 1 of 4 odorants (the odor was varied on a trial-by-trial basis) from a custom-built olfactometer. We included 2 pleasant odors (geranium and a male fragrance) and 2 unpleasant odors (rubber and body odor) as confirmed by pilot testing. The results showed that the participants rated the male faces as being significantly less attractive in the presence of an unpleasant odor than when the faces were presented together with a pleasant odor or with clean air (these conditions did not differ significantly). These results demonstrate the cross-modal influence that unpleasant odors can have on people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Interestingly, this pattern of results was unaffected by whether the odors were body relevant (the body odor and the male fragrance) or not (the rubber and geranium odors).

  1. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Adam P.; Morris, Robert H.; Newton, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. PMID:28239124

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Adam P; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2013-08-28

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment.

  4. Development of a new magnetic Barkhausen spectroscopy method for the non-destructive characterization of magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kypris, Orfeas; Nlebedim, Ikenna; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Barkhausen emissions, which result from discontinuous, irreversible changes in magnetization, are related to the stress state, defect/inclusion sizes and microstructure of ferromagnetic materials. Time domain analysis of Barkhausen signals measured at the surface of a specimen can reveal the average magnitude of stress in the structure. Such analysis offers a powerful tool for magnetic nondestructive characterization of materials. However, determining the stress and other microstructural parameters as a function of depth still remains a challenging problem, which can be treated in the frequency domain. In this work, a model for stress-depth profiling of ferromagnets is developed. In the model, the frequency spectrum at the surface of a specimen is described in terms of two parameters; the average amplitude of Barkhausen emissions at their origin Vorig and ζ, which is proportional to the square root of magnetic permeability. A ferromagnetic structure is mathematically divided into homogeneous layers with each layer acting as a source of Barkhausen signal having a unique spectrum that is attenuated as it propagates to the surface. We show that Vorig and ζ correlate with stress and we provide a framework for detecting stress variations as a function of depth.

  5. Fatal attraction: sexually cannibalistic invaders attract naive native mantids

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Murray P.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    Overlap in the form of sexual signals such as pheromones raises the possibility of reproductive interference by invasive species on similar, yet naive native species. Here, we test the potential for reproductive interference through heterospecific mate attraction and subsequent predation of males by females of a sexually cannibalistic invasive praying mantis. Miomantis caffra is invasive in New Zealand, where it is widely considered to be displacing the only native mantis species, Orthodera novaezealandiae, and yet mechanisms behind this displacement are unknown. We demonstrate that native males are more attracted to the chemical cues of introduced females than those of conspecific females. Heterospecific pairings also resulted in a high degree of mortality for native males. This provides evidence for a mechanism behind displacement that has until now been undetected and highlights the potential for reproductive interference to greatly influence the impact of an invasive species. PMID:24284560

  6. Rock magnetic properties of a soil developed on an alluvial deposit at Buttermilk Creek, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Anna K.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Waters, Michael R.

    2011-12-01

    The evolution of magnetization within a floodplain soil begins with initial deposition of magnetic particles during sedimentation and continues via subsequent alteration and growth of iron-bearing compounds by pedogenic and biologic processes. Measurements of soil magnetic properties capture information about the developmental history of the soil and are a convenient method by which to investigate environmental change and pedogenesis. Using a range of magnetic measurements, a comprehensive scenario for soil development was constructed for floodplain sediments at the Debra L. Friedkin site, an important archeological site near Buttermilk Creek, Texas. Floodplain deposits have traditionally been avoided for soil magnetism studies because it is thought that the episodic input of sediment would form soils characterized by discrete sedimentary units rather than a continuous record of pedogenesis. We demonstrate that alluvial deposits can sometimes carry a straightforwardly interpretable magnetic signal similar to those typically seen in loess deposits. Smooth variation of rock magnetic parameters as a function of depth also leads us to conclude that the soil at this site is largely undisturbed and that the age of lithic artifacts found within the soil may be interpreted within stratigraphic context.

  7. Design and development of permanent magnet based focusing lens for J-Band Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kumud; Itteera, Janvin; Ukarde, Priti; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K.; Bandyopadhay, Ayan; Meena, Rakesh; Rawat, Vikram; Joshi, L.M

    2014-07-01

    Applying permanent magnet technology to beam focusing in klystrons can reduce their power consumption and increase their reliability of operation. Electromagnetic design of the beam focusing elements, for high frequency travelling wave tubes, is very critical. The magnitude and profile of the magnetic field need to match the optics requirement from beam dynamics studies. The rise of the field from cathode gun region to the uniform field region (RF section) is important as the desired transition from zero to peak axial field must occur over a short axial distance. Confined flow regime is an optimum choice to minimize beam scalloping but demands an axial magnetic field greater than 2 - 3 times the Brillouin flow field. This necessitates optimization in the magnet design achieve high magnetic field within given spatial constraints. Electromagnetic design and simulations were done using 3D Finite element method (FEM) analysis software. A permanent magnet based focusing lens for a miniature J-Band klystron has been designed and developed at Control Instrumentation Division, BARC. This paper presents the design, simulation studies, beam transmission and RF tests results for J Band klystron with permanent magnet focusing lens. (author)

  8. Development of Wind-and-React Bi-2212 Accelerator Magnet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel R.; English, C.D.; Felice, Helene; Hannaford, Charles R.; Prestemon, Soren O.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Scanlan, Ron M.; Hikichi, Y.; Nishioka, J.; Hasegawa, T.; Godeke, A.

    2007-06-01

    We report on the progress in our R&D program, targeted to develop the technology for the application of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} (Bi-2212) in accelerator magnets. The program uses subscale coils, wound from insulated cables, to study suitable materials, heat treatment homogeneity, stability, and effects of magnetic field and thermal and electro-magnetic loads. We have addressed material and reaction related issues and report on the fabrication, heat treatment, and analysis of subscale Bi-2212 coils. Such coils can carry a current on the order of 5000 A and generate, in various support structures, magnetic fields from 2.6 to 9.9 T. Successful coils are therefore targeted towards a hybrid Nb{sub 3}Sn-HTS magnet which will demonstrate the feasibility of Bi-2212 for accelerator magnets, and open a new magnetic field realm, beyond what is achievable with Nb{sub 3}Sn.

  9. [Development and use of quality control program in magnetic resonance].

    PubMed

    Berardi, P; Bergamini, C; Gavelli, G; Lembo, C; Pavlica, P; Pierotti, L; Vianello Vos, C

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, two identical 0.5 Magnetic Resonance units were installed in Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi in Bologna. A Quality Assurance (QA) protocol was designed by the Medical Physics Department to monitor both systems as of Acceptance Test. Our main goals in drawing up the QA protocol were: 1) Completeness--to check all the most significant physical parameters; 2) Efficiency--to reduce examination time of the QC Protocol; 3) Reliability--to achieve good repeatability of results. The QA protocol consists of two QC programs: 1) Daily check of Variable Echo image SNR of a homogeneous phantom, Eddy Current compensation, laser printer test; 2) Monthly check of SNR of Spin Echo and Fast Scan images, integral uniformity, B0 uniformity, B1 uniformity, T2 stability, ghosts, slice thickness, slice profile, geometrical distortion, resolution power. SNR dependence on FOV, NEX, matrix and slice thickness, and resolution dependence on slice thickness and position were tested as Acceptance test. The daily checks provide continual monitoring of the performance of both systems and laser printer and have shown: 1) strong fluctuations in image reproduction probably due to film emulsion instability; 2) a "warning" of imminent malfunction. The monthly checks were in line with acceptance test data and have shown: 1) different behavior of the two systems that should perform analogously; 2) greater result stability in one system with better results also in terms of diagnostic images. The main aim of our QA protocol is to optimize diagnostic accuracy by checking several physical parameters that act as good "indicators" for possible malfunctioning. We believe this can be done with simple but useful daily QC supporting a routine more complex QC program and can be achieved through continual application of both protocols.

  10. Physical Attractiveness and Health in Western Societies: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from developed Western societies is reviewed for the claims that (a) physical attractiveness judgments are substantially based on body size and shape, symmetry, sex-typical hormonal markers, and other specific cues and (b) physical attractiveness and these cues substantially predict health. Among the cues that the authors review, only…

  11. Further developments relating to the NASA Langley Research Center 13-inch magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1991-01-01

    A few specific developments that were undertaken recently to the magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) are detailed. The improvements are as follows: modifications to the digital control system to accommodate a modified position sensing system; development of pressure telemetry systems; and revisions to the wind tunnel test section.

  12. Development of cos-theta Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnets for VLHC

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Zlobin et al.

    2001-07-20

    This paper describes the double aperture dipole magnets developed for a VLHC based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor, a cos-theta coil, cold and warm iron yokes, and the wind-and-react fabrication technique. Status of the model R and D program, strand and cable and other major component development are also discussed.

  13. Language Development and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics in Preschool Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ja Young; Choi, Yoon Seong; Park, Eun Sook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of language development in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the other contributing factors to language development in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 172 children with CP who underwent brain MRI and language…

  14. Novel modeling and dynamic simulation of magnetic tunnel junctions for spintronic sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yu; Liu, Jie; Yang, Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Spintronic magnetic sensors with the integration of magnetic materials and microstructures have been enabling people to make use of the electron spin and charge properties in many applications. The high demand for such sensors has in turn spurred the technology developments in both novel materials and their atomic-level controls. Few works, however, have been carried out and reported thus far in modeling and simulation of these spintronic magnetic sensing units based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) technology. Accordingly, this paper proposes a novel modeling approach as well as an iterative simulation methodology for MTJs. A more comprehensive electrical tunneling model is established for better interpreting the conductance and current generated by the electron tunneling, and this model can also facilitate the iterative simulation of the micromagnetic dynamics. Given the improved tunneling model as well as the updated dynamic simulation, the electric characteristics of an MTJ with an external magnetic field can be conveniently computed, which provides a reliable benchmark for the future development of novel spintronic magnetic sensors.

  15. Developed turbulence and nonlinear amplification of magnetic fields in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

    PubMed

    Meinecke, Jena; Tzeferacos, Petros; Bell, Anthony; Bingham, Robert; Clarke, Robert; Churazov, Eugene; Crowston, Robert; Doyle, Hugo; Drake, R Paul; Heathcote, Robert; Koenig, Michel; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Kuranz, Carolyn; Lee, Dongwook; MacDonald, Michael; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Park, Hye-Sook; Pelka, Alexander; Ravasio, Alessandra; Reville, Brian; Sakawa, Youichi; Wan, Willow; Woolsey, Nigel; Yurchak, Roman; Miniati, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander; Lamb, Don; Gregori, Gianluca

    2015-07-07

    The visible matter in the universe is turbulent and magnetized. Turbulence in galaxy clusters is produced by mergers and by jets of the central galaxies and believed responsible for the amplification of magnetic fields. We report on experiments looking at the collision of two laser-produced plasma clouds, mimicking, in the laboratory, a cluster merger event. By measuring the spectrum of the density fluctuations, we infer developed, Kolmogorov-like turbulence. From spectral line broadening, we estimate a level of turbulence consistent with turbulent heating balancing radiative cooling, as it likely does in galaxy clusters. We show that the magnetic field is amplified by turbulent motions, reaching a nonlinear regime that is a precursor to turbulent dynamo. Thus, our experiment provides a promising platform for understanding the structure of turbulence and the amplification of magnetic fields in the universe.

  16. Development of a magnetic fluid shaft seal for an axial-flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Kazumitsu; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Yozu, Ryouhei; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2003-10-01

    A rotating impeller in a rotary blood pump requires a supporting system in blood, such as a pivot bearing or magnetic suspension. To solve potential problems such as abrasive wear and complexity of a supporting system, a magnetic fluid seal was developed for use in an axial-flow blood pump. Sealing pressures at motor speeds of up to 8,000 rpm were measured with the seal immersed in water or bovine blood. The sealing pressure was about 200 mm Hg in water and blood. The calculated theoretical sealing pressure was about 230 mm Hg. The seal remained perfect for 743 days in a static condition and for 180+ days (ongoing test) at a motor speed of 7,000 rpm. Results of measurement of cell growth activity indicated that the magnetic fluid has no negative cytological effects. The specially designed magnetic fluid shaft seal is useful for an axial-flow blood pump.

  17. Developed turbulence and nonlinear amplification of magnetic fields in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Meinecke, Jena; Tzeferacos, Petros; Bell, Anthony; Bingham, Robert; Clarke, Robert; Churazov, Eugene; Crowston, Robert; Doyle, Hugo; Drake, R. Paul; Heathcote, Robert; Koenig, Michel; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Kuranz, Carolyn; Lee, Dongwook; MacDonald, Michael; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Park, Hye-Sook; Pelka, Alexander; Ravasio, Alessandra; Reville, Brian; Sakawa, Youichi; Wan, Willow; Woolsey, Nigel; Yurchak, Roman; Miniati, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander; Lamb, Don; Gregori, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The visible matter in the universe is turbulent and magnetized. Turbulence in galaxy clusters is produced by mergers and by jets of the central galaxies and believed responsible for the amplification of magnetic fields. We report on experiments looking at the collision of two laser-produced plasma clouds, mimicking, in the laboratory, a cluster merger event. By measuring the spectrum of the density fluctuations, we infer developed, Kolmogorov-like turbulence. From spectral line broadening, we estimate a level of turbulence consistent with turbulent heating balancing radiative cooling, as it likely does in galaxy clusters. We show that the magnetic field is amplified by turbulent motions, reaching a nonlinear regime that is a precursor to turbulent dynamo. Thus, our experiment provides a promising platform for understanding the structure of turbulence and the amplification of magnetic fields in the universe. PMID:26100873

  18. Parallel Path Magnet Motor: Development of the Theoretical Model and Analysis of Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, I.; Kleperis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and numerical modelling is performed for the linear actuator of a parallel path magnet motor. In the model based on finite-element analysis, the 3D problem is reduced to a 2D problem, which is sufficiently precise in a design aspect and allows modelling the principle of a parallel path motor. The paper also describes a relevant numerical model and gives comparison with experimental results. The numerical model includes all geometrical and physical characteristics of the motor components. The magnetic flux density and magnetic force are simulated using FEMM 4.2 software. An experimental model has also been developed and verified for the core of switchable magnetic flux linear actuator and motor. The results of experiments are compared with those of theoretical/analytical and numerical modelling.

  19. Development and operational experience of magnetic horn system for T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, T.; Bessho, K.; Fujii, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, K.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Koike, S.; Koseki, K.; Maruyama, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Shibata, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamanoi, Y.; Yamaoka, H.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Kubo, H.; Butcher, Z.; Coleman, S.; Missert, A.; Spitz, J.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Tzanov, M.; Bartoszek, L.

    2015-07-01

    A magnetic horn system to be operated at a pulsed current of 320 kA and to survive high-power proton beam operation at 750 kW was developed for the T2K experiment. The first set of T2K magnetic horns was operated for over 12 million pulses during the four years of operation from 2010 to 2013, under a maximum beam power of 230 kW, and 6.63×1020 protons were exposed to the production target. No significant damage was observed throughout this period. This successful operation of the T2K magnetic horns led to the discovery of the νμ →νe oscillation phenomenon in 2013 by the T2K experiment. In this paper, details of the design, construction, and operation experience of the T2K magnetic horns are described.

  20. Development of Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing technology for laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the aim of enabling it as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation, perfusion, and gas-exchange. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 1BXe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive NMR detection, opening the door to practical MRI with novel, open-access magnet designs at very low magnetic fields (and hence in confined spaces). We are pursuing two specific aims in this technology development program. The first aim is to develop an open-access, low-field (less than 0.01 T) instrument for MRI studies of human gas inhalation as a function of subject orientation, and the second aim is to develop functional imaging of the lung using laser-polarized He-3 and Xe-129.

  1. Organizational configuration of hospitals succeeding in attracting and retaining nurses.

    PubMed

    Stordeur, Sabine; D'Hoore, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper contrasts structural and managerial characteristics of low- and high-turnover hospitals, and describes the organizational configuration of attractive hospitals. In countries facing nurse shortages and turnover, some hospitals succeed in recruiting and retaining nurses. In Magnet Hospitals, managerial practices and environmental characteristics increase nurses' job satisfaction and their commitment to the organization, which in turn decreases nurse turnover. Such an approach suggests that organizations are best understood as clusters of interconnected structures and practices, i.e. organizational configurations rather than entities whose components can be understood in isolation. From a sample of 12 hospitals whose nurse turnover was studied for 1 year, structural and organizational features of hospitals in the first and fourth quartiles, i.e. attractive (turnover <3.1%) vs. conventional (turnover >11.8%) were contrasted. A questionnaire, including perceptions of health-related factors, job demands, stressors, work schedules, organizational climate, and work adjustments antecedent to turnover, was received from 401 nurses working in attractive hospitals (response rate = 53.8%) and 774 nurses in conventional hospitals (response rate = 54.5%). Structural characteristics did not differentiate attractive and conventional hospitals, but employee perceptions towards the organization differed strikingly. Differences were observed for risk exposure, emotional demands, role ambiguity and conflicts, work-family conflicts, effort-reward imbalance and the meaning of work, all in favour of attractive hospitals (P < 0.001). Relationships with nursing management, work ability and satisfaction with working time, handover shifts and schedules were also better in attractive hospitals (P < 0.001). Job satisfaction and commitment were higher in attractive hospitals, whereas burnout and intention to leave were lower (P < 0.001). Organizational characteristics are key factors

  2. Development of a 22,000 RPM magnetic bearing system for the SSME HPOTP

    SciTech Connect

    Artinian, V.

    1995-12-31

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a permanent magnet bias, homopolar radial magnetic bearing is described. The current flight version of the SSME HPOTP (Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbo Pump) was used as a baseline, to define the magnetic bearing performance requirements. The HPOTP magnetic bearing system is a full five axis levitation support system with two 1,800 pound load capacity radial bearings and one 300 pound thrust bearing. The system is designed to operate at 22,000 rpm, in a cryogenic temperature of {minus}321{degrees}F. A rotordynamic model for a magnetic bearing version of the HPOTP was developed to determine the static and dynamic loads on the bearing. The electromechanical design followed a parametric analysis, performed with AVCON`s magnetic bearing program PERAMCON and magnetic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software. The use of three different materials on the rotor (9% nickel, stainless steel, and cobalt steel) required extensive stress and thermal analysis to ensure the interference fits were maintained during operation at 22,000 rpm and {minus}300{degrees}F. The rotordynamic stability analysis of the coupled rotor/housing/bearing system also provided the controller transfer function. An AVCON developed digital controller was utilized to implement the transfer function and control algorithm. AVCON proprietary sensors for position input and pulse-width modulated (PWM) power amplifiers for output were also implemented in the system. A HPOTP simulator test rig was designed and built to perform operational and partial load testing of the bearings at cryogenic temperatures and spin speeds up to 20,000 rpm. Fabrication of the HPOTP simulator with magnetic bearings was completed at the end of 1994. Testing of the HPOTP simulator is ongoing.

  3. Polyelectrolyte-coated gold magnetic nanoparticles for immunoassay development: toward point of care diagnostics for syphilis screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Ma, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qinlu; Li, Ningning; Yang, Jiangcun; Raju, Paul Ananda; Peng, Mingli; Luo, Yanling; Hui, Wenli; Chen, Chao; Cui, Yali

    2013-07-16

    Immediate response for disease control relies on simple, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests, highly sought after for timely and accurate test of various diseases, including infectious diseases. Composite Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest in diagnostic applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Here, we developed a simple coating procedure for gold magnetic nanoparticles (GMNs) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). PAA-coated GMNs (PGMNs) were stable and monodispersed and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and Zetasizer methodologies. For diagnostic application, we established a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip test system where recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens (r-Tp) were conjugated with PGMNs to construct a particle probe for detection of anti-Tp antibodies. Intriguingly, the particle probes specifically identified Tp antibodies with a detection limitation as low as 1 national clinical unit/mL (NCU/mL). An ample pool of 1020 sera samples from three independent hospitals were obtained to assess our PGMNs-based LFIA strips, which exhibited substantially high values of sensitivity and specificity for all clinical tests (higher than 97%) and, therefore, proved to be a suitable approach for syphilis screening at a point-of-care test manner.

  4. The attraction of Brazil nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, D. A.; Swift, M. R.; Bowley, R. M.; King, P. J.

    2006-02-01

    Simulations of intruder particles in a vertically vibrated granular bed suggest that neutrally-buoyant intruders are attracted to one another (Phys. Rev. Lett., 93 (2004) 208002). The simulations, however, ignore important physical effects such as friction and convection which are known to influence intruder behaviour. Here, we present experimental evidence for this intruder-intruder interaction, obtained by monitoring the position of neutrally-buoyant metallic disks in a vibrated bed of glass spheres. An effective long-range attraction is shown to exist between a pair of intruders for a range of driving conditions. If further intruder particles are added, a tightly bound cluster of intruders can form. These results highlight the difficulty of retaining well-mixed granular beds under vertical vibration.

  5. Fingertip aura and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Murstein, B I; Hadjolian, S E

    1977-06-01

    Concluding from our survey of the literature that fingertip auras (Kirlian effect) might be associated with interpersonal attraction, four hypotheses were advanced to test this assertion. It was hypothesized that individuals would respond with bigger auras to (1) opposite-sex photographers as compared to same-sex photographers, (2) to seductive opposite-sex photographers as opposed to normally behaving opposite-sex photographers, (3) to opposite-sex unknown peers as opposed to same-sex unknown peers, and (4) to liked as opposed to disliked same-sex persons. All hypotheses except (2) were supported. The second hypothesis was significant in a direction contrary to hypothesis. Fingertip auras are seen as a promising measurement device in the study of interpersonal attraction.

  6. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  7. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

  8. Panel perception of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W J; O'Donnell, J M

    1990-11-01

    The full-face and profile photographic transparencies of 60 subjects (30 male, 30 female) divided equally among Angles Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions, taken before and after orthodontic treatment, were randomly distributed in projector carousels and shown to four panels consisting of orthodontists, dental students, art students, and the parents of children undergoing orthodontic treatment. The faces were rated according to the method of Lundstrom et al. (1987). Full-face views generally were rated more attractive than profile views and Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects were rated lower than Class I malocclusion subjects. While the art student and parent panels were less critical in their appraisal of facial attractiveness, they were less sensitive to the changes brought about by orthodontic treatment than the orthodontist and dental student panels, although all could appreciate an improvement in the Class II Division 1 group.

  9. Can Pensions Help Attract Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.; Heneman, Herbert G.,III; Kellor, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Every year there is a substantial flow of people into teaching roles as entrants or as movers from one school to another. Each such move involves attraction of the person to the job. Data for 1999-2000 reveal several important findings about teacher staffing. In 1999-2000, out of a teaching workforce of about 3.45 million, there were about 535,000…

  10. Can Pensions Help Attract Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.; Heneman, Herbert G.,III; Kellor, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Every year there is a substantial flow of people into teaching roles as entrants or as movers from one school to another. Each such move involves attraction of the person to the job. Data for 1999-2000 reveal several important findings about teacher staffing. In 1999-2000, out of a teaching workforce of about 3.45 million, there were about 535,000…

  11. Pyrazines Attract Catocheilus Thynnine Wasps.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Bjorn; Peakall, Rod

    2014-06-19

    Five previously identified semiochemicals from the sexually deceptive Western Australian hammer orchid Drakaea livida, all showing electrophysiological activity in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (EAD) studies, were tested in field bioassays as attractants for a Catocheilus thynnine wasp. Two of these compounds, (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, were attractive to male wasps. Additionally, the semiochemical 3-(3-methylbutyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a close analogue to 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, identified in five other species of thynnine wasps, was equally active. The three remaining compounds from D. livida, which were EAD-active against Catocheilus, did not attract the insects in field trials. It is interesting that two structurally similar compounds induce similar behaviours in field experiments, yet only one of these compounds is present in the orchid flower. Our findings suggest the possibility that despite the high specificity normally characterising sex pheromone systems, the evolution of sexual deception may not be entirely constrained by the need to precisely match the sex pheromone constituents and blends. Such evolutionary flexibility may be particularly important during the early stages of speciation.

  12. Pyrazines Attract Catocheilus Thynnine Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Bjorn; Peakall, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Five previously identified semiochemicals from the sexually deceptive Western Australian hammer orchid Drakaea livida, all showing electrophysiological activity in gas chromatography–electroantennogram detection (EAD) studies, were tested in field bioassays as attractants for a Catocheilus thynnine wasp. Two of these compounds, (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, were attractive to male wasps. Additionally, the semiochemical 3-(3-methylbutyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a close analogue to 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, identified in five other species of thynnine wasps, was equally active. The three remaining compounds from D. livida, which were EAD-active against Catocheilus, did not attract the insects in field trials. It is interesting that two structurally similar compounds induce similar behaviours in field experiments, yet only one of these compounds is present in the orchid flower. Our findings suggest the possibility that despite the high specificity normally characterising sex pheromone systems, the evolution of sexual deception may not be entirely constrained by the need to precisely match the sex pheromone constituents and blends. Such evolutionary flexibility may be particularly important during the early stages of speciation. PMID:26462695

  13. Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences.

  14. Incidental regulation of attraction: the neural basis of the derogation of attractive alternatives in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Meghan L; Berkman, Elliot T; Karremans, Johan C; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2011-04-01

    Although a great deal of research addresses the neural basis of deliberate and intentional emotion-regulation strategies, less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms involved in implicit forms of emotion regulation. Behavioural research suggests that romantically involved participants implicitly derogate the attractiveness of alternative partners, and the present study sought to examine the neural basis of this effect. Romantically committed participants in the present study were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while indicating whether they would consider each of a series of attractive (or unattractive) opposite-sex others as a hypothetical dating partner both while under cognitive load and no cognitive load. Successful derogation of attractive others during the no cognitive load compared to the cognitive load trials corresponded with increased activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and posterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (pDMPFC), and decreased activation in the ventral striatum, a pattern similar to those reported in deliberate emotion-regulation studies. Activation in the VLPFC and pDMPFC was not significant in the cognitive load condition, indicating that while the derogation effect may be implicit, it nonetheless requires cognitive resources. Additionally, activation in the right VLPFC correlated with participants' level of relationship investment. These findings suggest that the RVLPFC may play a particularly important role in implicitly regulating the emotions that threaten the stability of a romantic relationship. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  15. Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ).

    PubMed

    Ahlander, Britt-Marie; Årestedt, Kristofer; Engvall, Jan; Maret, Eva; Ericsson, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Anxiety Questionnaire. Questionnaires measuring patients' anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients' experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbach's alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    of imaging may provide a means for monitor- ing longitudinal changes in iron content in dementia, multiple sclerosis , traumatic brain injury, and...developed in our lab, SWIM will be used to quantify iron in microbleeds and oxygen saturation in major veins throughout the brain. Our central...SWI technique, to quantify the amount of iron in microbleeds, to monitor any changes (evolution) of the microbleed over time and to monitor oxygen

  17. Fetal hippocampal development: analysis by magnetic resonance imaging volumetry.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Francois Dominique; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Corbett-Detig, James; Xu, Duan; Studholme, Colin; Glenn, Orit A

    2011-05-01

    The hippocampal formation plays an important role in learning and memory; however, data on its development in utero in humans are limited. This study was performed to evaluate hippocampal development in healthy fetuses using 3D reconstructed MRI. A cohort of 20 healthy pregnant women underwent prenatal MRI at a median GA of 24.9 wk (range, 21.3-31.9 wk); six of the women also had a second fetal MRI performed at a 6-wk interval. Routine 2D ultrafast T2-weighted images were used to reconstruct a 3D volume image, which was then used to manually segment the right and left hippocampi. Total hippocampal volume was calculated for each subject and compared against GA. There was a linear increase in total hippocampal volume with increasing GA (p < 0.001). For subjects scanned twice, there was an increase in hippocampal size on the second fetal MRI (p = 0.0004). This represents the first volumetric study of fetal hippocampal development in vivo. This normative volumetric data will be helpful for future comparison studies of suspected developmental abnormalities of hippocampal structure and function.

  18. Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Mark; Stevens, Charles

    2007-03-01

    Optical tracking systems pioneered the use of position sensors in surgical navigation. The requirement to maintain a clear line-of-sight between the emitters and detectors, however, renders them unsuitable for tracking flexible invasive instruments. On the other hand, advances in electromagnetic tracking systems permit a key-enabling role in imageguided procedures. First-generation magnetic systems present a significant challenge for tracker designers to improve both performance and acceptance. Troublesome magnetic problems include inaccuracies due to the presence of metallic distorters in the tracking volume and to dynamic motion of the tracked object. A new magnetic tracker (3D Guidance TM), recently developed at Ascension Technology, seeks to address these problems. Employing third-generation pulsed-DC magnetic tracking technology and new signal processing techniques, the new tracker overcomes the distorting effects of non-magnetic conductive metals (300-series stainless steel, titanium and aluminum) and composite tables experienced by AC trackers. Ascension has developed a break-through flat transmitter that negates ferrous metal distortion emanating from procedural tables. The tracker development has also significantly advanced the state of the art in sensor miniaturization. The 3D Guidance TM features the world's smallest electromagnetic tracking sensors, opening the door to new applications for minimally invasive procedures. Finally, dynamic accuracy has been significantly improved with the implementation of Kalman based algorithms. Test results are reported.

  19. Application and development of advanced Lorentz microscopy techniques for the study of magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacham, Robert J.

    This PhD project presents an investigation into the development of magnetic imaging methods in the TEM and their application in imaging narrow domain walls in multilayer magnetic structures. Lorentz microscopy techniques are limited in quantitative magnetic imaging as this generally requires using scanning imaging modes which limits the capability of imaging dynamic processes. The first imaging method developed in this study is a phase gradient technique with the aim of producing quantitative magnetic contrast proportional to the magnetic induction of the sample whilst maintaining a live imaging mode. This method uses a specifically engineered, semi-electron-transparent graded wedge aperture to controllably perturb intensity in the back focal plane. The results of this study found that this method could produce magnetic contrast proportional to the sample induction, however the required gradient of the wedge aperture made this contrast close to the noise level with large associated errors. In the second part of this study we investigated the development of a technique aimed at gaining sub-microsecond temporal resolution within TEMs based on streak imaging. We are using ramped pulsed magnetic fields, applied across nanowire samples to both induce magnetic behaviour and detect the electron beam across the detector with respect to time. We are coupling this with a novel pixelated detector on the TEM in the form of a Medipix/Timepix chip capable of microsecond exposure times without adding noise. Running this detector in integral mode and allowing for practical limitations such as experiment time and aperture stability, the resultant streak images were taken in Fresnel, Foucault and low angle diffraction imaging modes. We found that while this method is theoretically viable, the limiting factor was the contrast of the magnetic signal in the streak and therefore the total image counts. Domain walls (DWs) in synthetic antiferromagnetically (SAF) coupled films patterned

  20. WInd-and-react Bi-2212 coil development for accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.; Acosta, P.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D. R.; Mentink, M. G. T.; Prestemon, S. O.; Meinesz, M.; Hong, S.; Huang, Y.; Miao, H.; Parrell, J.; Sabbi, G.L.

    2009-10-13

    Sub-scale coils are being manufactured and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in order to develop wind-and-react Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} (Bi-2212) magnet technology for future graded accelerator magnet use. Previous Bi-2212 coils showed significant leakage of the conductors core constituents to the environment, which can occur during the partial melt reaction around 890 C in pure oxygen. The main origin of the observed leakage is intrinsic leakage of the wires, and the issue is therefore being addressed at the wire manufacturing level. We report on further compatibility studies, and the performance of new sub-scale coils that were manufactured using improved conductors. These coils exhibit significantly reduced leakage, and carry currents that are about 70% of the witness wire critical current (I{sub c}). The coils demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of round wire Bi-2212 conductors for accelerator magnet technology use. Successful high temperature superconductor coil technology will enable the manufacture of graded accelerator magnets that can surpass the, already closely approached, intrinsic magnetic field limitations of Nb-based superconducting magnets.

  1. Development of miniaturized, portable magnetic resonance relaxometry system for point-of-care medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weng Kung; Chen, Lan; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-09-01

    A novel, compact-sized (19 cm × 16 cm) and portable (500 g) magnetic resonance relaxometry system is designed and developed. We overcame several key engineering barriers so that magnetic resonance technology can be potentially used for disease diagnosis-monitoring in point-of-care settings, directly on biological cells and tissues. The whole system consists of a coin-sized permanent magnet (0.76 T), miniaturized radio-frequency microcoil probe, compact lumped-circuit duplexer, and single board 1-W power amplifier, in which a field programmable gate array -based spectrometer is used for pulse excitation, signal acquisition, and data processing. We show that by measuring the proton transverse relaxation rates from a large pool of natural abundance proton-nuclei presence in less than 1 μL of red blood cells, one can indirectly deduce the relative magnetic susceptibility of the bulk cells within a few minutes of signal acquisition time. Such rapid and sensitive blood screening system can be used to monitor the fluctuation of the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the biological cells (e.g., human blood cells), where unusual state of the bulk magnetic susceptibility is related to a number of diseases.

  2. Development of a Process to Build Polyimide Insulated Magnets For Operation at 350C

    SciTech Connect

    Zatz, Irving J.

    2013-07-09

    An extensive R&D program has been conducted that has confirmed the feasibility of designing and fabricating copper alloy magnets that can successfully operate at temperatures as high as 350C. The process, originally developed for the possibility of manufacturing in-vessel resonant magnetic field perturbation (RMP) coils for JET, has been optimized for insulated magnet (and, potentially, other high temperature component) applications. One of the benefits of high temperature operation is that active cooling may no longer be required, greatly simplifying magnet/component design. These elevated temperatures are beyond the safe operating limits of conventional OFHC copper and the epoxies that bond and insulate the turns of typical magnets. This would necessitate the use an alternative copper alloy conductor such as C18150 (CuCrZr). Coil manufacture with polyimide is very similar to conventional epoxy bonded coils. Conductors would be dry wound then impregnated with polyimide of low enough viscosity to permit saturation, then cured; similar to the vacuum pressure impregnation process used for conventional epoxy bonded coils. Representative polyimide insulated coils were mechanically tested at both room temperature and 350C. Mechanical tests included turn-to-turn shear bond strength and overall polyimide adhesion strength, as well as the flexural strength of a 48-turn polyimide-bonded coil bundle. This paper will detail the results of the testing program on coil samples. These results demonstrate mechanical properties as good, or better than epoxy bonded magnets, even at 350C.

  3. Development of lateralization of the magnetic compass in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Dennis; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Güntürkün, Onur; Denzau, Susanne; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2012-10-22

    The magnetic compass of a migratory bird, the European robin (Erithacus rubecula), was shown to be lateralized in favour of the right eye/left brain hemisphere. However, this seems to be a property of the avian magnetic compass that is not present from the beginning, but develops only as the birds grow older. During first migration in autumn, juvenile robins can orient by their magnetic compass with their right as well as with their left eye. In the following spring, however, the magnetic compass is already lateralized, but this lateralization is still flexible: it could be removed by covering the right eye for 6 h. During the following autumn migration, the lateralization becomes more strongly fixed, with a 6 h occlusion of the right eye no longer having an effect. This change from a bilateral to a lateralized magnetic compass appears to be a maturation process, the first such case known so far in birds. Because both eyes mediate identical information about the geomagnetic field, brain asymmetry for the magnetic compass could increase efficiency by setting the other hemisphere free for other processes.

  4. Development of lateralization of the magnetic compass in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Dennis; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Güntürkün, Onur; Denzau, Susanne; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic compass of a migratory bird, the European robin (Erithacus rubecula), was shown to be lateralized in favour of the right eye/left brain hemisphere. However, this seems to be a property of the avian magnetic compass that is not present from the beginning, but develops only as the birds grow older. During first migration in autumn, juvenile robins can orient by their magnetic compass with their right as well as with their left eye. In the following spring, however, the magnetic compass is already lateralized, but this lateralization is still flexible: it could be removed by covering the right eye for 6 h. During the following autumn migration, the lateralization becomes more strongly fixed, with a 6 h occlusion of the right eye no longer having an effect. This change from a bilateral to a lateralized magnetic compass appears to be a maturation process, the first such case known so far in birds. Because both eyes mediate identical information about the geomagnetic field, brain asymmetry for the magnetic compass could increase efficiency by setting the other hemisphere free for other processes. PMID:22933375

  5. Development of miniaturized, portable magnetic resonance relaxometry system for point-of-care medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weng Kung; Chen, Lan; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-09-01

    A novel, compact-sized (19 cm × 16 cm) and portable (500 g) magnetic resonance relaxometry system is designed and developed. We overcame several key engineering barriers so that magnetic resonance technology can be potentially used for disease diagnosis-monitoring in point-of-care settings, directly on biological cells and tissues. The whole system consists of a coin-sized permanent magnet (0.76 T), miniaturized radio-frequency microcoil probe, compact lumped-circuit duplexer, and single board 1-W power amplifier, in which a field programmable gate array -based spectrometer is used for pulse excitation, signal acquisition, and data processing. We show that by measuring the proton transverse relaxation rates from a large pool of natural abundance proton-nuclei presence in less than 1 μL of red blood cells, one can indirectly deduce the relative magnetic susceptibility of the bulk cells within a few minutes of signal acquisition time. Such rapid and sensitive blood screening system can be used to monitor the fluctuation of the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the biological cells (e.g., human blood cells), where unusual state of the bulk magnetic susceptibility is related to a number of diseases.

  6. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  7. Magnetic and geochemical characterization of Andosols developed on basalts in the Massif Central, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grison, Hana; Petrovsky, Eduard; Stejskalova, Sarka; Kapicka, Ales

    2015-05-01

    Identification of Andosols is primarily based upon the content of their colloidal constituents—clay and metal-humus complexes—and on the determining of andic properties. This needs time and cost-consuming geochemical analyses. Our primary aim of this study is to describe the magnetic and geochemical properties of soils rich in iron oxides derived from strongly magnetic volcanic basement (in this case Andosols). Secondary aim is to explore links between magnetic and chemical parameters of andic soils with respect to genesis factors: parent material age, precipitation, and thickness of the soil profile. Six pedons of andic properties, developed on basaltic lavas, were analyzed down to parent rock by a set of magnetic and geochemical methods. Magnetic data of soil and rock samples reflect the type, concentration, and particle-size distribution of ferrimagnetic minerals. Geochemical data include soil reaction (pH in H2O), cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, and different forms of extractable iron and aluminum content. Our results suggest the following: (1) magnetic measurements of low-field mass-specific magnetic susceptibility can be a reliable indicator for estimating andic properties, and in combination with thermomagnetic curves may be suitable for discriminating between alu-andic and sil-andic subtypes. (2) In the studied Andosols, strong relationships were found between (a) magnetic grain-size parameters, precipitation, and exchangeable bases; (b) concentration of ferrimagnetic particles and degree of crystallization of free iron; and (c) parameters reflecting changes in magneto-mineralogy and soil genesis (parent material age + soil depth).

  8. Neural activity associated with enhanced facial attractiveness by cosmetics use.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Aya; Ito, Ayahito; Kawasaki, Iori; Kawachi, Yousuke; Yoshida, Kazuki; Murakami, Yui; Sakai, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2014-04-30

    Previous psychological studies have shown that make-up enhances facial attractiveness. Although neuroimaging evidence indicates that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) shows greater activity for faces of attractive people than for those of unattractive people, there is no direct evidence that the OFC also shows greater activity for the face of an individual wearing make-up than for the same face without make-up. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated neural activity while subjects viewed 144 photographs of the same faces with and without make-up (48 with make-up, 48 without make-up, and 48 scrambled photographs) and assigned these faces an attractiveness rating. The behavioral data showed that the faces with make-up were rated as more attractive than those without make-up. The imaging data revealed that the left OFC and the right hippocampus showed greater activity for faces with make-up than for those without make-up. Furthermore, the activities of the right anterior cingulate cortex, left hippocampus, and left OFC increased with increasing facial attractiveness resulting from cosmetics use. These results provide direct evidence of the neural underpinnings of cosmetically enhanced facial attractiveness.

  9. Tunable magnetic states in hexagonal boron nitride sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Boulanger, Paul; Genovese, Luigi; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    Magnetism in two dimensional atomic sheets has attracted considerable interest as its existence could allow the development of electronic and spintronic devices. The existence of magnetism is not sufficient for devices, however, as states must be addressable and modifiable through the application of an external drive. We show that defects in hexagonal boron nitride present a strong interplay between the N-N distance in the edge and the magnetic moments of the defects. By stress-induced geometry modifications, we change the ground state magnetic moment of the defects. This control is made possible by the triangular shape of the defects as well as the strong spin localisation in the magnetic state.

  10. Development and Testing of a Magnetically Actuated Capsule Endoscopy for Obesity Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thanh Nho; Seah, Tian En Timothy; Yu, Ho Khek; Phee, Soo Jay

    2016-01-01

    Intra-gastric balloons (IGB) have become an efficient and less invasive method for obesity treatment. The use of traditional IGBs require complex insertion tools and flexible endoscopes to place and remove the balloon inside the patient’s stomach, which may cause discomfort and complications to the patient. This paper introduces a new ingestible weight-loss capsule with a magnetically remote-controlled inflatable and deflatable balloon. To inflate the balloon, biocompatible effervescent chemicals are used. As the source of the actuation is provided via external magnetic fields, the magnetic capsule size can be significantly reduced compared to current weight-loss capsules in the literature. In addition, there are no limitations on the power supply. To lose weight, the obese subject needs only to swallow the magnetic capsule with a glass of water. Once the magnetic capsule has reached the patient’s stomach, the balloon will be wirelessly inflated to occupy gastric space and give the feeling of satiety. The balloon can be wirelessly deflated at any time to allow the magnetic capsule to travel down the intestine and exit the body via normal peristalsis. The optimal ratio between the acid and base to provide the desired gas volume is experimentally evaluated and presented. A prototype capsule (9.6mm x 27mm) is developed and experimentally validated in ex-vivo experiments. The unique ease of delivery and expulsion of the proposed magnetic capsule is slated to make this development a good treatment option for people seeking to lose excess weight. PMID:26815309

  11. Acarine attractants: Chemoreception, bioassay, chemistry and control.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Roe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Acari are of significant economic importance in crop production and human and animal health. Acaricides are essential for the control of these pests, but at the same time, the number of available pesticides is limited, especially for applications in animal production. The Acari consist of two major groups, the mites that demonstrate a wide variety of life strategies, i.e., herbivory, predation and ectoparasitism, and ticks which have evolved obligatory hematophagy. The major sites of chemoreception in the acarines are the chelicerae, palps and tarsi on the forelegs. A unifying name, the "foretarsal sensory organ" (FSO), is proposed for the first time in this review for the sensory site on the forelegs of all acarines. The FSO has multiple sensory functions including olfaction, gustation, and heat detection. Preliminary transcriptomic data in ticks suggest that chemoreception in the FSO is achieved by a different mechanism from insects. There are a variety of laboratory and field bioassay methods that have been developed for the identification and characterization of attractants but minimal techniques for electrophysiology studies. Over the past three to four decades, significant progress has been made in the chemistry and analysis of function for acarine attractants in mites and ticks. In mites, attractants include aggregation, immature female, female sex and alarm pheromones; in ticks, the attraction-aggregation-attachment, assembly and sex pheromones; in mites and ticks host kairomones and plant allomones; and in mites, fungal allomones. There are still large gaps in our knowledge of chemical communication in the acarines compared to insects, especially relative to acarine pheromones, and more so for mites than ticks. However, the use of lure-and-kill and lure-enhanced biocontrol strategies has been investigated for tick and mite control, respectively, with significant environmental advantages which warrant further study.

  12. Permanent Magnet Spiral Motor for Magnetic Gradient Energy Utilization: Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The Spiral Magnetic Motor, which can accelerate a magnetized rotor through 90% of its cycle with only permanent magnets, was an energy milestone for the 20th century patents by Kure Tekkosho in the 1970's. However, the Japanese company used old ferrite magnets which are relatively weak and an electrically-powered coil to jump start every cycle, which defeated the primary benefit of the permanent magnet motor design. The principle of applying an inhomogeneous, anisotropic magnetic field gradient force Fz = μ cos φ dB/dz, with permanent magnets is well-known in physics, e.g., Stern-Gerlach experiment, which exploits the interaction of a magnetic moment with the aligned electron spins of magnetic domains. In this case, it is applied to dB/dθ in polar coordinates, where the force Fθ depends equally on the magnetic moment, the cosine of the angle between the magnetic moment and the field gradient. The radial magnetic field increases in strength (in the attractive mode) or decreases in strength (in the repulsive mode) as the rotor turns through one complete cycle. An electromagnetic pulsed switching has been historically used to help the rotor traverse the gap (detent) between the end of the magnetic stator arc and the beginning (Kure Tekko, 1980). However, alternative magnetic pulse and switching designs have been developed, as well as strategic eddy current creation. This work focuses on the switching mechanism, novel magnetic pulse methods and advantageous angular momentum improvements. For example, a collaborative effort has begun with Toshiyuki Ueno (University of Tokyo) who has invented an extremely low power, combination magnetostrictive-piezoelectric (MS-PZT) device for generating low frequency magnetic fields and consumes "zero power" for static magnetic field production (Ueno, 2004 and 2007a). Utilizing a pickup coil such as an ultra-miniature millihenry inductor with a piezoelectric actuator or simply Wiegand wire geometry, it is shown that the necessary

  13. The influence of static magnetic field (50 mT) on development and motor behaviour of Tenebrio (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Todorović, Dajana; Marković, Tamara; Prolić, Zlatko; Mihajlović, Spomenko; Rauš, Snežana; Nikolić, Ljiljana; Janać, Branka

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable concern about potential effects associated with exposure to magnetic fields on organisms. Therefore, duration of pupa-adult development and motor behaviour of adults were analyzed in Tenebrio obscursus and T. molitor after exposure to static magnetic field (50 mT). The experimental groups were: Control (kept 5 m from the magnets), groups which pupae and adults were placed closer to the North pole, or closer to the South pole of magnetic dipole. The pupae were exposed to the magnetic field until the moment of adult eclosion. The pupa-adult development dynamics were recorded daily. Subsequently, behaviour (distance travelled, average speed and immobility) of adults exposed to the magnetic field was monitored in a circular open field arena. Static magnetic field did not affect pupa-adult developmental dynamic of examined Tenebrio species. Exposure to magnetic field did not significantly change motor behaviour of T. obscurus adults. The changes in the motor behaviour of T. molitor induced by static magnetic field were opposite in two experimental groups developed closer to the North pole or closer to the South pole of magnetic dipole. Static magnetic field (50 mT) did not affect on pupa-adult development dynamic of two examined Tenebrio species, but modulated their motor behaviour.

  14. Development of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for a cold room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Satoru; Ozeki, Toshihiro; Shigeki, Ryosuke; Handa, Shinya; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Masaaki

    2009-05-01

    A compact magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system for a cold (-5 °C) room has been developed to acquire MR images below the freezing point of water. The MRI system consists of a 1.0 T permanent magnet, a higher-order shim coil set, and a gradient coil probe, installed in the cold room, and a compact MRI console installed in a room at normal temperature (20-25 °C). The most difficult problem for the installation of the MRI system in the cold room was the degradation of the field homogeneity of the permanent magnet shimmed at 25 °C. To overcome this problem, higher-order shim coils were developed and the temperature variation of the magnetic field distribution was measured using a standard phantom with and without shim coil currents. As a result, it was confirmed that the homogeneity (the difference between the minimum and maximum values) of the magnetic field in the 17×17×19 mm3 rectangular parallelepiped region was improved from 117 to 59 ppm using an appropriate combination of shim coil currents. A snowpack immersed in dodecane (C12H26) was imaged using a driven-equilibrium three-dimensional (3D) spin-echo sequence at -5 °C. The visualized 3D structure of the snowpack demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  16. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  17. Development of a fingertip glove equipped with magnetic tracking sensors.

    PubMed

    Fahn, Chin-Shyurng; Sun, Herman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a data glove system based on fingertip tracking techniques. To track the fingertip position and orientation, a sensor module and two generator coils are attached on the fingertip and metacarpal of the corresponding finger. By tracking the fingertip, object manipulation tasks in a virtual environment or teleoperation system can be carried out more precisely, because fingertips are the foremost areas that reach the surface of an object in most of grasping processes. To calculate the bending angles of a finger, we also propose a method of constructing the shape of the finger. Since the coils are installed on the fingertips and metacarpals, there is no contact point between the sensors and finger joints. Hence, the shape of the sensors does not change as the fingers are bending, and both the quality of measurement and the lifetime of the sensors will not decrease in time. For the convenience of using this glove, a simple and efficient calibration process consisting of only one calibration gesture is also provided, so that all required parameters can be determined automatically. So far, the experimental results of the sensors performing linear movement and bending angle measurements are very satisfactory. It reveals that our data glove is available for a man-machine interface.

  18. Theoretical development of a magnetic force and an induced motion in elastic media for a magneto-motive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, In Gweon; Park, Suhyun; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-08-01

    The theoretical development of a magnetic force and an induced motion while applying a magnetic field to magnetic nanoparticles in elastic media is described. An analytical expression for tissue-surface displacement derived from Mindlin's theory of elasticity in semi-infinite media was used to analyze the magneto-motive technique. The initial motion of the magnetic nanoparticles is driven by a constant magnetic force that displays a dampened transient motion before steady-state movement at twice the modulation frequency of the applied sinusoidal magnetic field. The motion of the nanoparticles at double the modulation frequency originated from the magnetic force being proportional to the product of the magnetic flux density and its gradient. Finally, we demonstrate the detection of iron-oxide nanoparticles taken up by liver parenchymal Kupffer cells and macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques by using a differential-phase optical coherence tomography (DP-OCT) system to compare simulation results with experimental data.

  19. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y G; Song, J B; Kim, J C; Kim, J M; Yoo, B H; Yun, S B; Hwang, D Y; Lee, H G

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was <10(-14) Ω, demonstrating that the proposed joint technique could be employed for developing "next-generation" MgB2 MRI magnets operating in the persistent current mode.

  20. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Song, J. B.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, J. M.; Yoo, B. H.; Yun, S. B.; Hwang, D. Y.; Lee, H. G.

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was <10-14 Ω, demonstrating that the proposed joint technique could be employed for developing "next-generation" MgB2 MRI magnets operating in the persistent current mode.