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Sample records for developing countries discussions

  1. A Discussion of Strategies for Appropriate Technology Transfer to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gor, Christopher O.; And Others

    The ongoing flow of monetary assistance and technological transfer from developed to developing countries is examined and its success gauged. Two examples are cited: "The Mumias Sugar Company--A Success Story in Kenya," and, "The Sao Francisco River Power Development in Brazil--A Disaster along the River." The paper also…

  2. A Discussion of Strategies for Appropriate Technology Transfer to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gor, Christopher O.; And Others

    The ongoing flow of monetary assistance and technological transfer from developed to developing countries is examined and its success gauged. Two examples are cited: "The Mumias Sugar Company--A Success Story in Kenya," and, "The Sao Francisco River Power Development in Brazil--A Disaster along the River." The paper also…

  3. Biotechnology-derived nutritious foods for developing countries: needs, opportunities, and barriers: discussion summary.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    Improvements in diet diversification and quality can be facilitated by greater cooperation between the agricultural and the nutrition communities, according to an expert panel that met in early 2002. Encouraged to think innovatively, the panelists agreed that modern technology offers the potential to increase the amount and nutritional content of the food supply in developing countries, especially if the enhancements are made to the highest-yielding indigenous staple crops and if a total food-systems approach is taken. All types of interventions should be evaluated for their cost-effectiveness in preventing nutritional deficiencies in the developing world and for their sustainability.

  4. Developing Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Beth; Bomer, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and educators have long argued for the importance of providing time and space for rich conversations around literature. This column draws on research to consider how teachers make room for these discussions inside their classrooms. Particularly, the authors consider different dimensions along which teachers might examine and grow…

  5. Using Instructional Hardware for Primary Education in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature. Education Development Discussion Papers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzalone, Stephen

    Research on the utilization of educational media, or electronic classroom instructional aids, in primary schools in developing countries is reviewed in this paper. Five kinds of hardware--radio, television, computers, videodiscs, and hand-held electronic devices--are compared according to cost and learning effectiveness. A model of learning…

  6. Rethinking research on land degradation in developing countries. World Bank discussion papers

    SciTech Connect

    Biot, Y.; Blaikie, P.M.; Jackson, C.; Palmer-Jones, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper critically reviews the three main approaches to land degradation and conservation--the classic, populist, and neo-liberal. The implications of these paradigm shifts are examined in terms of research needs. Next, the paper discusses the role of science and technology, and the origins and substance of differences in the perception, evaluation, and diagnosis of degradation. Focus is then shifted to analyzing how farmers and pastoralists make decisions about resource use and management, and a research approach is suggested for analyzing decision-making. Two case studies illustrate the approach.

  7. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  8. Technical Co-operation between Developing Countries in the Field of Human Resources Training. Training Policies Discussion Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergerie, Julio

    This paper describes the progress achieved in the fields of vocational and management training as well as the contributions made by the technical services of the International Labor Office to the efforts of developing countries. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section describes cooperation between management training…

  9. Deferred Cost Recovery for Higher Education: Student Loan Programs in Developing Countries. World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 137.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Douglas; Ziderman, Adrian

    This study analyzes the experience of existing higher education student loan programs in developing countries in order to understand their role in fostering cost recovery. Detailed financial analyses of 24 loan programs shows that present value of the repayments collected constitutes a small percentage of the loan value disbursed. In general,…

  10. A Systems Approach to Budgeting in the Education Departments of Developing Countries. Lecture-Discussion Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooyen, I.

    This paper describes use of systems analysis or the Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS) in the education departments of developing countries. First, the systems approach in budgeting is described. Next, its use in education is considered. Finally, the paper recommends that educational planners assess needs and define goals and objectives…

  11. The Planning of Technical Education in Developing Countries: Lessons from the USSR. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumovsky, S. A.

    This paper discusses the relationship between economic development and education in developing countries, with major emphasis on the experience of the U.S.S.R. between 1917 and 1968. Separate sections of the paper examine the economic role of education in developing nations, the historical development of technical education in the U.S.S.R., the…

  12. Choosing Human Resource Interventions: A Typology Linking Country Conditions and Educational Development Strategies. Draft Report for Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    To assist the Agency for International Development in its decision-making process, a matrix which links sets of conditions in developing nations with appropriate types of educational development was produced. Key issues in the creation and use of typologies are discussed and standards for evaluating typologies are identified. Four typological…

  13. Hypertension in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  14. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  15. Integrating Education with Economic Needs in Developing Countries. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Raymond F.

    It is fundamental in planning to see why and how expenditures on education should be limited and related to other priorities as part of economic and social planning. Integration of education with economic needs involves three elements. First, the identification of the general limits on educational expansion in the economic development planning…

  16. Strategies of Rural Development in Asia--A Discussion. Summary of Discussion, Research Studies and Country Statements Presented to the Seminar on Approaches to Rural Development in Asia (Malaysia, May-June, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inayatullah, C., Ed.

    A 10-day seminar for senior government officials concerned with making rural development policies in selected Asian countries focused on programs adopted by various Asian governments to tackle rural development problems. To compare various approaches, seven indicators of rural development were used: agricultural productivity; rural employment;…

  17. Astronomy for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan H.

    Developing countries have many claims on their limited resources and astronomy can expect only a small share of a small "pie". A useful rule of thumb is that a country's expenditure on astronomy is likely to be of the same order of magnitude as its per capita Gross National Product multiplied by the number of professional astronomers in the country. In the light of this, we consider how governments of developing countries can help their astronomers, how we can help them and how they can help themselves.

  18. Hemovigilance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits has become an integral part of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) in the developed world and has contributed greatly to the development of the blood service. However developing countries are still grappling with donor recruitment and efforts towards sufficiency and safety of the blood supply. In these countries the BTS is generally fragmented and a national hemovigilance program would be difficult to implement. However a few developing countries have an effective and sustainable blood program that can deliver equitable, safe and sufficient blood supply to the nation. Different models of hemovigilance program have been introduced with variable success. There are deficiencies but the data collected provided important information that can be presented to the health authorities for effective interventions. Hemovigilance program modeled from developed countries require expertise and resources that are not available in many developing countries. Whatever resources that are available should be utilized to correct deficiencies that are already apparent and obvious. Besides there are other tools that can be used to monitor the blood program in the developing countries depending on the need and the resources available. More importantly the data collected should be accurate and are used and taken into consideration in formulating guidelines, standards and policies and to affect appropriate interventions. Any surveillance program should be introduced in a stepwise manner as the blood transfusion service develops.

  19. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations.

  20. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-01-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations. PMID:8781389

  1. [Communications in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manandhar, P. K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Eight articles on various aspects of communications in developing countries make up this newsletter issue: (1) "Extension and Communications in Nepal: Reforestation Program Uses Media Support" by P. K. Manandhar, E. Pelinck, and R. H. Gecolea; (2) "Using Puppets to Teach Ideas. 'Khel Dori Ka', an Audiovisual with Puppets from…

  2. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  3. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  4. Educational Development in Developing Countries During the First UN Development Decade: A Critical Evaluation of International Aid to Education. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture-Discussion Series No. 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poignant, Raymond

    In recent years there has been an unprecedented development of educational systems in developing countries. However, analysis of educational and training systems in developing countries shows serious inadequacies, imbalances, and inadaptations. Thus, the remarkable quantitative expansion of educational systems has not been a satisfactory solution…

  5. Energy planning in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides discussion of analytical methods for energy-sector planning in developing countries. The author addresses such topics as energy balances, the Reference Energy System (RES), approaches to demand forecasting, project evaluation (including capital budgeting), techniques for dealing with uncertainty, financial accounting as applied to the typical parastatal electric utility of a developing country, techniques for pricing studies, scenario analysis, and approaches to the evaluation of macroeconomic impacts of energy-sector decisions. Extensive use is made of case-study material, including examples from Haiti, Tunisia, the Sudan, Jordan, Mauritius, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Liberia.

  6. Marketing in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pickering, A H

    1979-10-27

    I fully support the views of Mr. Chetley of War on Want on the marketing of infant foods in developing countries (Oct. 6, p. 747). My experience of eight years medical work in West Africa prompts me to broaden the debate. Advertising and promotional practices used by many European and American pharmaceutical companies are in many instances directed primarily to the non-professional and often poorly educated general public and appear to be geared simply to achieve the maximum volume of sales. Likewise, the cynical disregard of cigarette manufacturers for the dangers of smoking is very apparent in the way in which advertising and promotional campaigns are conducted in developing countries. Fifteen years ago cigarettes were largely imported items but now, certainly in one major West African country, there is a large and flourishing tobacco industry which appears to be run primarily by European interests and which is obviously not there for the health benefit of the people. Is it not a sad reflection on the morality of the society in which we live that, while striving to control unethical and undesirable practices at home, we make little or no effort to regulate those practices abroad when profit is the objective?

  7. Instructional Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of conditions that combine to influence the selection and implementation of instructional development as an approach to solving educational problems in developing nations focuses on prevailing traditions, economics, and internal and external politics. (MBR)

  8. Instructional Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of conditions that combine to influence the selection and implementation of instructional development as an approach to solving educational problems in developing nations focuses on prevailing traditions, economics, and internal and external politics. (MBR)

  9. Water and sanitation issues for persons with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review and discussion of implications for global health and international development.

    PubMed

    Groce, N; Bailey, N; Lang, R; Trani, J F; Kett, M

    2011-12-01

    The critical importance of unrestricted access to clean drinking water and basic sanitation for all is highlighted in Millennium Development Goal 7, which calls for the reduction by half of the proportion of people without such access by 2015. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the needs of such access for the one billion people living with a disability worldwide, despite the fact that the right to equal access for all international development initiatives is guaranteed in the new United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In this paper, we review what is currently known about access to water and sanitation for persons with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries from the perspective of both international development and global health, and identify existing gaps in research, practice and policy that are of pressing concern if the water and sanitation needs of this large - and largely overlooked - population are to be addressed.

  10. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked.

  11. Reaching Out to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Stirling

    1984-01-01

    Some Canadian teachers play a special role in developing the teaching profession internationally. They participate in helping teachers in developing countries and promoting understanding worldwide. (MD)

  12. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  13. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  14. Surgical safety checklists in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Ravindran, Rahul Prashanth; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (WHO SSC) has demonstrated efficacy in developed and developing countries alike. Recent increases in awareness of surgical morbidity in developing countries has placed greater emphasis on strategies to improve surgical safety in resource-limited settings. The implementation of surgical safety checklists in low-income countries has specific barriers related to resources and culture. Adapting and amending existing surgical safety checklists, as well as considering factors unique to developing countries, may allow the potential of this simple intervention to be fully harnessed in a wider setting. This review will address the benefits and challenges of implementation of surgical safety checklists in developing countries. Moreover, inspiration for the original checklist is revisited to identify areas that will be of particular benefit in a resource-poor setting. Potential future strategies to encourage the implementation of checklists in these countries are also discussed.

  15. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the overall effect of country (including effects of age and gender and their interactions), and associations of disabilities with the Human Development Index. Developmental disabilities vary by child age and country, and younger children in developing countries with lower standards of living are more likely to screen positive for disabilities. The discussion of these findings revolves around research and policy implications. PMID:23294875

  16. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  17. [Clinical studies in developing countries].

    PubMed

    van den Munkhof, Hanna E

    2013-01-01

    In general, clinical trials in developing countries are met with resistance because the people are particularly vulnerable and medical assistance is often unaffordable. The prospect of free medication can then lead to exploitation since the local population can be persuaded to participate in trials that would never be allowed in Western countries due to ethical concerns. Placebo-controlled research that tests cheaper alternatives for treatments already registered could greatly improve the situation in developing countries, however. Expensive registered treatments are often unavailable in these countries. Therefore, I call for allowing such studies when the registered treatment is locally unavailable. This should be based on the four most important principles of medical ethics: the duty to help patients, avoid harm, justice and respect for autonomy. On the condition, however, that the population in developing countries benefits in the long term.

  18. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  19. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  20. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  1. Physics teaching in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  2. Structural Change and Employment in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzmin, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to structural changes in developing countries and concludes that unemployment and underemployment are best countered by generating new productive activities, developing economic linkages, and stimulating an increase in the number of workplaces. Advocates cooperation among developing nations. (JOW)

  3. [Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Bjørn

    2008-11-06

    While bacterial infections are one of the most important causes of disease and death in developing countries, the prevalence and consequences of antimicrobial resistance are not well known. This is a review article based on literature retrieved from a non-systematic review and own experience from research on the topic. Research on antimicrobial resistance is increasing in developing countries, but most of the data are obtained from referral hospitals in capitals and major cities. Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria, including ESBL-(extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) producing bacteria have been documented in several countries and are associated with increased lethality. The most serious resistance problems in developing countries are associated with Gram-negative bacteria and tuberculosis and may result in increased risk of death. Developing countries have a much higher overall burden of infectious diseases than the rich western countries and also poor access to newer antibiotics, which can be lifesaving when treating infections caused by resistant bacteria. To combat overuse and misuse of antibiotics, the diagnosis of infectious diseases must be strengthened and antimicrobial resistance must be emphasized in education of health professionals and the general public. There is a need for improved surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and strengthened quality control of antimicrobial drugs. In the long-term perspective, poverty reduction, improved living conditions and hygiene, safe water supplies and access to quality health care (including vaccination and HIV care), may contribute to prevent emerging antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Education for Copeability: Perspective on Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atta-Safoh, Alex

    Stressing the application of progressive thought as a possible innovation toward development in developing countries, the paper discusses three major educational philosophies: romanticism, cultural transmission, and progressivisim (emphasizing the cognitive-developmental theory). Educational innovation and strategies for reform in the Soviet Union…

  5. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  6. Soalr cooking in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1994-11-01

    Solar cooking must overcome a number of obstacles to realize its potential to improve the lives of women in developing countries. Unlike historical interest in solar cooking, current interest derives from vital environmental and human needs. Deforestation and reliance on wood for cooking lead to many hardships, especially for women, and women in developing countries need access to technology and funding. If the woman builds the oven herself, it notonly makes her more willing to use it but the process empower her with new knowledge and kills. The physical design of the oven must be adapted to local conditions and materials for the oven should be inexpensive and locally available.

  7. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  8. Knowledge Translation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, Nancy; Tugwell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the application of knowledge in developing countries is failing. One reason is the woeful shortage of health workers, but as this is redressed, it is also crucial that we have an evidence base of what works to minimize the "know-do gap." The World Health Organization and other international organizations are…

  9. Problems of occupational carcinogenesis in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Taba, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of published information on occupational cancer and recorded ongoing occupational cancer research in developing countries is presented. The main cancers reported, of possible occupational origin, are skin carcinoma, leukemia due to exposure to benzene, asbestos-caused mesothelioma, vinyl chloride-induced hepatic angiosarcoma, carcinoma of bilharzial urinary bladder, stomach cancer reportedly associated with nitrogen fertilizers, lung cancer of nickel smelters, and nasopharyngeal and pulmonary carcinoma in workers exposed to the dust of hard wood. The difficulties of developing efficient occupational cancer prevention are discussed. Some options are analyzed regarding legislative, technological, environmental, medical, administrative, and educational cancer control applicable under conditions of developing countries.

  10. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  11. Occupational cancer in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Blair, Aaron; Marrett, Loraine; Beane Freeman, Laura

    2011-04-05

    Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations. © 2011 Blair et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2011-07-01

    Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.

  13. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    PubMed

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    In recent supplement of neuroendocrinology letters, first time the authors from West and East, North and South of EU and the "Third World" present data on neuroinfections in high technology society - on nosocomial meningitis and vice versa in low technology and income countries of sub-Saharan Africa. 14 years survey of 171 cases of nosocomial paediatric meningitis is presented by Rudinsky et al. [1] and subpopulations of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [1,2] within last 20 years are briefly analyzed by Huttova et al. [2] and Ondrusova et al. [3]. All cases were complicating high technology procedures, such as neurosurgery, very low birth weight neonates after shunt implants etc. Current problems of management of nosocomial meningitis are reviewed by Bauer et al. [4] and consequence of inappropriate therapy by Huttova et al. [5]. Another high technology associated infection is septic embolisation followed by brain abscess and meningitis in patients with endocarditis after cardiac surgery (Kovac et al.) [6]. Experience from more than 600 cases is discussed in the article by Karvaj et al. [7] who outlines extremely high mortality in patients with endocarditis embolizing to central nervous system - up to 60%. The rest of papers are in contrary to problems of neuroinfections in EU and US focused on meningitis and cerebral malaria as commonest neuroinfections in the third world: 261 cases of cerebral malaria are discussed in a brief research note by Sudanese team of tropical programme in area of famine and civil war in southern Sudan (Bartkovjak and Ianetti et al.) [8]. Fungal neuroinfections complicating AIDS are of decreasing trend as reported by Njambi et al. from Kenya [9] and data from 497 cases from Uganda, Ethiopia and Burundi are presented by Benca et al. [10]. Finally an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis is reported by Benca et al. [11] from meningitis belt in Darfur and southern Sudan. We hope that the supplement may show difference in

  14. Distance Education and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John S.

    The purpose of this paper is to give those who work in distance education a better awareness of the factors at work in developing nations and to help those whose profession is national development gain a fuller understanding of distance education. It begins with a discussion of the process of national development which focuses on the factors that…

  15. Energy planning in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, V.

    1984-01-01

    These papers focus on the capacity of developing nations to plan and implement the development of indigenous energy supplies. They emphasize the management of problems frequently encountered in the implementing even tailor-made energy plans and discuss such practical topics as: energy planning and implementation, energy supply and demand management information and manpower requirements, and the relationship of energy to economic development.

  16. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  17. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  18. The Developing Child: Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Year of the Child, Canberra (Australia). National Committee of Non-Government Organisations.

    The Developing Child Sub-Committee of the Australian International Year of the Child Committee of Non-Government Organizations prepared papers on the main problems facing children from birth to 12 years of age. Topics designated for attention were (1) the parenting role, including the influence of parents on children, factors influencing parental…

  19. Maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thuriaux, M C; Lamotte, J M

    1985-09-01

    The authors of this letter respond to earlier letters prepared in response to their article on maternal mortality in developing countries. It is conceded that maternal mortality is high in India and Bangladesh; however, statistics from Gambia are based on small populations and are therefore inconclusive. It is noted that a 7-year survey of 4000 households in Machakos, Kenya, where 73% of deliveries occurred at home, yielded a maternal mortality rate of only 0.8/1000 deliveries. Finally, it is asserted that the measurement traditionally used in estimating maternal mortality for many African countries (ratio of recorded maternal deaths to recorded deliveries) is misleading. Maternal deaths are more likely than deliveries to be recorded. In Niger, the number of maternal deaths increased from 1980 (374) to 1982 (484). The ratio of maternal deaths to expected live births also increased from 135 to 166/100,000, whereas the traditionally calculated maternal mortality rate decreased from 519 to 420/100,000 due to changes in the denominators. It is recommended that health authorities of African countries such as Niger consider setting an absolute number of maternal deaths below which they would try to bring the current toll.

  20. Generation and transmission improvements in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Willingham, M.; Mak, K.N.; Da Silva, M.; Morozowski, M.; Blyden, B.K.

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses new realities in Power Development in Developing Countries as seen by the United Nations, The World Energy Council, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. At the outset, technical assistance given by the United Nations for global sustainability projects is summarized. Power system expansion and interconnection in China, greenhouse gas emission reduction in Egypt, and integrated development of the Arab-Mediterranean Regional and environmental considerations are among the projects that are highlighted. The pressing need of Developing Countries as seen by the World Energy Council to meet energy needs without prejudice to the environment where technological advances in the production, delivery and utilization of electrical energy are central to resolving conflicts between energy and the environment is then discussed. The paper goes on to discuss power system planning in deregulated environments where the Brazilian experience is highlighted. Global dynamics and potential for an integrated African Grid is then examined. Concepts associated with the growing interest in renewable resources in Central and East Africa for domestic, continental and international utilization are synthesized. Current and future energy development proposals are discussed with emphasis on operational reliability as a basis for potential large system design. Given are generalized representations to illustrate hydroelectric potential of the Central and East African regions and the kind of centralized pool that could be developed as a result. Other studies which include the Africa-Europe and Zaire-Egypt initiatives are also discussed.

  1. Maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thuriaux, M C; Lamotte, J M

    1986-09-01

    The author stresses that uncritical reliance on the institutional maternal mortality rates in developing countries will provide spurious indications of improvement in this area. There appears to bean an important, although imprecisely known, differential in coverage between deliveries and maternal deaths. In 1 area, the institutional maternal mortality rate was 10 times higher among unbooked than among booked deliveries. Moreover, caution should be used in transposing maternal mortality estimates based on life table data from Europe and North America from the early 20th century to present-day Africa. Health statistics should be used to monitor health status; analyzed reduction in maternal mortality should be analyzed carefully to ensure they are valid.

  2. Pediatric anesthesia in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bösenberg, Adrian T

    2007-06-01

    To highlight the problems faced in developing countries where healthcare resources are limited, with particular emphasis on pediatric anesthesia. The fact that very few publications address pediatric anesthesia in the developing world is not surprising given that most anesthetics are provided by nonphysicians, nurses or unqualified personnel. In compiling this article information is drawn from pediatric surgical, anesthetic and related texts. In a recent survey more than 80% of anesthesia providers in a poor country acknowledged that with the limited resources available they could not provide basic anesthesia for children less than 5 years. Although many publications could be regarded as anecdotal, the similarities to this survey suggest that the lack of facilities is more generalized than we would like to believe. The real risk of anesthesia in comparison to other major health risks such as human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis and trauma remains undetermined. The critical shortage of manpower remains a barrier to progress. Despite erratic electrical supplies, inconsistent oxygen delivery, paucity of drugs or equipment and on occasion even lack of running water, many provide life-saving anesthesia. Perioperative morbidity and mortality is, however, understandably high by developed world standards.

  3. HIS priorities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Amado Espinosa, L

    1995-04-01

    Looking for a solution to fulfill the requirements that the new global economical system demands, developing countries face a reality of poor communications infrastructure, a delay in applying information technology to the organizations, and a semi-closed political system avoiding the necessary reforms. HIS technology has been developed more for transactional purposes on mini and mainframe platforms. Administrative modules are the most frequently observed and physicians are now requiring more support for their activities. The second information systems generation will take advantage of PC technology, client-server models and telecommunications to achieve integration. International organizations, academic and industrial, public and private, will play a major role to transfer technology and to develop this area.

  4. [The drug trade between European countries and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Bruneton, C; Naboulet, P; van der Heide, B; Rey, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of medicinal products marketed in developing countries has recently become the focus of lively debate and new interest. This report describes a survey conducted among officials from exporting and importing countries designed to evaluate the content and enforcement of current regulations. Resulting data indicated that, despite the high volume of trading in medicinal products between European and developing countries, regulations are poorly applied and many infractions occur. The most obvious abnormalities involve definition of market status. A list of banned is issued by the WHO but not by the European Economic Community. Regulations regarding generic products differ from one country to another and, since determination of the exact origin of a product may be difficult, compliance with good manufacturing practices is often unverifiable. A more cooperative attitude on the part of exporting countries and standardization of formalities on the part of importing countries will be necessary to stem the growing tendency to consider medicinal products as ordinary goods.

  5. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  6. Weaning foods in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S

    1979-10-01

    This letter, by an advisor in family health to the World Health Organization, is a response to and a further characterization of the connection of nutrition and weaning foods in developing countries where malnutrition frequently results from inadequate breast milk after 4-6 months of age and inadequate and late introduction of semisolid foods. The letter writer cites studies which led to his conclusion that semisolids be introduced at about 4 months of age, so that breast milk plus semisolids would sustain an adequate weight gain, a process not seen when breast milk alone is continued beyond 4-6 months without further supplementation. The author is not advocating cessation of breast feeding simply because it no longer fails to provide all of the child's nutritional requirments, rather supplementation of diet is advocated. He ends his argument with a list of appropriate semisolid foods for dietary supplement, and points out that the problem of malnutrition among infants in developing countries is more a result of poor education than lack of a "weanling food factory."

  7. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  8. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  9. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  10. Industry-sponsored research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abbas, E E

    2007-11-01

    Industry has become an important source of funding for clinical research; guidelines governing the relationship between industry and medical institutions are not clear in developing countries and hence we wanted to test attitudes and practices in those countries and compare them to developed countries. We conducted a survey amongst medical practitioners in developed and Arab countries representing developing countries, in order to document their views towards industry-sponsored research and their actual practice in this regard. A structured questionnaire was distributed by email, mail and through personal contacts. The questionnaire included information on characteristics of the practitioners involved, their attitudes towards industry-sponsored research and their actual practices. The questionnaire was distributed to 510 medical practitioners of countries in both groups. Practitioners representing developed countries were from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Those representing developing countries included Arab countries from Asia and Africa. We found that there were contrasting views and practices between the two groups although more than 80% in both groups agreed that industry-sponsored research is necessary. 69.7% of respondents in developed countries participated in industry-sponsored research while only 30.1% did so in developing countries. Guidelines governing such research were better adhered to in developed countries than in developing countries. Where there were no authors who were not part of investigators in developed countries, 16.3% of industry-sponsored research in developing countries included authors who were not part of the investigators. Research ethics committees were present in 94% and 58% of institutions in developed and developing countries respectively. Review bodies were available in 57% and 41% in developed and developing countries. Industry-sponsored research is necessary; it is much more common in developed

  11. Malnutrition and childhood epilepsy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hackett, R; Iype, T

    2001-12-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy in children is frequently found in developing countries. Though high rates of acquired brain injury may contribute, the possibility that malnutrition may lower seizure threshold has rarely been examined. This review suggests potential biochemical mechanisms that could adversely affect seizure threshold, particularly the effect of malnutrition on inhibitory neurotransmitters and electrolytes. Supporting evidence from animal research and epidemiological findings in children are discussed.

  12. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Arya, Jaya; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-28

    Millions of people die of infectious diseases each year, mostly in developing countries, which could largely be prevented by the use of vaccines. While immunization rates have risen since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), there remain major challenges to more effective vaccination in developing countries. As a possible solution, microneedle patches containing an array of micron-sized needles on an adhesive backing have been developed to be used for vaccine delivery to the skin. These microneedle patches can be easily and painlessly applied by pressing against the skin and, in some designs, do not leave behind sharps waste. The patches are single-dose, do not require reconstitution, are easy to administer, have reduced size to simplify storage, transportation and waste disposal, and offer the possibility of improved vaccine immunogenicity, dose sparing and thermostability. This review summarizes vaccination challenges in developing countries and discusses advantages that microneedle patches offer for vaccination to address these challenges. We conclude that microneedle patches offer a powerful new technology that can enable more effective vaccination in developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Research ethics and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Désiré Adiogo

    2007-12-01

    Developing countries are a breeding ground for research, especially for infectious diseases and HIV. On one hand, due to the prevalence of these diseases in this part of the world, and on the other, due to its needs in terms of research, disease prevention and heath care. The actions taken in the fight against HIV infection over the past years, considering that the urgent state of the health care situation has been a sensitive issue for ethical deviation evident in the following examples: Nonoxynol 9 trial (1996-1999) in Cameroon; Tenofovir trial (2003-2005) in Cameroon; Trials of fusion inhibitors in Latin America. No sanctions were imposed due to these deviations, and there was no possibility of recourse. What can these poor states do faced with health care emergencies, the extreme vulnerability of these populations and the big powerful pharmaceutical companies whose turnover or even profits are higher than the GDP of these countries? It is of the utmost importance that an international court of appeal be established to handle litigation regarding research related issues and the fair sharing of the profits resulting from research. The protection of vulnerable populations and the strict respect of ethical rules can only be implemented to the fullest if sanctions are applied to abusers.

  14. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  15. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  16. Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  18. Food science in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-09

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point.

  19. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects.

  20. The Social Development Summit and the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, A P; Kulkarni, P D; Nanavatty, M C; Singh, R R

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses some concerns of the 1996 UN Summit on Social Development. Conference organizers identified the three key conference issues as poverty alleviation, social integration of the marginalized and disadvantaged, and expansion of productive employment. The goal of a "society for all" means dealing with the increasing differences between rich and poor countries, the survival of weaker economies in a competitive market system, wide variations in consumption patterns between countries, attainment of political stability while respecting ethnic identity, the rise in social problems among countries with a high human development index, and increasing joblessness. The Human Development Report for 1994 emphasizes human security. Social development is not the equivalent of human resource development nor a side issue of economic growth. The integration of ethnic groups poses social and political problems. There remains a question about what political system and culture would be best for social integration. Developed countries define poverty as the inability of people and government to provide resources and necessary services for people's productive activity. Poverty in developing countries is blamed on colonialism. Globally, developed countries control 71% of world trade. Sharing resources to meet basic needs throughout the world is not an operational ideal. The highest 20% of income earners receive 83% of the world income. The culture of poverty is the strategy used by the poor to survive. Welfare is not an end in itself but does enable the poor to improve their conditions. Development that focuses on productive employment is uncertain. Developed and developing countries do not share similar perceptions of human rights. There is a question as to who should set the priorities for social development. Sustainable social development is related to preservation of natural resources, control of population growth, and promotion of social security.

  1. Radio and Television for Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Dean T.

    The potential role of radio and television in improving equity and efficiency in the delivery of education in developing countries is discussed. The following four sections discuss major educational issues and reforms involving the use of instructional television and radio in countries such as American Samoa, El Salvador, and the Ivory Coast: (1)…

  2. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  3. Establishing Information Services in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chander, J.; Scott, R.

    1978-01-01

    The information needs of developing countries engaged in the process of industrilization are indicated, and some practical suggestions offered for developing a national industrial information center. (MBR)

  4. Establishing Information Services in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chander, J.; Scott, R.

    1978-01-01

    The information needs of developing countries engaged in the process of industrilization are indicated, and some practical suggestions offered for developing a national industrial information center. (MBR)

  5. [Pathological diagnosis of leprosy in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Goto, Masamichi; Aung, Thida; Kitajima, Shinichi

    2005-09-01

    In the developing countries where leprosy is prevalent, diagnosis of leprosy is made from clinical signs and symptoms. However, when difficult and doubtful cases increase after the advance of leprosy control programs, definitive diagnosis of leprosy by histopathology become necessary. This report describes our experience of technical support to re-establish histopathology service and introduction of immunohistochemistry in the leprosy referral center of Myanmar, and we discuss the ideal way of international technical support. This activity was performed as a part of leprosy control and basic health services project of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2000 to 2005.

  6. Screening, Deschooling and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Keith

    1975-01-01

    Examines the present debate surrounding deschooling (abolition or non-setting up of schools) particularly hypotheses regarding the use of schooling as a screening device for occupational selection. Analyzes its relevance for low-income, low-schooling countries in light of recent data from Northern Nigeria on education and labor productivity. (JT)

  7. Performance-Centered Design for Developing Countries: Emphasizing Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance-centered design (PCD) for developing countries and demonstrates how the process of internationalization and localization needs to go beyond the traditional functionality checklists of culture and language. Describes how the unique nature of developing country economic, human capacity, and infrastructure contexts has to be…

  8. Computer Needs and Computer Problems in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huskey, Harry D.

    A survey of the computer environment in a developing country is provided. Levels of development are considered and the educational requirements of countries at various levels are discussed. Computer activities in India, Burma, Pakistan, Brazil and a United Nations sponsored educational center in Hungary are all described. (SK/Author)

  9. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  11. [The problems of less developed countries].

    PubMed

    Vargas Salcedo, H

    1988-04-01

    The economic gap between the rich industrialized nations and the underdeveloped countries has been increasing in recent years even as the time needed to travel between them has shrunk. The poor countries of the world, with few exceptions, have remained poor or become poorer. The poor countries are not homogeneous; they vary in their depth of poverty, quantity and type of resources, population density, and other aspects. Obstacles to progress among them are extremely varied. Industrial development in the economically advanced countries may have worsened conditions in some of these countries, but it did not cause their poverty. Many currently underdeveloped countries have been poor since the dawn of history. Even though developing countries appear to have at their disposal the entire apparatus of modern technology, most economists believe that development in them will be much more difficult than in countries that developed in the 19th century. Among the nearly insurmountable obstacles to progress are the difficulty developing countries have in adapting to western technology, which tends to be capital intensive and to require a small though technically skilled labor force. In most developing countries, manpower is abundant but capital and skilled labor are scarce. Modernized technology adapted to the needs of developing countries in reality does not exist. Many poor countries lack preparation for an industrial revolution and require complete social and cultural revolutions as well, indicating that they are economically more impoverished than countries that developed in the 19th century. Most developing countries also have different and more serious population problems than those experienced by western countries in the 19th century. Population density in relation to land and resources and rapid population growth are particularly serious problems in Asia, the poorest and most overpopulated of the world's regions. Disguised unemployment is 1 of the profound problems

  12. Comparing Tasks and Skills in Developing Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter; Strong, Gregory; Whittle, Jennifer

    Developing the skills necessary to participate in academic discussions is an important goal in many programs of English for academic purposes. However, there has been little empirical investigation into how verbal and nonverbal aspects of discussion abilities might be developed. This paper reports the results of a semester-long effect of…

  13. Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries1

    PubMed Central

    Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Thomas, Bolaji N.; Amisu, Kehinde O.; Obi, C. Larry

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a collective description for infectious diseases caused by members of the bacterial genus Campylobacter. The only form of campylobacteriosis of major public health importance is Campylobacter enteritis due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Research and control efforts on the disease have been conducted more often in developed countries than developing countries. However, because of the increasing incidence, expanding spectrum of infections, potential of HIV-related deaths due to Campylobacter, and the availability of the complete genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, interest in campylobacteriosis research and control in developing countries is growing. We present the distinguishing epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in developing countries relative to developed countries. National surveillance programs and international collaborations are needed to address the substantial gaps in the knowledge about the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in developing countries. PMID:11927019

  14. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  15. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  16. Chemicals and environmentally caused diseases in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Jamall, I.S.; Davis, B. )

    1991-06-01

    This chapter discusses international aspects of diseases resulting from exposure to chemical pollutants in the environment, with an emphasis on developing countries. These countries share many of the same problems of air, water, and pesticide pollution that face the more industrialized countries. In developing countries, however, the problems are compounded by a number of unique situations, viz., economic priorities, high burden of infectious diseases, impoverishment, and absence of a regulatory framework for the disposal of toxic chemicals. This discussion emphasizes the importance of interactions among toxicants, malnutrition, and infectious diseases for both urban and rural populations insofar as these interactions contribute to disease. Toxicants not only produce disease directly but also exacerbate diseases with other causes. Specific examples from developing countries demonstrate how human health effects from exposures to environmental chemicals can be assessed. While they do not strictly fall under the rubric of developing countries, the public health consequences of inadequate control of environmental pollution in the East European countries should demonstrate the magnitude of the problem, except that in developing countries the public health consequence of environmental chemicals will be aggravated by the widespread malnutrition and high prevalence of infectious diseases. Much needs to be done before we can adequately quantify the contribution of environmental chemicals to morbidity and mortality in developing countries with the level of sophistication now evident in the charting of infectious diseases in these countries. 52 references.

  17. Fertilizer consumption trend in developing countries vs. developed countries.

    PubMed

    Motesharezadeh, Babak; Etesami, Hassan; Bagheri-Novair, Sepideh; Amirmokri, Hormoz

    2017-03-01

    The study of the chemical fertilizer consumption in different countries provides basal data for the decision-making of fertilizer production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizer application. Hence, the aim of this research was to study and compare the trend of the chemical fertilizer consumption from 1980 to 2012 in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA. For this purpose, various indices such as application rates (kg ha(-1)) of N, P, and K, arable land, and total fertilizer consumption were analysed. Results showed that the application rates of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA in 2012 were 100-42-7, 100-42-7, 100-94-60, 100-17-25, 100-13-38, and 100-33-35, respectively. The lowest and highest area under production were observed in Japan with 4.0 million ha (0.033 ha/person) and in the USA with 155.0 million ha (0.51 ha/person) during 2008-2015, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest application rates of net nutrient consumption were recorded in France and Germany (285 and 285 kg ha(-1)) and in Iran (66 kg ha(-1)), respectively. Overall, the average net consumption of fertilizers in the studied countries in three recent decades (million tonnes) decreased in the order: the USA (19.282) > France (4.601) > Germany (3.302) > Turkey (1.825) > Japan (1.604) > Iran (1.130). Regarding an estimated 9.2 billion people by 2050, the balanced consumption of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) and the principles of optimal consumption of fertilizers are keys for achieving the increased food production, food security, and environmental conservation.

  18. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  19. Liberal Education: Why Developing Countries Should Not Neglect It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, David E.; Rosovsky, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that knowledge has become for both individuals and economies a competitive advantage on a global scale. Discusses why developing countries require the creation of liberally educated citizens to contribute to their nation's social and economic advancement. (EV)

  20. Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses four problems which concern engineering education in developing countries: (1) less value of handiwork; (2) lack of industrial culture; (3) low salary of faculty; and (4) cultural distortions. Describes three successful cases in Indonesia and Thailand. (YP)

  1. Problems Affecting Evaluation of Distance Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIsaac, Marina Stock

    1990-01-01

    Examines the problems affecting evaluation of distance education in developing countries in terms of economic, political, and social issues. Discusses one solution, a meta-analysis for synthesizing the results of research studies. (JOW)

  2. Good clinical practice in developing countries: applying recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bompart, François; Hirsch, François; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for clinical research in developing countries were published in 2007 and the present article deals with issues which were not initially raised or discussed in depth. In particular, we discuss specific questions linked to trials conducted in developing countries with regard to informed consent, research project review by two ethics committees, standards of care, management of biological samples, study follow-up committees, notification of Serious Adverse Events, paediatric trials, and Contract Research Organizations.

  3. Space research policies in advanced and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    The motivations for the conduct of space research and the development of space research policies by different constituencies and different types of countries are analyzed. Concerning space research in developing countries, four main aspects are discussed: 1. The role of space research for the achievement of ``critical mass'' by research groups; 2. The role of space research in higher education; 3. The identification of space research problems to which a country can make significant contributions; and 4. Multinational cooperation among developing countries in space research.

  4. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  5. Neuropsychiatric genetics in developing countries: Current challenges.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diego A; Vélez-van-Meerbeke, Alberto; Deshpande, Smita N; Nicolini, Humberto; Perry, George

    2014-12-22

    Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) constitute a heavy burden on public health systems around the world and studies have demonstrated that the negative impact of NPDs is larger in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In recent decades, several studies have come to the understanding that genetic factors play a major role in the risk for a large number of NPDs. However, few neuropsychiatric genetics studies have been published from LMICs. In this Editorial, we discuss important issues impinging on advances in neuropsychiatric genetics research in LMICs. It is essential that scientists educate policymakers and officials of funding agencies on the importance of providing adequate funding for research in these areas. Development of local well-supported research programs focused on NPD genetics should be an important asset to develop; it would facilitate the establishment of sustainable research efforts that could lead to appropriate diagnosis and specific, affordable and feasible interventions in LMICs. It is important to point out that research into the biological basis of human NPDs is not only an academic effort reserved for a few elite institutions in economically developed countries, but it is vitally important for the mental health of people around the world.

  6. Breast cancer screening in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    da Costa Vieira, René Aloísio; Biller, Gabriele; Uemura, Gilberto; Ruiz, Carlos Alberto; Curado, Maria Paula

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries have limited healthcare resources and use different strategies to diagnose breast cancer. Most of the population depends on the public healthcare system, which affects the diagnosis of the tumor. Thus, the indicators observed in developed countries cannot be directly compared with those observed in developing countries because the healthcare infrastructures in developing countries are deficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate breast cancer screening strategies and indicators in developing countries. A systematic review and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Timing, and Setting methodology were performed to identify possible indicators of presentation at diagnosis and the methodologies used in developing countries. We searched PubMed for the terms “Breast Cancer” or “Breast Cancer Screening” and “Developing Country” or “Developing Countries”. In all, 1,149 articles were identified. Of these articles, 45 full articles were selected, which allowed us to identify indicators related to epidemiology, diagnostic intervention (diagnostic strategy, diagnostic infrastructure, percentage of women undergoing mammography), quality of intervention (presentation of symptoms at diagnosis, time to diagnosis, early stage disease), comparisons (trend curves, subpopulations at risk) and survival among different countries. The identification of these indicators will improve the reporting of methodologies used in developing countries and will allow us to evaluate improvements in public health related to breast cancer. PMID:28492725

  7. Community Development in Emergent Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgdon, Linwood L.; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, these papers on community development in developing nations deal largely with conditions, requirements, and effective principles of rural extension; the government system of community development village workers in outlying regions of Thailand; the methods, organization, accomplishments, and prospects of…

  8. Overview: epilepsy surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wieser, H G; Silfvenius, H

    2000-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery (ES) is addressed in relation to economic classifications of national resources and welfare in developing countries. A decade ago, ten developing countries conducted ES; now 26 such countries have reported results of ES. A number of international authorities define indicators of national economic welfare. Adopting the economic classification of the International Monetary Fund. we find that ES is nonexistent in 98% of African countries, 76% of Asian countries, 58% of European countries, 82% of Middle East countries, and in 86% of countries of the Western Hemisphere. The 1980-1990 global ES survey conducted by the International League Against Epilepsy identified ten developing countries reporting ES (DCRES): Brazil, China, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, Taiwan, the U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, and Viet Nam. The present survey based on the proceedings of the 19th-23rd International Epilepsy Congresses and Medline reports from 1991 to November 1999 revealed at least 26 (18.3%) DCRES of 142 developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Korea, Lithuania, Mexico, P.R.China, the U.S.S.R., Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and former Yugoslavia. National vital statistics expose the hardships of developing countries. The population ratio of developed countries to developing countries is approximately 1:5. The reverse per capita Gross Domestic Product ratio is 20:1. Great disparities exist in vital statistics, all to the disadvantage of the DCRES. The World Health Organization defines health-related sectors geographically, then divides developing countries into several subgroups. Disability caused by length of disease and years lived with disability can be quantified monetarily for epilepsy, and the total health expenditures of developed and developing countries can be compared. The DCRES are short of technology, and their ES

  9. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ghaiath MA

    2009-01-01

    Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries. PMID:19463174

  10. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  11. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  12. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  13. Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S.…

  14. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. What has bioethics to offer the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ren-Zong

    1993-04-01

    My paper consists of three parts. In the first part I try to explain the intellectual basis of bioethics in developing countries. In the second part I describe the bioethical dilemmas facing these countries. In the third part I shall discuss the changes that have to be made in bioethics if it is to take root in these countries, and thereby help them to improve the human existence.

  16. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  17. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Younas, Javed

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  18. Strategies for greater impact in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C

    1993-01-01

    Effective AIDS education programs are needed to prevent AIDS. They must integrate HIV/AIDS messages into basic health care services and adapted them to cultural norms and values. They should eliminate the mystery surrounding human sexuality. Effective AIDS education programs must examine control of communicable diseases and the relationship between gender issues and effective health care treatment. The infrastructure and resources to direct vertical HIV/AIDS programs generally do not exist in developing countries. All too often senior professionals accept positions in these vertical programs, which limits their ability to lobby for integrated HIV/AIDS programs. Donor organizations should make sure that all projects which they support have an AIDS component and work with other organizations to ensure that prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)/HIV/AIDS is completely integrated into health care delivery services. All health workers should undergo AIDS prevention and control training. Supervisors should make sure that subordinates practice AIDS control. Benefit packages should not be offered to attract health workers. Just because nationals may make up an information, education, and communication (IEC) program does not mean that they will adapt the program to cultural values. Donors must provide appropriate educational strategies and programs to developing countries. Social change evolves from the culture. Health care workers must help find culturally appropriate education strategies. IEC has not reached its objectives in prevention and control of STDs. Communication mechanisms that allow human sexuality to be a subject of every day discussion without causing embarrassment, uneasiness, and outrage are needed.

  19. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  20. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  1. Childrearing discipline and violence in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The prevalence of each response varied widely across countries, as did the amount of variance accounted for by country in relation to each response. Country-level indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment, and economic well-being were related to several responses to children's behavior. Country-level factors are widely related to parents' methods of teaching children good behavior and responding to misbehavior. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  3. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge. PMID:25964453

  4. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Andrew J

    2015-06-19

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions.

  6. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  7. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-02-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world.

  8. Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D; Paskin, R; Gutiérrez, M; Kasterine, A

    2005-08-01

    Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and poultry sectors from three countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows that at present there is only a small trade in these products but that this can have a major effect at a national level. In the beef export trade from Namibia, the existence of the only assurance scheme in Africa setting standards in hygiene, veterinary care and animal welfare has created a trusted, safe and healthy product and ensured that Namibia has grown into Africa's largest exporter of beef to the European Union. In Thailand, the broiler industry, which has enjoyed annual growth in the past 15 years, is developing value-added products to develop markets to counter competition from other countries. The development and implementation of standards for organic products in both Thailand and Argentina over the past decade have also resulted in growth in the export markets of these products. The paper concludes that there is growth potential for the sectors in all three markets which can be assisted by the development of OIE baseline standards.

  9. Divisions Panel Discussion: Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevin; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Wolter, Anna; Haghighipour, Nader; Yan, Yihua; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Silva, David; Guinan, Edward

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this panel discussion was to encourage conversation around potential collaborations between the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and IAU Divisions. The discussion was facilitated by the OAD and the conversation revolved mainly around two questions: (i) What should the OAD be doing to enhance the work of the Divisions? (ii) What could the Divisions (both members and respective scientific discipline in general) contribute towards the implementation of the IAU strategic plan?

  10. Health economics in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abel-Smith, B

    1989-08-01

    The interpretation of health economics chosen for this paper is broad. It includes the relation between economic and other factors in health development. This interpretation has been chosen lest the acceptance of a disciplinary approach in the commissioning of papers should have the unintended effect of excluding some key areas of research which require the consideration of crucial interrelationships between disciplines. The only justification for covering this area in a paper on economics rather than, for example, epidemiology is that increasingly there is and indeed has to be a heavy focus on costs in considering alternative paths to health development. The word 'research' is loosely interpreted and not restricted to the type of activity which could lead to the award of a PhD. The compilation of experience in many areas is, in the view of the author, a priority need, to plan where further research and experiment is needed.

  11. Vector control in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Richard F.

    1963-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of California's population, leading to competition for space between residential, industrial and agricultural interests, the development of its water resources and increasing water pollution provide the basic ingredients of its present vector problems. Within the past half-century, the original mosquito habitats provided by nature have gradually given place to even more numerous and productive habitats of man-made character. At the same time, emphasis in mosquito control has shifted from physical to chemical, with the more recent extension to biological approaches as well. The growing domestic fly problem, continuing despite the virtual disappearance of the horse, is attributable to an increasing amount of organic by-products, stemming from growing communities, expanding industries and changing agriculture. The programme for the control of disease vectors and pest insects and animals directs its major effort to the following broad areas: (1) water management (including land preparation), (2) solid organic wastes management (emphasizing utilization), (3) community management (including design, layout, and storage practices of buildings and grounds), and (4) recreational area management (related to wildlife management). It is apparent that vector control can often employ economics as an ally in securing its objectives. Effective organization of the environment to produce maximum economic benefits to industry, agriculture, and the community results generally in conditions unfavourable to the survival of vector and noxious animal species. Hence, vector prevention or suppression is preferable to control as a programme objective. PMID:20604166

  12. Harm reduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wong, C

    1998-06-29

    Manipur, a state in northeast India and one of its poorest areas, has widespread iv drug use and accompanying risky behavior. By the early 1990s, 50% of iv drug users (IDUs) there were infected with HIV. Initial efforts to implement harm reduction measures by the state government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were unsuccessful because of concerns regarding community resistance. According to Khomdon Singh Lisam, Project Director of the Manipur State AIDS Control Society, it was necessary to lay the groundwork for harm reduction by involving community and professional groups; this led to the adoption of the Manipur State AIDS Policy (MSAP) by the State Cabinet. This policy permits the implementation of a number of services, including needle exchange and education about sterilizing drug equipment. According to Lisam, there is strong community support for the harm reduction program. In the city of Madras, in southern India, needle exchange is illegal (the MSAP is one of a kind in India), but needles can be bought for a few centimes at pharmacies. However, according to M. Suresh Kumar, of the Society for Aid and Help for Addictive Illnesses (SAHAI) in Madras, IDUs cannot afford money for the needles. SAHAI has been working together with influential people to develop outreach programs. Education of IDUs must be face-to-face, because illiteracy is so high; the social networks and families of IDUs are also educated about risk reduction.

  13. Chasing the Dream - Astronomy in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, John R.; Batten, Alan H.

    1995-03-01

    The Sun never sets on the astronomical community. Astronomers are active in nearly 100 countries. Those in the developing world need help, but in return they enrich the profession -- and enlist billions of supporters.

  14. Assessing allergic rhinitis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Piau, J P; Massot, C; Moreau, D; Aït-Khaled, N; Bouayad, Z; Mohammad, Y; Khaldi, F; Bah-Sow, O; Camara, L; Koffi, N B; M'boussa, J; El Sony, A; Moussa, O A; Bousquet, J; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2010-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects 5% to 40% of the general population. In developing countries, AR is poorly documented and tracked due to a lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. 1) To validate a questionnaire standardised in industrialised countries to ascertain AR, the Score For Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR), in developing countries; 2) to better understand AR prevalence previously reported from developing countries by comparing results from the SFAR and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires. Six African countries were selected for their climates. In each country, 70 individuals with and 30 without nasal symptoms filled out the SFAR and the ISAAC questionnaires. Skin prick tests (SPTs) for allergens were performed by the physician if necessary. The SFAR presented a close match with the gold standard (the physician's diagnosis of AR backed up by SPT where necessary) in terms of various performance parameters. In particular, it showed high sensitivity (0.84) and specificity (0.81). Compared to the ISAAC questionnaire, the SFAR had greater sensitivity and equal specificity. In the absence of a medical visit, the SFAR is a useful standardised screening instrument for the collection of information needed for the identification of AR in developing countries.

  15. Reforming Earth science education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    Improving the employability of Earth science graduates by reforming Earth science instruction is a matter of concern to universities worldwide. It should, however, be self-evident that the developing countries cannot follow the same blueprint for change as the industrialized countries due to constraints of affordability and relevance. Peanuts are every bit as nutritious as almonds; if one with limited means has to choose between a fistful of peanuts and just one almond, it is wise to choose the peanuts. A paradigm proposed here would allow institutions in developing countries to impart good quality relevant Earth science instruction that would be affordable and lead to employment.

  16. Handicapped Children in Developing Countries: Assessment, Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baine, David

    A discussion of teaching and testing methods for children with disabilities focuses on techniques appropriate for use in developing countries. The book has several purposes. Its aims are to: (1) discuss practical, step-by-step methods that can be used readily in existing classrooms; (2) describe ideal methods and materials as long-term goals to…

  17. Trends in nuclear medicine in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas; Zaknun, John; Bastos, Fernando Mut; Pynda, Yaroslav

    2011-12-01

    This article describes trends in nuclear medicine in the developing world as noted by nuclear medicine professionals at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The trends identified are based on data gathered from several sources, including information gathered through a database maintained by the IAEA; evaluation of country program frameworks of various IAEA Member States; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; official proceedings and meeting reports of the IAEA; participation in numerous national, regional, and international conferences; discussions with the leadership of major professional societies; and relevant literature. The information presented in this article relied on both objective and subjective observations. The aims of this article were to reflect on recent developments in the specialty of nuclear medicine and to envision the directions in which it is progressing. These issues are examined in terms of dimensions of practice, growth, and educational and training needs in the field of nuclear medicine. This article will enable readers to gain perspective on the status of nuclear medicine practice, with a specific focus on the developing world, and to examine needs and trends arising from the observations.

  18. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  19. Japanese Educational Assistance to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotta, Taiji

    1991-01-01

    To counter criticisms that its foreign aid is self-serving, Japan has developed new technical and educational assistance programs for students and trainees from developing nations. However, elements of these programs appear to further domestic economic development and to maintain political relationships with local elites in recipient countries.…

  20. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  1. Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice.

    PubMed Central

    Olweny, C

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary issues such as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation and gene therapy, which occupy the minds of ethicists in the industrialized countries are, for the moment, irrelevant in most developing countries. There, the ethics of scarcity, sacrifice, cross-cultural research, as well as the activities of multinational companies, are germane. In this article, only the ethics of scarcity and sacrifice will be discussed. Structural adjustment programmes, designed to solve the economic problems of the developing countries, muddied the waters. The dilemma confronting practitioners in developing countries is how to adhere to the basic principles of medical ethics in an atmosphere of hunger, poverty, war and ever-shrinking and often non-existent resources. Nowhere else in the world is the true meaning of scarcity portrayed as vividly as in the developing countries. Consequently, the doctor's clinical freedom may have to be sacrificed by the introduction of an essential drugs list and practice guidelines. The principle of greater good, while appealing, must be carefully interpreted and applied in the developing countries. Thus, while health promotion and disease prevention must be the primary focus, health planners should avoid pushing prevention at the expense of those currently sick. Health care reform in developing countries must not merely re-echo what is being done in the industrialized countries, but must respond to societal needs and be relevant to the community in question. PMID:7996563

  2. Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan P; Wachs, Theodore D; Gardner, Julie Meeks; Lozoff, Betsy; Wasserman, Gail A; Pollitt, Ernesto; Carter, Julie A

    2007-01-13

    Poverty and associated health, nutrition, and social factors prevent at least 200 million children in developing countries from attaining their developmental potential. We review the evidence linking compromised development with modifiable biological and psychosocial risks encountered by children from birth to 5 years of age. We identify four key risk factors where the need for intervention is urgent: stunting, inadequate cognitive stimulation, iodine deficiency, and iron deficiency anaemia. The evidence is also sufficient to warrant interventions for malaria, intrauterine growth restriction, maternal depression, exposure to violence, and exposure to heavy metals. We discuss the research needed to clarify the effect of other potential risk factors on child development. The prevalence of the risk factors and their effect on development and human potential are substantial. Furthermore, risks often occur together or cumulatively, with concomitant increased adverse effects on the development of the world's poorest children.

  3. Guidelines for Clinical Research in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Vray, Muriel; Simon, François; Bompart, François

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a review of current clinical research conditions in developing countries, guidelines have been formulated to ensure scientific validity as well as adherence to universal ethical principles. The main recommendation is that projects should be reviewed by two Institutional Review Boards, one in the country where the Study Sponsor is based, and another in the country where the study is being carried out. In addition, an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board should be set up and systems established to ensure the effective reporting of Serious Adverse Events and to specify the Sponsor's obligations after the end of the Study.

  4. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  5. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  6. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  7. Establishing space industry in developing countries: Opportunities and difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloglu, U. M.; Kocaoglan, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although it is generally agreed that the outer space should be used for the benefit of all mankind, only a fraction of the countries have the necessary technological base for accessing space. Space technology, with its implications on science, economy and well-being of citizens, is mostly chosen as one of the priority areas for technological development by developing countries. However, there is already an over-capacity in global space industry and there are doubts on necessity of additional capacity establishment by developing countries. In this study, the importance and benefits of capacity-building in these countries are emphasized and the advantages and disadvantages that developing countries have in the framework of space technology acquisition are briefly presented. The feasibility of certain levels of space technology is discussed and the necessity of combining existing indigenous capabilities with technology obtained from foreign sources in the optimal way is stressed. We have also mentioned various general mechanisms of technology transfer and argued the importance of licensing in catching-up developed countries. After considering the necessary conditions of efficiency of technology, such as establishment of regional centers of space science and technology education by United Nations, joint development of space systems, complete technology transfer packages, cooperative space projects within regional organizations, coordinated constellations and special agreements with large space agencies, which are specific mechanisms already in use, are reviewed. Some typical examples of mechanisms are also given with special emphasize on small satellite technology that makes access to space affordable for many countries. Through sharing and analyzing the experience of developing countries in their odyssey of space capacity-building, the difficulties can be negotiated and the vicious circles can be broken. This study, in our view, is a step to incite a general

  8. Paying for pharmaceutical registration in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Warren A; Laing, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Fees charged by drug regulatory authorities (DRAs) may be used as a policy instrument to speed up regulatory approval, to encourage retention of quality staff and to stimulate introduction of generics versus new chemical entities. Often, the cost recovery function of these registration fees is not related to the true cost of the pharmaceutical regulatory process. In this paper, we scaled new drug registration fees of various DRAs to indices of economic development - the GNP per capita and the total government health expenditure per capita. Based on our analyses of 34 countries, most DRA registration fees for new drug applications for developing/non-OECD countries are less than the current GNP/capita of that country or are about US dollars 5000 for each US dollars 1000 spent per capita on healthcare. At present, each US dollars 1000 new drug registration fee for the developing/non-OECD countries analyzed corresponds to a total pharmaceutical market share of about US dollars 85 million. Our analyses further suggest little relationship between DRA registration fees and drug approval times in developing countries. The situation is complex, however, as policy tradeoffs are important to consider. Differential registration fees, presumably designed to encourage locally produced versus imported products, may violate international trade regulations. Moreover, certain DRA registration fees may provide perverse incentives for the pharmaceutical industry. Developing countries should require that DRA registration fees be based on accurate accounting of the cost of services provided. At present levels, these fees could be increased without disincentive to the pharmaceutical industry. For new drug registration fees, our analyses suggest that developing countries could charge between 1-5 times their GNP per capita or between US dollars 17000 and US dollars 80000 for each US dollars 1000 spent per capita on healthcare.

  9. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  10. Corporate Environmentalism in Developing Countries: A Tale of Three Multinationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Allen L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Multinational corporations bring both economic opportunities and technological hazards to developing countries. Discusses the trade-offs between the profit and development objectives and the environmental, health, and safety objectives as seen in three case studies involving Occidental Chemical and Du Pont corporations in Thailand, and Xerox…

  11. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  12. Remote sensing utilization of developing countries: An appropriate technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conitz, M. W.; Lowe, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the Agency for international development were discussed. Regional and national training centers were established to create an understanding of the role and impact of remote sensing on the developing process. Workshops, training seminars, and demonstration projects were conducted. Research on application was carried out and financial and technical assistance to build or strengthen a country's capability were granted.

  13. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  14. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  15. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  16. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  17. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  18. Ergonomics in industrially developing countries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Huck-Soo, Loo; Richardson, Stanley

    2012-12-01

    The two final decades of the 20th century saw a significant increase in ergonomics activity (and resulting publications) in industrially developing countries (IDCs). However, a few ergonomics papers from Singapore, for example, were published in 1969 and 1970. This paper reviews developments in ergonomics in industrially developing countries from 1969 relying heavily on published papers although their quality varies considerably. Some criticism of these papers is offered. Most were concerned with the use of work tools, workstation operations, material handling and working environments especially in tropical climates. The similar problems encountered in a variety of countries are discussed, and the importance of low-cost solutions stressed. This study presents an overview of er gonomics research in IDCs. It concentrates on ASEAN countries whilst recognising the valuable work done in other areas.

  19. Space technology transfer to developing countries: opportunities and difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloglu, U. M.; Kocaoglan, E.

    Space technology, with its implications on science, economy and security, is mostly chosen as one of the priority areas for technological development by developing countries. Most nations aspiring to begin playing in the space league prefer technology transfer programs as a first step. Decreasing initial costs by small satellite technology made this affordable for many countries. However, there is a long way from this first step to establishment of a reliable space industry that can both survive in the long term with limited financial support from the government and meet national needs. This is especially difficult when major defense companies of industrialized countries are merging to sustain their competitiveness. The prerequisites for the success are implementation of a well-planned space program and existence of industrialization that can support basic testing and manufacturing activities and supply qualified manpower. In this study, the difficulties to be negotiated and the vicious circles to be broken for latecomers, that is, developing countries that invest on space technologies are discussed. Especially, difficulties in the technology transfer process itself, brain drain from developing countries to industrialized countries, strong competition from big space companies for domestic needs, costs of establishing and maintaining an infrastructure necessary for manufacturing and testing activities, and finally, the impact of export control will be emphasized. We will also try to address how and to what extent collaboration can solve or minimize these problems. In discussing the ideas mentioned above, lessons learned from the BILSAT Project, a technology transfer program from the UK, will be referred.

  20. Affordable Earth Observatories for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, R. H.

    Traditionally high cost has been the principal impediment to developing nations desiring to pursue space programs. More particularly, the benefits derivable from a space system have been less than adequate to justify the investment required. Chief among the causes has been the inability of the system to produce results with sufficient direct economic value to the peoples of their countries. Over the past 15 years, however, "the Microspace Revolution" has resulted in dramatic reductions in the cost of space systems, while at the same time technology has improved to provide greater capabilities in the smallest micro- and nano-class1 satellites. Because of these advances, it behooves developing nations to reevaluate space as an option for their national development. This paper summarizes two new micro-satellite concepts - NanoObservatoryTM and MicroObservatoryTM that offer the prom- ise of a dedicated Earth remote sensing capability at costs comparable to or less than simply buying data from the best known large systems, Landsat and SPOT. Each system is defined both by its observation capabilities and technical parameters of the system's design. Moreover, the systems are characterized in terms of the other potential benefits to developing economies, i.e., education of a technical workforce or applications of Earth imagery in solving national needs. Comparisons are provided with more traditional Earth observing satellites. NanoObservatoryTM is principally intended to serve as a developmental system to build general technical expertise space technology and Earth observation. MicroObservatoryTM takes the next step by focusing on a more sophisticated optical imag- ing camera while keeping the spacecraft systems simple and affordable. For both programs, AeroAstro is working with non- profit institutions to develop a corresponding program of technical participation with the nations that elect to pursue such programs. Dependent upon current capabilities, this might include

  1. Implementing Information Technology Projects in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamugire, Athanase B.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the problems of implementing information technology in developing countries and cites examples from African projects. The use of CD-ROM for access to information is examined, and experiences at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia in introducing CD-ROM search services are described. (Contains five references.)…

  2. Essays on Education Programs in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Fang

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates programs seeking to address educational access and quality in developing countries. Chapter 1 examines the impact of two school feeding programs on enrollment in Sri Lanka. Chapter 2 assesses the relative productivity of several modes of implementing an Indian English education curriculum in India. Finally, chapter 3…

  3. Essays on Education Programs in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Fang

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates programs seeking to address educational access and quality in developing countries. Chapter 1 examines the impact of two school feeding programs on enrollment in Sri Lanka. Chapter 2 assesses the relative productivity of several modes of implementing an Indian English education curriculum in India. Finally, chapter 3…

  4. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  5. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  6. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  7. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  8. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  9. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  10. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  11. Human-animal chimera: a neuro driven discussion? Comparison of three leading European research countries.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Trujillo, Laura Yenisa; Engel-Glatter, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Research with human-animal chimera raises a number of ethical concerns, especially when neural stem cells are transplanted into the brains of non-human primates (NHPs). Besides animal welfare concerns and ethical issues associated with the use of embryonic stem cells, the research is also regarded as controversial from the standpoint of NHPs developing cognitive or behavioural capabilities that are regarded as "unique" to humans. However, scientists are urging to test new therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases in primate models as they better mimic human physiology than all current animal models. As a response, various countries have issued reports on the topic. Our paper summarizes the ethical issues raised by research with human-animal brain chimeras and compares the relevant regulatory instruments and different recommendations issued in national reports from three important European research nations: Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We assess and discuss the focus and priorities set by the different reports, review various reasons for and perspectives on the importance of the brain in chimera research, and identify critical points in the reports that warrant further specification and debate.

  12. Accounting for health spending in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.

  13. [Impact of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Delacour, H

    2009-08-01

    Rotaviruses discovered in 1973 are the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children world-wide. Annually rotavirus infections are estimated to cause the deaths of more than 600,000 children under the age of 5 years with more than 90% of fatalities occurring in developing countries. In 2006 two live oral attenuated rotavirus vaccines were licensed: the monovalent human rotavirus vaccine (RotarixT) and the pentavalent bovine-human, reassortant vaccine (RotaTeqT). Both vaccines demonstrated excellent safety and protective effectiveness in large pre-licensing trials conducted in Europe, the United States and Latin America. Several countries in Latin and Central America have already decided to include rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization program. African and Asiatic countries have postponed their decisions pending the results of further studies.

  14. Foreign minorities from developing countries in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, V; Aguilera, M J; Gonzalez-yanci, M P

    1993-07-01

    "Spain, which has always been a land of emigrants, is currently a centre of attraction for immigrants, as are other countries in Mediterranean Europe. The proportion is not as high as in other countries with a longer tradition of immigration. In this survey we selected the six nationalities which provide the highest numbers of immigrants from the developing world, and which have the greatest racial or cultural contrast to the native population. We analyse their structural features, whether or not immigrants from the same country...collect in the Madrid Metropolitan Area, the recent mobility of the immigrant population, and the evolution of immigration since the Administration carried out a regularization process, as well as Spaniards' opinion of foreign immigrants."

  15. Congenital heart surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges in caring for individuals with congenital heart disease in developing countries and is drawn in part from the author's Presidential Address to the American Association for Thoracic Surgery in Philadelphia, May 2006. Economic globalization is resulting in demographic and lifestyle changes which are increasing the incidence of ischemic heart disease worldwide. A massive expansion of cardiothoracic surgery in developing countries is beginning. Although the rate of coronary surgery is contracting in Western countries, the population bulge that is approaching 65 years of age will also stretch surgical manpower and resources in developed countries within 10 to 20 years. The incidence of congenital heart disease is stable, but earlier and more accurate diagnosis is rapidly increasing the numbers of children needing the services of a congenital cardiac surgery team. Many opportunities for philanthropy are available, but care should be taken to assist in the most meaningful way by working with a long-term educational program and avoiding surgical tourism.

  16. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  17. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  18. On-Line Distance Learning: A Model for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Abdul W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues related to open and distance-learning (ODL) in developing countries, using the virtual campus initiative of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (India) as an example and model of on-line program delivery and on-line, for-profit telelearning centers. Suggests strategies to enable open and distance-learning institutions to…

  19. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development…

  20. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development…

  1. On-Line Distance Learning: A Model for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Abdul W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues related to open and distance-learning (ODL) in developing countries, using the virtual campus initiative of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (India) as an example and model of on-line program delivery and on-line, for-profit telelearning centers. Suggests strategies to enable open and distance-learning institutions to…

  2. Higher Education Challenges in Developing Countries: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.

    2004-01-01

    This review of literature was written in preparation for conducting a research study on the U.S. community college system as a potential model for developing countries, and using Vietnam as a specific case. It is divided into four sections: (a) a discussion of the purposes of higher education (HE), (b) an examination of problems faced by the HE…

  3. Community Schools in Developing Countries. International Studies in Education 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Harold, Ed.; Tregear, Peter, Ed.

    This book is a synthesis of the work and discussions of a Unesco conference that examined the problems concerning the structure and functioning of community schools in developing countries. Participants worked in four groups studying respectively the position of the teacher in relation to the community, the means he should employ to obtain the…

  4. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.

  5. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - the Zambian experience.

    PubMed

    Mukonka, Victor M; Malumo, Sarai; Kalesha, Penelope; Nambao, Mary; Mwale, Rodgers; Mwinga, Kasonde; Katepa-Bwalya, Mary; Babaniyi, Olusegan; Mason, Elizabeth; Phiri, Caroline; Wamulume, Pauline K

    2014-01-21

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia's experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs.

  6. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  7. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  8. Levels of maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Boerma, J T

    1987-01-01

    This paper is aimed at improving our ability to assess the magnitude of maternal mortality in developing countries, where reliable data on maternal deaths are scarce. First, the upper and lower limits of maternal mortality in a population are determined based on the general levels of mortality and fertility in a population. The relative importance of maternal deaths as a proportion of death among women of reproductive ages may, therefore, vary from less than 1 percent in low-mortality countries to about 25-30 percent in high-mortality countries. Second, the analysis and interpretation of maternal mortality data from health facilities and vital registration systems can be improved if a variety of other data sources are used, such as coverage of deliveries in hospitals and at home, and all causes of death among women of reproductive age. It is estimated that approximately 515,000 women died annually due to pregnancy-related causes in developing countries between 1980 and 1985. Ninety percent of these deaths took place in Africa and South Asia, where births are frequent and maternal mortality levels are high.

  9. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Trichinellosis in developing countries: is it neglected?

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2012-03-12

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, which is characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. The aim of the present review is to provide epidemiological information on animal and human trichinellosis occurring in developing countries in the different continents, where cooking habits along with poverty and poor sanitary conditions and lack of veterinary controls may facilitate the occurrence of human trichinellosis outbreaks. Countries have been considered according to the six regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO): 1) WHO African Region, 2) WHO Region of the Americas, 3) WHO South-East Asia Region, 4) WHO European Region, 5) WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, and 6) WHO Western Pacific Region. For the purposes of this article, developing countries are defined as those not industrialised according to the World Economic Outlook Report of the International Monetary Fund (http://www.imf.org); however, with regard to the European Region of WHO, only those countries that are not member states of the European Union will be considered.

  11. The challenge of census taking in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bair, R R; Torrey, B B

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the new and inexpensive technologies that have been developed at the U.S. Bureau of the Census in order to assist in data processing of census results in developing countries. The process of U.S. technical assistance in this field is described. The authors then consider differences and similarities in processing and producing census data. The article concludes with a discussion of the available technologies, including microcomputing software developed for the 1990 census round.

  12. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation.

  13. Dental services and needs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pack, A R

    1998-06-01

    People in developing countries are burdened excessively by oral diseases, particularly periodontal disease. These are aggravated by poverty, poor living conditions, ignorance concerning health education, and lack of government funding and policy to provide sufficient oral health care workers. WHO and FDI have identified the problems and developed strategies. However, acceptable goals and standards of oral health have to be agreed. Furthermore, barriers to oral health promotion need to be overcome through co-operation at all levels and appreciation of cultural sensitivity. There is the need for research to determine which types of oral health care systems are most effective in reducing the extent of inequality in oral health. In developing countries where there are huge problems, intervention programmes focusing on primary care and prevention should be designed and implemented urgently and their effectiveness monitored and analysed scientifically. The WHO, FDI and national and international professional organisations should play a leading role in encouraging a determined, co-ordinated effort towards improving the oral health status of disadvantaged people in developing countries.

  14. [French sanitary cooperation in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M

    2006-08-01

    In the face of a worsening public health situation throughout the world, French know-how in the field of sanitary cooperation warrants a far more active commitment from our country. Instead there have been only a few initiatives and we are witnessing a programmed decline of our presence. The statement issued by the Economic and Social Council in 2006--the highlights of which will be presented at this meeting--strongly advocates a voluntary program to revive sanitary cooperation by encouraging civic-spirited young people to express international solidarity through public service in impoverished areas. By compensating the shortage of human resources in developing countries, this program would allow immediate implementation of measures to promote action, training and research not as a replacement operation but rather as a genuine partnership. Deployment of our public aid for development in the field of health-care must not have a detrimental effect on the bilateral dimension of the relationship that indeed requires urgent strengthening. In addition tighter coordination of all parties involved in cooperation activities is needed to ensure greater efficiency and consistency. New funding sources (starting with the airline ticket tax) and greater mobilization of the European Union is necessary to ensure that developing countries have more financial resources to wage the "health-care battle". Reducing the "health-care gap" that cripples development and destabilizes societies must be the first priority of French Cooperation.

  15. Neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pal, D.; Carpio, A.; Sander, J.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease of poverty and underdevelopment. Little is known about the natural history of the infection in humans, but some of the mechanisms whereby the parasite remains silent and evades the host immune response are understood. Symptomatic neurocysticercosis usually results from host inflammatory response after parasite death, and the clinical manifestations can be diverse. There is no evidence that cysticidal treatment does more good than harm in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment. Population control measures involving immunisation or mass treatment have not shown long term effectiveness.
Epilepsy, similarly to neurocysticercosis, is a largely unrecognised but increasing burden on the welfare and economies of developing countries. The technology of drug treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation is well known but requires widespread and effective dissemination at low cost. There is little epidemiological data on risk factors for epilepsy in developing countries on which to base prevention strategies. The public health prioritisation of chronic disorders such as epilepsy remains a challenge for policy and practice in developing countries.
For both neurocysticercosis and epilepsy, there is a dilemma about whether limited public resources would better be spent on general economic development, which would be expected to have a broad impact on the health and welfare of communities, or on specific programmes to help individual affected people with neurocysticercosis and epilepsy. Either approach requires detailed economic evaluation.

 PMID:10644776

  16. Breast cancer control programme in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, J A; Barros, A C; Hegg, R; Zeferino, L C

    1993-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very important health problem in developing countries, where its incidence has increased in the last decades. Mortality rates due to breast cancer have also increased, and the main reason for this is late diagnosis. The authors demonstrate that organizing programmes for early breast cancer detection is possible by making use of simple resources. A set of tiered interventions is proposed, stratified in levels of complexity: Level 1--Identification of abnormal breast by health professionals; Level 2--Medical assistance to women whose breast is considered abnormal, in order to diagnose and treat benign diseases and recognize suspect cases of cancer; Level 3--Management of the women with suspected or diagnosed breast cancer by a multidisciplinary team. Therefore, a proposal for wide action for breast cancer control in developing countries is presented.

  17. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  18. Surgical services for children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bickler, S. W.; Rode, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood surgical conditions, especially injuries, are common in developing countries and that poor care results in significant numbers of deaths and cases of disability. Unfortunately, however, surgical care is not considered an essential component of most child health programmes. Strategies for improving paediatric surgical care should be evidence-based and cost-effective and should aim to benefit the largest possible number of children. The most likely way of achieving policy change is to demonstrate that childhood surgical conditions are a significant public health problem. For paediatric purposes, special attention should also be given to defining a cost-effective package of surgical services, improving surgical care at the community level, and strengthening surgical education. Surgical care should be an essential component of child health programmes in developing countries. PMID:12471405

  19. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

  20. Birth asphyxia survivors in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Halloran, DR; McClure, E; Chakraborty, H; Chomba, E; Wright, LL; Carlo, WA

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine the baseline incidence of birth asphyxia in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) survivors in a developing country and the early neurodevelopmental outcomes of such infants. Study Design This cross-sectional, prospective study collected diagnostic and examination findings on all infants seen in the University of Zambia NICU follow-up clinic over a 4-week period. Result Of the 182 infants, 42 (23%) had a clinical diagnosis of birth asphyxia. Of 42 infants with birth asphyxia, 13 (31%) had an abnormal neurologic examination during the clinic visit; in contrast, 13 of 141 infants without birth asphyxia (9%) had an abnormal examination (odds ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.8, 10.4). Conclusion Birth asphyxia survivors account for almost a quarter of NICU survivors in a developing country and half of those with an abnormal neurologic examination. Studies are necessary to determine the percent of birth asphyxia survivors who have permanent motor and cognitive disabilities. PMID:19037228

  1. Quality assurance in toxicology studies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Morris, C R

    1989-03-01

    As developing countries become more involved in the international chemical trade, they must adhere to certain requirements for importation of their chemicals into foreign countries. These developing countries will be required to provide basic safety information on their chemical products, including data developed from chemical and toxicologic testing. These data must be developed in accordance with the national requirements of the importing country. Many importing countries have adopted the OECD Test Guidelines and the OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) as primary guidance to assure the quality of laboratory data. These procedures provide a basis for internationally acceptable data. Several countries have incorporated many of these provisions into their national laws or administrative procedures. These procedures describe the process of documenting the conduct of laboratory studies, including recording of data, reporting of study results, and storage of data gathered. This process is intended to assure the quality and integrity of the data so that, if required, the study can be reconstructed by an auditor or an inspector. Details of these procedures and their applicability to the international chemical trade are discussed.

  2. Digital processing system for developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  3. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  4. Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. This paper describes a series of investigations that was undertaken in Iran, and these findings, together with reviews of research in other low-income countries, are used to identify key lessons in three areas of service provision of particular relevance to developing countries with scarce professional resources: first, the issues to be considered in establishing the prevalence of the condition nationally; second, identification of parental understanding of ASD and the impact it has on them as carers; third, the education and training that could be provided to families when professional supports are sparse. It is concluded that culturally sensitive, parental support strategies must be central to the planning and development of services. Moreover, future research should further elucidate the needs of families and evaluate the impact of culturally tailored interventions designed to promote the children's development and overall family quality of life. PMID:22937242

  5. [Obesity and developing countries of the south].

    PubMed

    Delpeuch, F; Maire, B

    1997-01-01

    An adult is considered as overweight if his body mass index is 25.0 kg/m2 or more and as obese if it is 30.0 kg/m2 or more. Since excess weight is a predisposing factor for many chronic diseases, e.g. diabetes, an increase in its incidence in the population is cause for concern. Until now, excess weight has been problem of epidemic proportions only in developed countries, but it has recently spread to the developing world. More than 30% of the population in Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Northern Africa is overweight. Populations living on Pacific and Indian Ocean islands have the highest prevalence of obesity in the world. In Asia and Black Africa, the overall prevalence of overweight is still low but incidence is high in urban areas. In most of these countries, both underweight and overweight people can now be seen. In many countries, the increase in the number of overweight people has occurred within the last few years. Excess weight appears first among the affluent and then among low-income classes including young children and teenagers. The main causes are a nutrition transition to lipid-rich diets and, above all, reduced physical activity in city dwellers. Obesity and associated diseases could become major problems in the future since malnutrition during fetal development and early childhood are predisposing factors. Already overweight is creating an extra burden for countries where malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies are still observed in young children. Given the economic costs of management of obesity-related diseases, surveillance and prevention programs are needed to stem the growth of this problem.

  6. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  7. Cleaner technology development--some practical steps for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A K A; Bhanujan, K V

    2004-10-01

    Cleaner technologies often originate from developed countries. Little developmental work is continued on the products sourced from developing countries. These products are by and large low value products generating large quantities of hazardous waste per unit of production. Methodology is proposed for phasing out such dirty technologies! products. The development of cleaner technologies is proposed for utilizing large quantity of hazardous waste generated from identified manufacturing process.

  8. Problems of Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Surek

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between funding, management, and quality assurance in engineering education in developing countries. Presents a few case studies on problems of accreditation and quality assessment in larger developing countries such as India and the Philippines, and also in very small developing countries such as Papua New Guinea, Fiji,…

  9. Implementation of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries (Ecuador)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segovia, A.

    1982-01-01

    The current state of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries is discussed. Sensors being utilized and results obtained are described. Requirements are presented for the research of resources in developing countries. It is recommended that a work procedure be developed for the use of satellite remote sensing data tailored to the necessities of the different countries.

  10. History and development of trauma registry: lessons from developed to developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Nwomeh, Benedict C; Lowell, Wendi; Kable, Renae; Haley, Kathy; Ameh, Emmanuel A

    2006-01-01

    Background A trauma registry is an integral component of modern comprehensive trauma care systems. Trauma registries have not been established in most developing countries, and where they exist are often rudimentary and incomplete. This review describes the role of trauma registries in the care of the injured, and discusses how lessons from developed countries can be applied toward their design and implementation in developing countries. Methods A detailed review of English-language articles on trauma registry was performed using MEDLINE and CINAHL. In addition, relevant articles from non-indexed journals were identified with Google Scholar. Results The history and development of trauma registries and their role in modern trauma care are discussed. Drawing from past and current experience, guidelines for the design and implementation of trauma registries are given, with emphasis on technical and logistic factors peculiar to developing countries. Conclusion Improvement in trauma care depends on the establishment of functioning trauma care systems, of which a trauma registry is a crucial component. Hospitals and governments in developing countries should be encouraged to establish trauma registries using proven cost-effective strategies. PMID:17076896

  11. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  12. Introducing new vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara; Seeber, Lea D; Rundblad, Gabriella; Khamesipour, Ali; Ali, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    Vaccines offer the most cost-effective approach to controlling infectious diseases. Access to vaccines remains unequal and suboptimal, particularly in poorer developing countries. Introduction of new vaccines and long-term sustainability of immunization programs will require proactive planning from conception to implementation. International and national coordination efforts as well as local and cultural factors need to be known and accounted for. Adequate infrastructure should be in place for the monitoring of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness and vaccine safety, based on the common terminology and international consensus. This overview paper aims to raise awareness of the importance of introduction efforts for vaccines of special relevance to resource-poor countries. The target audiences are those involved in immunization programs, from planning or oversight roles to frontline providers, as well as health care professionals.

  13. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J; Baehni, Pierre C; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-10-01

    Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some developed countries where the periodontal profile is also less than satisfactory. Despite the fact that in several developed countries there are advanced programmes oriented to periodontal disease treatments, the concern is related to the lack of preventive oriented treatments. According to data available on periodontal status of populations from developed countries, despite the number of dentists and trained specialists, dental health professionals do not presently meet adequately the need for prevention, focusing mainly on curative care. The need for strengthening disease prevention and health promotion programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many

  14. OpportunitiesandPerceptionofSpaceProgramsintheDevelopingCountries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- (1) The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. (2) Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lacks the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. (3) The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase. Thanks for listening.

  15. Collection Development: A Summary of Workshop Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Norman

    1979-01-01

    Highlights from five workshop sessions held during the Preconference Institute on Collection Development in June 1977 focus on collection development policy statements, selection tools, budgeting, evaluation, and weeding. (MBR)

  16. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  17. Mutual benefits from epilepsy surgery in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayel, M H

    2000-01-01

    The last three decades have seen tremendous progress in the surgical management of patients with intractable epilepsy involving all facets of diagnosis, localization, operative technique, and research. Unfortunately, such progress has taken place and is in operation only in the developed countries of North America, Europe, and Japan. Epilepsy surgery programs in the developing countries of South America, Asia, and particularly Africa, if they exist at all, are the result of the individual efforts of physicians who were fortunate enough to receive their training abroad. These physicians face difficulties in financing their programs and in obtaining the necessary equipment, and they work without the assistance of trained personnel or technicians. The exchange of experience between physicians in developed and developing countries may be mutually beneficial. In the face of the high cost of health care in developed countries, it is unrealistic to expect patients with intractable epilepsy to continue to undergo elaborate investigative procedures indefinitely. On the other hand, physicians in developing countries need to keep updated on the latest technology and research and have to receive the necessary support from developed countries to slowly build up their programs. The global perspective of physicians dealing with epilepsy patients may be broadened by exposure to the experience from the "other side of the fence" and will ultimately lead to better patient education and more focused patient care.

  18. Appropriate Technology for Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Stephen T.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses appropriate technology such as folk theater and instructional radio in the development of Third-World nations and emphasizes the importance of community participation in all stages of the educational process. Ways in which this can be stimulated and channelled to support development in other areas are examined. Sixteen references are…

  19. Cancer Pain Management in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Saini, Shalini; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that more than 60% of the 14 million new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 were reported in the developing part of the world, including Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Cancer survival rate is poorer in developing countries due to diagnosis at late stage and limited access to timely treatment. Since the disease per se cannot be treated even with the best available treatment modalities, what remains important is symptom management and providing comfort care to these patients. The incidence of pain in advanced stages of cancer approaches 70-80%. Lack of preventive strategies, poverty, illiteracy, and social stigma are the biggest cause of pain suffering and patient presenting in advance stage of their disease. The need for palliative care is expanding due to aging of world's population and increase in the rate of cancer in developed and developing countries. A huge gap remains between demand and current palliative care services. Overcoming barriers to palliative care is a major global health agenda that need immediate attention. Main causes of inadequate pain relief remain lack of knowledge among physician and patients, lack of adequate supply of opioids and other drugs for pain relief, strong bureaucracy involved in terms of procurement, and dispensing of opioids. Beside this, poverty and illiteracy remain the most important factors of increased suffering.

  20. Power sector liberalization in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Seabright, J.

    1998-07-01

    Based on extensive experience of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) with power sector liberalization in developing countries over the past decade, it has become clear that liberalization is a powerful tool for helping achieve sustainable and environmentally sound social and economic development. The basic driving forces for liberalization are: The need for additional energy to support sustainable economic and social development; the lack of public sector financial resources for system improvement; the inefficiency of existing power generation, transmission, distribution and end use; and the poor environmental performance of public sector power utilities. Power sector liberalization has brought the benefits of greater efficiency in the power sector, increased investment, more economic pricing, greater independence from political interference, increased competition and dampening of tariff increase, and better environmental protection. Care needs to be taken, however, to insure that progress in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and rural electrification are not compromised in the drive to liberalize. USAID firmly believes that power sector liberalization offers a fundamental opportunity to all countries to improve the sustainable supply and use of energy for productive purposes for this and future generations. All nations should seriously consider energy sector liberalization and one or more of the various approaches.

  1. Cancer Pain Management in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Shalini; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that more than 60% of the 14 million new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 were reported in the developing part of the world, including Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Cancer survival rate is poorer in developing countries due to diagnosis at late stage and limited access to timely treatment. Since the disease per se cannot be treated even with the best available treatment modalities, what remains important is symptom management and providing comfort care to these patients. The incidence of pain in advanced stages of cancer approaches 70–80%. Lack of preventive strategies, poverty, illiteracy, and social stigma are the biggest cause of pain suffering and patient presenting in advance stage of their disease. The need for palliative care is expanding due to aging of world's population and increase in the rate of cancer in developed and developing countries. A huge gap remains between demand and current palliative care services. Overcoming barriers to palliative care is a major global health agenda that need immediate attention. Main causes of inadequate pain relief remain lack of knowledge among physician and patients, lack of adequate supply of opioids and other drugs for pain relief, strong bureaucracy involved in terms of procurement, and dispensing of opioids. Beside this, poverty and illiteracy remain the most important factors of increased suffering. PMID:27803557

  2. Market-based licensing for HPV vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines hold great promise for preventing cervical cancer, but 93 percent of mortality worldwide occurs in low- and middle-income countries, where high vaccine costs can restrict dissemination. Current models for promoting international access to health care innovations include differential pricing, advance market commitments, and voluntary and compulsory licensing. Some of these mechanisms have been effective, but much room for improvement remains. We discuss the usefulness of a new type of license that uses market forces to lower prices through generic competition in low- and middle-income countries while ensuring that pharmaceutical companies are appropriately reimbursed for their research and development.

  3. Opportunities for energy conservation in the developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Koshel, P.; Allen, E.L.; Cecelski, E.; Dougher, R.; Ring, L.

    1981-03-01

    Energy problems faced by developing countries are explored and opportunities for saving energy and for using fuels other than petroleum in the modern sector are assessed. Specific resources assessed include oil and gas, coal, hydropower, and traditional fuels. Trends in commercial energy consumption by the developing countries are assessed and the domestic fuel resources of these countries are examined. Patterns of commercial energy use in several LDCs including Sri Lanka, Haiti, India, Kenya, Egypt, the Phillippines, the Republic of Korea, and Brazil are examined. Sri Lanka and Haiti are the subjects for case studies reported in the appendixes. Opportunities for conservation in the modern sector, which include most industrial activities, transportation, and electric power generation as well as some agricultural activities and large residential and commercial buildings, are discussed. The concluding section explores policies which might be initiated by LDC governments to encourage energy conservation. (MCW)

  4. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  5. Obstetric infection control in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Cronin, W A; Quansah, M G; Larson, E

    1993-01-01

    In Ghana, infection has been identified as a major cause of birth-related mortality. Results of a 2-month observation of infection control practices among Ghanaian obstetric nurses and midwives indicated that most personnel did not practice basic rules of asepsis. Problems included frequent breaks in technique, inadequate sterilization and disinfection, and repeated exposure to large amounts of blood and vaginal secretions. Supplies were limited and, even when available, not always used appropriately. The situation in developing countries is different from that in the United States. Therefore, an observational needs assessment is essential to plan relevant and practical measures for change.

  6. Subclinical intestinal malabsorption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Asymptomatic small intestinal disease characterized by abnormalities of structure and function has been reported from many developing countries. Abnormalities of structure include changes in villus architecture and in appearance under both the light and the electron microscope. Changes in function include abnormalities in the absorption of xylose, fat, vitamin B12, amino acids, and dipeptides and excessive faecal losses of nitrogen and energy. The etiology of the condition is unknown but appears to be closely related to exposure to the environment. The nutritional consequences of this condition have not been fully explored but for people living on marginally sufficient dietary intakes they may be extremely important. PMID:800354

  7. [Control of iron deficiency in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Dillon, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldwide, especially in developing countries. It occurs when iron absorption cannot compensate iron requirements and losses. Requirements are especially high in pregnant women, infants, young children and adolescents who run a higher risk of being iron-deficient. In developing countries, the main cause of iron deficiency is the low iron bioavailability of the diet. The consequences of iron deficiency are many and serious, affecting not only individuals' health but also the development of societies and countries. The prevention and the control of iron deficiency and anemia in all groups of a population with different iron requirements imply to coordinate different interventions. Iron fortification of staple foods or condiments directed to the whole population is a sustainable and low cost-effective approach. However, at some periods of life, especially during pregnancy and in children from the age of 6 months, iron requirements are high. For pregnant women, the current approach favours the daily iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy but the results in terms of public health are disappointing. The preventive weekly iron-folate supplementation of women during their reproductive life, whose efficacy is recognized, offers a promising alternative; its impact in terms of public health is under current evaluation. For infants and young children, iron fortification of complementary food is effective but this food is generally imported and economically inaccessible to populations with limited resources. The production, by small private units from local products, of complementary foods of low viscosity, good nutritional quality, fortified with vitamins and minerals, and of low cost is at hand in several countries. When complementary foods are not available, the preventive iron supplementation from 6 to 18 months of age has to be advised. This approach should be strengthened by the advantages of the weekly

  8. Foreign Study for Development or Dependency of Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    Foreign study has been growing worldwide since the end of World War II. There is a significant flow of students from less developed countries to more developed ones. This paper presents findings of a study that assessed two theories of development, modernization theory and dependency theory, and applied these theories to identify the impact of…

  9. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  10. Histopathology of childhood pneumonia in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V M; Turner, T

    1991-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory infection in children is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Viral and bacterial agents incite characteristic host responses at the level of the bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar walls, and air spaces that correlate with the clinical course. A systematic review of histopathologic features will enhance the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms and cofactors that influence the disease process, particularly how tissue injury may be influenced by nutritional status and access to antibiotics. Research priorities include immunologic assessment, micronutrient assays, and standardized autopsies in developing countries. DNA probes for organisms and immunocytochemical identification of cell markers in tissue promise a new era in microscopic visualization of pathogen-host interactions. International collaborative research between ministries of public health and medical universities must be encouraged as a means of providing technical assistance and of advancing new knowledge. Systematic standardized autopsy studies from multiple geographic areas may help define pathologic mechanisms, monitor the natural history of disease, and evaluate interventions in diverse populations.

  11. Developing Effective Interpersonal Communication and Discussion Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…

  12. Developing Effective Interpersonal Communication and Discussion Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…

  13. Appropriate financing for petroleum development in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Agmon, T.; Lessard, D.R.; Paddock, J.L.

    1984-07-01

    The availability of appropriate financing is likely to be a dominant factor determining the scope and pace of energy investment by developing countries in the 1980s. Reliance on self-finance will severely limit development for most countries, but traditional external finance - credit from private banks or multilateral agencies such as the World Bank - will probably play a smaller role than it did in the 1970s. The uncertainty of oil prices is the biggest problem for countries for which oil represents a large part of the wealth, and existing mechanisms for financing oil development tend to exacerbate rather than alleviate the effects of oil price uncertainty. There are several measures that could substantially increase the availability of appropriate finance for potential oil producers, however. These include developing oil-price-linked financing alternatives by multilateral lenders and establishing an international oil development fund that combines the transfer of oil-related risks with a concessional financing element. 23 references.

  14. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  15. A Nursing Semester in a Developing Country: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Steen, Sue; Zdechlik, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Nurses need to gain knowledge and experience that will assist them to practice in a global environment. This article shares the unique experiences of a university in providing a semester of nursing study in a developing country. What makes this experience unique is that theory and clinical courses were taught similarly on both the US and Ugandan campuses. Benefits and challenges of the semester are discussed, as well as details of planning, implementation, and posttrip conclusions.

  16. The Study on Complex Project Management in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwen, Wang

    Different factors that can influence project performance have been identified, classified based on their nature, and discussed. Due to the inherent complexity and various problems encountered in implementing infrastructure project in developing countries, the project manager must appreciate the project environment, maintain flexibility, and be competent to analyze the nature of associated problems and their adverse effects on the success of the project, and address these promptly.

  17. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains Philip Higgs' post modern pluralist thought by reaction to the monolithic rigidities of the decreed dogma of his country's (South Africa) past. Author argues that Higgs has overreacted and has become over tolerant of diversity of thought and that intellectual endeavors should be relativised to particular intellectual parochial…

  18. Urbanization and health in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Sophie; Kohler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Future population growth will take place predominantly in cities of the developing world. The impact of urbanization on health is discussed controversially. We review recent research on urban-rural and intra-urban health differences in developing countries and investigate whether a health advantage was found for urban areas. We systematically searched the databases JSTOR, PubMed, ScienceDirect and SSRN for studies that compare health status in urban and rural areas. The studies had to examine selected World Health Organization health indicators. Eleven studies of the association between urbanization and the selected health indicators in developing countries met our selection criteria. Urbanization was associated with a lower risk of undernutrition but a higher risk of overweight in children. A lower total fertility rate and lower odds of giving birth were found for urban areas. The association between urbanization and life expectancy was positive but insignificant. Common risk factors for chronic diseases were more prevalent in urban areas. Urban-rural differences in mortality from communicable diseases depended on the disease studied. Several health outcomes were correlated with urbanization in developing countries. Urbanization may improve some health problems developing countries face and worsen others. Therefore, urbanization itself should not be embraced as a solution to health problems but should be accompanied by an informed and reactive health policy. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  19. Population and growth causality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kapuria-foreman, V

    1995-07-01

    This study empirically tests the null hypotheses of no causality between population growth and economic growth and of no causality between economic growth and population growth in 15 developing countries. The model follows the Cheng Hsiao form with lag lengths to minimize Akaike's Final Prediction Error (FPE). Equations are run separately for each country. Lag lengths and Granger causality test were chosen according to three steps. 1) Each of the variables was regressed on its own lagged values with a maximum lag of five years. A lag length was chosen that minimized FPE, which was calculated for each regression. 2) Bivariate regressions were run with a fixed lag length for population growth and mixed lag lengths for the other variable, until the lag length which minimized FPE was determined. 3) The last step involved checking the lag length of population growth by keeping the lag fixed for economic growth. The economic growth measure was gross domestic product per capita. Findings indicate that in seven countries the null hypothesis of no causality between population growth and economic growth, either positive or negative, cannot be rejected (Ghana, Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Philippines, Syria, Thailand, and Argentina). In Nepal, India, China, Guatemala, Peru, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico lagged values of population growth improve predictions of economic growth. Higher economic growth has no significant effect on population growth rates in Nepal, Bolivia, Philippines, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, Argentina, and Mexico. Interaction between economic growth and population growth was found in India, China, Turkey, and Chile. The direction of causation tests indicate that population growth has a significant positive impact on income growth in China, Guatemala, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico. India shows a negative impact of population growth on income. A significant negative impact of economic growth on population growth is evident only in Sri Lanka. There is weak evidence of a

  20. Space Station Crew Members Discuss Life in Space with Country Music Legends

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-29

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 52 Flight Engineers Jack Fischer and Peggy Whitson of NASA discussed life and research on the orbital outpost with country music stars Garth Brooks and Trisha Yearwood, during an in-flight chat June 29. Brooks and Yearwood placed the call during a tour of NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston in the wake of a social media post Fischer made prior to his launch in April that listed Brooks’ song “The River” as one of his favorites. Fischer and Whitson are scheduled to remain in orbit aboard the station until early September when they will return to Earth in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft for a parachute-assisted landing on the steppe of Kazakhstan.

  1. Teamwork and program organization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Kathleen N; Castillo, Sergio Hernandez; Claro, Carlos Duarte; Novick, William M

    2011-04-01

    Establishment of congenital heart surgery programs in developing countries is often impeded by competition among providers for scarce resources and opportunities. To avoid this problem, the authors have sought to focus program development on a domestic medical team that includes a visiting North American surgeon. A leadership group was formed consisting of a domestic cardiologist and surgeon, the visiting surgeon, and leading local benefactors. Surgery was initiated beginning with closed cases, and the volume and complexity were gradually increased. The team was mentored by the visiting surgeon, and full medical brigades visited periodically. All members of the leadership group interacted with local health care providers, missionary groups, and visiting medical teams from international organizations, aiming to develop a single congenital heart surgery center. Over a period of 3 years, 185 children have been operated on and the team has progressed to do more complex open and closed cases. Overall mortality is 6.5%. Actively working with the program are 3 of the 5 local pediatric cardiologists, 2 of 4 pediatric intensivists, the only pediatric perfusionist, and the only active pediatric heart surgeon. Three additional international organizations currently participate in program development. Fundraising by the domestic nonprofit organization has increased approximately 20-fold in 5 years, and the program has been evaluated and approved by the government-based health insurance program. Focusing program development around a domestic leadership team allows coordination of patient referrals and resources, which contributes to excellent patient care and program sustainability.

  2. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  3. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  4. Education and Rural Development with Reference to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, G.M.

    Seeking full use of the educational resources available to developing countries in the areas of rural education and agricultural training, this paper is concerned with ways in which the efforts of organizations and institutions concerned with rural development might be improved and expanded. A generalized critical analysis of different facets of…

  5. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties.

  6. Scurvy Is Still Present in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Velandia, Bertha; McConnell, Vicky; Shah, Mobin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Scurvy, while uncommon, still occurs in developed countries despite the widespread availability of vitamins and fortified foods. A vitamin C deficiency prevalence of 10 to 14% in adults was reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1994. Objective We report the case of a 57-year-old male who presented with a combined vitamin C deficiency (scurvy) and a Zinc deficiency. Interventions He came to the emergency department complaining of a painful swollen ecchymotic leg and dyspnea. Prescriptions for narcotics did not relieve his symptoms. When a detailed dietary history was obtained, we added scurvy to the differential diagnosis. An extensive evaluation excluded trauma, coagulopathies, neoplasia, and vasculitides. Main Result The combination of a classic skin biopsy and a low vitamin C level confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion This presentation illustrates the necessity of including scurvy in the differential diagnosis of ecchymoses and demonstrates specific populations at risk: single adults and the elderly with deficient diets. PMID:18459013

  7. Acute diarrhoeal disease in less developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John E.; Béhar, Moisés; Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1964-01-01

    The programme presented in this article for controlling the diarrhoeas and dysenteries of less developed countries is based on epidemiological principles applicable to acute undifferentiated diarrhoeal disease—its specific as well as its non-specific elements. The dominant importance of weanling diarrhoea requires a main emphasis on maternal and child health procedures, with nutrition singled out for attention, along with public health education and medical care of patients: this in addition to the established worth of means for promoting environmental sanitation. The several features of the suggested programme are within four broad divisions: preventive measures; control of patients, contacts and the immediate environment; measures specifically useful in epidemics; and international measures conducive to broad restriction of the syndrome. PMID:14230891

  8. Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslam, R; Abdollahi, Z; Haghighi, F N

    2004-11-01

    Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health--and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals.

  9. Information technology for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bukachi, Frederick; Pakenham-Walsh, Neil

    2007-11-01

    Poverty has deepened the crisis in health-care delivery in developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, which is a region facing a disease burden that is unmatched in the world. Whether access to proven and powerful information and communication technologies (ICTs) can improve health indicators is an ongoing debate. However, this brief review shows that in the last decade there has been significant growth in Internet access in urban areas; health-care workers now use it for communication, access to relevant health-care information, and international collaboration. The central message learned during this period about the application of ICTs is that infrastructural and cultural contexts vary and require different models and approaches. Thus, to harness the full potential of ICTs to the benefit of health systems, health workers, and patients will demand an intricate mix of old and new technologies.

  10. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.

  11. Supplement to energy for rural development: Renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The publication energy for rural development: renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries, which presented information on a variety of subjects, including direct uses of solar energy (heating, cooling, distillation, crop drying, photovoltaics), indirect uses of solar energy (wind power, hydropower, photosynthesis, biomass), geothermal energy, and energy storage is reviewed. New technologies developed and advances made in technologies are discussed.

  12. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Prem

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity. PMID:19232117

  13. Engaging Students in Water Resources Issues in Developing Countries (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J.; Lutz, A.

    2010-12-01

    When all is said and done, what does it mean to work in the developing world? The need for access to clean water and sanitation and the desire to end poverty and disease cannot be disputed. But as engineers and physical scientists, we often step into a scenario with a problem-identification-and-solving approach. However, to successfully apply engineering and science in developing countries, we should also consider questions such as: how the problems have come to be; have our approaches been appropriate; and what have the effects of projects been on local populations? A short course to help us better address critical needs begins with readings that cover the history of development, development theories, review of “players” in development, case studies, and possibilities on the road ahead. It is also important to include key guest speakers with experience in developing countries as part of an international course curriculum. Within this overall course context, discussion of case studies provides an opportunity to critically assess positive, negative, and a combination of outcomes for communities. These case studies are building blocks for solving some of the most important water and sanitation issues in developing countries.

  14. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  15. Child development in developing countries: introduction and methods.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and violence, and the home environment. They address 2 common questions: How do developing and underresearched countries in the world vary with respect to these central indicators of children's development? How do key indicators of national development relate to child development in each of these substantive areas? The Special Section concludes with policy implications from the international findings.

  16. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and violence, and the home environment addressing two common questions: How do developing and underresearched countries in the world vary with respect to these central indicators of children's development? and How do key indicators of national development relate to child development in each of these substantive areas? The Special Section concludes with policy implications from the international findings. PMID:22277004

  17. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  18. Synchrotron Light Sources in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman; Pianetta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    The more than 50 light sources now in operation around the world include facilities in Brazil, Korea, and Taiwan which started their programs in the 1980's when they were developing countries. They came on line in the 1990's and have since trained hundreds of graduate students locally, without sending them abroad and losing many of them. They have also attracted dozens of mid-career diaspora scientists to return. Their growing user communities have demanded more advanced facilities, leading to the funding of higher performance new light sources that are now coming into operation. Light sources in the developing world now include the following: SESAME in the Middle East which is scheduled to start research in 2017 (www.sesame.org); The African Light Source, in the planning stage (www.africanlightsource.org); and The Mexican Light Source, in the planning stage (http://www.aps.org/units/fip/newsletters/201509/mexico.cfm). See: http://wpj.sagepub.com/content/32/4/92.full.pdf +html; http://www.lightsources.org/press-release/2015/11/20/grenoble-resolutions-mark-historical-step-towards-african-light-source. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  19. Dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ochola, Sophie; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

    2014-01-01

    School age and adolescence is a dynamic period of growth and development forming a strong foundation for good health and productive adult life. Appropriate dietary intake is critical for forming good eating habits and provides the much needed nutrients for growth, long-term health, cognition and educational achievements. A large proportion of the population globally is in the school age or adolescence, with more than three quarters of these groups living in developing countries. An up-to-date review and discussion of the dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is suitable to provide recent data on patterns of dietary intake, adequacy of nutrient intake and their implications for public health and nutrition issues of concern. This review is based on literature published from 2000 to 2014 on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents aged 6-19 years. A total of 50 studies from 42 countries reporting on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents were included. The dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is limited in diversity, mainly comprising plant-based food sources, but with limited intake of fruits and vegetables. There is a low energy intake and insufficient micronutrient intake. At the same time, the available data indicate an emerging trend of consumption of high-energy snacks and beverages, particularly in urban areas. The existence of a negative and positive energy balance in the same population points to the dual burden of malnutrition and highlights the emerging nutrition transition in developing countries. This observation is important for planning public health nutrition approaches that address the concerns of the two ends of the nutrition divide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Subtyping Social Anxiety Disorder in Developed and Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Lee, Sing; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena S.G.; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Karam, Elie G; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Browne, Mark Oakley; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is classified in DSM-IV into generalized and non-generalized subtypes, community surveys in Western countries find no evidence of disjunctions in the dose-response relationship between number of social fears and outcomes to support this distinction. We aimed to determine whether this holds across a broader set of developed and developing countries and whether subtyping according to number of performance versus interactional fears would be more useful. METHODS The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative undertook population epidemiological surveys in 11 developing and 9 developed countries using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess DSM-IV disorders. Fourteen performance and interactional fears were assessed. Associations between number of social fears in SAD and numerous outcomes (age-of-onset, persistence, severity, comorbidity, treatment) were examined. Additional analyses examined associations with number of performance fears versus number of interactional fears. RESULTS Lifetime social fears are quite common in both developed (15.9%) and developing (14.3%) countries, but lifetime SAD is much more common in the former (6.1%) than latter (2.1%) countries. Among those with SAD, persistence, severity, comorbidity, and treatment all have dose-response relationships with number of social fears, with no clear nonlinearity in relationships that would support a distinction between generalized and non-generalized SAD. The distinction between performance fears and interactional fears is generally not important in predicting these same outcomes. CONCLUSION No evidence is found to support subtyping SAD on the basis of either number of social fears or number of performance fears versus number of interactional fears. PMID:20037919

  1. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  2. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  3. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  4. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  5. Bringing diagnostics to developing countries: an interview with Rosanna Peeling.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Professor Rosanna Peeling, PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Professor Rosanna Peeling is Chair of Diagnostic Research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK) and founded the International Diagnostics Centre at the institution. Professor Peeling previously worked for the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, and continues to work on innovations for molecular diagnostics for point-of-care use in developing countries, addressing challenges posed by lack of funding and resources, regulatory issues and under-developed healthcare systems in these locations. Here, she discusses her career, recent progress in the field and how connectivity will affect global healthcare.

  6. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  7. 48 CFR 25.404 - Least developed countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Least developed countries... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.404 Least developed countries. For acquisitions covered by the WTO GPA, least developed country end products, construction material, and services must...

  8. DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an invited discussion of three invited papers on statistical disclosure limitation from the Second International Conference on Establishment Surveys, Buffalo, NY, June 2000. The three papers in this session deal with computing, estimates, and computing estimates in the c...

  9. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  10. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  11. Women in developing countries and benefit sharing.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castillo, Fatima; Feinholz, Dafna

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that any process of benefit sharing that does not guarantee the representation and participation of women in the decision-making process, as well as in the distribution of benefits, contravenes a central demand of social justice. It is argued that women, particularly in developing countries, can be excluded from benefits derived from genetic research because of existing social structures that promote and maintain discrimination. The paper describes how the structural problem of gender-based inequity can impact on benefit sharing processes. At the same time, examples are given of poor women's ability to organise themselves and to achieve social benefits for entire communities. Relevant international guidelines (e.g. the Convention on Biodiversity) recognise the importance of women's contributions to the protection of biodiversity and thereby, implicitly, their right to a share of the benefits, but no mechanism is outlined on how to bring this about. The authors make a clear recommendation to ensure women's participation in benefit sharing negotiations by demanding seats at the negotiation table.

  12. Transfer of regulatory toxicology from developed to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Salinas, J A

    1988-12-01

    Over the past two decades, industrialized nations have addressed and attempted to solve the problems of chemical risk through the development of laws, government and private organizations, and specialized manpower. Developing nations are now recognizing that the presence of toxicants in the environment, foods, consumer products, and the workplace can seriously affect human health, the ecology, international relations, and economic activities such as trade and tourism. The design and implementation of regulatory programs in developing countries is hampered by lack of government and public concern, pressure of more urgent needs, vested interests of industry, and lack of adequately trained professionals. These factors have allowed developed nations to sell abroad drugs, pesticides, and other chemicals considered too hazardous for use in their own countries. Conversely, products from developing nations must comply with rigorous standards for acceptance by developed nations. Some of these problems would be lessened by agreement on international chemical control guidelines. Multilateral availability of complete information about chemicals is essential. The coordination of this effort should be in the hands of international organizations and reinforced by bilateral agreements between countries. Appropriate public education and economic incentives at the national level would help in enforcing regulatory toxicology.

  13. Multilingualism and Educational Development: (The Fate of the Child in a Developing Country).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Sybil L.

    Noting that reading development is a crucial factor in breaking down social, intellectual, and political barriers, this paper uses Nigeria as an example of a developing multilingual country in order to examine the problems and challenges that learners and educators in multilingual societies face. The discussion is focused on children at the…

  14. Libraries, Literacy and Development: Combined Libraries as an Option for Developing Countries: A Brief Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    Argues that combining public and school libraries may overcome the scarcity that slows library development in third world countries. The relationship between libraries and development, factors contributing to successful combined libraries, and the ability of libraries to support literacy efforts are discussed. (Contains 29 references.) (KRN)

  15. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Coastal resource development and management needs of developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The coastal regions of the large proportion of developing countries that border on oceans and seas include many of those countries' major population centers. In fact, well over 50% of the world's people live either at the coasts or in adjacent coastal lowlands areas. Coastal lands and waters also comprise substantial quantities of the nations' agricultural, mineral and living resources, so that the coastal degradation problems such as erosion, decreased water quality, and the destruction of living resources are issues of major concern. The types of technical assistance in the development and management of coastal resources that the United States might best provide in the context of national programs to encourage and assist international development are evaluated.

  17. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  18. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  19. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  20. Using the ISS for Capacity Building in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiong, E.

    In 2010, it was agreed by partner nations, that the life of the International Space Station (ISS) be extended to at least 2020. This is to enable more utilization of the resources, both human and material, that have being invested in the building of the space station. Also, there is discussion for the participation of other nations in the utilization of the facility. This is in line with the Human Space Technology Initiative being developed by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). This paper outlines the opportunities available for developing countries in the ISS. It shows the benefits of participation in the project. Such participation also comes with challenges for both existing partners and new entrants. The paper also shows how such partnership with existing partners can be worked out and other strategies for developing countries. The ISS is useful for space education, outreach and awareness. It contributes to scientific research and capacity building. It is also a medium for international cooperation and world peace. In the long-run, the extension of the life of the ISS and the inclusion of new partners, especially from developing countries, is for the benefit of humanity.

  1. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  2. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  3. Illustrative Statistics on Women in Selected Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimer, Thomas; Bachu, Amara

    Data pertaining to some basic aspects of women's participation in selected developing countries are presented in 13 charts, arranged alphabetically by region and country within region. Countries in each of the three major developing regions--Africa, Asia, and Latin America--are included when possible. Each chart presents data for a single topic in…

  4. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  5. Intra-family distribution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Behrman, J R

    1994-01-01

    Intra-household allocations are important in the determination of time use, human resource investments, and intra- and inter-generation of transfers in developing countries. During the 1980s through the mid-1990s there has been substantial progress in modeling intra-household allocations despite data limitations regarding the nature of the allocation of unobserved variables and the impact of unobserved heterogeneous endowments. The economic models of intra-household allocations include the pure parental altruism models with unified preferences, and within this the wealth model, which states that parents are concerned with each child's total wealth, but are not concerned with the sources of wealth. The next model is the separable earnings-transfers (SET) model, in which the parental welfare function is separable between their children's distribution of income from labor earnings and their children's distribution of income from physical and financial transfers received from their parents. The wealth model and the SET model have implications for identifying returns to schooling as well as implications for the interpretation of schooling as child quality. Models of qualified parental altruism include the rotten kid theorem, which states that variations in parental transfers to selfish children force such children to consider their parents' interests, as each beneficiary maximizes the total family income available to the altruistic benefactor. Under the strategic bequest or exchange model the parents influence the behavior of their children by holding wealth in bequeathable form. Collective models of household behavior, which focus on decisions between husbands and wives, include Nash bargaining models of intra-household allocations, which generalize the comparative statics of a unified preference constrained maximization. The Pareto-efficient collective household models assume that allocations are Pareto-efficient without assuming any explicit solution process.

  6. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  7. Trends in medical education, an example from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Fatemeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ziaee, Syed Amir Mohsen

    2011-03-01

    Iran is presently designing a long-term plan for promoting science, technology and innovation in medicine. An important part of this plan will be a strategy for future planning for medical education considering the important trends affecting the future of health status and medical education in Iran. Here, we sought to clarify such trends in Iran and compare them to trends reported for similar developing countries. For this qualitative study, the opinions of stakeholders and experts were obtained during three focus group discussions, each lasting four hours and including 10 - 12 participants (132 total man-hours). Data were collected using audiotapes, which were then transcribed. Interim analysis was used for member checking and triangulated data from other recent studies were used to increase the trustworthiness of findings. Participants identified the following trends as affecting the health system and medical education in Iran: aging of the population; epidemiologic transition; changes in patients' expectations of health services; increases in the popularity of alternative and traditional Iranian medicine; growth in information and communication technologies; changes in the roles of tutors; new emphasis on basic sciences and new and interdisciplinary fields; increases in the emphasis on research and scientific production; loss of educated persons to other countries (e.g., brain drain); and new advances in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies. The circumstances and future of a given community's health should be kept in mind when policymakers plan for changes in medical education. The present study found that trends affecting healthcare and medical education in Iran are similar to those in other countries (even developed countries), suggesting that Iranian policymakers could potentially adopt the policies and strategies that have proven useful in other countries when planning for medical education.  

  8. Implementing a skillslab training program in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trung Quang; Scherpbier, Albert; van Dalen, Jan; van Do, Dung; Wright, E Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Eight skills laboratories (skillslabs) were established by consensus of Vietnamese medical universities, with international support. A national list of basic skills needed for medical practice and suitable for skillslab training was developed; models, medical and teaching equipment were supplied; learning material was developed and core staff and teachers were trained. This study was designed to assess how closely eight schools in Vietnam came to implementing all recommended skills on list developed by educators of that country, and identify the facilitating factors and barriers to skillslab use within the country's largest school. Data were collected from reports from the eight skillslabs. Students and trainers from the largest university were surveyed for their perceptions of the quality of training on eight selected skills. Results of students' skill assessments were gathered, and focus group discussions with trainers were conducted. SPSS 16 was used to analyze the quantitative data and cluster analysis was used to test for differences. Only one medical school was able to train all 56 basic skills proposed by consensus among the eight Vietnamese medical universities. Deeper exploration within the largest school revealed that its skillslab training was successful for most skills, according to students' postprogram skills assessment and to students' and trainers' perceptions. However, through focus group discussions we learned that the quantity of training aids was perceived to be insufficient; some models/manikins were inappropriate for training; more consideration was needed in framing the expected requirements of students within each skill; too little time was allocated for the training of one of the eight skills investigated; and further curriculum development is needed to better integrate the skills training program into the broader curriculum. The fact that one medical school could teach all skills recommended for skillslab training demonstrates that all

  9. Realizing the potential of accessible ICTs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Samant, Deepti; Matter, Rebecca; Harniss, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To raise the awareness of policy makers, economic development practitioners, and service providers about the importance of making information and communication technology (ICT) based international economic development in low- and middle-income countries inclusive of people with disabilities and to discuss the role and importance of addressing the complete ICT and assistive technology (AT) ecosystem to ensure sustainable, scalable, and affordable access to ICTs and ICT-based programs. This commentary piece draws upon recent literature and practice cases to examine the role of accessible ICTs in international development. Accessible ICTs can enhance economic participation and prevent exclusion from participation in international development programs. Access to and use of accessible technologies are largely determined by the ecosystem in which they exist and can be enhanced or hindered by government policy and legislation and the quality of the service delivery systems and financing mechanisms. People with disabilities in developing countries face daunting barriers to socioeconomic participation. Accessible ICTs can eliminate or mitigate some of these barriers. However, technology advancements do not solely promote penetration, affordability, or scalability of ICT-based development for persons with disabilities. A comprehensive ecosystem approach can help in developing sustainable mechanisms for access, affordability, and availability.

  10. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S. A. Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  11. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  12. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  13. Teacher Labor Markets in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries--an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly,…

  14. Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Barry N.

    1986-01-01

    There are only three durable solutions to the refugee problem--voluntary repatriation, local settlement, and third-country resettlement--and all depend on political will, diplomacy, and statesmanship. It is important to remember, however, that humanitarian concerns must outweigh costs consciousness when durable solutions are sought. (Author/GC)

  15. Childhood cancers: challenges and strategies for management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chirdan, Lohfa B; Bode-Thomas, Fidelia; Chirdan, Oluwabunmi O

    2009-01-01

    The developing countries bear the greatest burden of childhood cancers as over 90% of the world's children live in these countries. Childhood cancer in most instances is curable, but many children die from cancer because most children live in developing countries without access to adequate treatment due to high cost of treatment and poor organization in these countries. Initiatives to increase cancer care in developing countries would therefore include establishment of standard cancer care centres, manpower training, establishment of standardized management protocols, procurements of standard drugs and collaboration with international organizations.

  16. Indoor air pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, B H; Hong, C J; Pandey, M R; Smith, K R

    1990-01-01

    Of the four principal categories of indoor pollution (combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals), research in developing countries has focused on combustion-generated pollutants, and principally those from solid-fuel-fired cooking and heating stoves. Such stoves are used in more than half the world's households and have been shown in many locations to produce high indoor concentrations of particulates, carbon monoxide and other combustion-related pollutants. Although the proportion of all such household stoves that are used in poorly ventilated situations is uncertain, the total population exposed to excessive concentrations is potentially high, probably several hundred million. A number of studies were carried out in the 1980s to discover the health effects of such stove exposures. The majority of such studies were done in South Asia in homes burning biomass fuels or in China with coal-burning homes, although a sprinkling of studies examining biomass-burning have been done in Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Of the health effects that might be expected from such exposures, little, if any, work seems to have been done on low birthweight and eye problems, although there are anecdotal accounts making the connection. Decreased lung function has been noted in Nepali women reporting more time spent near the stove as it has for Chinese women using coal stoves as compared to those using gas stoves. Respiratory distress symptoms have been associated with use of smoky fuels in West India, Ladakh and in several Chinese studies among different age groups, some with large population samples. Acute respiratory infection in children, one of the chief causes of infant and childhood mortality, has been associated with Nepali household-smoke exposures. Studies of chronic disease endpoints are difficult because of the need to construct exposure histories over long periods. Nevertheless, chronic obstructive lung disease has been associated with the daily time spent near

  17. Can Lifelong Learning Be the Post-2015 Agenda for the Least Developed Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses what approaches to "lifelong learning" should guide the post-2015 education agenda for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) which refers to a group of 49 countries that are off-track in achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All goals. Reports prepared by major consultation…

  18. Can Lifelong Learning Be the Post-2015 Agenda for the Least Developed Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses what approaches to "lifelong learning" should guide the post-2015 education agenda for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) which refers to a group of 49 countries that are off-track in achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All goals. Reports prepared by major consultation…

  19. New Markets for Meeting Old Needs: U.S. Distance Education and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Winthrop

    This paper analyzes the broad context and covers practical applications for delivering distance education in countries of the developing world. It begins by examining market trends in global higher education and continues by reviewing existing distance education activity in developing countries. This is followed by a discussion of the…

  20. The Uses of Satellites for Educational Television in Developing Countries; Report on the Munich Conference 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Paul, Ed.; Hagemeister, Rosemarie, Ed.

    The first section of these conference proceedings consists of a position paper on the use of satellites for educational television (ETV) in developing countries. It outlines the nature of the educational crisis facing developing countries, offers a theory of ETV, reviews some of its prospects and problems, discusses the relevance of other…

  1. Preliminary working paper: satellite power system and lesser developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, T.E.; Ventry, L.T.; DuBois, C.; Dhanda, R.

    1980-02-03

    The objective of this report is to screen selected countries that, by geographical location, might be appropriate sites for the rectenna system and for which technical, environmental, social, demographic, political, and economic factors make a Satellite Power System (SPS) project appear possible. The study focused on countries that are referred to as Lesser Developed Countries (LDCs). Of 130 countries, sovereignties, and dependencies classified by the United Nations as less developed, thirteen countries were selected for study. The countries in the Americas are Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil. On the African continent, the countries are Algeria, Senegal, Gambia, Zaire, and Kenya. The countries in Asia and Oceania are The People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, and Indonesia. Certain general conclusions can be drawn from this study. Countries that might be able to support or contribute to SPS are the established, major energy exporters. The consumption of countries that export some energy virtually matches production. They may be able to pay for SPS in the years 2000 or 2025, but increased economic development and diversification of exports will need to be implemented first. Finally, those countries that import energy do not have an economic base by which they could support SPS unaided, but require energy. All thirteen nations could benefit from SPS. SPS could prove invaluable to these countries with sensitive economies. The added electrical energy could bolster their economies and provide for increased development so that the nations could suppport or contribute to SPS.

  2. Inclusion Education and the Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Gholam

    2005-01-01

    Following the trends of "Inclusion" movement in the USA and some Western countries, a number of Developing countries have been imbued with the philosophy of inclusion education. Some of these countries have enacted laws to safeguard the educational rights and welfare of children with disabilities, and others have been trying to initiate…

  3. Creating World-Class Universities: Implications for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are now creating world-class universities (WCUs) as essential parts of their higher education reform agendas, and as national goals. It is legitimate to ask whether every country that aspires to build a WCU can do so--especially developing countries. To answer this question, this paper provides a three-step framework. The first step…

  4. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  5. Basic considerations in development cooperation: the application of remote sensing in developing and newly industrialized countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itten, K. I.; Specter, C. N.; Sausen, T. M.

    Questions of principle concerning applications of remote sensing technology in developing, newly industrialized, and industrialized countries are discussed in terms of such problems as scale, accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The paper concludes that successful technology transfer and applications must be based on true cooperation between local and expatriate experts. Only in this way can the promise of remote sensing be realized.

  6. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and malnutrition in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inderpaul S; Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disorder characterized by progressive, poorly reversible airflow limitation. In addition to its pulmonary manifestations, COPD is also associated with several systemic expressions including anemia, osteoporosis, coronary artery disease, and malnutrition. In COPD, malnutrition is a consequence of reduced nutritional intake and muscle loss, further compounded by systemic inflammation. In the developing world, malnutrition is a significant problem by itself, even without any systemic illness. It is likely that the occurrence and consequence of malnutrition in COPD may be even more profound in developing countries. In this review, we discuss the relationship between malnutrition and COPD and their overall impact in the developing world. COPD is highly prevalent in developing countries with an estimated 15-43 million patients suffering from COPD. The pooled prevalence of malnutrition in COPD was found to be 47.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23.5-71.5%] with the prevalence being higher in acute exacerbations of COPD compared to stable COPD. There is a need for generating good quality evidence from the developing world regarding the prevalence of malnutrition in COPD, the role of nutritional supplementation and its impact on exercise capacity, and overall health-related quality of life in patients with COPD.

  8. [Illiteracy and reproductiveness in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Kowaleski, J T

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between illiteracy and fertility in countries of the 3rd World, primarily those of Africa and Asia, is examined. In African countries with a large number of adult illiterates (from 50 to 90%), total fertility rates have increased, e.g. Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Burundi, Guinea Bissau, Benin, Mali, and Somalia. On the other hand, rates have decreased in Algeria, Egypt, Cape Verde, Togo, and Morocco. It should be noted that illiteracy in the latter group is mostly in the 50-60% bracket. In all other African countries, rates have changed only slightly, up or down, or stabilized. It was found that these changes could be the result of increased literacy only to a minor degree. Any effects which improved education might have on the reproduction rate are manifested only with a certain time lag. It was observed that illiteracy as a large scale phenomenon leads to stabilization of the birth rate. It is in Asia that the link between birth rate and number of illiterates is most pronounced, while in Africa the birth rate is dictated more by moral and cultural factors, including religion. Most governments in both regions consider birth rates too high and unsatisfactory from the standpoint of their effect on the future demographic situation and economically in terms of an excessive increase in the size of the labor force relative to employment opportunity and limitation on economic growth.

  9. Emergency preparedness and public health systems lessons for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2008-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries, where emerging diseases often make their debut, are also likely to bear the harshest consequences of a potential influenza pandemic. Yet public health systems in developing countries are underfunded, understaffed, and in many cases struggling to deal with the existing burden of disease. As a result, developed countries are beginning to expand assistance for emergency preparedness to the developing world. Given developing countries' weak infrastructure and many competing public health priorities, it is not clear how to best direct these resources. Evidence from the U.S. and other developed countries suggests that some investments in bioterror and pandemic emergency preparedness, although initially implemented as vertical programs, have the potential to strengthen the general public health infrastructure. This experience may hold some lessons for how global funds for emergency preparedness could be invested in developing countries to support struggling public health systems in responding to current health priorities as well as potential future public health threats.

  10. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  11. ISODEX: An entry point for developing countries into space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Several threads current in the community of international space actors have led to calls at UN COPUOS Scientific & Technical Sub-Committee meetings for enhancing the scientific information available on man-made space objects, whilst fostering international space object data sharing. Growing awareness of the problems of space debris proliferation and space traffic management, especially amongst developing countries and non-traditional space faring nations, have fueled their desires to become involved in the areas of space object tracking, utilizing relatively modest astronomical instrumentation. Additionally, several commercial satellite operators, members of the Satellite Data Association, have called for augmentation of the information available from existing catalogs. This confluence of factors has led to an international discussion, at the UN and elsewhere, of the possibility of creating a clearing-house for parties willing to share data on space objects, with a working title of the “International Space Object Data Exchange” (ISODEX). We discuss the ideas behind this concept, how it might be implemented, and it might enhance the public’s knowledge of space activities, as well as providing an entry point into space for developing countries.

  12. Can Norms Developed in One Country Be Applicable to Children of Another Country?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim this study was to investigate whether a gross motor proficiency norm developed in one country could be applied to young children in another country. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the gross motor proficiency of Hong Kong preschoolers aged five years. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) (subtests…

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Richens, J

    1994-08-01

    The populations of developing countries have younger age structures than the populations of more developed, Western countries. That is, children, adolescents, and youth constitute a far greater proportion of the populations of developing countries than in developed countries. These young people experiment with sex and sexual intercourse or have coitus on a regular basis depending upon their individual personalities and circumstances. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among younger age groups in developing countries is not well documented. It may, however, be inferred on the basis of reported experience of STD in surveys of adolescents and young adults that many children are infected with STDs. Some young people have sex consensually, some are coaxed into it, and others are coerced. On the one hand, young children have been thought to contract STD by sitting on the laps of infected, scantily-clad adults where such limited attire is the norm. Close contact between youngsters such as communal sleeping, for example, could then facilitate the spread of the STD among children. Sex, consensual or otherwise, is not involved in such infection and transmission beyond the index adult. On the other hand, however, many children and adolescents are forced to have sexual relations and/or intercourse either directly against their will or as a result of the primal need to ensure their individual survival. For example, there are an estimated 100-200 million street children worldwide; many have little alternative but to sell sex to survive. When having sex, they may not use condoms because they are unaware of the STD risk they face, they have no access to free condoms, clients/employers/peers prevent them from using condoms, or due to a myriad of other reasons. Struggling to survive, many such kids place condom use very low on their list of priorities. Children and adolescents can also become infected and transmit STDs to others by engaging in sexual intercourse

  14. A developing country perspective on implementing sustainable energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ul Haq, Z.; James, J.A.; Kamal, S.

    1997-12-31

    Bangladesh is a developing country faced with many challenges such as high population growth rate, low literacy levels, and poverty. One of its most difficult tasks is providing the infrastructure necessary to sustain a growing population with a finite resource base. There is a need to develop a long term energy strategy that relies on sustainable resources while reducing environmental harm. Solar energy has the potential to meet these requirements and presents a highly attractive energy source for Bangladesh. Bangladesh is fortunate enough to have a significant amount of solar irradiance. A number of projects have been started in Bangladesh to exploit renewable energy resources. This paper will highlight the current status of these projects. Major interest and activity is directed towards development of photovoltaic and wind resources. The market for renewable technologies is vast in Bangladesh where a significant portion of the population is off-grid and in need of energy. Although this is not an affluent market technology costs have come down sufficiently such that it is becoming accessible to rural populations with credit schemes. While developing sustainable energy is a worthwhile goal and much encouraged by donor agencies, Bangladesh`s perspective on attempting to develop this sector suggests that it is not an easy road to follow, due to numerous internal and external barriers. A discussion of the barriers to the commercialization of renewables will be included in this paper. The objective of this paper is to shed some light on these issues and to stimulate discussions on how to overcome the barriers and encourage the dissemination of renewables in developing countries.

  15. [The informed consent in international clinical trials including developing countries].

    PubMed

    Montenegro Surís, Alexander; Monreal Agüero, Magda Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The informed consent procedure has been one of the most important controversies of ethical debates about clinical trials in developing countries. In this essay we present our recommendations about important aspects to consider in the informed consent procedure for clinical trials in developing countries. We performed a full publications review identified by MEDLINE using these terms combinations: informed consent, developing countries, less developed countries and clinical trials. To protect volunteers in less developed countries should be valuated the importance of the community in the informed consent proceeding. The signing and dating of the informed consent form is not always the best procedure to document the informed consent. The informed consent form should be written by local translators. Alternative medias of communications could be needed for communicatios of the information to volunteers. Comparing with developed countries the informed consent proceeding in clinical trials in developing countries frequently require additional efforts. The developing of pragmatic researches is needed to implement informed consent proceedings assuring subjects voluntarily in each developing country. The main aspects to define in each clinical trial for each country are the influence of the community, the effective communication of the information, the documentation of the informed consent and local authority's control.

  16. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  17. Rational development of guidelines for management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C; Obiero, Christina W; Berkley, James A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the rational development of guidelines for the management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries. Recent findings Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis with high specificity remains challenging in developing countries. Aetiology data, particularly from rural, community based studies are very limited, but molecular tests to improve diagnostics are being tested in a community-based study in South Asia. Antibiotic susceptibility data are limited, but suggest reducing susceptibility to first and second line antibiotics in both hospital and community acquired neonatal sepsis. Results of clinical trials in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessing feasibility of simplified antibiotic regimens are awaited. Summary Effective management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries is essential to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Simplified antibiotic regimens are currently being examined in clinical trials, but reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens current empiric treatment strategies. Improved clinical and microbiological surveillance is essential, to inform current practice, treatment guidelines, and monitor implementation of policy changes. PMID:25887615

  18. Rational development of guidelines for management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Seale, Anna C; Obiero, Christina W; Berkley, James A

    2015-06-01

    This review discusses the rational development of guidelines for the management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis with high specificity remains challenging in developing countries. Aetiology data, particularly from rural, community-based studies, are very limited, but molecular tests to improve diagnostics are being tested in a community-based study in South Asia. Antibiotic susceptibility data are limited, but suggest reducing susceptibility to first-and second-line antibiotics in both hospital and community-acquired neonatal sepsis. Results of clinical trials in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessing feasibility of simplified antibiotic regimens are awaited. Effective management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries is essential to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Simplified antibiotic regimens are currently being examined in clinical trials, but reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens current empiric treatment strategies. Improved clinical and microbiological surveillance is essential, to inform current practice, treatment guidelines, and monitor implementation of policy changes.

  19. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level.

  20. National policies and national experts. Basic requirements in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stocking, B; Smith, C E

    1981-01-17

    Developing countries are going to have to formulate their own development policies and establish their own core of national expertise on which they can draw. It is more appropriate that the policies spring from the needs and conditions of the country itself than from the direction of any donor country or agency. Self-reliance rather than self-sufficiency is what is being emphasized. Many of these developing countries are going to need international aid for their development programs for years to come. The programs derived from the needs of the country will have a greater chance to succeed, since they will be drawn in conjuncton with local customs, historical traditions, and ecological conditions. The national experts can be assembled in a scientific council, functioning across departmental lines. Each country will have to formulate policies which will enhance their experts' sense of job satisfaction and guard against the phenomenon of "brain drain."

  1. Reaching more children with vaccines in developing countries: key challenges of innovation and delivery.

    PubMed

    Popova, Olga; Ibarra de Palacios, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    As we reach the deadline for the United Nations fourth Millennium Development Goal to reduce child mortality, many inequalities in vaccine access still exist, particularly for children in developing countries. Here we discuss some of the barriers to vaccine access in these countries, as well as some of the innovative approaches that could address these. Finally, we discuss the need to create a global environment conducive to innovation directed at low-resource settings, aimed to ultimately increase vaccine coverage.

  2. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  3. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  4. Evaluation of grid connected rural electrification projects in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Siyambalapitiya, D.J.T.; Rajapakse, S.T.K. ); de Mel, S.J.S.; Fernando, S.I.T.; Perera, B.L.P.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Extension of the power grid to rural and remote locations in a country has to be considered after detailed evaluation of technical, economic and social implications. The paper presents the application of conventional economic analytical techniques to evaluate proposed rural distribution systems in an oil-importing developing country environment. The parameters involved in the analyses are described in detail. Case studies are presented from a typical developing country. Revalidation of such evaluations incorporating socio-economic analysis is introduced.

  5. [Road traffic injuries in developing countries: research and action agenda].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Min; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Miranda, J Jaime; Hyder, Adnan A

    2010-06-01

    Road traffic injury (RTI) is the leading cause of death in persons aged 10-24 worldwide and accounts for about 15% of all male deaths. The burden of RTI is unevenly distributed amongst countries with over eighty-fold differences between the highest and lowest death rates. Thus the unequal risk of RTI occurring in the developing world, due to many reasons, including but not limited to rapid motorization and poor infrastructure, is a major global challenge. This editorial highlights a number of key issues that must inform programs designed to prevent RTI in the developing world, where the epidemic is all the more insidious. Firstly, road safety is a development issue; secondly, road traffic injury is a major health issue; thirdly, road traffic injuries can be prevented by the implementation of scientific measures; fourth, pre-hospital and hospital emergency care is needed; and fifth, research on RTI is neglected in low-income and middle-income countries. The repercussion of such progress to Peru is also discussed.

  6. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    PubMed

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products.

  7. Improving access to psychological treatments: lessons from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Chowdhary, Neerja; Rahman, Atif; Verdeli, Helen

    2011-09-01

    Even though psychological treatments have been advocated as treatments for a range of mental disorders by the WHO for scaling up through primary care globally, the vast majority of potential beneficiaries are unable to access these treatments. Two major barriers impede the path between evidence based treatments and improved access: the lack of skilled human resources and the acceptability of treatments across cultures. This essay synthesizes the experiences of programs which developed and evaluated psychological treatments for depression in three resource poor developing countries. These programs addressed the human resource barrier by training lay or community health workers to deliver the treatments and addressed the acceptability barrier by systematically adapting the treatment to contextual factors. All programs demonstrated significant benefits in recovery rates when compared with usual care demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach. The implications for these experiences to improving access to psychological treatments in the global context are discussed.

  8. Manufacturing costs of HPV vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Clendinen, Chaevia; Zhang, Yapei; Warburton, Rebecca N; Light, Donald W

    2016-11-21

    Nearly all of the 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 270,000 deaths occur in middle or lower income countries. Yet the two most prevalent HPV vaccines are unaffordable to most. Even prices to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, are unaffordable to graduating countries, once they lose Gavi subsidies. Merck and Glaxosmithkline (GSK) claim their prices to Gavi equal their manufacturing costs; but these costs remain undisclosed. We undertook this investigation to estimate those costs. Searches in published and commercial literature for information about the manufacturing of these vaccines. Interviews with experts in vaccine manufacturing. This detailed sensitivity analysis, based on the best available evidence, finds that after a first set of batches for affluent markets, manufacturing costs of Gardasil for developing countries range between $0.48 and $0.59 a dose, a fraction of its alleged costs of $4.50. Because volume of Cervarix is low, its per unit costs are much higher, though at comparable volumes, its costs would be similar. Given the recovery of fixed and annual costs from sales in affluent markets, Merck's break-even price to Gavi could be $0.50-$0.60, not $4.50. These savings could support Gavi programs to strengthen delivery and increase coverage. Outside Gavi, prices to lower- and middle-income countries, with profit, could also be lowered and made available to millions more adolescents at risk. These estimates and their policy implications deserve further discussion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  10. Waste biorefineries: Enabling circular economies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nizami, A S; Rehan, M; Waqas, M; Naqvi, M; Ouda, O K M; Shahzad, K; Miandad, R; Khan, M Z; Syamsiro, M; Ismail, I M I; Pant, Deepak

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification. However, the selection or integration of biorefinery technologies in any developing country should be based on its waste characterization. Waste biorefineries if developed in developing countries could provide energy generation, land savings, new businesses and consequent job creation, savings of landfills costs, GHG emissions reduction, and savings of natural resources of land, soil, and groundwater. The challenges in route to successful implementation of biorefinery concept in the developing countries are also presented using life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Progressive Education, Developing Countries, and Cultural Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This essay will discuss two educational programs to improve the living conditions of students from low income families that Pedro T. Orata conducted during the middle years of the twentieth century. The question this paper will investigate is whether Orata considered the people he was trying to help as being trapped by the conditions of poverty to…

  12. Extension in Developing Countries: An Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Irene

    1985-01-01

    This article describes one model for building direct and positive relationships between foreign extension agents and appropriate universities, what activities are involved, and how basic extension concepts are used. Discusses working through farmers' organizations, through professional organizations and agencies, and through integrated farming…

  13. Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries: Impact on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Retia Scott

    1988-01-01

    Women are the primary producers of food in developing countries and can be empowered to become catalysts in the struggle to combat world hunger. It is important to understand the problem and the barriers women face and to appreciate the progress made by women in developing countries. (JOW)

  14. Outcomes of Students with Disabilities in a Developing Country: Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sheilah M.

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, research studies that investigate the effects of special education on student outcomes have become conventional practice. However, in developing countries such as the twin-island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, there are no studies about the progress and outcomes of students and youths with disabilities. This…

  15. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  16. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  17. Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

  18. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  19. Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries: Impact on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Retia Scott

    1988-01-01

    Women are the primary producers of food in developing countries and can be empowered to become catalysts in the struggle to combat world hunger. It is important to understand the problem and the barriers women face and to appreciate the progress made by women in developing countries. (JOW)

  20. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  1. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  2. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  3. Micronutrient deficiencies in developing and affluent countries.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; de las Cagigas, A; Rodríguez, R

    2003-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, also known as 'hidden hunger', are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. Three nutritional problems that have serious consequences are deficiencies of iron, vitamin A and iodine. It is estimated that in today's world, iron deficiency anemia affects two billion people, mostly women and children. Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency affects 2.8 million children under 5 years of age. Iodine deficiency disorders affect 740 million people. Cuba is employing various programs to deal with these micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary diversification, fortification of foods and supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations are included in Cuba's response to these deficiencies. Urban agriculture is one strategy to increase dietary diversity. The aim is to increase both the availability and consumption of vegetables and fruits. Food fortification takes many forms in Cuba today and various supplementation programs are carried out. The most common supplemental program in the country is the prenatal program. This program provides four essential nutrients: iron, ascorbic acid, vitamin A and folic acid. At present, iodination covers more than 90% of the total amount of salt used for human consumption. Results of research carried out in Cuba have shown that vitamin A deficiency is nonexistent in children up to 7 y of age. Foods and preparations for these programs are delivered gratuitously or at very low prices.

  4. Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Astronomy for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2006-08-01

    This presentation will discuss some aspects of the design of undergraduate and graduate astronomy curricula, broadly defined, for developing countries. A fundamental requirement is to develop students' ability and desire to learn, both in university and beyond. I will then discuss several aspects of the curriculum: (i) The program of coursework in astronomy and related topics such as physics and mathematics; (ii) The associated practical and project work to develop skills as well as knowledge; (iii) Linking the coursework, effectively, to various aspects of research; (iv) Development of general academic and professional skills such as oral and written communication, teaching, planning and management, and the ability to function as part of an interdisciplinary team; and (v) Orientation to the culture of the university and to the science and the profession of astronomy. To accomplish all of these goals may seem daunting, especially as many of them are not achieved in the most affluent universities. But much can be achieved by recognizing that there are well-established "best practices" in education, achieved through research, reflection, and experience. Simple resources, effectively used, can be superior to the highest technology, used without careful thought. It is often best to do a few things well; "less can be more". And effective partnership, both within the local university and with the outside astronomical community, can also contribute to success.

  5. Palliative care: a public health priority in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Webster, Ruth; Lacey, Judith; Quine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Palliative care is an emerging specialist discipline worldwide with the majority of services located in developed countries. Developing countries, however, have higher incidences of cancer and AIDS and most of these patients would benefit from palliative care. While there is prominent coverage of this issue in the palliative care literature, there is limited coverage in the specialist public health literature, which suggests that the challenges of palliative care may not yet have been generally recognized as a public health priority, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this article is to introduce the topic of "Palliative care in developing countries" into the specialist public health literature to raise awareness and stimulate debate on this issue among public health professionals and health policy makers, thereby potentially facilitating establishment of palliative care services in developing countries.

  6. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  7. Environmental technologies for developing countries. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, N.R.S.

    1991-02-01

    Industrialization and economic growth in developed and developing nations alike are often achieved at the expense of the environment. Incorporating environmental considerations into overall development objectives is an emerging issue within U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). USAID has a potentially significant role in espousing sound environmental policies, sponsoring research and disseminating practical information on the feasible options, and providing technical assistance where appropriate. The paper attempts to identify and assess the relative costs of some of the currently available environmental technologies.

  8. The expanding role of co-trimoxazole in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Church, James A; Fitzgerald, Felicity; Walker, A Sarah; Gibb, Diana M; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Co-trimoxazole is an inexpensive, broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug that is widely used in developing countries. Before antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduced morbidity and mortality in adults and children with HIV by preventing bacterial infections, diarrhoea, malaria, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, despite high levels of microbial resistance. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduces early mortality by 58% (95% CI 39-71) in adults starting ART. Co-trimoxazole provides ongoing protection against malaria and non-malaria infections after immune reconstitution in ART-treated individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to a change in WHO guidelines, which now recommend long-term co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for adults and children in settings with a high prevalence of malaria or severe bacterial infections. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for HIV-exposed infants from age 4-6 weeks; however, the risks and benefits of co-trimoxazole during infancy are unclear. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduces anaemia and improves growth in children with HIV, possibly by reducing inflammation, either through direct immunomodulatory activity or through effects on the intestinal microbiota leading to reduced microbial translocation. Ongoing trials are now assessing the ability of adjunctive co-trimoxazole to reduce mortality in children after severe anaemia or severe acute malnutrition. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms of action, benefits and risks, and clinical trials of co-trimoxazole in developing countries.

  9. Pathology services in developing countries-the West African experience.

    PubMed

    Adeyi, Oyedele A

    2011-02-01

    Histopathology, like other branches of medicine in West Africa, has suffered largely from economic, political, social, and infrastructural problems, becoming a shadow of the top quality that had been obtained in the past. To address the prevailing problems, one needs to attempt defining them. The existing structure of training and practice are discussed, highlighting the author's perception of the problems and suggesting practical ways to address these while identifying potential roles for North American pathology organizations. The author's past and ongoing association with pathology practice in Nigeria forms the basis for this review. Pathology practice is largely restricted to academic medical centers. The largest of academic centers each accession around 4000 or fewer surgical specimens per year to train 9 to 12 residents. Histopathology largely uses hematoxylin-eosin routine stains, sometimes with histochemistry but rarely immunohistochemistry. Pathologists depend largely on their skills in morphology (with its limitations) to classify and subclassify tumors on routine stains, including soft tissue and hematolymphoid malignancies. Immunofluorescence, intraoperative frozen section diagnosis, electronic laboratory system, and gross and microscopic imaging facilities are generally not available for clinical use. The existing facilities and infrastructure can be augmented with provision of material and professional assistance from other pathology associations in more developed countries and should, among other things, focus on supplementing residency education. Virtual residency programs, short-visit observerships, development of simple but practical laboratory information systems, and closer ties with pathologists in these countries are some of the suggested steps in achieving this goal.

  10. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  11. Education for Development in Underdeveloped Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchus, M. Kazim

    1981-01-01

    Past "elitist" development efforts modeled on Western academic education have failed to meet manpower needs but resist change due to popular preference for "modern" occupations. A new development strategy providing universal basic education and improved general living standards is needed. (Part of a theme issue on Third World educational…

  12. Education for Rural Development: The Attempt of Many Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Nicholas

    1975-01-01

    A new system of education designed to solve problems facing rural areas in developing countries is needed. Guidelines for the rural development functional literacy systems for Upper Volta, Tanzania, China, Cuba, and Thailand are described. (BP)

  13. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed by

  14. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2004-08-05

    BACKGROUND: Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. METHODS: HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. RESULTS: The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed

  15. Establishing a harmonized haemophilia registry for countries with developing health care systems.

    PubMed

    Alzoebie, A; Belhani, M; Eshghi, P; Kupesiz, A O; Ozelo, M; Pompa, M T; Potgieter, J; Smith, M

    2013-09-01

    Over recent decades tremendous progress has been made in diagnosing and treating haemophilia and, in resource-rich countries, life expectancy of people with haemophilia (PWH) is now close to that of a healthy person. However, an estimated 70% of PWH are not diagnosed or are undertreated; the majority of whom live in countries with developing health care systems. In these countries, designated registries for people with haemophilia are often limited and comprehensive information on the natural history of the disease and treatment outcomes is lacking. Taken together, this means that planning efforts for future treatment and care of affected individuals is constrained in countries where it is most needed. Establishment of standardized national registries in these countries would be a step towards obtaining reliable sociodemographic and clinical data for an entire country. A series of consensus meetings with experts from widely differing countries with different health care systems took place to discuss concerns specific to countries with developing health care systems. As a result of these discussions, recommendations are made on parameters to include when establishing and harmonizing national registries. Such recommendations should enable countries with developing health care systems to establish standardized national haemophilia registries. Although not a primary objective, the recommendations should also help standardized data collation on an international level, enabling treatment and health care trends to be monitored across groups of countries and providing data for advocacy purposes. Greater standardization of data collation should have implications for optimizing resources for haemophilia care both nationally and internationally.

  16. The Development of Work Discussion Groups in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emil

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application and development of the work discussion method within educational settings. In the first section of the paper, I outline some key contextual factors that are important to consider when setting up work discussion groups within schools. A number of case examples are then described, illustrating a range of central…

  17. Academic Patents and Access to Medicines in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is a widespread and growing concern that patents hinder access to life-saving drugs in developing countries. Recent student movements and legislative initiatives emphasize the potential role that research universities in developed countries could have in ameliorating this “access gap.” These efforts are based on the assumption that universities own patents on a substantial number of drugs and that patents on these drugs are currently filed in developing countries. I provide empirical evidence regarding these issues and explore the feasibility and desirability of proposals to change university patenting and licensing practices to promote access to medicines in the developing world. PMID:19008514

  18. Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Morel, Carlos M; Acharya, Tara; Broun, Denis; Dangi, Ajit; Elias, Christopher; Ganguly, N K; Gardner, Charles A; Gupta, R K; Haycock, Jane; Heher, Anthony D; Hotez, Peter J; Kettler, Hannah E; Keusch, Gerald T; Krattiger, Anatole F; Kreutz, Fernando T; Lall, Sanjaya; Lee, Keun; Mahoney, Richard; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo; Mashelkar, R A; Matlin, Stephen A; Mzimba, Mandi; Oehler, Joachim; Ridley, Robert G; Senanayake, Pramilla; Singer, Peter; Yun, Mikyung

    2005-07-15

    Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation.

  19. Top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Daar, Abdallah S; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Martin, Douglas K; Smith, Alyna C; Nast, Shauna; Singer, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Most research into genomics and other related biotechnologies is concerned with the priorities of industrialized nations, and yet a limited number of projects have shown that these technologies could help improve health in developing countries. To encourage the successful application of biotechnology to global health, we carried out a study in which we asked an international group of eminent scientists with expertise in global health issues to identify the top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries. The results offer concrete guidance to those in a position to influence the direction of research and development, and challenge common assumptions about the relevance and affordability of biotechnology for developing countries.

  20. Review of environmental-health impacts in developing-country cities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Stephens, C.; Harpham, T.; Cairncross, S.

    1992-01-01

    The World Bank is currently assessing the relative health impacts of physical environmental problems in urban areas of developing countries in order better to guide its urban policy and investment decisions. As a contribution, this report reviews and summarizes available literature on health in the urban areas of developing countries. It discusses associations between health and problems of the material environment. The objectives of the report are: to produce a classification of environmental variables relevant to urban health in developing countries; to propose an analytical framework for relating environmental variables to health; to review intra-urban differentials in mortality, morbidity and causes of death in developing countries, with particular reference to vulnerable groups; to review literature that attempts to link causally urban environmental conditions to health in developing countries; and to propose future related research. (Copyright (c) 1992 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK.)

  1. Communication for extension: developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A J

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication.

  2. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.

  3. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  4. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A DISCUSSION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The first part of the report discusses the possible applications of computer based information systems in economics of development planning, with...planning, including some relevant literature in computer based modeling techniques and information systems . (Author)

  5. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  6. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  7. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  8. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  9. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  10. Caregiving in Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries [and] Caregiving among Middle and Low Income Aged in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Nelson W. S.; Kwan, Alex Y. H.

    This report consists of two papers on caregiving in Asian countries. The first, "Caregiving in Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries" by Nelson W. S. Chow, discusses the change in the caregiving pattern for the urban elderly in developing countries of East and Southeast Asia. It includes examples from studies carried out in…

  11. Developing countries: Non-nuclear energy technology. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning generation of non-nuclear energy technology developed and used by developing countries. Technical, social, economic, and commercial aspects are presented. Applications in the solar, geothermal, synfuels, ocean thermal, and wind power energy industries are discussed. Forecasts and future prospects for these energy industries in developing countries are included. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Sickle cell disease: management options and challenges in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Daniel; Akoto, Alex Osei; Ocloo, Delaena; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In a developing countries like Ghana, new-born screening is now about to be implemented on a national scale. Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on early counselling, new-born screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  13. Conduct of clinical trials in developing countries: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Singh, Kavita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2009-07-01

    To provide a broad perspective of contextual factors involved in the conduct of clinical trials in developing countries. The quantity of research in developing countries continues to be inadequate, with clinical trials comprising a small fraction of the total research output. Most trials done in developing countries tend to be designed in developed countries and led by investigators in those nations. The main challenges in the conduct of trials in developing countries stem from the vulnerability of the populations due to illiteracy, poverty, limited research infrastructure, lack of sufficient numbers of experienced investigators and trained support personnel, and fragmented healthcare system. There is a need to formulate and conduct trials to test treatments that are context-specific and socially relevant. With careful planning in advance and shared partnership among sponsors, host-country research practitioners, government agencies and the community, many of the challenges facing clinical trial research can be overcome over the medium to long term. This would enable conformity to contemporary guidelines in both letter and spirit and hopefully develop research questions addressing the needs of developing countries.

  14. Meeting the Challenge of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries face unique difficulties preparing for an influenza pandemic. Our current top-down approach will not provide these countries with adequate supplies of vaccines and antiviral agents. Consequently, they will have to use a bottom-up approach based on inexpensive generic agents that either modify the host response to influenza virus or act as antiviral agents. Several of these agents have shown promise, and many are currently produced in developing countries. Investigators must primarily identify agents for managing infection in populations and not simply seek explanations for how they work. They must determine in which countries these agents are produced and define patterns of distribution and costs. Because prepandemic research cannot establish whether these agents will be effective in a pandemic, randomized controlled trials must begin immediately after a new pandemic virus has emerged. Without this research, industrialized and developing countries could face an unprecedented health crisis. PMID:19239746

  15. The stunting syndrome in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-01-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a ‘stunting syndrome’ in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated. PMID:25310000

  16. Emergency management of disasters involving livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E; Kenyon, S J; Zepeda Sein, C A

    1999-04-01

    Different disasters have similar consequence on the health and welfare of livestock. Numerous geophysical disasters can exacerbate epizootics, resulting in the deaths of many animals and the reduction of production efficiency. These disasters also present a considerable threat of spoilage of processed foods, endangering public health. Furthermore, large-scale disasters involving animals can modify the long-term stability of national economies, the environment and social structures. The authors discuss the vulnerability of the livestock industry to natural disasters and the impact of floods, droughts and transboundary diseases and pests on national economies. Examples are given on how some losses can be avoided, evaluated and compensated. The role of the veterinarian is presented in relation to work conducted by other relief organisations in cases of emergency. In developing countries, mitigation programmes should focus on strengthening global animal health services. Preparedness needs to be community based, with education provided in a timely manner. Effective recovery from disasters should be based on mitigation programmes, including international trade and mutual aid agreements between neighbouring countries to supply appropriate goods and environmentally and culturally appropriate breeds of livestock. Disaster relief for the care of livestock should be recognised as a form of humanitarian assistance, given the benefits to be derived for public health and the socio-economic implications of successful intervention.

  17. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  18. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  19. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  20. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family/replacement donors (FRD) corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged. PMID:27011664

  1. The effects of disaster on women's reproductive health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Swatzyna, Ronald J; Pillai, Vijayan Kumara

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study is to empirically test the effects of disasters which include natural as well as human made disasters such as armed conflict on women's reproductive health in developing countries. Data from 128 developing countries are used. It was found that average number of deaths from natural disasters and armed conflict in the East Asia and Pacific region was not significantly different from the rest of the developing world. The data are examined using structural equation analysis. This study finds that 'armed conflict' in developing countries presents significant reproductive health risks. The implications are discussed.

  2. The Effects of Disaster on Women's Reproductive Health in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Swatzyna, Ronald J.; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to empirically test the effects of disasters which include natural as well as human made disasters such as armed conflict on women's reproductive health in developing countries. Data from 128 developing countries are used. It was found that average number of deaths from natural disasters and armed conflict in the East Asia and Pacific region was not significantly different from the rest of the developing world. The data are examined using structural equation analysis. This study finds that ‘armed conflict’ in developing countries presents significant reproductive health risks. The implications are discussed. PMID:23777727

  3. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  4. Advances in plant biotechnology and its adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Toenniessen, Gary H; O'Toole, John C; DeVries, Joseph

    2003-04-01

    Developing countries are already benefiting and should continue to benefit significantly from advances in plant biotechnology. Insect-protected cotton containing a natural insecticide protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton) is providing millions of farmers with increased yields, reduced insecticide costs and fewer health risks. Many other useful plant biotechnology products that can benefit poor farmers and consumers are in the research and development pipelines of institutions in developing countries, and should soon reach farmers' fields.

  5. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world’s 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries. PMID:27167738

  6. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed

    Barbier, Edward B; Hochard, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world's 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries.

  7. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Cosivi, O.; Grange, J. M.; Daborn, C. J.; Raviglione, M. C.; Fujikura, T.; Cousins, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Huchzermeyer, H. F.; de Kantor, I.; Meslin, F. X.

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable; therefore, many epidemiologic and public health aspects of infection remain largely unknown. We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. PMID:9452399

  8. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  9. Diarrhea among children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nataro, James P

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to stand among the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Although the introduction of oral rehydration and other case-management strategies have reduced acute diarrhea fatalities, many of the survivors develop persistent diarrhea and/or deficiencies of growth and cognition. Thus understanding the true global burden of diarrhea requires attention to acute diarrhea as well is its sequelae. To understand the etiology of moderate to severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia we performed a comprehensive case-control study of children under 5 years of age at seven sites. Each site employed an identical case-control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. Results of the studies will inform diarrhea prevention and management efforts worldwide.

  10. The future of transgenic plants in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Weil, A

    2001-12-01

    Whatever their own policies may be, developing countries will inevitably be affected by the development of genetically-modified organisms in industrialized countries. While maintaining a cautious attitude, most of these countries wish to keep their options open, thus protecting themselves from the risk of being deprived of future technologies that might allow them to achieve self-sufficiency in food production, to resolve certain problems confronting their most vulnerable populations and to preserve the international competitiveness of their products. Companies should see that it is in their interest to help these countries implement their own policies, notably through an open attitude to industrial property. If the value of genetic engineering is thus confirmed, then it perhaps in this manner that GMOs will earn the legitimacy required to make them acceptable to the people of Northern countries where the majority of solvent markets are located.

  11. Cross-cultural prevention program transfer: Questions regarding developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, N D; Hadiyono, J P; Latkin, C A; Padilla, J

    1995-06-01

    To prevent mental illness and promote psychological health, developing countries might learn from demonstrated successes in other countries. This exploratory qualitative project involved interviewing 27 informants knowledgeable about both the United States and selected developing countries of Asia and South America. Informants reviewed five preventive programs shown to be effective in North America and then evaluated the programs as to their applicability in the other country. In general the programs were seen as not very transferrable, and in some cases not needed. Among transfer problems identified were funding, training, cultural traditions and higher priorities for other things in impoverished countries. The primary recommendation is that prevention programs be developed in other countries based on their needs and cultural characteristics and using indigenous human resources. Such programs could be informed by general principles and evaluation procedures developed in Western prevention programs. Informants noted that there are also important things for Americans to learn from the developing countries, such as family closeness and greater acceptance and relaxation about stresses of life.

  12. Critical factors for a successful astronomical research program in a developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John B.

    I discuss the critical conditions for undertaking a successful research program in a developing country. There are many important factors, all or most of which have to be satisfied: funding, library holdings, computing access, Internet access (e-mail, WWW, ftp, telnet), collaboration with astronomers in developed countries, provision of proper offices for staff, supply of graduate students, access to travel for conferences, ability to publish in international journals, critical mass of researchers, access to a telescope (for observational astronomers), support from and interaction with national electronics, optics and precision engineering industries, a scientific culture backed by a national scientific academy, and lack of inter-institutional rivalry. I make a list of a total of 15 key factors and rank them in order of importance, and discuss the use of an astronomical research index (ARI) suitable for measuring the research potential of a given country or institution. I also discuss whether astronomers in developing countries in principle fare better in a university or in the environment of a government national observatory or research institution, and topics such as the effect of the cost of page charges and journal subscriptions on developing countries. Finally I present some statistics on astronomy in developing countries and relate the numbers of astronomers to the size of the economy and population in each country.

  13. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  14. Discussion: How Different Can Perspectives on L2 Development Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I discuss the contributions to this Special Issue of "Language Learning" on orders and sequences in second language (L2) development. Using a list of questions, I attempt to characterize what I see as the strengths, limitations, and unresolved issues in the approaches to L2 development represented in this Special Issue. I…

  15. Developing a tool for analysis of recorded appraisal discussions.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Mark; Rees, Lynne

    2011-07-01

    Appraisal in Wales is organised and quality assured through Cardiff University on behalf of the Local Health Boards. This has enabled the development of a standardised and consistent appraisal experience for GPs in Wales. Central to this is regular feedback to all GP appraisers from their line managers, their appraisal co-ordinator, about their work and especially the quality of the Form 4 document (the appraisal summary). Included is feedback about GP experience of the appraisal process, including the appraisal discussion. Presently there are no methods of directly assessing the quality of the appraisal discussion. The authors, who are both appraisal co-ordinators (ACs), have developed a method of assessing the quality of a recording of a real appraisal discussion. The information gathered from this assessment has been used in a facilitative style to feedback to the appraiser to acknowledge their skills in the appraisal discussion and to identify areas for development. This paper describes the work done to create an appraisal discussion assessment method (ADAM), and suggestions about how to use it. Using a Delphi approach, we have developed descriptors to aid formative assessment of the appraisal discussion.

  16. Epidemiological and nutrition transition in developing countries: impact on human health and development.

    PubMed

    Amuna, Paul; Zotor, Francis B

    2008-02-01

    Whereas common infectious and parasitic diseases such as malaria and the HIV/AIDS pandemic remain major unresolved health problems in many developing countries, emerging non-communicable diseases relating to diet and lifestyle have been increasing over the last two decades, thus creating a double burden of disease and impacting negatively on already over-stretched health services in these countries. Prevalence rates for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD in sub-Saharan Africa have seen a 10-fold increase in the last 20 years. In the Arab Gulf current prevalence rates are between 25 and 35% for the adult population, whilst evidence of the metabolic syndrome is emerging in children and adolescents. The present review focuses on the concept of the epidemiological and nutritional transition. It looks at historical trends in socio-economic status and lifestyle and trends in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases over the last two decades, particularly in developing countries with rising income levels, as well as the other extreme of poverty, chronic hunger and coping strategies and metabolic adaptations in fetal life that predispose to non-communicable disease risk in later life. The role of preventable environmental risk factors for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries is emphasized and also these challenges are related to meeting the millennium development goals. The possible implications of these changing trends for human and economic development in poorly-resourced healthcare settings and the implications for nutrition training are also discussed.

  17. Refractory status epilepticus: a developing country perspective.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Prashantha, D K; Thennarasu, K; Umamaheshwara Rao, G S; Satishchandra, P

    2010-03-15

    To analyse the underlying causes, therapeutic response and outcomes of convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE). This retrospective analysis was carried on 98 patients with RSE (age: 16.9+/-14.5 years). All had received a combination of parenteral benzodiazepine and phenytoin or phenobarbitone followed by other anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). The clinical, EEG, imaging features of convulsive RSE and long-term seizure outcome were analysed. Seventy six patients had de novo RSE for the first time in life. The mean duration of RSE, before and during NICU admission was 3.4+/-3.2 days and 2.9+/-2.4 days respectively. The mean duration of NICU stay and mechanical ventilation was 17.4+/-14.5 was 14.4+/-12.8 days respectively. The precipitating factors included viral fever - 13, AEDs stoppage - 7 and alcohol - 1. EEG was abnormal in 81.5% of patients. CT and MRI were abnormal in 63.4% and 82.3% respectively. Thirty-four patients died and compared to those surviving, patients were older, had lesser duration of NICU stay and elevated CSF protein. Dependence for activities of daily living (ADL) at discharge was: recovered - 29, mild to moderate - 13 and severe - 22. Seizure outcome in 64 patients after 43.5+/-58.2 weeks were - seizure-free: 65.6%, one seizure: 21.8%, >1 seizure/month: 14.1%, and seizure recurrence requiring admission: 1.5%. After six and twelve months of follow up, the long-term seizure outcome were: seizure-free: 48.3% and 28.6%; one seizure: 27.6% and 38.1%; >1 seizure/month: 20.7% and 28.6%; and seizure recurrence requiring admission: 3.4% and 4.7% respectively. Among those survived 49 de novo RSE, about one-third developed post-SE symptomatic seizures after 30.1+/-54.4 weeks. Seizures could still be controlled in two-thirds of patients with convulsive RSE. About 30% of patients achieved long-term seizure freedom.

  18. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  19. Modeling energy-sector issues of developing and industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper identifies important energy-planning issues in industrializing and developing countries based on the Argonne experience in energy-planning studies for Egypt, Korea, Portugal, Argentina, and Jamaica. Modeling approaches are reviewed for applicability to these issues.

  20. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  1. GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

  2. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  3. Mobile diabetes eye care: experience in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Krishna R; Murthy, Praveen R; Kapur, Anil; Owens, David R

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in developing countries is on the increase and along with it the need to provide structured care to avoid the feared long term complications among them loss of vision and blindness due to diabetic retinopathy (DR). The biggest hurdle facing most developing countries is the lack of resources and trained manpower to both screen and treat the large number of people with DR. Countries also face the additional problem of unequal distribution of resources between the urban and rural areas. To overcome these challenges models of mobile diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment aided by the use of telemedicine have been introduced and demonstrated to be popular and effective. The aim of this review article is to describe different mobile diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment models developed in India, which can be readily replicated in developing countries presented with similar difficulties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  5. Technology transfer to developing countries. Lessons from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Serpa-Flórez, F

    1993-01-01

    Medical technology will contribute to improving the health status of people in developing countries only when it is carefully implemented after proper planning. Providers, users, health ministry employees, and industry all share responsibility for proper planning and careful implementation.

  6. GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

  7. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  8. Globetrotting firms: Canada's health biotechnology collaborations with developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ray, Monali; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla

    2009-09-01

    A survey of Canadian biotech firms reveals that their biotech collaborations with developing countries are not only significant but also increasingly reciprocal in terms of the exchange of financial resources and technological know-how.

  9. Space Technology for Disaster Mitigation in Developing Countries--STDM Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Li, B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, countries across the world - both rich and poor - have witnessed thousands of natural disasters. While developed countries have generally the technological resources needed to respond and recover from major disasters, the effect natural disasters can have on the environment and society of less developed countries can be devastating and long-lasting. High population density in risk-prone areas, poor infrastructure and unstable landforms make developing countries especially vulnerable to natural disasters. Earth observation and technology tied to Digital Earth - a global effort to create a virtual representation of the entire planet - can reduce costs and efforts needed to monitor and mitigate natural disasters and their effects. Numerous developing countries require support to develop disaster mitigation capacity that will allow them to fully benefit from opportunities offered by these advanced technologies. CAS-TWAS Centre of Excellence on Space Technology for Disaster Mitigation (STDM) has been formally established in 2013. The goal of the Centre is to provide joint research, education, training, workshop and advisory services opportunities in developing countries, and eventually to enhance scientific and research capacities for disaster mitigation in developing countries through the use of the most advanced space technologies. In the presentation the ongoing and future activities of STDM for disaster mitigation in developing countries will be presented and discussed, focusing on the technology demands and challenges in disaster management and mitigation, and opportunities for multilateral activities.

  10. Energy and development in Central America. Volume 2: Country assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Gallagher, W.; Palmedo, P.; Doenberg, A.; Oberg, K.; Kyle, S.

    1980-03-01

    An energy assessment for each of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama is presented. The program assists the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America. The following issues are treated separately for each individual country; geographic, social and economic aspects; energy resources; current and future energy use; energy strategies.

  11. Regional anesthesia for maxillofacial surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min; Seo, Mi Hyun; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Regional anesthesia in the maxillofacial region is safer and more efficient than general anesthesia when its indications are carefully considered. In addition, the majority of medical institutions in developing countries are not well equipped for proper anesthesia and elective surgery. In this review, we describe regional anesthesia and cutaneous nerve divisions in the maxillofacial region. In addition, we summarize detailed regional anesthetic techniques adapted for representative cleft lip cases in developing countries.

  12. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  13. [On the development of health insurance in low-income countries: the case of African countries].

    PubMed

    Letourmy, Alain

    2008-12-01

    Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct spending by patients. Three phases of development can be distinguished in African countries: at first, schemes were developed only for the formal sector, then micro health insurance targeted the informal sector, and finally, health insurance was included in larger plans to reach universal coverage. The impact of health insurance is, as yet, difficult to assess. If beneficiaries have a better access to health services, the financing of health sector is not significantly improved, and there is no change in professional behaviour, in particular, in public facilities. In spite of their limits, social health insurance schemes continue to be implemented, but as a part of hybrid financing system, fitting with the abilities of low-income countries.

  14. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    subcritical. With this realization, it is suggested that there is a need for joint collaboration to undertake integrated geoscientific studies in the contiguous regions/ countries to understand the evolutionary and dynamical aspects, especially of Himalayan orogenic belt, monsoon variability and geodynamics of the Indian shield & adjoining regions. The focus of our future cooperation in geosciences education and research in developing countries of South Asia must have substantial inputs in the area of sound environmental management, climate change, natural hazards, risk evaluation, water resources, and interfacing of geological and agricultural sciences, etc. At the same time our long term activities around geological resources, particularly energy and mineral resources, need to be pursued in a synergetic mode. It is necessary to have a viable mechanism to identify areas of mutual collaboration in geosciences ( including manpower development, use of analytical instrumental facilities, IT & communication technologies ) to explore the possibility of inter-institutional linkages in Earth System Science in developing countries of South Asia. The issues related to effective international cooperation in geosciences in South Asian countries and the role of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, and scientific societies in consolidating and improving research and education have been discussed .

  15. Chronic airflow limitation in developing countries: burden and priorities.

    PubMed

    Aït-Khaled, Nadia; Enarson, Donald A; Ottmani, Salah; El Sony, Asma; Eltigani, Mai; Sepulveda, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory disease has never received priority in relation to its impact on health. Estimated DALYs lost in 2002 were 12% globally (similar for industrialized and developing countries). Chronic airflow limitation (due mainly to asthma and COPD) alone affects more than 100 million persons in the world and the majority of them live in developing countries. International guidelines for management of asthma (GINA) and COPD (GOLD) have been adopted and their cost-effectiveness demonstrated in industrialized countries. As resources are scarce in developing countries, adaptation of these guidelines using only essential drugs is required. It remains for governments to set priorities. To make these choices, a set of criteria have been proposed. It is vital that the results of scientific investigations are presented in these terms to facilitate their use by decision-makers. To respond to this emerging public health problem in developing countries, WHO has developed 2 initiatives: "Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL)" and the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)", and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (The Union) has launched a new initiative to increase affordability of essential asthma drugs for patients in developing countries termed the "Asthma Drug Facility" (ADF), which could facilitate the care of patients living in these parts of the world.

  16. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  17. Brands or generics: the dilemma of pharmaceutical marketing in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Quraeshi, Z A; Luqmani, M; Malhotra, N

    1983-01-01

    A significant issue in pharmaceutical marketing in many developing countries is whether drugs should be sold by generic or by brand names. In Pakistan, legislation prohibited the sale of brand name drugs in order to increase price competition, and strengthen the market position of indigenous manufacturers to compete against multinationals. However, the government's objectives were not achieved for reasons discussed in the article. The Pakistan case has implications for multinational firms and for other developing countries in similar situations.

  18. Function and Organization of a National Documentation Centre in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Harald

    Discussions and recommendations for developing national documentation centers (library and information services) in developing nations are provided as a result of a study conducted by the International Federation for Documentation (FID) Committee for Developing Countries (FID/DC) and commissioned by Unesco. The ten facets studied include: (1) the…

  19. Function and Organization of a National Documentation Centre in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Harald

    Discussions and recommendations for developing national documentation centers (library and information services) in developing nations are provided as a result of a study conducted by the International Federation for Documentation (FID) Committee for Developing Countries (FID/DC) and commissioned by Unesco. The ten facets studied include: (1) the…

  20. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    PubMed

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Problems of modern urban drainage in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A L L

    2002-01-01

    Socio-economic factors in developing countries make it more difficult to solve problems of urban drainage than in countries that are more advanced. Factors inhibiting the adoption of modern solutions include: (1) in matters of urban drainage, 19th-century sanitary philosophy still dominates; (2) both legal and clandestine land settlement limits the space that modern solutions require; (3) contamination of storm runoff by foul sewage, sediment and garbage prevents adoption of developed-country practices; (4) climatic and socio-economic factors favour the growth of epidemics where runoff is retained for flood-avoidance and to increase infiltration; (5) lack of a technological basis for adequate drainage management and design; (6) lack of the interaction between community and city administration that is needed to obtain modern solutions to urban drainage problems. Awareness of these difficulties is fundamental to the search for modern and viable solutions appropriate for developing countries.

  2. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  3. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  4. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  5. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  6. Hearing assistive technologies in developing countries: background, achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Bradley

    2014-09-01

    The burden of hearing impairment and disability is substantial in the developing world. This review outlines the associated need for amplification devices in low and medium income countries and some of the initiatives that have been taken to improve access to such devices, particularly hearing aids. The main observed barriers to access are listed and possible ways to improve access are considered. Prevalence estimates for disabling hearing impairment are reviewed and a number of national and international examples of initiatives to facilitate use of hearing assistive devices in low and medium income countries are provided. Technologies that are potentially appropriate for hearing instruments in developing countries are suggested, as well as fitting programs that are more likely to be maintained over the long term. Challenges to successful hearing instrument fitting in low and medium income countries are many. However, some programs point the way to improved access to such devices. Successful hearing aid fitting programs in developing countries have typically combined appropriate technology with a sustainable local support base. With a rising middle class in many developing countries, advances in technology, and ongoing training programs for those involved in amplification fitting, hearing device usage rates may eventually reach parity with those in developed economies. The historical development of affordable hearing device fitting provision in low and middle income countries is outlined. Three key barriers to widespread access to hearing device provision in many low and middle income countries (LMICs) are identified: lack of trained personnel, the high cost of many existing devices marketed in LMICs and limited public awareness of the benefits of hearing assistive technologies. Examples of programs that have sought to overcome these barriers in LMICs are given and may influence the ways in which future hearing health care is provided.

  7. 78 FR 46792 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... through the Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG) and the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC). These changes... February 13, 2013, to incorporate the changes to the UN Least Developed Countries List, the USTR has...: Changed the name of East Timor to Timor-Leste, reflecting the change on the UN list. Removed the Maldives...

  8. Providing ethical guidance for collaborative research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Experience has shown that the application of ethical guidelines developed for research in developed countries to research in developing countries can be, and often is, impractical and raises a number of contentious issues. Various attempts have been made to provide guidelines more appropriate to the developing world context; however, to date these efforts have been dominated by the fields of bioscience, medical research and nutrition. There is very little advice available for those seeking to undertake collaborative social science or natural science research in developing countries and what is there tends to be held within disparate sources. Charting the development of a set of ethics documentation for future use by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme research community, this paper outlines past and present attitudes towards ethics procedures amongst this community and suggests ways in which ethics procedures might be made more relevant and user-friendly to researchers working in this area. PMID:26640509

  9. Petroleum product pricing in Asian developing countries: Lessons from the past and future issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This paper looks at the pricing of petroleum products in ten Asian developing countries using a data series for 1973--1992. Prices of petroleum products are compared with international prices. Differential prices are measured with respect to diesel prices. It is found that energy prices are used as instruments for revenue earnings. Pricing policies vary widely among countries and neighbors have different fuel prices. Countries try to align the local prices of petroleum products in line with international prices but with a lag of 1--2 years. The wave of liberalization and privatization is sweeping many developing countries. Additionally, environmental issues are gaining importance even in developing countries. The paper also discusses these emerging issues that need to be taken into account in the petroleum product pricing.

  10. New Strategies for Environmental Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examples of new environmental education strategies in developing countries are provided including, among others, programs which stress that properly-conceived development should include respect for the local environment and research projects helping villagers define what is meant by development. Provides an example of the use of television in the…

  11. University Science and Agriculture Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlett, J. T.; Macfarlane, Ian G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of enrollment and degree rates in science, agriculture, and non-sciences in developing and developed countries suggests patterns are similar, with science and agriculture degrees somewhat higher for some developing nations. Results suggest that emphasis on science and agriculture are less crucial than overall enrollment in producing…

  12. Sharing health materials and information in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ritson, R

    1988-01-01

    The recent emergence of intercountry networks of collaboration on training materials for the health sector is a positive indication of increasing self-reliance in developing countries. Several developing countries are collaborating -- sharing staff, equipment, and consultants -- to produce their own health training materials. Over 20 countries now participate in the Interregional Health Learning Materials (HLM) Program, which is coordinated by a central clearinghouse in the Division of Health Manpower Development at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva. The primary objective of the Interregional HLM Program are 2-fold: to enable developing countries to produce their own relevant teaching, learning, and promotional materials for their national health care staffs; and to encourage interregional sharing of scarce resources and to promote exchange of materials and production experiences. To operate effectively on a longterm basis, national HLM projects must be well integrated into a national ministerial infrastructure or face possible collapse when financing is withdrawn. Those countries participating in the Interregional HLM Programs are being equipped with compatible microcomputers and are beginning to exchange training materials texts on diskettes for adaptation purposes. To share materials and information, a reliable transfer system must be available and microcomputers equipped with word processing software. The exchange of information on the production of national training materials have focused primarily on 4 main language groups -- the English-speaking network, the francophone group, the Portuguese-language countries in Africa, and the Arab network.

  13. Developing Discussion Leaders through Scaffolded Lesson-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeier, Jada; Saye, John

    2017-01-01

    In this study we report the findings of a two-year professional development study using scaffolded lesson-study to encourage and support four teachers' desire to use discussion with increased frequency and quality. We joined a collaborative community of practice made up of one university researcher, two classroom teachers, and a political science…

  14. Technology and Early Childhood Professional Development: A Policy Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaken, Jessica; Kauerz, Kristie; DeCesare, Dale; Hale, Genevieve

    In July 2002, Knowledge Works Foundation and the Education Commission of the States assembled key stakeholders to focus on the policy opportunities, needs, and challenges of utilizing technology for coordinated early childhood professional development across the nation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions held at the meeting…

  15. Panel Discussion and the Development of Students' Self Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2016-01-01

    This study is to analyze the use of panel discussion towards the development of students' self confidence in learning the content subject of qualitative research concept. The study uses mix-method in which questionnaire and interview are conducted at the class of qualitative research of the sixth semester consisting twenty students especially…

  16. Developing Discussion Leaders through Scaffolded Lesson-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohlmeier, Jada; Saye, John

    2017-01-01

    In this study we report the findings of a two-year professional development study using scaffolded lesson-study to encourage and support four teachers' desire to use discussion with increased frequency and quality. We joined a collaborative community of practice made up of one university researcher, two classroom teachers, and a political science…

  17. PATH's approach to product introduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Harner-Jay, Claudia; Sherris, Jacqueline

    2008-12-01

    Health interventions developed for wealthy nations are difficult to introduce in developing countries due to a lack of sufficient technological, financial, political, or infrastructural resources. Increasingly, however, product developers are creating new technologies that meet the needs of low-resource settings. Experience has shown that many activities must be undertaken to prepare health systems to accept and embrace new, improved, or under-utilized health technologies. This article describes three health technologies--a diagnostic test for vitamin A deficiency, new cervical cancer vaccines, and the vaccine vial monitor--that PATH, a global health organization, has helped advance for developing-country markets.

  18. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  19. Adolescent pregnancy and childbearing: levels and trends in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Darroch, J E

    2000-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy occurs in all societies, but the level of teenage pregnancy and childbearing varies from country to country. A cross-country analysis of birth and abortion measures is valuable for understanding trends, for identifying countries that are exceptional and for seeing where further in-depth studies are needed to understand observed patterns. Birth, abortion and population data were obtained from various sources, such as national vital statistics reports, official statistics, published national and international sources, and government statistical offices. Trend data on adolescent birthrates were compiled for 46 countries over the period 1970-1995. Abortion rates for a recent year were available for 33 of the 46 countries, and data on trends in abortion rates could be gathered for 25 of the 46 countries. The level of adolescent pregnancy varies by a factor of almost 10 across the developed countries, from a very low rate in the Netherlands (12 pregnancies per 1,000 adolescents per year) to an extremely high rate in the Russian Federation (more than 100 per 1,000). Japan and most western European countries have very low or low pregnancy rates (under 40 per 1,000); moderate rates (40-69 per 1,000) occur in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and a number of European countries. A group of five countries--Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, the Russian Federation and the United States--have pregnancy rates of 70 or more per 1,000. The adolescent birthrate has declined in the majority of industrialized countries over the past 25 years, and in some cases has been more than halved. Similarly, pregnancy rates in 12 of the 18 countries with accurate abortion reporting showed declines. Decreases in the adolescent abortion rate, however, were less prevalent. The trend toward lower adolescent birthrates and pregnancy rates over the past 25 years is widespread and is occurring across the industrialized world, suggesting that the reasons for this general trend are broader

  20. Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kools, Susan; Chimwaza, Angela; Macha, Swebby

    2015-03-01

    Population health needs in developing countries are great and countries are scaling up health professional education to meet these needs. Marginalized populations, in particular, are vulnerable to poor health and health care. This paper presents a culturally appropriate diversity training program delivered to Global Health Fellows who are educators and leaders in health professions in Malawi and Zambia. The purpose of this interprofessional education experience was to promote culturally competent and humble care for marginalized populations.

  1. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of

  2. Primary prevention of type-2 diabetes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2006-03-01

    Although diabetes is now a worldwide epidemic, the rate of increase in its prevalence in developing countries is alarming. By the year 2025, more than three-quarters of all persons with diabetes will reside in developing countries. India and China are leading this surge in diabetes, and sub-Saharan Africa is currently at a lower prevalence rate. However, the estimated increase is substantial among African descendants in the Americas, West Indies and throughout the diaspora. There are compelling reasons why aggressive efforts must be directed toward primary prevention of diabetes in developing countries. Once diabetes develops, the cost of caring for patients is prohibitive. Poorly managed diabetes leads to several complications (e.g., end-stage renal failure, blindness, amputation and heart disease) that many developing countries are ill equipped to tackle. In landmark trials, lifestyle modification approaches are more efficacious than expensive medications in the prevention of diabetes. This is fortunate because lifestyle modification can be implemented locally, whereas medications often need to be imported at high cost. The first task is the education of policymakers on the urgent need for timely action to prevent the looming epidemic of diabetes. Once governments become convinced of its critical value, the translation of diabetes prevention through dietary modification and increased physical activity would require careful planning, extensive piloting and creativity in the allocation of scant resources. External support, foreign aid, debt forgiveness and other forms of creative financing will almost certainly be needed to implement widespread diabetes prevention programs in developing countries.

  3. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  5. Strengthening capacity building in space science research: A developing country perspective on IHY activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyeme, G.

    The economic and social impact of science based technologies has become increasingly dominant in modern world The benefits are a result of combined leading-edge science and technology skills which offers opportunities for new innovations Knowledge in basic sciences has become the cornerstone of sustainable economic growth and national prosperity Unfortunately in many developing countries research and education in basic sciences are inadequate to enable science play its full role in national development For this reason most developing countries have not fully benefited from the opportunities provided by modern technologies The lack of human and financial resources is the main reason for slow transfer of scientific knowledge and technologies to developing countries Developing countries therefore need to develop viable research capabilities and knowledge in basic sciences The advert of the International Heliophysical Year IHY may provide opportunities for strengthening capacity in basic science research in developing countries Among the science goals of the IHY is the fostering of international scientific cooperation in the study of heliophysical phenomena This paper will address and provide an in depth discussion on how basic science research can be enhanced in a developing country using the framework of science goals and objectives of IHY It will further highlight the hurdles and experiences of creating in-country training capacity and research capabilities in space science It will be shown that some of these hurdles can be

  6. Child Development in Developing Countries: Child Rights and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context…

  7. Child Development in Developing Countries: Child Rights and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context…

  8. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    The successful implementation of the environmental practices in the mining industry is of a paramount importance, as it not only prevents both local and trans-border pollution but also guarantees clean and healthy environment for the people regardless of their place of habitation. It is especially important to encourage the progress of the environmental practices implementation in developing countries because such countries have resource-oriented economy based on exploitation of nonrenewable resources. Poor environmental practices in developing countries will lead to local environmental crises that could eventually spill into surrounding countries including the most economically advanced. This abstract is a summary of a two-year research project attempted (1) to determine deficiencies of the mining sector ecological practices in developing countries and (2) to suggest substitute practices from developed countries that could be adapted to the developing countries reality. The following research methods were used: 1. The method of the system analysis, where the system is an interaction of the sets of environmental practices with the global mining sector; 2. The comparative method of inquiry, where the comparison was made between environmental protection practices as implemented in the US (developed country) and the developing countries such as RF, Mongolia mining sectors; 3. Quantitative date analysis, where date was collected from "The collection of statistic data", Russian Geographic Society Annual reports, the US EPA open reports, and the USGS Reports; The following results were obtained: Identified the systemic crisis of the ecological environmental policies and practices in the mining sector in developing countries based on the exploitation of nonrenewable resources, absence of the ecological interest by the mining companies that lack mechanisms of environmental and public health protection, the lack of insurance policy, the lack of risk assistance, and in the

  9. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  10. Maternal Mortality: Preventing the Tragedy in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    Maternal mortality in childbirth has been, until recently, a neglected tragedy in most developing countries. Rates of maternal deaths range from 300 to 700/100 000 live births, from 50 to 100 times greater in developing than in developed countries. The major direct obstetric causes include illegal abortions, hemorrhage, sepsis, obstructed labour, ruptured uterus, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. During the past decade, increased recognition of this problem has led to the “Safe Motherhood Initiative” by the World Health Organization in 1987, which has been integrated into the goal of “Health for All by the Year 2000.” The training of traditional birth attendants (who attend from 40% to 60% of births in developing countries) is seen as one of the most important ways to improve obstetric care in remote rural villages. PMID:21249108

  11. Options for improving effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tissera, Marion S; Cowley, Daniel; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Hutton, Melanie L; Lyras, Dena; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P

    2016-11-11

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading global cause of mortality and morbidity in young children due to diarrhea and dehydration. Over 85% of deaths occur in developing countries. In industrialised countries, 2 live oral rotavirus vaccines licensed in 2006 quickly demonstrated high effectiveness, dramatically reducing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis admissions in many settings by more than 90%. In contrast, the same vaccines reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis by only 30-60% in developing countries, but have been proven life-saving. Bridging this "efficacy gap" offers the possibility to save many more lives of children under the age of 5. The reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in developing settings may be related to differences in transmission dynamics, as well as host luminal, mucosal and immune factors. This review will examine strategies currently under study to target the issue of reduced efficacy and effectiveness of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing settings.

  12. Reliability worth assessment in a developing country - residential survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Billinton, R.; Pandey, M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a residential customer survey conducted in service areas of the Nepal Integrated Electric Power System (NPS). The objective was to determine the power interruption costs incurred by the residential customers of a developing country, and extend the customer survey approach to reliability worth evaluation in a developing environment. Interruption cost estimates were obtained using in-person interviews with 944 sample customers. The results indicate the implications of service reliability to residential customers of Nepal, and show that reliability worth evaluation in a developing country is both possible and practical.

  13. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  14. Haemophilia in the developing countries: the Iranian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Karimi, Mehran; Aghighi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Management of haemophilia and inherited bleeding disorders is a major challenge especially in developing countries, because of a shortage or absence of products, the cost and the infrastructural health problems. Development of local expertise which results in an improved outlook and reduction in mortality and morbidity in these countries can be helpful for advocators in other developing countries. However, very little information on demography and organizational models for haemophilia care in developing countries are available in the literature. Our aim is a comprehensive report of haemophilia status and its management in Iran. Material and methods The Management Center of Transplantation and Special Diseases (MCTSD) of the Ministry of Health of Iran decided to carry out a complete review and compilation of all of the published or available data about patients with haemophilia (PWH) in Iran: their health status, their management planning, organizations, treatment products, facilities and care problems during 2007. Results 6496 patients with congenital bleeding disorders were registered. Most of them had haemophilia A and B and von Willebrand disease (vWD). However, rare bleeding disorders are seen more than expected. Inhibitor development is 14–28%. There are different data about virological status of PWH. Factor products and facilities are fairly available with more than 1.5 units per capita of inhabitant factor consumption. Conclusions A national formulary based on facilities of the country should be considered and followed by collaboration among the Ministry Of Health, universities and non-governmental organizations. PMID:22371725

  15. Use of International Documentation: Some of the Major Problems Facing Developing Countries. Occasional Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper discusses the role of information in national development, addressing such issues as for whom and for what purposes information is needed in developing countries, the impact of the information explosion on the Third World, and the problems inherent in current national and international information infrastructures. A series of statements…

  16. Engineering Education Projects for Improving Agriculture in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peikert, F. W.

    Agricultural engineers have been working for a number of years with colleges and universities in many developing countries to improve their agriculture. Much of the activity in university development assistance has been taken over the last 20 years. The greatest portion of the support has come from USAID. Among the common problems facing the…

  17. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  18. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  19. The Information Needs of the Developing Countries: Analytical Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salman, Lamia

    1981-01-01

    Presents the generalized conclusions from analytical case studies undertaken by UNESCO and the United Nations Interim Fund for Science and Technology for Development (IFSTD) on the needs and options for access to scientific and technical information in eight developing countries. (Author/JL)

  20. Forestry sector analysis for developing countries: issues and methods.

    Treesearch

    R.W. Haynes

    1993-01-01

    A satellite meeting of the 10th Forestry World Congress focused on the methods used for forest sector analysis and their applications in both developed and developing countries. The results of that meeting are summarized, and a general approach for forest sector modeling is proposed. The approach includes models derived from the existing...

  1. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  2. Funding Problems of Technical Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Surek

    During the past decade, funding mechanisms for universities and technical education institutions and colleges have undergone massive restructuring in developed and developing countries alike. Governmental support has generally decreased, resulting in greater reliance on fee-based education or creation of privately sponsored engineering/technical…

  3. The Place of Calculators in Mathematics Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a major force in developing curricula and educational practice in mathematics education internationally. While many technologies are important in affluent developed countries, the hand-held calculator continues to be the technology most likely to be available to students when and where they need it. Modern calculators have…

  4. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  5. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  6. Veterinary vaccines and their use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lubroth, J; Rweyemamu, M M; Viljoen, G; Diallo, A; Dungu, B; Amanfu, W

    2007-04-01

    The burden of infectious diseases in livestock and other animals continues to be a major constraint to sustained agricultural development, food security, and participation of developing and in-transition countries in the economic benefits of international trade in livestock commodities. Targeted measures must be instituted in those countries to reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. Quality veterinary vaccines used strategically can and should be part of government sanctioned-programmes. Vaccination campaigns must be part of comprehensive disease control programmes, which, in the case of transboundary animal diseases, require a regional approach if they are to be successful. This paper focuses on the salient transboundary animal diseases and examines current vaccine use, promising vaccine research, innovative technologies that can be applied in countries in some important developing regions of the world, and the role of public/private partnerships.

  7. Global aspects of cardiothoracic surgery with focus on developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pezzella, A Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of cardiothoracic disease continue to increase globally, especially in emerging economies and developing countries. Cardiothoracic surgery is also growing despite limited access, availability of surgical centers, political and cost issues. The increase in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, trauma, and thoracic malignancies is a more urgent problem than realized in these emerging economies and developing countries, or low- and middle-income countries. A determined focus and cooperation between the preventive and curative elements of care is warranted. This represents a paradigm shift to develop a consensus that fosters a multi-integrated disease-specific approach that includes prevention, promotion, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. In addition, the concept or acceptance of surgery as a necessary component of public health policy is critical to improving overall global healthcare.

  8. New strategies for providing hormonal contraception in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Townsend, John W; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Williams, Katherine; Askew, Ian; Brill, Klaus

    2011-05-01

    Even with progress in increasing access to effective contraception over the past decades, and the growing range of contraceptive methods available on the market, women in developing countries continue to report an unmet need for family planning. This constraint continues to challenge reproductive health policies and programs, while the momentum of population growth and the young age structure in developing countries leads to larger numbers of potential contraceptive users and increasing global demand in contraceptive markets. Of late, there is a renewed focus on increasing access to long-acting hormonal methods to effectively meet this need, establishing and effectively implementing new service delivery strategies. A number of processes have profoundly affected the procurement and use of hormonal contraceptive methods in developing countries: a supportive policy environment, evidence-based practices and an increasing diversity of delivery strategies play a significant part in increasing number of contraceptive users and the demand for hormonal contraception.

  9. Practising cloud-based telemedicine in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    In industrialised countries, telemedicine has proven to be a valuable tool for enabling access to knowledge and allowing information exchange, and showing that it is possible to provide good quality of healthcare to isolated communities. However, there are many barriers to the widespread implementation of telemedicine in rural areas of developing countries. These include deficient internet connectivity and sophisticated peripheral medical devices. Furthermore, developing countries have very high patients-per-doctor ratios. In this paper, we report our work on developing a cloud-based health information system, which promotes telemedicine and patient-centred healthcare by exploiting modern information and communication technologies such as OWL-ontologies and SQL-triggers. The reason for using cloud technology is twofold. First, cloud service models are easily adaptable for sharing patients health information, which is of prime importance in patient-centred healthcare as well as in telemedicine. Second, the cloud and the consulting physicians may locate anywhere in the internet.

  10. The influence of technology and energy on the locations of mineral processing in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, I.C.; Ruffing, L.T.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper discusses in detail certain factors which affect the location of mineral processing in developing countries. The analysis focuses on three different minerals at several stages in the processing chain, namely bauxite, copper and iron ore. The success of developing countries in processing these different minerals varies. For example, developing countries produce 51.4% of the world's bauxite, 18.6% of its alumina but only 8.8% of its aluminium, 43.4% of the world's copper ores and concentrates and 22.3% of its refined copper; 25.1% of the world's iron ore but only 7.4% of its steel. Developing countries have been urged to move downstream to escape the instability in primary export earnings and the decline in their terms of trade. A decision on a specific processing project can only be based on a careful evaluation of the economics of the project rather than on general exhortations.

  11. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  12. Bisphenol A and food safety: Lessons from developed to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-06-01

    Modern lifestyles and changes in the socio-economic characteristics of households have stimulated current developments in food technology, processing and packaging. Chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) are known to migrate from food packaging into the food, resulting in human exposure to these chemicals. Similarly, BPA can migrate from baby feeding bottles into milk. BPA has been associated with adverse effects attributed to its estrogenic properties in various animal models. This review analyzed peer-reviewed publications in the English literature on human BPA exposure and regulations in developing countries compared to developed countries. BPA has been reduced or eliminated from food packaging and contact materials such as baby bottles in developed countries either voluntarily or by legislation. The meager data from developing countries shows that human BPA exposure in developing countries is similar to that in developed countries. With minor exceptions, BPA restriction, voluntary or legal, is virtually absent in developing countries of Africa, SE Asia, and South and Central America.

  13. Distribution and Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries, and is frequently related to child morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify key determinants that influence the prevalence of LBW in selected developing countries. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted using 10 recent Demography and Health Surveys from developing countries based on the availability of the required information for the years 2010 to 2013. Associations of demographic, socioeconomic, community-based, and individual factors of the mother with LBW in infants were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The overall prevalence of LBW in the study countries was 15.9% (range, 9.0 to 35.1%). The following factors were shown to have a significant association with the risk of having an LBW infant in developing countries: maternal age of 35 to 49 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.1; p<0.01), inadequate antenatal care (ANC) (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8; p<0.01), illiteracy (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.001), delayed conception (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.5; p<0.001), low body mass index (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.1; p<0.001) and being in the poorest socioeconomic stratum (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8; p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrated that delayed conception, advanced maternal age, and inadequate ANC visits had independent effects on the prevalence of LBW. Strategies should be implemented based on these findings with the goal of developing policy options for improving the overall maternal health status in developing countries. PMID:28173687

  14. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  15. Causes of childhood blindness in a developing country and an underdeveloped country.

    PubMed

    Santos-Bueso, E; Dorronzoro-Ramírez, E; Gegúndez-Fernández, J A; Vinuesa-Silva, J M; Vinuesa-Silva, I; García-Sánchez, J

    2015-05-01

    The causes of childhood blindness depend on factors such as geographic location or the human development index of the populations under study. The main causes in developed countries are genetic and hereditary diseases, while infectious and contagious diseases, together with nutritional and vitamin deficiencies, are the main causes in underdeveloped countries (UDCs). Study of the causes of blindness among children admitted to a regional centre in Nador, Morocco, and among children in Mekele, Ethiopia. The study was carried out in collaboration with two non-governmental organizations based in Madrid, Spain. First, we worked with Fudación Adelias in June 2010, and with Proyecto Visión in October 2012. The study comprised a total of 27 children in Morocco and 85 in Ethiopia. The average age of the children was 10.92 and 6.94 years, respectively. The main causes of blindness in Morocco were hereditary pathologies (25.92%) and refractive errors (14.82%), although trauma (7.40%) and corneal disease (7.40%) are relevant. Among the children from Ethiopia, corneal disease (27.05%) and trauma (20%) were the main causes of blindness, while congenital and hereditary diseases had a lower prevalence (4.70%). The causes of blindness depend on the human development index of the populations under study. While corneal disease and trauma are the main causes observed in UDCs like Ethiopia, hereditary pathologies and refractive errors are the main causes within the Moroccan population studied. A mixed form can be observed in this country, as the cause of blindness found in developed countries, such as congenital and hereditary pathologies which are present alongside the causes normally found in LDCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. E-health technologies show promise in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Fraser, Hamish S F; Holt, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Is there any evidence that e-health-using information technology to manage patient care-can have a positive impact in developing countries? Our systematic review of evaluations of e-health implementations in developing countries found that systems that improve communication between institutions, assist in ordering and managing medications, and help monitor and detect patients who might abandon care show promise. Evaluations of personal digital assistants and mobile devices convincingly demonstrate that such devices can be very effective in improving data collection time and quality. Donors and funders should require and sponsor outside evaluations to ensure that future e-health investments are well-targeted.

  17. Selecting sanitation systems for sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Buckley, C; Fenner, R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for systematically incorporating multi-dimensional sustainability considerations into the selection of wastewater options for developing countries and the evaluation and comparison of these options. Appropriate technologies for developing countries were screened based on their function and their use of operational sustainability features; this list of technologies can then be used to elaborate design options. Sustainability indicators are used to enable a parallel comparison of the options from environmental, economic, and socio-cultural perspectives. For illustration, the indicator approach is applied to a case study of the sanitation options for peri-urban/rural areas of the eThekwini Municipality in South Africa.

  18. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 5: Arab Gulf Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Nazim

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the development of science and technology in the Arab Gulf States and discusses the collection building of the libraries in the region, focusing on problems of censorship and finance. Current purchasing methods are described, and the need for automation in acquisitions work and for centralized and cooperative purchasing is discussed.…

  19. Stigma and disability in schizophrenia: developing countries' perspective.

    PubMed

    Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Chennaveerachari Naveen

    2012-10-01

    Stigma and disability are two important consequences of schizophrenia that individuals afflicted with it experience. Sociocultural milieu can influence these. We review the literature on stigma and disability experienced by individuals with schizophrenia in the developing countries. We searched English-language literature from developing countries on stigma and disability in schizophrenia using PubMed and Scopus databases. As individual studies adopted widely varying methodologies, the retrieved papers did not yield themselves for a systematic review. We present a narrative review. Much of the literature on stigma and disability in schizophrenia has come from India and only a few other developing countries. Stigma associated with schizophrenia is highly prevalent across regions and across patients themselves, families, communities and professionals. Research is scanty with regard to determinants of stigma and interventions against stigma. A number of tools have been developed for assessment of disability. Preliminary evidence suggests that initiation and continuation of antipsychotic medications is associated with lesser disability. Psychosocial interventions may reduce disability further. Comprehensive, prospective studies evaluating the determinants of stigma and disability need to be conducted in the developing countries. Models of interventions to minimize these adverse consequences, developed based on their results, need to be tested.

  20. Biotechnology to improve health in developing countries -- a review.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tara; Kennedy, Robyn; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    The growing health disparities between the developing and the developed world call for urgent action from the scientific community. Science and technology have in the past played a vital role in improving public health. Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other advances in the life sciences, the contribution of science to improve public health and reduce global health disparities is more pertinent than ever before. Yet the benefits of modern medicine still have not reached millions of people in developing countries. It is crucial to recognize that science and technology can be used very effectively in partnership with public health practices in developing countries and can enhance their efficacy. The fight to improve global health needs, in addition to effective public health measures, requires rapid and efficient diagnostic tools; new vaccines and drugs, efficient delivery methods and novel approaches to therapeutics; and low-cost restoration of water, soil and other natural resources. In 2002, the University of Toronto published a report on the "Top 10 Biotechnologies for Improving Health in Developing Countries". Here we review these new and emerging biotechnologies and explore how they can be used to support the goals of developing countries in improving health.

  1. Building a health informatics workforce in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hersh, William; Margolis, Alvaro; Quirós, Fernán; Otero, Paula

    2010-02-01

    Information and communication technology can be used to improve the quality and safety of health care and to lower costs. But in both developed and developing countries, there is an inadequate supply of skilled individuals who have the technical skills to use this technology to improve health care. Some studies project workforce needs of tens of thousands in English-speaking developed countries, but it is not known what size workforce will be required in the developing world. It is important to identify and develop the skills, training, and competencies-consistent with local cultures, languages, and health systems-that will be needed to realize the full benefits of these technologies. We present a framework for answering these questions and for developing estimates of the size and scope of the workforce that may be needed.

  2. Changing face of cleft care: specialized centers in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The organization and management of specialized cleft lip and palate centers in developing countries are challenging because of the lack of financial resources devoted to the national health care system. The treatment of cleft lip and palate is of low priority for health care and budgets; however, gradual progress is possible. As an example of how care might be improved in the developing world, we suggest guidelines to strengthen the local cleft lip and palate centers in Brazil based on the ideal geographic distribution of cleft centers around the country, to achieve the following objectives: first, avoid patient's migration; second, facilitate patient's adherence; third, focus on a global and continuous multidisciplinary treatment; and fourth, avoid indiscriminate opening of nonprepared cleft lip and palate centers in our country. This ideal scenario would put the cleft lip and palate health attention on the right path in Brazil.

  3. Establishing a head and neck unit in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Aswani, J; Baidoo, K; Otiti, J

    2012-06-01

    Head and neck cancers pose an especially serious problem in developing countries due to late presentation requiring complex surgical intervention. These countries are faced with many challenges, ranging from insufficient health care staff to problems with peri-operative requirements, diagnostic facilities, chemoradiation services and research funding.These challenges can be addressed through the training of head and neck surgeons and support personnel, the improvement of cancer awareness in local communities, and the establishment of dedicated head and neck institutes which focus on the special needs of head and neck cancer patients.All these changes can best be achieved through collaborative efforts with external partners. The Karl Storz Fellowship in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer, enabling training at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, has served as a springboard towards establishing head and neck services in developing sub-Saharan African countries.

  4. Preventing violence in developing countries: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Mercy, James A; Butchart, Alexander; Rosenberg, Mark L; Dahlberg, Linda; Harvey, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Violence is an enormous global public health problem that increases the risk of injury, disease and poor mental health while also impeding economic and social development. This paper articulates a framework for violence prevention in developing countries that is grounded in the knowledge gained from research and programmatic efforts in rich and in poor countries over several decades. This framework can be used by countries and funding agencies as a guide to building strong foundations for ongoing violence prevention efforts and for identifying violence prevention strategies most likely to be effective. The world has learned a lot about preventing violence and, without a doubt, there is a great deal more to learn. As a global community, however, it is not possible to wait for perfect solutions to these problems to act. The obligation is to act now to use the valuable knowledge that has been gained about violence prevention to improve the world.

  5. Economic impact of transgenic crops in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raney, Terri

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic crops are being adopted rapidly at the global level, but only a few developing countries are growing them in significant quantities. Why are these crops so successful in some countries but not in others? Farm level profitability ultimately determines whether farmers adopt and retain a new technology, but this depends on much more than technical performance. Recent economic studies in developing countries find positive, but highly variable, economic returns to adopting transgenic crops. These studies confirm that institutional factors such as national agricultural research capacity, environmental and food safety regulations, intellectual property rights and agricultural input markets matter at least as much as the technology itself in determining the level and distribution of economic benefits.

  6. Abortion policy and women's health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1990-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half a million women in developing countries die in pregnancy and childbirth every year. Unsafe induced abortion is responsible for perhaps one-quarter of these deaths. In this article, the author reviews the legal, medical, and social contexts in which women in developing countries resort to clandestine abortion. Despite intensified international concern with reducing high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, national policy makers and participants at international conferences on maternal health--with a few important exceptions--have not recommended that safe, legal services for terminating unwanted pregnancies be offered as an essential element of basic reproductive health care. United States international policy on funding abortion-related activities in maternal health and family planning programs is especially restrictive. A new policy approach is clearly needed if unacceptably high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in many countries are to be reduced.

  7. Strengthening International Collaboration: Geosciences Research and Education in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2009-05-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches and global integration. Global warming, increasing CO2 levels and increased needs of mineral and energy resources emphasize impact of human activities. The planetary view of our Earth as a deeply complex interconnected system also emphasizes the need of international scientific cooperation. International collaboration presents an immense potential and is urgently needed for further development of geosciences research and education. In analyzing international collaboration a relevant aspect is the role of scientific societies. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities and can further assist communities in developing countries providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems. Most countries urgently require improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources and identification of major problems and needs. Questions may include what are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? what and how should international collaboration do? and what are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to examine some of these questions with reference to case examples and AGU role. We focus on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and then move to perspectives for potential development in an international context.

  8. Nanotherapeutics--product development along the "nanomaterial" discussion.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Matthias G

    2014-03-01

    Nanomaterials have become part of formulation development in the pharmaceutical industry and offer exciting opportunities in the area of targeted drug delivery. But they may also exert unexpected toxicities and potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Since the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks recommended a definition of "nanomaterials" for implementation into the existing and upcoming regulatory framework in the European Union, a discussion about safety requirements of new nanoscale products has emerged. At the same time, the Food and Drug Administration of the United States still observes recent developments in this area. Although the impact on the pharmaceutical product chain is still uncertain, guidelines on risk assessment in food products and cosmetics are available and offer a preview of future developments in the regimens of pharmaceuticals.

  9. Migration of health-care workers from developing countries: strategic approaches to its management.

    PubMed Central

    Stilwell, Barbara; Diallo, Khassoum; Zurn, Pascal; Vujicic, Marko; Adams, Orvill; Dal Poz, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Of the 175 million people (2.9% of the world's population) living outside their country of birth in 2000, 65 million were economically active. The rise in the number of people migrating is significant for many developing countries because they are losing their better-educated nationals to richer countries. Medical practitioners and nurses represent a small proportion of the highly skilled workers who migrate, but the loss for developing countries of human resources in the health sector may mean that the capacity of the health system to deliver health care equitably is significantly compromised. It is unlikely that migration will stop given the advances in global communications and the development of global labour markets in some fields, which now include nursing. The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers and to discuss strategic approaches to managing migration. PMID:15375449

  10. The Health Impact of Child Labor in Developing Countries: Evidence From Cross-Country Data

    PubMed Central

    Roggero, Paola; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Bustreo, Flavia; Rosati, Furio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Research on child labor and its effect on health has been limited. We sought to determine the impact of child labor on children’s health by correlating existing health indicators with the prevalence of child labor in selected developing countries. Methods. We analyzed the relationship between child labor (defined as the percentage of children aged 10 to14 years who were workers) and selected health indicators in 83 countries using multiple regression to determine the nature and strength of the relation. The regression included control variables such as the percentage of the population below the poverty line and the adult mortality rate. Results. Child labor was significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious disease. Conclusions. Longitudinal studies are required to understand the short- and long-term health effects of child labor on the individual child. PMID:17194870

  11. Brain-drain and health care delivery in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Misau, Yusuf Abdu; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Gerei, Adamu Bakari

    2010-01-01

    Migration of health workers ‘Brain drain’ is defined as the movement of health personnel in search of a better standard of living and life quality, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. The debate about migration of health workers from the developing to the developed world has remained pertinent for decades now. Regardless of the push and pull factors, migration of health care workers from developing countries to developed ones, have done more harm than good on the health care deliveries in the developing countries. This article reviews the literature on the effects of cross-border migration of health care professionals. PMID:28299040

  12. Using Special Libraries to Interface with Developing Country Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; George, Paulette Foss

    1986-01-01

    Describes two special collections focusing on postharvest systems of handling, transportation, storage, and marketing of food and feed grain. Highlights include information needs of developing countries (e.g., Egypt, Honduras, Pakistan), and information center activities (communication and marketing, collection building, interpreting client needs,…

  13. School Choice and Academic Performance: Some Evidence from Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Bao, Yong; Dixon, Pauline; Merrifield, John

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern about differences in the quality of state-run and private schooling. The concerns are especially severe in the numerous developing countries where much of the population has left state-provided schooling for private schooling, including many private schools not recognized by the government. The fees charged by the…

  14. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  15. School Choice and Academic Performance: Some Evidence from Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Bao, Yong; Dixon, Pauline; Merrifield, John

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern about differences in the quality of state-run and private schooling. The concerns are especially severe in the numerous developing countries where much of the population has left state-provided schooling for private schooling, including many private schools not recognized by the government. The fees charged by the…

  16. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  17. A MOOC Approach for Training Researchers in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugesan, Ravi; Nobes, Andy; Wild, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    We report on an online course in research writing offered in a massive open online course (MOOC) format for developing country researchers. The concepts of cognitive presence, teacher presence, and social presence informed the design of the course, with a philosophy of strong social interaction supported by guest facilitators. The course was…

  18. The Debate on Learning Assessments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Lockheed, Marlaine; Mullis, Ina; Martin, Michael O.; Kanjee, Anil; Gove, Amber; Dowd, Amy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, international and national education agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than quantity) of education in developing countries. This trend has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality of learning. As…

  19. [Maternal mortality in developing countries: what strategies to adopt?].

    PubMed

    de Bernis, L

    2003-01-01

    Despite an international consensus on the strategies necessary to achieve a massive reduction of maternal mortality and related neonatal mortality, many countries have made no progress in these areas. The main reason for this failure is that this aspect of public health and the basic human right to bear children under acceptably safe and respectable conditions have received neither sufficient attention from governments in developing countries nor long-term technical and financial support from rich countries. Yet a sound health care system that is accessible to the poorest classes is prerequisite for durable socio-economic development. Implementation of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) provides an excellent opportunity to reaffirm the need for massive support of programs undertaken in this domain by developing countries and for implementation of an effective strategy to enhance access to quality care for the poorest classes. The purpose of this article is to review the main points in a strategy to reduce maternal mortality, i.e., use of practices with documented effectiveness; access to qualified personal during pregnancy and delivery; availability of health services and underlying facilities; the role of individuals, families, and communities; and the political and legal framework. This article also stresses the fact that programs designed to enhance maternal and newborn health can significantly strengthen the health care system for the community as a whole: maternal health offers a gateway for strengthening health care services in general.

  20. Child and Family: Demographic Developments in the OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bras, Herve

    This study of early childhood and the family in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) employs two statistical approaches to the problem of providing an accurate picture of modern conditions of family life. A classical demographic approach to population studies is initially used, then is critiqued,…