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Sample records for developing countries social

  1. [Social and cultural obstacles to AIDS prevention in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Temmerman, M; Marres, D

    1995-01-01

    In countries where the transmission of HIV is predominantly heterosexual, both men and women are equally affected, including a considerable proportion of women of reproductive age. In various African capitals HIV seroprevalence of 30% was ascertained among pregnant women. Many within Christian Churches have considered AIDS as a punishment of God for sinful behavior and promiscuity. In eastern Africa HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases have been characterized as the disease of women because they were blamed for bringing the disease into the home. Among socioeconomic and cultural factors that play a role in the spread of AIDS are underdevelopment, low level of education (especially among women and girls), and a poorly functioning health care system. Some women are forced by the need to survive into prostitution and do not use condoms because of unavailability or the partner's refusal. Also migration by men to cities in search of work, leaving behind their families, leads to promiscuity and the abandonment of social controls and traditional norms. Fertility is of major importance for Africans. A woman who does not get pregnant has to resort to traditional medicine or try another man. Sexuality in Africa is not in the center of their value system, nor is chastity highly valued. In most of Africa cohabitation is much more tolerated than in the Western world. With different partners the risk of STDs and contracting HIV is high. African women have more sexual freedom than women in the West, and extramarital sex is the best way of making money for many married women. In addition, young women frequently have sex with older men who have had many partners. Polygamy for men is accepted socially, so is wife inheritance. Commercial sex is also available, and even college students engage in it for getting money for school.

  2. Social Egg Freezing: Developing Countries Are Not Exempt.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-08-01

    Non-medical egg freezing has only been available for about the last 5 years, as new vitrification techniques have made the success rates for actual conception more reliable than the earlier method of slow freezing. The improved outcomes of new technologies of vitrification and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have led to the marketing of egg freezing for non-medical reasons, whereby women are offered the possibility of preserving their eggs until such time as they wish to have a child. For many women today, it is not cancer but the simple passage of time that robs them of their chance of motherhood. Social, educational, emotional and financial pressures often lead them to delay trying to start a family until their late thirties, by which time the chance of success is very low. Women at age 40 face a 40 % chance of miscarriage if they can get pregnant at all, and by the age of 45, the risk of miscarriage is 75 %. Donor eggs are not an option for many because of supply constraints and ethical and cultural concerns. Freezing a woman's eggs at age 30 literally "freezes in time" her fertility potential and gives her the chance of a healthy pregnancy at a time of her choosing. Despite the initial reactions of disapproval, more and more fertility clinics are now offering oocyte cryopreservation to healthy women in order to extend their reproductive options. This procedure is now becoming popular even in developing economies, and egg freezing in major Indian Metros is now routine. PMID:27382212

  3. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies.

  4. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  5. Scientific practices and social behaviors in managing landslide risks: comparing experiences between developing and developed countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    because of wrong or inadequate scientific practices, unethical landslide experts, complex bureaucracy and hierarchy at governmental level, presence of non-scientific public officials and politicians with lack of long-term landslide risk management knowledge, often interposed between landslide experts and public, or, because of others human behaviors, or social or political aspects that make this difficult? Are there any differences or similarities in landslide prevention between developed and developing countries? Where is better achieved a good communication between landslide experts and public? Where the multidisciplinary and interstitutional cooperation among specialists gives the most fruitful results? Is it possible and how we can exchange knowledge and experiences learned in developing countries?

  6. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  7. Achievement Motivation as a Case of Re-Socialization in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    The question of achievement motivation in relation to developing countries is explored. A foundation for the study is achieved through discussion of the socialization processes as they are affected by education and economic growth. It is suggested that the societal system determines motivation and values which in turn cause and determine the…

  8. Health Care Social Media: Expectations of Users in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Affordability, acceptability, accommodation, availability, and accessibility are the five most important dimensions of access to health services. Seventy two percent of the Indian population lives in semi-urban and rural areas. The strong mismatched ratio of hospitals to patients, rising costs of health care, rapidly changing demographics, increasing population, and heightened demands in pricing for technological health care usage in emerging economies necessitate a unique health delivery solution model using social media. A greater disease burden lies in the health care delivery in developing country like India. This is due to the lack of health care infrastructure in the majority of semi-urban and rural regions. New techniques need to be introduced in these regions to overcome these issues. In the present scenario, people use social media from business, automobiles, arts, book marking, cooking, entertainment, and general networking. Developed and advanced countries like the United States have developed their communication system for many years now. They have already established social media in a number of domains including health care. Similar practice incidences can be used to provide a new dimension to health care in the semi-urban regions of India. Objective This paper describes an extended study of a previous empirical study on the expectations of social media users for health care. The paper discusses what the users of social media expect from a health care social media site. Methods Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance of the affect of four factors (privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication) on the usage of health care social media. Privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication were the independent variables and health care social media was the dependant variable. Results There were 103 respondents who used the online questionnaire tool to generate their responses. The results from the multiple regression

  9. Prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1990-01-01

    Developing countries have implemented primary health care programs directed primarily at prevention and management of important infectious and nutritional problems of children. Successful programs have emphasized the need for individual and community involvement and have been characterized by responsible government policies for equitable implementation of efficacious and cost-effective health interventions. Unfortunately, developing countries must also face increases in the chronic disease and social problems commonly associated with industrialized countries. Prevention efforts, for example, to reduce tobacco smoking, to modify the diet, to reduce injuries, or to avert environmental contamination, are needed to contain future morbidity and rapidly increasing medical care costs. Developing countries can build on their successful approaches to program implementation and add other measures directed at preservation of health and prevention of disease in adult as well as child populations.

  10. Social health insurance in a developing country: the case of the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Konrad; Jowett, Matthew R; Alcantara, Maria Ofelia O; Banzon, Eduardo P; Bodart, Claude

    2006-06-01

    Very little is known about the Philippine health care system, and in particular its experience with social health insurance (SHI). Having initiated an SHI programme 35 years ago, the Philippines hold many lessons for the development of such schemes in other low and middle-income countries. We analyse the challenges currently facing PhilHealth, the national health insurer. PhilHealth was formed in 1995 as a successor to the Medicare programme and was given a mandate to achieve universal coverage by 2010. To date, PhilHealth has been quite successful in some areas (e.g. enrollment), but lags behind in others (e.g. quality and price control). We conclude that SHI in the Philippines has been a success story so far and provides lessons for countries in a similar situation. For example: (i) SHI is based on value decisions and the clear statement of societal goals can give guidance in the technical execution, (ii) SHI is a financing institution and needs to be treated accordingly, (iii) SHI can be implemented independently of the current economic situation and might actually contribute to economic development, (iv) community-based health care financing schemes should be merged with the national SHI in the long run, and (v) there is a strong need to push for high quality care and improved physical access. No clear suggestions can be given with respect to the benefit catalogue and the balance between economies of scale and decentralisation. Although riddled with many inadequacies, PhilHealth was set up as a strong and largely politically independent institution for the development of SHI. SHI can act as a stabilizing institution in a politically and economically volatile environment.

  11. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  12. The social determinants of infant mortality and birth outcomes in Western developed nations: a cross-country systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-06-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world.

  13. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  14. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  15. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  16. Hypertension in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M Mohsen; Damasceno, Albertino

    2012-08-11

    Data from different national and regional surveys show that hypertension is common in developing countries, particularly in urban areas, and that rates of awareness, treatment, and control are low. Several hypertension risk factors seem to be more common in developing countries than in developed regions. Findings from serial surveys show an increasing prevalence of hypertension in developing countries, possibly caused by urbanisation, ageing of population, changes to dietary habits, and social stress. High illiteracy rates, poor access to health facilities, bad dietary habits, poverty, and high costs of drugs contribute to poor blood pressure control. The health system in many developing countries is inadequate because of low funds, poor infrastructure, and inexperience. Priority is given to acute disorders, child and maternal health care, and control of communicable diseases. Governments, together with medical societies and non-governmental organisations, should support and promote preventive programmes aiming to increase public awareness, educate physicians, and reduce salt intake. Regulations for the food industry and the production and availability of generic drugs should be reinforced. PMID:22883510

  17. Higher Education and Social Change. Promising Experiments in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W., Ed.; And Others

    Presented are the results of a study made by developing country educators for twelve national and international agencies, directed and coordinated by the International Council for Educational Development. Volume 2 contains the reports of 25 case studies of higher education institutions and systems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: University of…

  18. Sharing Mechanisms for Information Technology in Developing Countries, Social Capital and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    For the majority of those living in developing countries (especially in the rural areas) sharing may be the only means of obtaining access to IT. Oddly, however, no-one has viewed "IT for development" specifically from this point of view for the Internet, computers and mobile phones. A good beginning, it seems to me, is to make an analytical…

  19. Towards a New Concept for Supporting Needy Children in Developing Countries - ICT Centres Integrated with Social Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Anders G.; Nilsson, Thérèse H.

    The presented concept for supporting needy children is based on experiences from our site visits to many children homes, schools and rehabilitation centres in various developing countries around the world. We have analysed the Swedish Model for social rehabilitation of children integrated with modern ICT centres as professional resources for development assistance. The standpoint taken is to strengthen the poor and exposed minority groups in the society. In this sense, we argue for the need to combine social action and ICT research in order to obtain the full potential of intended ventures in the developing world.

  20. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875

  1. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well.

  2. Using private demand studies to calculate socially optimal vaccine subsidies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joseph; Jeuland, Marc; Maskery, Brian; Lauria, Donald; Sur, Dipika; Clemens, John; Whittington, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well known that vaccines against many infectious diseases confer positive economic externalities via indirect protection, analysts have typically ignored possible herd protection effects in policy analyses of vaccination programs. Despite a growing literature on the economic theory of vaccine externalities and several innovative mathematical modeling approaches, there have been almost no empirical applications. The first objective of the paper is to develop a transparent, accessible economic framework for assessing the private and social economic benefits of vaccination. We also describe how stated preference studies (for example, contingent valuation and choice modeling) can be useful sources of economic data for this analytic framework. We demonstrate socially optimal policies using a graphical approach, starting with a standard textbook depiction of Pigouvian subsidies applied to herd protection from vaccination programs. We also describe nonstandard depictions that highlight some counterintuitive implications of herd protection that we feel are not commonly understood in the applied policy literature. We illustrate the approach using economic and epidemiological data from two neighborhoods in Kolkata, India. We use recently published epidemiological data on the indirect effects of cholera vaccination in Matlab, Bangladesh (Ali et al., 2005) for fitting a simple mathematical model of how protection changes with vaccine coverage. We use new data on costs and private demand for cholera vaccines in Kolkata, India, and approximate the optimal Pigouvian subsidy. We find that if the optimal subsidy is unknown, selling vaccines at full marginal cost may, under some circumstances, be a preferable second-best option to providing them for free.

  3. Changing Social Institutions to Improve the Status of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes: Morrisson, Christian

    2005-01-01

    One of the long-standing priorities of the international community is to reduce gender disparity in developing countries. Yet, the overall picture is still gloomy: women continue to be excluded from access to resources and employment and are denied basic human rights. This Policy Brief explains why progress has been so minimal and what should be…

  4. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated. PMID:22280469

  5. Social capital and health in the least developed countries: A critical review of the literature and implications for a future research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Story, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the linkage between social capital and health has grown in recent years; however, there is a dearth of evidence from resource-poor countries. This review examines the association between social capital and physical health (including health behaviours) in the least developed countries (LDCs). Citations were searched using three databases from 1990 to 2011 using the keyword ‘social capital’ combined with the name of each of the 48 LDCs. Of the 14 studies reviewed, 12 took place in Africa and two in South Asia. All used cross-sectional study designs, including five qualitative and nine quantitative studies. The literature reviewed suggests that social capital is an important factor for improving health in resource-poor settings; however, more research is needed in order to determine the best measures for social capital and elucidate the mechanisms through which social capital affects health in the developing world. Future research on social capital and health in the developing world should focus on applying appropriate theoretical conceptualizations of social capital to the developing country context, adapting and validating instruments for measuring social capital, and examining multilevel models of social capital and health in developing countries. PMID:24172027

  6. Hemovigilance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits has become an integral part of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) in the developed world and has contributed greatly to the development of the blood service. However developing countries are still grappling with donor recruitment and efforts towards sufficiency and safety of the blood supply. In these countries the BTS is generally fragmented and a national hemovigilance program would be difficult to implement. However a few developing countries have an effective and sustainable blood program that can deliver equitable, safe and sufficient blood supply to the nation. Different models of hemovigilance program have been introduced with variable success. There are deficiencies but the data collected provided important information that can be presented to the health authorities for effective interventions. Hemovigilance program modeled from developed countries require expertise and resources that are not available in many developing countries. Whatever resources that are available should be utilized to correct deficiencies that are already apparent and obvious. Besides there are other tools that can be used to monitor the blood program in the developing countries depending on the need and the resources available. More importantly the data collected should be accurate and are used and taken into consideration in formulating guidelines, standards and policies and to affect appropriate interventions. Any surveillance program should be introduced in a stepwise manner as the blood transfusion service develops.

  7. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    PubMed

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  8. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations. PMID:8781389

  9. Social Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education: Insights from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamzadeh, Aidin; Azimi, Mohammad Ali; Kirby, David A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate awareness, intentions/support, and the contextual elements among higher education students in the University of Tehran (UT) in order to find the gap(s) in social entrepreneurship education in Iran. The authors used Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour as the theoretical framework. The research…

  10. Mortality patterns in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Manton, K G

    1984-01-01

    The implications of recent demographic trends in developed countries are considered. The emphasis is on the increase in life expectancy, and particularly in the rate of growth of the numbers of the very old (those aged 85 and over). "To evaluate the impact of recent mortality reductions on the social security and health service systems of developed countries [the author analyzes] the mortality conditions of 11 developed countries over the period 1950 to 1978." The countries concerned are the United States, Canada, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and France. "The results of [the] analyses show that major increases in life expectancy have occurred at advanced ages for females and that the cross-country differences in the cause of death structure indicate that advances were achieved through a variety of mechanisms. Thus, it appears that no single uniform model of biological aging will currently explain cause specific mortality trends in countries with historically high life expectancies. This implies that further mortality reductions are possible in these countries by achieving cause specific mortality reductions observed to have occurred in another country." This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 49, No. 3, Fall 1983, p. 413). PMID:12340261

  11. Telemedicine and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wright, D; Androuchko, L

    1996-01-01

    A committee was established by the International Telecommunication Union in 1994 to study telemedicine, with particular reference to developing countries. A questionnaire was used to gather data. Fifty-eight responses were received, two-thirds from developing countries. In most developing countries the user did not pay for the telemedicine service, at least not directly. There were few instances of a commercial telemedicine service, and in most countries the telemedicine service was subsidized by the government or another party. The telemedicine 'value chain' describes how equipment suppliers, telecommunications operators and health-care professionals deliver their products or services to the client, who is eventually the ultimate user. Quite different configurations are conceivable, and an analysis of what could be a sustainable, cost-effective value chain in developing countries is required. It is clear that the rapidly growing interest in telemedicine challenges the leaders of the medical establishment to rethink the ways they provide their services and to address the medical needs of areas where such services are absent or in short supply.

  12. Community Development in Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Richard; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, six papers on community development in developed nations review the conceptual dimensions, issues, and directions of community development in the United States; pilot programs of social research, training, and consultation in rural Saskatchewan; the community development efforts of the University of New…

  13. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  14. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed. PMID:26854149

  15. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization. PMID:15770290

  16. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  17. Facebook as a Learning Tool? A Case Study on the Appropriation of Social Network Sites from Mobile Phones in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimmer, Christoph; Linxen, Sebastian; Grohbiel, Urs

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory research investigates how students and professionals use social network sites (SNSs) in the setting of developing and emerging countries. Data collection included focus groups consisting of medical students and faculty as well as the analysis of a Facebook site centred on medical and clinical topics. The findings show how users,…

  18. Promoting maternal health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Seipel, M M

    1992-08-01

    Most maternal deaths are preventable, yet more than 500,000 women die annually worldwide. However, the risk of maternal mortality is unevenly distributed; 99 percent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries. This article examines the causes of this disparity and suggests several recommendations for social workers to promote maternal health in developing countries. PMID:1526599

  19. Sarcoidosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jindal, S K; Gupta, D; Aggarwal, A N

    2000-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is seen in different parts of India and other developing countries with almost similar frequency as in the West. It was largely due to lack of awareness and non-availability of investigations for diagnosis that the disease was reported to be rare in the past. A combination of clinical, radiologic, and histologic criteria are used to diagnose sarcoidosis. A confident exclusion of other causes of granuloma formation, especially tuberculosis, is required. Absence of mycobacteria and of caseation in the histologic specimens and presence of skin anergy to tuberculin help make a diagnosis. Transbronchial lung biopsy obtained with the help of fiberoptic bronchoscopy is positive in about 80% of patients. Corticosteroids are used to treat patients with symptoms and those showing active organ involvement. Aggressive treatment is required for patients with acute and severe pulmonary, cardiac, ocular, or neurologic involvements.

  20. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  1. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1) Self-reported program data; 2) Scoping telephone interviews; and 3) In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance becomes a part of the

  2. Reaching Out to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Stirling

    1984-01-01

    Some Canadian teachers play a special role in developing the teaching profession internationally. They participate in helping teachers in developing countries and promoting understanding worldwide. (MD)

  3. Child nutrition in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Gewa, Constance; Bwibo, Nimrod O

    2004-10-01

    Malnutrition permeates all aspects of health, growth, cognition, motor and social development of young children in developing countries. More than 50% of deaths in these children can be attributed to malnutrition, most often in conjunction with serious infection. Irreversible and lifelong sequelae prevent children from reaching their full potential. Child survival initiatives and programs have accomplished much to save the lives of children from common and preventable illnesses, but the quality of the survivors' health needs to be improved, with much more attention paid to nutrition of the preschool and school child. Promotion of nutritional health must become an integral part of primary health services, especially for infants, preschoolers, schoolchildren, and women. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding and weaning are essential inputs. A daunting challenge is to improve diet quality through the raising and consumption of small animals by rural subsistence households to enhance maternal and child nutrition. School feeding from preschool onward must be an integral part of education so children are in a condition to learn. An excellent example of such programs is the WHO initiated Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, which integrates nutrition into the care of both sick and well children. The Early Child Development Program initiated by the World Bank and UNICEF has taken hold in many countries. Nutrition outcomes are closely linked with health and education activities starting in the preconception period through pregnancy, lactation, and childhood. Investment in human capital early in life will optimize the growth and social and economic development of children, families, and communities.

  4. Reproductive technologies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth B

    1995-07-01

    Are there any ethical concerns about reproductive technologies that are specific or unique to developing countries? Three ethical concerns often mentioned specifically in regard to developing countries are (1), the "overpopulation argument"; (2) the limited resources argument; and (3) the ethical problem of poorly trained practitioners offering their services to unsuspecting and uninformed infertile individuals or couples. Each argument is explored in some detail, with the conclusion that ethical problems do, in fact, exist but are not unique to developing countries. Nevertheless, the difficulties relating to reproductive technologies are likely to be greater in developing countries than in developed ones because of limited resources and a larger number of poor people residing there.

  5. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  6. Towards advanced risk-sharing in health care financing: with a focus on the potential of social health insurance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Carrin, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the major health financing methods and the contribution they can make to improving access to health care among all of a country's population groups. Risk-sharing in health financing is proposed as a powerful method to achieve this improvement. The larger the degree of risk-sharing in a health financing system, the less people will have to bear the financial consequences of their own health risks, and the more they are likely to have access to needed care. Ideally countries should attempt to introduce 'advanced' risk-sharing aiming at equal access among individuals to an adequate package of health services. There are two major ways to implement advanced risk-sharing: general tax revenue may be main source of financing health services, or else social health insurance may be established. An important finding is that about 60% of the world's countries still need to pursue efforts towards the introduction of advanced risk-sharing. We further focus on the potential of social health insurance as an advanced risk-sharing method. In fact, there is recent interest in developing countries such as Côte d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Iran and Kenya in this particular health financing mechanism. Compared to health financing via general tax revenue, social health insurance spreads the immediate burden of financing among various groups, including the workers, the self-employed, enterprises and Government. Time and tedious discussions between these groups may be needed, however, before a consensus is reached, not only on the relative burden of financing but also on ways to achieve overall population coverage. It is suggested that action-research be used to test the adequacy of initial social health insurance policies.

  7. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources. PMID:10050169

  8. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  9. Physics Teaching in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, A K M A

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the first South-East Asian conference on university physics education held in Penang, Malaysia, May 16-21, 1977, to identify, analyze, and compare physics curricula and to improve physics education in developing countries. (SL)

  10. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  11. Physics teaching in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  12. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources. PMID:25131779

  13. Role of GIS in social sector planning: can developing countries benefit from the examples of primary health care (PHC) planning in Britain?

    PubMed

    Ishfaq, Mohammad; Lodhi, Bilal Khan

    2012-04-01

    Social sector planning requires rational approaches where community needs are identified by referring to relative deprivation among localities and resources are allocated to address inequalities. Geographical information system (GIS) has been widely argued and used as a base for rational planning for equal resource allocation in social sectors around the globe. Devolution of primary health care is global strategy that needs pains taking efforts to implement it. GIS is one of the most important tools used around the world in decentralization process of primary health care. This paper examines the scope of GIS in social sector planning by concentration on primary health care delivery system in Pakistan. The work is based on example of the UK's decentralization process and further evidence from US. This paper argues that to achieve benefits of well informed decision making to meet the communities' needs GIS is an essential tool to support social sector planning and can be used without any difficulty in any environment. There is increasing trend in the use of Health Management Information System (HMIS) in Pakistan with ample internet connectivity which provides well established infrastructure in Pakistan to implement GIS for health care, however there is need for change in attitude towards empowering localities especially with reference to decentralization of decision making. This paper provides GIS as a tool for primary health care planning in Pakistan as a starting point in defining localities and preparing locality profiles for need identification that could help developing countries in implementing the change.

  14. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  15. Social capital and access to primary health care in developing countries: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Hollard, Guillaume; Sene, Omar

    2016-01-01

    We test for a causal role of social capital, as measured by self-reported trust, in determining access to basic health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. To skirt the reverse-causality problems between social capital and basic health, we rely on instrumental-variable (IV) estimates. A one standard-deviation increase in trust is predicted to lead to a 0.22 standard-deviation fall in doctor absenteeism, a 0.31 standard-deviation fall in waiting time and a 0.30 standard-deviation fall in bribes. As a robustness check, we also use a different database regarding a different health issue, access to clean water. We find that a one standard-deviation rise in trust leads to a 0.33 standard-deviation rise in access to clean water. The variety of public goods considered provides insights about the possible channels through which social capital is converted into health improvements.

  16. The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

  17. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  18. Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

    2013-11-01

    Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context.

  19. Education as an Instrument of Emotional, Social, and National Integration in a Multicultural, Developing Country: A Case Study of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kattackal, Joseph A.

    This research paper investigates endeavors in India over the last two decades to implement cultural integration and national unity through education. A major objective is to assess the relationship between the multicultural aspects of Indian civilization and the goal of a national consciousness. A description of the social, linguistic, and…

  20. Soalr cooking in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1994-11-01

    Solar cooking must overcome a number of obstacles to realize its potential to improve the lives of women in developing countries. Unlike historical interest in solar cooking, current interest derives from vital environmental and human needs. Deforestation and reliance on wood for cooking lead to many hardships, especially for women, and women in developing countries need access to technology and funding. If the woman builds the oven herself, it notonly makes her more willing to use it but the process empower her with new knowledge and kills. The physical design of the oven must be adapted to local conditions and materials for the oven should be inexpensive and locally available.

  1. Energy planning in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides discussion of analytical methods for energy-sector planning in developing countries. The author addresses such topics as energy balances, the Reference Energy System (RES), approaches to demand forecasting, project evaluation (including capital budgeting), techniques for dealing with uncertainty, financial accounting as applied to the typical parastatal electric utility of a developing country, techniques for pricing studies, scenario analysis, and approaches to the evaluation of macroeconomic impacts of energy-sector decisions. Extensive use is made of case-study material, including examples from Haiti, Tunisia, the Sudan, Jordan, Mauritius, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Liberia.

  2. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits. PMID:26247291

  3. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  4. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    PubMed

    Bergman, E

    1989-06-01

    Using a theoretical approach, this paper discusses the treatment of different aspects of the social effects of migration in receiving countries which centers around key issues such as ethnicity, discrimination, and the impact of general policy measures upon ethnic relations. Countries may be classified with respect to relations between ethnic groups in the following ways: 1) those that are either plural or multi-ethnic, 2) those consisting of mainly immigrants and their offspring, 3) those that have a fairly homogenous population and ethnic minorities resulting from post-war immigration, and 4) those that have a fairly homogenous population and 1 or more native minorities. International migration requires nations to formulate immigration, immigrant, and ethnic relations policies. Ethnic conflict often stems from a situation of need within competition for such facilities as education, housing, and employment. The underlying factors are mostly economic. The unequal distribution of influence and resources can be reduced by government policies designed to redistribute such influence and resources, and by providing better opportunities for individuals to gain influence and resources. Policy measures in the fields of general economic policy, labor market policy, housing policy, social policy, and educational policy probably affect ethnic relations more deeply than measures in the field of ethnic relations policy. Discrimination on ethnic, racial, or similar grounds is against the constitution of many countries. However, many difficulties arise in trying to use anti-discrimination laws in practice. Ethnicity is probably the most widespread cause of conflict in the world. The ethnic homogeneity of many countries has been reduced by the immigration of new ethnic elements. Can truly multicultural societies emerge from international migration? 3 possibilities exist: 1) unitary social systems will prevail where they 1st existed, 2) ethnic groups may segregate from each other

  5. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  6. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program.

  7. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program. PMID:19494625

  8. Sources of Deforestation in Tropical Developing Countries

    PubMed

    Tole

    1998-01-01

    / Key causes of tropical deforestation are investigated using cross-sectional data for 90 developing countries for the period 1981-1990. Regression results reveal that deforestation is associated with both development and scarcity. Deforestation accelerates with expanding infrastructure, trade, debt, investment in the human capital base, and resource-based economic expansion. On the other hand, absolute and relative scarcities-manifested by growing population pressures, food and land shortages, fuelwood dependency, and inequalities in access to land-are also key factors explaining forest loss. Thus, results point to a fundamental environmental conundrum: Development is required if countries are to alleviate scarcity-driven forms of forest exploitation but is itself a major cause of deforestation. Can countries balance development goals with forest protection? Setting aside the issue of its practical realization, the paper concludes that forest sustainable development cannot be achieved by implementing simple technical improvements in land-use practices alone. Securing the foundations for the sustainability of the forest base will require that countries address the underlying social processes driving tropical forest loss as well.KEY WORDS: Tropical deforestation; Developing countries; Rural land-use practices; Development; Scarcity.

  9. Immunisation practice in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hinman, A R; Orenstein, W A

    1990-03-24

    Immunization practice in 32 countries in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia is reviewed. in most countries, immunization practices are set by the federal government which sometimes works with the private sector. Almost all countries routinely immunize against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, and measles. About half try to prevent rubella, several try to prevent mumps, usually in combination with measles and rubella (MMR). More than half use bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BGG) vaccine to prevent tuberculosis, and a few give Hemophilus Influenza type B polysaccharide. Poliomyelitis vaccine comes in 2 forms: 1) oral live attenuated (OPV) or injectable inactivated (IPV). OPV is more used, but there is a new "enhanced potency IPV." All countries except Japan give DPT in 3 doses during the 1st year of life. OPV is usually given at the same time that DPT is. Measles vaccine or MMR is usually given between 12 and 18 months of age. Primary vaccine failure occurs in 2-5% of people who get measles vaccine, but this may be enough to "sustain transmission." In most countries, the government provides for immunizing children. An exception in the US. In the UK, low coverage has taken place because of concern for adverse reactions (whooping cough) or lack of appreciation of the disease's impact (measles). Coverage against both measles and pertussis has improved in the UK lately. In each developed country, vaccines have had "spectacular" effects. However, there are too many contraindications and there is "undue fear of adverse events." Also, there are surveillance deficiencies, a lack of coordination, and countries vary in their commitment to "reduction/elimination targets." Varicella vaccine, respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, and rotavirus vaccine are being considered for universal use. Attempts are being made to improve the safety of some vaccine.

  10. Urbanization and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1991-01-01

    In developing countries the level of urbanization is expected to increase to 39.5% by the end of this century and to 56.9% by 2025. The number of people living in slums and shanty towns represent about one-third of the people living in cities in developing countries. This article focuses upon these poor urban populations and comments upon their lifestyle and their exposure to hazardous environmental conditions which are associated with particular patterns of morbidity and mortality. The concept of marginality has been used to describe the lifestyle of the urban poor in developing countries. This concept is critically examined and it is argued that any concept of the urban poor in developing countries being socially, economically or politically marginal is a myth. However, it can certainly be claimed that in health terms the urban poor are marginal as demonstrated by some of the studies reviewed in this article. Most studies of the health of the urban poor in developing countries concentrate on the environmental conditions in which they live. The environmental conditions of the urban poor are one of the main hazards of the lifestyle of poor urban residents. However, other aspects of their way of life, or lifestyle, have implications for their health. Issues such as smoking, diet, alcohol and drug abuse, and exposure to occupational hazards, have received much less attention in the literature and there is an urgent need for more research in these areas.

  11. Occupational cancer in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Blair, Aaron; Marrett, Loraine; Beane Freeman, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations. PMID:21489219

  12. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    PubMed

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12].

  13. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    PubMed

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12]. PMID:17558364

  14. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  15. Social factors determining the experience of blindness among pregnant women in developing countries: the case of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's empowerment on developing blindness during pregnancy. Findings from logistic regression showed that several empowerment-related factors, including women's increased age at the birth of their first child, high school education, and participation in their own health care decisions, significantly reduced the odds of developing blindness, whereas their experience of spousal control, humiliation, and physical abuse significantly increased the odds of developing blindness during pregnancy. Interestingly, antenatal care visits that included nutritional advice and iron supplements during pregnancy had no effect on blindness after controlling for other factors. To reduce blindness during pregnancy in India, more attention should be given to delaying age at marriage and first birth; improving women and girl's education and autonomy; and implementing strategies to reduce spousal control, humiliation, and abuse.

  16. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  17. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  18. Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries: Current Perspectives. Reference Books in International Education, Volume 35. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 927.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael, Ed.; Vulliamy, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 11 essays that offer in-depth accounts of qualitative research in developing countries. Each chapter focuses upon a specific method and considers related theoretical and practical issues with reference to recent experiences in selected developing countries. Key issues addressed include: (1) the identification of appropriate…

  19. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  20. Pesticide use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ecobichon, D J

    2001-03-01

    Chemical pesticides have been a boon to equatorial, developing nations in their efforts to eradicate insect-borne, endemic diseases, to produce adequate food and to protect forests, plantations and fibre (wood, cotton, clothing, etc.). Controversy exists over the global dependence on such agents, given their excessive use/misuse, their volatility, long-distance transport and eventual environmental contamination in colder climates. Many developing countries are in transitional phases with migration of the agricultural workforce to urban centres in search of better-paying jobs, leaving fewer people responsible for raising traditional foods for themselves and for the new, industrialized workforce. Capable of growing two or three crops per year, these same countries are becoming "breadbaskets" for the world, exporting nontraditional agricultural produce to regions having colder climates and shorter growing seasons, thereby earning much needed international trade credits. To attain these goals, there has been increased reliance on chemical pesticides. Many older, nonpatented, more toxic, environmentally persistent and inexpensive chemicals are used extensively in developing nations, creating serious acute health problems and local and global environmental contamination. There is growing public concern in these countries that no one is aware of the extent of pesticide residue contamination on local, fresh produce purchased daily or of potential, long-term, adverse health effects on consumers. Few developing nations have a clearly expressed "philosophy" concerning pesticides. There is a lack of rigorous legislation and regulations to control pesticides as well as training programs for personnel to inspect and monitor use and to initiate training programs for pesticide consumers.

  1. Curbing pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1991-03-01

    Existing policies to control pollution are inadequate especially those in developing countries. National economic policies do not consider environmental effects. For example, some governments subsidize fossil fuels, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Those governments in the process of restructuring pollution control policies must seek ways to reduce their conceivable side effects on economic growth, revenue raising, and equity. They need to consider key administrative, technological, and institutional drawbacks and depend on numerous fiscal means to complement more traditional pollution control mechanism. They must intervene to prevent or reduce pollution since markets do not consider the interests of those affected by pollution. They can do so by imposing regulations on polluters, taxing emissions, limiting the amount of pollution, subsidizing cleaner options, and/or assigning and enforcing property rights. Pollution and environmental quality standards im most developing countries parallel those in the US and in Europe, but these standards are not effective because monitoring, enforcement, and regulatory capacities are inclined to be weak. In the early phases of pollution control, governments should tax fixed inputs (e.g., fuels) based on the level of expected emissions. These taxes would advance public budgets. For transnational pollution problems, affected nations should negotiate together and consider international transfers to support environmental solutions. When developing policy, governments must consider the competitive behavior of the marketplace and how people and companies will react to policy tools. These prudent considerations will define the likelihood of reducing costs and strengthen the efficiency of intervention thus determining the ability to afford environmental protection.

  2. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  3. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  4. [The drug trade between European countries and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Bruneton, C; Naboulet, P; van der Heide, B; Rey, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of medicinal products marketed in developing countries has recently become the focus of lively debate and new interest. This report describes a survey conducted among officials from exporting and importing countries designed to evaluate the content and enforcement of current regulations. Resulting data indicated that, despite the high volume of trading in medicinal products between European and developing countries, regulations are poorly applied and many infractions occur. The most obvious abnormalities involve definition of market status. A list of banned is issued by the WHO but not by the European Economic Community. Regulations regarding generic products differ from one country to another and, since determination of the exact origin of a product may be difficult, compliance with good manufacturing practices is often unverifiable. A more cooperative attitude on the part of exporting countries and standardization of formalities on the part of importing countries will be necessary to stem the growing tendency to consider medicinal products as ordinary goods. PMID:9612781

  5. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  6. Infectious diarrhea in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; McDonald, Jay R; Thielman, Nathan M

    2005-10-01

    Diarrhea from gastrointestinal infection remains a common problem. In industrialized countries, management is aimed at reducing morbidity and defining groups that may benefit from further investigation. Most infectious diarrhea is self-limiting and only requires supportive management. Viral agents are increasingly recognized as causative agents of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea. In developing countries, diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in children. Oral rehydration therapy, guided by a clinical assessment of the degree of dehydration, is cheap, simple, and effective and remains the mainstay of management of infant diarrhea. Controversies focus on the optimal formulation of oral rehydration solution. A vaccine against rotavirus has the potential to save millions of lives worldwide.

  7. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  8. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  9. Food science in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point.

  10. Maintenance dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind

    2015-02-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease require renal replacement therapy with maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis while awaiting transplantation. In addition to economic issues and limited state funding for advanced health care, the lack of trained medical personnel contributes to scarce dialysis facilities for children in developing countries. The establishment and operation of a hemodialysis unit with multidisciplinary facilities is both cost- and labor-intensive. Hemodialysis is usually carried out three times a week in a hospital setting and affects the curricular and extracurricular activities of the patient. Chronic ambulatory or cyclic peritoneal dialysis is technically simpler and allows better nutrition and growth, but is expensive for the majority of patients who must pay out of their own pocket. Multiple initiatives to enhance the training of pediatricians and nurses in skills related to initiating and managing patients on maintenance dialysis have resulted in the improved survival of children with end-stage renal disease. Support from state governments and philanthropic institutions have helped in establishing pediatric nephrology units that are equipped to provide renal replacement therapy for children. PMID:24469439

  11. Cancer Pain Management in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Shalini; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that more than 60% of the 14 million new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 were reported in the developing part of the world, including Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Cancer survival rate is poorer in developing countries due to diagnosis at late stage and limited access to timely treatment. Since the disease per se cannot be treated even with the best available treatment modalities, what remains important is symptom management and providing comfort care to these patients. The incidence of pain in advanced stages of cancer approaches 70–80%. Lack of preventive strategies, poverty, illiteracy, and social stigma are the biggest cause of pain suffering and patient presenting in advance stage of their disease. The need for palliative care is expanding due to aging of world's population and increase in the rate of cancer in developed and developing countries. A huge gap remains between demand and current palliative care services. Overcoming barriers to palliative care is a major global health agenda that need immediate attention. Main causes of inadequate pain relief remain lack of knowledge among physician and patients, lack of adequate supply of opioids and other drugs for pain relief, strong bureaucracy involved in terms of procurement, and dispensing of opioids. Beside this, poverty and illiteracy remain the most important factors of increased suffering. PMID:27803557

  12. Cyberspace, Distance Learning, and Higher Education in Developing Countries: Old and Emergent Issues of Access, Pedagogy, and Knowledge Production. International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology, 94

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assie-Lumumba, N'Dri T., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Amidst the euphoria about the new frontiers of technology sometimes perceived as a panacea for expansion of higher education in developing countries, there is a need to analyze persistent and new grounds of unequal opportunity for access, learning, and the production of knowledge. This volume addresses fundamental questions about the educational…

  13. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs historically have played an important role in providing information and counseling and supplying modern methods. Most programs are effective due to socioeconomic development and strong political support. Potential demand for services will be growing. This means that donor agencies must commit additional funding, and users must begin paying or paying more for contraceptives. Services and method choices need to be expanded, and quality of care needs to be improved. Three primary factors will impact on fertility decline: 1) the rate of social development, 2) the speed with which small family norms spread and contraception is adopted, and 3) the facility of private and public suppliers to meet contraceptive demand. Other factors influence reproductive decisions (women's roles and status, economic hardships or opportunities, religion, ethnicity, culture, and tradition). Contraceptive prevalence has increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 38% of all married, reproductive age women in the developing world, excluding China, which has contraceptive prevalence of 72%. Regional differences are wide. In Latin America, contraceptive use averages nearly 60% and ranges from over 50% in 10 countries and below 38% in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Haiti. Contraceptive prevalence is above average in Indonesia (50%), Sri Lanka (62%), and Thailand (68%) and just below average in Bangladesh (40%), India (45%), Philippines (34%), and Vietnam (53%). Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence, except for Zimbabwe (45%), Botswana (35%), and Kenya (27%). 80% of current users rely on modern methods. In most surveyed countries, 20-30% of married women have unmet demand. Fertility decline, unmet demand, and contraceptive use have all been affected by the diffusion of ideas about the use of family planning and the small family norm. Innovators are usually high status, educated women, who spread their views to other social groups or geographic areas. The spread can be rapid

  14. Social Impact of the "Digital Divide" in a Central-Eastern European Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae-George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the social impact of the digital divide in Central-Eastern European countries as well as between them and industrialized developed countries, based on experiences in Romania. Highlights include facts relating to digital divide worldwide; transition to a democratic and market-based economy and from socialism to capitalism; barriers to…

  15. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri Lanka,…

  16. Screening, Deschooling and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Keith

    1975-01-01

    Examines the present debate surrounding deschooling (abolition or non-setting up of schools) particularly hypotheses regarding the use of schooling as a screening device for occupational selection. Analyzes its relevance for low-income, low-schooling countries in light of recent data from Northern Nigeria on education and labor productivity. (JT)

  17. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  18. Marriage and fertility in the developed countries.

    PubMed

    Westoff, C F

    1978-12-01

    Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas

  19. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  20. Acute diarrhoeal disease in less developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John E.; Guzmán, Miguel A.; Ascoli, Werner; Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1964-01-01

    A number of primary epidemiological characteristics are recognized as common to members of a syndrome designated “acute undifferentiated diarrhoeal disease”. This syndrome includes both specific and non-specific diarrhoeal disorders. Within the existing knowledge and with the facilities available in less developed countries, an epidemiological basis for control, directed against the syndrome as a whole, is presented as the practical approach to community management. Clinical and microbiological distinctions do not extend to the main bulk of the problem. Individual epidemiological patterns exist according to age and varying social and ecological conditions. Field study by periodic home visits over four years has defined these patterns in highland rural villages in Guatemala. The chief problem was weanling diarrhoea. PMID:14230899

  1. Lay beliefs about developing countries in relation to helping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pinazo, Daniel; Peris, Rosana; Gámez, María-José

    2010-01-01

    We study the beliefs in a developed country about the attribution of responsibility for the situation in developing countries, in relation to helping behaviors and level of commitment. Two samples were used: one for the synthesis of knowledge (N=527) and a second for the synthesis of beliefs (N=287). From the results, we analyze the synthesis of beliefs and obtain the structure of beliefs. The synthesis of beliefs sample was made up of 137 individuals who help developing countries and 150 who do not. ANOVAs show that developed countries activate three implicit theories as beliefs to explain poverty in developing countries. Attribution external to the actor is more significant at higher levels of commitment to help. The implications for social communication campaigns in the developed world are discussed.

  2. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  3. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  4. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  5. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries.

  6. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the overall effect of country (including effects of age and gender and their interactions), and associations of disabilities with the Human Development Index. Developmental disabilities vary by child age and country, and younger children in developing countries with lower standards of living are more likely to screen positive for disabilities. The discussion of these findings revolves around research and policy implications. PMID:23294875

  7. Screening for developmental disabilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hendricks, Charlene

    2013-11-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005-2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the overall effect of country (including effects of age and gender and their interactions), and associations of disabilities with the Human Development Index. Developmental disabilities vary by child age and country, and younger children in developing countries with lower standards of living are more likely to screen positive for disabilities. The discussion of these findings revolves around research and policy implications. PMID:23294875

  8. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  9. Community Development in Emergent Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgdon, Linwood L.; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, these papers on community development in developing nations deal largely with conditions, requirements, and effective principles of rural extension; the government system of community development village workers in outlying regions of Thailand; the methods, organization, accomplishments, and prospects of…

  10. Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S.…

  11. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  12. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  13. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia" refers to…

  14. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  15. Occupational exposures to carcinogens in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N; Matos, E; Boffetta, P; Kogevinas, M; Vainio, H

    1994-09-01

    There have been very few studies of exposure to occupational carcinogens in developing countries, and even fewer studies of the health consequences of such exposures. However, all industrial chemicals, occupations and industrial processes classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1 or Group 2A (carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic to humans) have been described in developing countries, and there is growing concern that the health impact of many chemicals used in the developing world has been underestimated. In all regions a very large workforce is employed in the construction industry, in which substantial exposure to asbestos may occur, and there has been a rapid increase in production in countries such as Brazil and India. There is, for instance, a similar pattern for tyre production with a large increase in production in developing countries in the 1980s. Thus, the number of workers in industries entailing a carcinogenic risk is increasing in developing countries, partly as a result of the transfer of hazardous industry from industrialized countries. There is much that could be achieved in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries, and there have been a number of successful initiatives. However, the greatest progress in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries is most likely to come from political and economic changes. PMID:7847748

  16. Health educaton in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kanaaneh, H A

    1977-01-01

    Health education is of great relevance in developing communities as it is a means of improving the health level which is an integral part of the overall socioeconomic development. It must be undertaken in conjunction with health services which should involve consumer participation at an early stage. Its focus is on changing behavior in respect to healthful living both at the individual and community levels. Health education subjects in developing communities include maternal and child health (MCH), nutrition, family planning and infectious diseases. Every member in the health team must be a health educator. Personal methods, especially when used by indigenous community health workers, are best suited to induce health behavior change in developing communities. Mass media as a rule is less suited for this, although radio can inform large segments of the population.

  17. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects. PMID:12335967

  18. Bilateral Social Security Instruments Concluded between European Socialist Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Andrei

    1982-01-01

    Presents a review of existing bilateral treaties, conventions, and agreements in the field of social policy concluded between European socialist countries. It summarizes their basic principles, their social security provisions (old-age benefit, employment injury benefits, cash benefits for sickness and maternity), and the provisions concerning…

  19. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-02-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  20. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  1. Microbiological risk assessment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Sarah M; Jouve, Jean-Louis R

    2004-09-01

    Microbiological risk assessment (MRA) has been evolving at the national and international levels as a systematic and objective approach for evaluating information pertaining to microbiological hazards in foods and the risks they pose. This process has been catalyzed by international food trade requirements to base sanitary measures on sound scientific evidence and appropriate risk assessments. All countries, including developing countries, need to understand and use MRA. MRA is resource intensive, as has been demonstrated by some of the the assessments undertaken in industrialized countries. However, when used in the appropriate circumstances MRA offers many benefits. The process of undertaking MRA improves the understanding of key issues, enables an objective evaluation of risk management options, and provides a scientific justification for actions. Although the gap between developing countries and some industrialized countries is quite extensive with regard to MRA, many developing countries recognize the need to at least understand and move toward using MRA. This process requires development of infrastructure and enhancement of scientific and technical expertise while making optimal use of limited resources. International organizations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, are in a position to provide countries with guidance, training, information resources, and technical assistance to develop and/or strengthen food safety infrastructure. Enhanced cooperation and collaboration at all levels are needed for such efforts to be successful and to ensure that MRA, as a food safety tool, is available to all countries. PMID:15453597

  2. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is

  3. Health economics in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abel-Smith, B

    1989-08-01

    The interpretation of health economics chosen for this paper is broad. It includes the relation between economic and other factors in health development. This interpretation has been chosen lest the acceptance of a disciplinary approach in the commissioning of papers should have the unintended effect of excluding some key areas of research which require the consideration of crucial interrelationships between disciplines. The only justification for covering this area in a paper on economics rather than, for example, epidemiology is that increasingly there is and indeed has to be a heavy focus on costs in considering alternative paths to health development. The word 'research' is loosely interpreted and not restricted to the type of activity which could lead to the award of a PhD. The compilation of experience in many areas is, in the view of the author, a priority need, to plan where further research and experiment is needed.

  4. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Methods Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Findings Six studies with a combined sample size of 23 048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51–2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. Conclusion The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour. PMID:22893745

  5. Rabies Diagnosis for Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Salome; Naïssengar, Service; Mindekem, Rolande; Diguimbye, Colette; Niezgoda, Michael; Kuzmin, Ivan; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Background Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45–1.98). The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA) test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America) developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC) by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35). Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue), we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63–1) up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. −0.15–0.40) and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14–0.82). For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. Conclusion/Significance The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA) for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity

  6. Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159549.html Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries Machines might ... Right now, people often associate the use of drones with warfare. But in the future they could ...

  7. Financing Education in Developing Countries: An Exploration of Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

    Education is an economically and socially productive investment. Therefore, the educational systems in developing countries must continue to improve in quality, in efficiency, and in equality of opportunity if they are to continue serving as important instruments for improving the national economy. Yet, budgetary austerity tightens the public…

  8. Assessing Perceived Empathic and Social Self-Efficacy Across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Di Giunta, Laura; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, Anne; Steca, Patrizia; Tramontano, Carlo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    The Perceived Empathic Self-Efficacy Scale (PESE) and the Perceived Social Self-Efficacy Scale (PSSE) were developed to assess, respectively, individuals’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding both empathic responding to others’ needs or feelings and managing interpersonal relationships. In this study of young adults, a unidimensional factorial structure of both scales was found in Italy, the United States, and Bolivia. Complete invariance at the metric level and partial invariance at the scalar level were found across gender and countries for both scales. The construct and incremental validity of both PESE and PSSE were further examined in a different sample of Italian young adults. Patterns of association of the PESE or PSSE with self-esteem, psychological well-being, and the use of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies were found, often over and beyond their associations with empathy or extraversion, respectively. PMID:21228911

  9. Destigmatizing day-to-day practices: what developed countries can learn from developing countries

    PubMed Central

    ROSEN, ALAN

    2006-01-01

    The nature of and threshold for stigma associated with mental disorders appears to be different between developed and developing countries. Decreasing stigma can be achieved through a combination of the best Western educational and media strategies and the systematization of some important lessons from developing countries. At the macro-level, this involves: societal changes leading to being more inclusive and re-integrating people with mental illness into our communities; finding socially useful and culturally valued work roles for such marginalized people; re-extending our kinship networks, and re-valuing contact with people with mental illness and learning from their experiences. At the micro-level, this involves developing more destigmatizing day-to-day clinical practices, including: more holistic appraisal of disorder, abilities and needs; therapeutic optimism; a strengths orientation; engaging family and redeveloping an extended support network; celebration of age appropriate rites of passage; invoking the language of recovery; valuing veterans of mental illness as "spirit guides"; promoting consumers' community living as full citizens; engaging and involving the local community in taking responsibility for their own mental health. PMID:16757986

  10. Feasible mitigation actions in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Klasen, Stephan; Lay, Jann; Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Renner, Sebastian; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-11-01

    Energy use is not only crucial for economic development, but is also the main driver of greenhouse-gas emissions. Developing countries can reduce emissions and thrive only if economic growth is disentangled from energy-related emissions. Although possible in theory, the required energy-system transformation would impose considerable costs on developing nations. Developed countries could bear those costs fully, but policy design should avoid a possible 'climate rent curse', that is, a negative impact of financial inflows on recipients' economies. Mitigation measures could meet further resistance because of adverse distributional impacts as well as political economy reasons. Hence, drastically re-orienting development paths towards low-carbon growth in developing countries is not very realistic. Efforts should rather focus on 'feasible mitigation actions' such as fossil-fuel subsidy reform, decentralized modern energy and fuel switching in the power sector.

  11. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  12. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  13. Managing international migration in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Farrag, M

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of 180 participants from 57 governments attending the UN's International Office of Migration's (IOM) Migration Seminar in April 1997 in Geneva. The teams of researchers represented the four developing world regions: sub-Saharan Africa; South Asia; the Arab Region; and Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The seminar was part of IOM's research project on emigration dynamics in developing countries, which was begun in 1993. Researchers shared a common conceptual framework, which recognized the changing socioeconomic, sociopolitical, demographic, and ecological conditions in each country and subregion, the role of networks between people in sending and receiving countries, and the nature of entry restrictions. The research and workshop aimed to help policymakers in developed and developing countries. Conference delegates found the research framework acceptable despite the differences between regions and countries. Conference delegates agreed that the IOM research project was a unique forum for exchange of information and experience between sending and receiving countries. Many participants wanted IOM to provide technical assistance that would help countries manage migration. Delegates strongly desired international commitments to human rights for migrants. Delegates wanted better information exchanges, particularly interchanges of experience on policy measures among Governments, and the stronger inclusion of migrants in management. Returning migrants needed assistance with reintegration. The delegates made 12 recommendations about establishment of an effective system of information exchange, research on emigration dynamics and return migration, development of measures for managing flows that respect existing employment structures, new agreements, and reliable information for migrants on living conditions in host countries. PMID:12348081

  14. Providing ethical guidance for collaborative research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Experience has shown that the application of ethical guidelines developed for research in developed countries to research in developing countries can be, and often is, impractical and raises a number of contentious issues. Various attempts have been made to provide guidelines more appropriate to the developing world context; however, to date these efforts have been dominated by the fields of bioscience, medical research and nutrition. There is very little advice available for those seeking to undertake collaborative social science or natural science research in developing countries and what is there tends to be held within disparate sources. Charting the development of a set of ethics documentation for future use by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme research community, this paper outlines past and present attitudes towards ethics procedures amongst this community and suggests ways in which ethics procedures might be made more relevant and user-friendly to researchers working in this area. PMID:26640509

  15. Study of social loss or gain from a particular cause: scope for the developing countries - a review with reference to cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Murali; Lahiri, S; Vijayasimha, R; Ashok, N C; Murthy, N S

    2008-01-01

    Incidence rates have long been used to assess the burden of different diseases in a population, whereas loss due to occurrence of diseases is studied using the death rates. Death rates however, are based on and therefore describe, only number of lives lost. There have been two approaches to arrive at the actual loss or gain from a particular cause viz. Person years of life lost (PYLL) approach and cause elimination life table (CELT) approach. This review covers these approaches and the competing risk theory and models focusing on the methodological developments. A summary of the conceptual and methodological developments on these concepts has also been presented. There are eight possible approaches in dealing with the loss in the presence or gain in the absence of a particular cause of death depending upon the preferences related to PYLL/CELT approach, modeling/descriptive approach, considering or without considering competing causes. A close look at the two basic approaches reveals that PYLL and cause elimination are just different terminologies used to address the same quantity, loss in the presence or gain in the absence. As far as descriptive vs. modeling approaches are concerned, all the descriptive procedures can be put in the form of models and all the models can be presented in a descriptive way. Regarding results using different models, no practical difference exists in the results based on different models for competing risks. However, exclusion of the competing risks may result in a considerable bias in the developing countries where general mortality is relatively higher. This review study suggests freedom in the selection of a modeling or a descriptive approach without any considerable loss of accuracy but at the same time emphasizes the consideration of the competing risks. An empirical study may be recommended to confirm the conclusions of this study.

  16. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  17. Transfer of radiation technology to developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Vitomir; Ridwan, Mohammad

    1993-10-01

    Transfer of technology is a complex process with many facets, options and constraints. While the concept is an important step in bringing industrialization process to agricultural based countries, it is clear, however, that a country will only benefit from a new technology if it addresses a real need, and if it can be absorbed and adapted to suit the existing cultural and technological base. International Atomic Energy Agency, as UN body, has a mandate to promote nuclear applicationsand assist Member States in transfer of technology for peaceful applications. This mandate has been pursued by many different mechanisms developed in the past years: technical assistance, coordinated research programmes, scientific and technical meetings, publications, etc. In all these activities the Agency is the organizer and initiator, but main contributions come from expert services from developed countries and, increasingly, from developing countries themselves. The technical cooperation among developing coutries more and more becomes part of different programmes. In particular, regional cooperation has been demonstrated as an effective instrument for transfer of technology from developed and among developing countries. Some examples of actual programmes are given.

  18. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  19. Surgical audit in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bankole, J O; Lawal, O O; Adejuyigbe, O

    2003-01-01

    Audit assures provision of good quality health service at affordable cost. To be complete therefore, surgical practice in the young developing countries, as elsewhere, must incorporate auditing. Peculiarities of the developing countries and insufficient understanding of auditing may be, however, responsible for its been little practised. This article, therefore, reviews the objectives, the commonly evaluated aspects, and the method of audit, and includes a simple model of audit cycle. It is hoped that it will kindle the idea of regular practice of quality assurance by surgeons working in the young developing nations and engender a sustainable interest. PMID:12769314

  20. Cancer in developing countries: opportunity and challenge.

    PubMed

    Magrath, I; Litvak, J

    1993-06-01

    Epidemiologic observations indicate that environment and lifestyle are the major determinants of the geographical patterns of cancer. The developing countries, which account for 75% of the world's population, have lower incidence rates of cancer compared with the industrialized nations but bear more than half the global cancer burden. Demographic trends resulting from economic progress (decreasing incidence of infectious diseases, population growth, aging, and urbanization), coupled with increased tobacco consumption and dietary changes, indicate that developing countries will bear a continually increasing proportion of the world's cancer burden and its accompanying demand for the provision of costly treatment programs. Yet the developing countries command only 5% of the world's economic resources, and health care programs are already fully extended and frequently inadequate. Thus, cancer control in the developing countries, including preemptive prevention of the anticipated increases in cancers presently more common in the industrialized nations (e.g., lung, breast, and colon), should include much greater emphasis on cancer prevention than is presently the case. But there is another perspective. The developing countries, with their dramatic contrasts in lifestyles and environments and equally diverse patterns of cancer, provide an unparalleled, and often neglected, opportunity for studies directed toward understanding the mechanisms of environmental carcinogenesis. Such an understanding should eventually lead to the development of novel intervention approaches. Unfortunately, cancer research is much more difficult to conduct in the developing countries because of the lack of population-based registries, poor communication and transportation systems, and deficiencies in infrastructure, financial support, and the training of health professionals. These difficulties could be overcome, to the benefit of all, if the extent of collaboration in cancer research between

  1. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  2. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  3. Education for Copeability: Perspective on Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atta-Safoh, Alex

    Stressing the application of progressive thought as a possible innovation toward development in developing countries, the paper discusses three major educational philosophies: romanticism, cultural transmission, and progressivisim (emphasizing the cognitive-developmental theory). Educational innovation and strategies for reform in the Soviet Union…

  4. Does social policy matter? Poverty cycles in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kangas, O; Palme, J

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, poverty was linked to an individual's family phase. This article examines to what extent poverty cycles are still apparent in OECD countries. By combining data on social policy programs and data on income distribution, the authors compare trends between nations. The main question is, how successful have various sociopolitical solutions been in eliminating poverty? Here the focus is on family policy and pensions. Improvements in social policies have impacts on poverty cycles in all countries. In most countries poverty among the elderly has declined, and the young have replaced the old as the lowest income group. In many countries the poverty cycles have flattened out, and life phase is no longer as important as it used to be. Some differences between nations remain, however. High poverty rates among families continue to be an Anglo-American problem, and improvements in this area have been only marginal. Social policy provisions are important for explaining both cross-national variation in poverty and changes over time. The impact is clearest among pensioners. Family-related poverty is lowest in countries that have combined cash benefits with public child-care services that facilitate parents' participation in the labor market. PMID:10862379

  5. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  6. Women and Social Security: Law and Policy in Five Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Dalmer; Bixby, Lenore E.

    An increased interest in the position of women, stimulated by increasing numbers of women in the labor force as well as the women's movement, has resulted in a reexamination of women's status under social security programs in many countries. Five case studies (Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain, and United States), which…

  7. The engine or the caboose: health policy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R L; Pereira, J C; Goldsteen, K

    1990-12-01

    A discussion of health policy in developing countries is presented. It argues that developing countries must adopt a progressive approach to health policy which rejects the two-tiered system of public and private health care. However, it also points out that ideology is not sufficient to maintain support. A progressive health system must utilize administrative and social and behavioral sciences to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in health care delivery. It cannot ignore these goals any more than a private health care system can.

  8. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Design Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. Results The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health. PMID:22184501

  9. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  10. Evidence-based healthcare in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries have limited resources, so it is particularly important to invest in healthcare that works. The case for evidence-based practice has long been made in the West. However, poor access to information makes this endeavour near impossible for health professionals working with vulnerable communities in low-income economies. This paper provides a call to action to create an evidence base for health professionals in developing countries and identify appropriate strategies for the dissemination of this information in realistic and meaningful ways.

  11. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  12. Changes in social inequalities in health in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    Anitua, C.; Esnaola, S.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the extent of the inequalities in self reported health between socioeconomic groups and its changes over time in the Basque Country (Spain).
DESIGN—Cross sectional data on the association between occupation, education and income and three health indicators was obtained from the Basque Health Surveys of 1986 and 1992. Representative population samples were analysed. In 1986 the number of respondents was 24 657 and in 1992, 13 277.
SETTING—Basque Country, Spain. 
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The effect of socioeconomic position on health and the magnitude of social inequalities in health were quantified using the odds ratios based on logistic regression analysis, and the Relative Index of Inequality.
RESULTS—As was expected, social inequalities in self reported health existed in both surveys, but the social gradient was greater in 1992. Social differences varied according to gender and health indicator. According to education an increase in social inequalities was observed consistently in all the health indicators except long term conditions in women. A consistent increase in inequalities in limiting longstanding illness was also observed according to all socioeconomic indicators.
CONCLUSIONS—These results agree to a large extent with those of previous studies in other countries. In this context the unequal distribution of material circumstances and working conditions between socioeconomic groups seem to play a major part in health inequalities. The worsening of the labour market during this period and the onset of a new economic recession may explain the increase in social inequalities over time.


Keywords: health inequalities; trends; social class; Spain PMID:10818119

  13. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  14. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  15. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  16. Training of Health Workers for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1985-01-01

    The author argues that the achievement of health in developing countries requires that health workers be trained to prevent disease in addition to any training they receive in the identification and management of disease. This preventive role includes communication of health promotion concepts to people and gaining the confidence of communities.…

  17. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  18. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  19. Accounting for health spending in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.

  20. Is asthma treatment affordable in developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. P.; Lewis, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to assess whether the therapeutic aspects of published international asthma management guidelines are practically applicable in developing countries. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to expatriate doctors working in developing countries. RESULTS: Forty one replies were received from 24 countries in Africa and Asia. Oral salbutamol was prescribed "usually" or "often" by 35 of the 41 respondents, theophyllines by 30, inhaled bronchodilators by 12, inhaled steroids by two, and cromoglycate by two. Theophyllines were locally available in all 41 cases, oral salbutamol in 40, inhaled bronchodilators in 34, and inhaled steroids (usually beclomethasone 50 micrograms) in only 15. Where they were available, the median (range) coat of a beclomethasone 50 micrograms inhaler was 20% (6.8-100%) of average local monthly income, salbutamol inhaler 13% (3.3-250%), 90 salbutamol 4 mg tablets 3.8% (0.8-75%), and 90 aminophylline 100 mg tablets 4.5% (0.5-70%). If they were available locally at a cheaper price, 34 (83%) respondents would prescribe more inhaled steroids and 37 (90%) would prescribe more inhaled bronchodilators. CONCLUSIONS: Many asthma patients in developing countries are not receiving adequate treatment because the required drugs are not available in their area or are prohibitively expensive. 


 PMID:9246130

  1. Aeromonas-associated infections in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ahmed, Salwa F; El-Khalek, Rania Abdel; Al-Gendy, Atef; Klena, John

    2008-01-01

    Although their role in gastroenteritis is controversial, Aeromonas species are recognized as etiological agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in man and animals. In developing countries, potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sp. are very common in drinking water and in different types of foods, particularly seafood. Several food-borne and water-borne outbreaks as well nosocomial outbreaks associated with aeromonads have been reported. Significant association of Aeromonas sp. with diarrhoea in children has been reported from several countries. These organisms are important causes of skin and soft-tissue infections and aspiration pneumonia following contact with water and after floods. High incidence of antimicrobial resistance, including to third-generation cephalosporins and the fluoroquinolones, is found among Aeromonas sp. isolated from clinical sources in some developing countries in Asia. Isolating and identifying Aeromonas sp. to genus level is simple and requires resources that are available in most microbiology laboratories for processing common enteric bacteria. The present review will cover the epidemiology, clinical syndromes, low-cost diagnostic methods, and antimicrobial resistance and treatment of Aeromonas infections in developing countries.

  2. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  3. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  4. Hazards in cottage industries in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McCann, M

    1996-08-01

    Occupational health and safety research and prevention programs in developing countries have focused almost exclusively on large-scale industries. The informal sector--especially home-based arts and crafts industries such as pottery, jewelry, weaving, and woodworking, as well as other cottage industries--are a major and neglected part of the economies of developing countries. These industries have many hazards, including lead, silica, toxic woods, cadmium, dyes, and ergonomic problems. Since the work is often done in the home and can involve whole families, the entire family, including children, can be at risk. Prevention programs involving training and education about the hazards, suitable precautions, and development of safer substitutes are needed. This will also require training of local health care providers in the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases related to hazards in these cottage industries. PMID:8844041

  5. Abortion policy and women's health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1990-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half a million women in developing countries die in pregnancy and childbirth every year. Unsafe induced abortion is responsible for perhaps one-quarter of these deaths. In this article, the author reviews the legal, medical, and social contexts in which women in developing countries resort to clandestine abortion. Despite intensified international concern with reducing high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, national policy makers and participants at international conferences on maternal health--with a few important exceptions--have not recommended that safe, legal services for terminating unwanted pregnancies be offered as an essential element of basic reproductive health care. United States international policy on funding abortion-related activities in maternal health and family planning programs is especially restrictive. A new policy approach is clearly needed if unacceptably high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in many countries are to be reduced.

  6. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available.

  7. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available. PMID:25346394

  8. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation. PMID:16844655

  9. Neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pal, D.; Carpio, A.; Sander, J.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease of poverty and underdevelopment. Little is known about the natural history of the infection in humans, but some of the mechanisms whereby the parasite remains silent and evades the host immune response are understood. Symptomatic neurocysticercosis usually results from host inflammatory response after parasite death, and the clinical manifestations can be diverse. There is no evidence that cysticidal treatment does more good than harm in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment. Population control measures involving immunisation or mass treatment have not shown long term effectiveness.
Epilepsy, similarly to neurocysticercosis, is a largely unrecognised but increasing burden on the welfare and economies of developing countries. The technology of drug treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation is well known but requires widespread and effective dissemination at low cost. There is little epidemiological data on risk factors for epilepsy in developing countries on which to base prevention strategies. The public health prioritisation of chronic disorders such as epilepsy remains a challenge for policy and practice in developing countries.
For both neurocysticercosis and epilepsy, there is a dilemma about whether limited public resources would better be spent on general economic development, which would be expected to have a broad impact on the health and welfare of communities, or on specific programmes to help individual affected people with neurocysticercosis and epilepsy. Either approach requires detailed economic evaluation.

 PMID:10644776

  10. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  11. Evaluation of Organizational Readiness in Clinical Settings for Social Supporting Evidence-Based Information Seeking Behavior after Introducing IT in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Kahouei, Mehdi; Alaei, Safollah; Panahi, Sohaila Sadat Ghazavi Shariat; Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The health sector of Iran has endeavored to encourage physicians and medical students to use research findings in their practice. Remarkable changes have occurred, including: holding computer skills courses, digital library workshops for physicians and students, and establishing websites in hospitals. The findings showed that a small number of the participants completely agreed that they were supported by supervisors and colleagues to use evidence-based information resources in their clinical decisions. Health care organizations in Iran need other organizational facilitators such as social influences, organizational support, leadership, strong organizational culture, and climate in order to implement evidence-based practice. PMID:25839913

  12. Surgical services for children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bickler, S. W.; Rode, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood surgical conditions, especially injuries, are common in developing countries and that poor care results in significant numbers of deaths and cases of disability. Unfortunately, however, surgical care is not considered an essential component of most child health programmes. Strategies for improving paediatric surgical care should be evidence-based and cost-effective and should aim to benefit the largest possible number of children. The most likely way of achieving policy change is to demonstrate that childhood surgical conditions are a significant public health problem. For paediatric purposes, special attention should also be given to defining a cost-effective package of surgical services, improving surgical care at the community level, and strengthening surgical education. Surgical care should be an essential component of child health programmes in developing countries. PMID:12471405

  13. Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, N

    1998-04-01

    Anemia in pregnancy continues to be a serious problem in many developing countries, with significant adverse effects for both mother and infant. This article summarizes the available literature on anemia in pregnancy in developing countries, with emphasis on prevalence, etiology, and consequences. Prevalence data, especially from rural populations, are inadequate and little effort has been made to establish local etiologic patterns. Although emphasis has been placed on the role of nutritional deficiencies (especially iron) in anemia, the etiology is likely multifactorial. The relative contribution of etiologic factors such as iron and folate deficiencies, hemoglobinopathies, and malaria and hookworm infestation vary by geographic region and season. Anemia in pregnancy has been associated with increased risks of premature labor and low birth weight. There is an immediate need to assess more carefully the local etiologic factors and then design new strategies for prevention and treatment.

  14. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

  15. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  16. MEDLINE services to the developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, R

    1976-01-01

    Supplying MEDLINE services to a widely dispersed user population in the developing countries creates numerous problems not encountered by other MEDLINE centres. The inability to interact with the user complicates system promotion and makes search formulation sometimes a gamble. Nevertheless, an evaluation survey has shown high user satisfaction. Of great concern is the still inadequate solution of document delivery. Near-term objectives are the broadening of geographic coverage and the integration of search processing with supporting hard copy supply. PMID:1247707

  17. Digital processing system for developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  18. Telemedicine and neurosciences in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K

    2002-12-01

    It is a universally accepted fact that the number of neurosurgeons in developing countries is woefully inadequate. It is also unrealistic to expect this limited number to work in professional isolation, in suburban and rural areas, without adequate infrastructure. Therefore, this has resulted in concentration of neurosurgeons in developing countries, in metropolitan areas, even at the risk of being underemployed. The phenomenal advances in communications and information technology in India are resulting in a new look at how secondary and tertiary health care can be provided to the underprivileged masses. Following a proof of concept validation ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) in conjunction with the Apollo Hospitals, is ready to use satellite technology to provide specialist care not only to suburban and rural India but to other countries as well, by using the large number of highly qualified and trained specialists in urban India. The implications of these developments for the delivery of neurosurgical care to suburban and rural India is briefly reviewed. PMID:12517618

  19. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  20. National energy planning for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

  1. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  2. Introducing new vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara; Seeber, Lea D; Rundblad, Gabriella; Khamesipour, Ali; Ali, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    Vaccines offer the most cost-effective approach to controlling infectious diseases. Access to vaccines remains unequal and suboptimal, particularly in poorer developing countries. Introduction of new vaccines and long-term sustainability of immunization programs will require proactive planning from conception to implementation. International and national coordination efforts as well as local and cultural factors need to be known and accounted for. Adequate infrastructure should be in place for the monitoring of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness and vaccine safety, based on the common terminology and international consensus. This overview paper aims to raise awareness of the importance of introduction efforts for vaccines of special relevance to resource-poor countries. The target audiences are those involved in immunization programs, from planning or oversight roles to frontline providers, as well as health care professionals.

  3. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  4. OpportunitiesandPerceptionofSpaceProgramsintheDevelopingCountries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- (1) The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. (2) Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lacks the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. (3) The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase. Thanks for listening.

  5. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis Across European Countries.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-04-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the second approach misses the possibility to investigate cross national differences. The present study aims at bringing these two approaches closer together by constructing diversity measures based on the European Social Survey (ESS). The ESS is collected every 2 years since 2002 and includes individual level data that allow replicating earlier measures of ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity for 30 European countries. Furthermore, since respondents are asked to indicate in what region they live, measured with the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics classification, it is possible to construct disaggregated measures. Comparing the new indicators with existing diversity scores leads to the following conclusions. First, the new and old measures are strongly correlated at the national level. Secondly, investigating the relationship between diversity and different kinds of sociality (interpersonal trust, institutional trust, and support for government redistribution) shows that regional diversity is more strongly related to them than diversity at the national level.

  6. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J; Baehni, Pierre C; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-10-01

    Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some developed countries where the periodontal profile is also less than satisfactory. Despite the fact that in several developed countries there are advanced programmes oriented to periodontal disease treatments, the concern is related to the lack of preventive oriented treatments. According to data available on periodontal status of populations from developed countries, despite the number of dentists and trained specialists, dental health professionals do not presently meet adequately the need for prevention, focusing mainly on curative care. The need for strengthening disease prevention and health promotion programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many

  7. Treatment of epilepsy: with special reference to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Osuntokun, B O

    1979-01-01

    1. Epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder, constitutes an important medical problem especially as in the developing countries there is a great dearth and shortage of health personnel, especially trained ones, in clinical neurosciences. The prevalence of epilepsy in developing countries is probably higher than in the Caucasians although accurate epidemiological data are lacking. 2. Epilepsy is discussed with special regard to the need for accurate diagnosis, and the difficulties encountered in developing countries. 3. Pharmacotherapy should be as simple as possible and suggestions are made on the essential drugs useful in the control of epilepsy with special reference to developing countries and in the context of economics and ready availability. Grand mal and focal epilepsies could be controlled by phenobarbitone, with phenytoin, sulthiame and carbamazepine kept as reserves or adjuncts. Minor (generalised) epilepsies could be controlled by ethosuximide, with clonazepam and sodium valproate (sodium dipropylacetate) as reserve drugs and adjuncts. For status epilepticus, diazepam is effective and readily available, with clonazepam and phenytoin as alternatives. 4. The problems in the management of epilepsy in the developing countries include lack of facilities and personnel to ensure accurate diagnosis and treatment, inadequate supply or non-availability of drugs, high defaulting rate of patients, the adverse and often pernicious social stigmatisation of the epileptic. 5. Possible solutions to some of these problems include integration of management (in simple terms) of convulsive disorders into the basic health system of delivery of health care in developing countries, aggressive pursuit of health education of the public by governmental and non-governmental agencies, active, intensive and sustained promotion of training of health personnel in clinical neurosciences and research aimed at producing long-acting anticonvulsants.

  8. Mutual benefits from epilepsy surgery in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayel, M H

    2000-01-01

    The last three decades have seen tremendous progress in the surgical management of patients with intractable epilepsy involving all facets of diagnosis, localization, operative technique, and research. Unfortunately, such progress has taken place and is in operation only in the developed countries of North America, Europe, and Japan. Epilepsy surgery programs in the developing countries of South America, Asia, and particularly Africa, if they exist at all, are the result of the individual efforts of physicians who were fortunate enough to receive their training abroad. These physicians face difficulties in financing their programs and in obtaining the necessary equipment, and they work without the assistance of trained personnel or technicians. The exchange of experience between physicians in developed and developing countries may be mutually beneficial. In the face of the high cost of health care in developed countries, it is unrealistic to expect patients with intractable epilepsy to continue to undergo elaborate investigative procedures indefinitely. On the other hand, physicians in developing countries need to keep updated on the latest technology and research and have to receive the necessary support from developed countries to slowly build up their programs. The global perspective of physicians dealing with epilepsy patients may be broadened by exposure to the experience from the "other side of the fence" and will ultimately lead to better patient education and more focused patient care. PMID:10963474

  9. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  10. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalu, A.; Ventre, G.

    1995-08-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  11. Obstetric infection control in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Cronin, W A; Quansah, M G; Larson, E

    1993-01-01

    In Ghana, infection has been identified as a major cause of birth-related mortality. Results of a 2-month observation of infection control practices among Ghanaian obstetric nurses and midwives indicated that most personnel did not practice basic rules of asepsis. Problems included frequent breaks in technique, inadequate sterilization and disinfection, and repeated exposure to large amounts of blood and vaginal secretions. Supplies were limited and, even when available, not always used appropriately. The situation in developing countries is different from that in the United States. Therefore, an observational needs assessment is essential to plan relevant and practical measures for change.

  12. Does Critical Mass Matter? Women's Political Representation and Child Health in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Liam; Fallon, Kathleen M.; Burgos, Giovani

    2012-01-01

    Studies on developed countries demonstrate that an increase in women legislators leads to a prioritization in health, an increase in social policy spending, and a decrease in poverty. Women representatives could therefore improve development trajectories in developing countries; yet, currently, no cross-national and longitudinal studies explore…

  13. Malnutrition and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Müller, Olaf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Malnutrition, with its 2 constituents of protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, continues to be a major health burden in developing countries. It is globally the most important risk factor for illness and death, with hundreds of millions of pregnant women and young children particularly affected. Apart from marasmus and kwashiorkor (the 2 forms of protein- energy malnutrition), deficiencies in iron, iodine, vitamin A and zinc are the main manifestations of malnutrition in developing countries. In these communities, a high prevalence of poor diet and infectious disease regularly unites into a vicious circle. Although treatment protocols for severe malnutrition have in recent years become more efficient, most patients (especially in rural areas) have little or no access to formal health services and are never seen in such settings. Interventions to prevent protein- energy malnutrition range from promoting breast-feeding to food supplementation schemes, whereas micronutrient deficiencies would best be addressed through food-based strategies such as dietary diversification through home gardens and small livestock. The fortification of salt with iodine has been a global success story, but other micronutrient supplementation schemes have yet to reach vulnerable populations sufficiently. To be effective, all such interventions require accompanying nutrition-education campaigns and health interventions. To achieve the hunger- and malnutrition-related Millennium Development Goals, we need to address poverty, which is clearly associated with the insecure supply of food and nutrition.

  14. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  15. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  16. Population and growth causality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kapuria-foreman, V

    1995-07-01

    This study empirically tests the null hypotheses of no causality between population growth and economic growth and of no causality between economic growth and population growth in 15 developing countries. The model follows the Cheng Hsiao form with lag lengths to minimize Akaike's Final Prediction Error (FPE). Equations are run separately for each country. Lag lengths and Granger causality test were chosen according to three steps. 1) Each of the variables was regressed on its own lagged values with a maximum lag of five years. A lag length was chosen that minimized FPE, which was calculated for each regression. 2) Bivariate regressions were run with a fixed lag length for population growth and mixed lag lengths for the other variable, until the lag length which minimized FPE was determined. 3) The last step involved checking the lag length of population growth by keeping the lag fixed for economic growth. The economic growth measure was gross domestic product per capita. Findings indicate that in seven countries the null hypothesis of no causality between population growth and economic growth, either positive or negative, cannot be rejected (Ghana, Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Philippines, Syria, Thailand, and Argentina). In Nepal, India, China, Guatemala, Peru, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico lagged values of population growth improve predictions of economic growth. Higher economic growth has no significant effect on population growth rates in Nepal, Bolivia, Philippines, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, Argentina, and Mexico. Interaction between economic growth and population growth was found in India, China, Turkey, and Chile. The direction of causation tests indicate that population growth has a significant positive impact on income growth in China, Guatemala, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico. India shows a negative impact of population growth on income. A significant negative impact of economic growth on population growth is evident only in Sri Lanka. There is weak evidence of a

  17. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  18. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  19. Money, Sociability and Happiness: Are Developed Countries Doomed to Social Erosion and Unhappiness? Time-Series Analysis of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Western Europe, Australia, Canada and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarracino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Discovering whether social capital endowments in modern societies have been subjected or not to a process of gradual erosion is one of the most debated topics in recent economic literature. Inaugurated by Putnam's pioneering studies, the debate on social capital trends has been recently revived by Stevenson and Wolfers (2008) contending…

  20. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Andrew J

    2015-06-19

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge.

  1. Modernity, postmodernity and disability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lysack, C

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the implications of two theoretical perspectives, modernity and postmodernity, for provision of community-based disability services in developing countries. The author argues that modernity's embrace of the 'wonders' of science and technology have significantly affected our understanding of what community is. Modernity, in fact, leads us to view communities in one of two major ways: as inferior, or as ideal. Both views are deeply flawed. Postmodernity's profound scepticism of truth claims and authority provides a useful critique of community conceived in modern terms. The critique is helpful to the extent that it reveals the power of language in constructing our ideas of community. It also highlights a new way of thinking about participation, individualism and choice in community disability initiatives. PMID:9226495

  2. Modernity, postmodernity and disability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lysack, C

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the implications of two theoretical perspectives, modernity and postmodernity, for provision of community-based disability services in developing countries. The author argues that modernity's embrace of the 'wonders' of science and technology have significantly affected our understanding of what community is. Modernity, in fact, leads us to view communities in one of two major ways: as inferior, or as ideal. Both views are deeply flawed. Postmodernity's profound scepticism of truth claims and authority provides a useful critique of community conceived in modern terms. The critique is helpful to the extent that it reveals the power of language in constructing our ideas of community. It also highlights a new way of thinking about participation, individualism and choice in community disability initiatives.

  3. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, B; Barrios, J A; Mendez, J M; Diaz, J

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible for more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision on the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of these issues.

  4. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  5. Childrearing discipline and violence in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The prevalence of each response varied widely across countries, as did the amount of variance accounted for by country in relation to each response. Country-level indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment, and economic well-being were related to several responses to children's behavior. Country-level factors are widely related to parents' methods of teaching children good behavior and responding to misbehavior.

  6. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and violence, and the home environment addressing two common questions: How do developing and underresearched countries in the world vary with respect to these central indicators of children's development? and How do key indicators of national development relate to child development in each of these substantive areas? The Special Section concludes with policy implications from the international findings. PMID:22277004

  7. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  8. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  9. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  10. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world. PMID:21415899

  11. Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D; Paskin, R; Gutiérrez, M; Kasterine, A

    2005-08-01

    Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and poultry sectors from three countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows that at present there is only a small trade in these products but that this can have a major effect at a national level. In the beef export trade from Namibia, the existence of the only assurance scheme in Africa setting standards in hygiene, veterinary care and animal welfare has created a trusted, safe and healthy product and ensured that Namibia has grown into Africa's largest exporter of beef to the European Union. In Thailand, the broiler industry, which has enjoyed annual growth in the past 15 years, is developing value-added products to develop markets to counter competition from other countries. The development and implementation of standards for organic products in both Thailand and Argentina over the past decade have also resulted in growth in the export markets of these products. The paper concludes that there is growth potential for the sectors in all three markets which can be assisted by the development of OIE baseline standards.

  12. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  13. 48 CFR 25.404 - Least developed countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Least developed countries... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.404 Least developed countries. For acquisitions covered by the WTO GPA, least developed country end products, construction material, and services must...

  14. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. PMID:20575152

  15. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  16. Country Life and the Country School: A Study of the Agencies of Rural Progress and of the Social Relationship of the School to the Country Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Mabel

    Written in 1912, this book addresses the role of teachers in improving rural farm life. Rural-to-urban migration had resulted in the loss of leadership from rural localities and the decline of agriculture, and country life had lost its prestige both socially and economically. This book suggests that the country school is the key to achieving…

  17. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis in a developing country: is it different from developed countries?

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Semaan, Toufic; El Hag, Imad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective. Despite the extensive reporting of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) from industrialized developed countries, reports from developing countries are rare. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic features of EoE and response to therapy in children and adults from a developing country, Saudi Arabia. Methods. We identified patients diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2011. EoE was defined as esophageal mucosal infiltration with a peak eosinophil count ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field. Results. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EoE (37 children and 8 adults; 36 males; median age 10.5 years, range from 1-37 years). Feeding difficulty, vomiting/regurgitation, and failure to thrive predominated in young children, whereas dysphagia and food impactions predominated in older children and adults. Allergy testing revealed food sensitization in 12 of 15 patients (80%); 3 responded to elemental formula, while 8 failed to respond to dietary manipulation after the allergy testing. Thirty-nine patients achieved remission by swallowed inhaled fluticasone. The majority of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms upon the discontinuation of fluticasone. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EoE is increasingly recognized in Saudi Arabia and show many similarities to data from North America and Europe.

  19. Instructional Development: A Social Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwen, Thomas M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Concepts and methods for analyzing the social system and recent advances in the technical functions of development are discussed. Four development functions are highlighted: management of the development process, formal analysis, strategy specification, and evaluation. (Author)

  20. Illustrative Statistics on Women in Selected Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimer, Thomas; Bachu, Amara

    Data pertaining to some basic aspects of women's participation in selected developing countries are presented in 13 charts, arranged alphabetically by region and country within region. Countries in each of the three major developing regions--Africa, Asia, and Latin America--are included when possible. Each chart presents data for a single topic in…

  1. Building up indigenous technological capabilities in African developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lubunga, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    For all the vast natural resources and the praiseworthy efforts of governments and peoples, the African economy still remains basically underdeveloped. Faced with this situation, there have been increased awareness and concern in recent years among political leaders, decision-makers, and socioeconomic planners of the fact that the chronic low-level productivity in almost all spheres of economic activity in that region can be attributed, to a large extent, to the low level of indigenous capability and appropriate utilization of science and technology. Few countries in Africa, however, as yet have a science and technology policy formulated toward long-term goals and objectives, and for overall economic and social development. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop progressively the systems and methodology for identifying, selecting, and planning indigenous scientific and technological activity. International cooperation can be useful, but only within the context of a strong national capability. 14 references.

  2. Some ethical issues in international collaborative research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robison, V A

    1998-12-01

    This report deals with some of the ethical issues involved in international, intercultural research collaboration. Externally sponsored research in developing countries merits special attention because the research should be guided both by biomedical ethics and development ethics. The report presents the context of the developing country researcher and examples of ethical problems in a donor-funded research collaboration project in a developing country dental school. Both donor and recipient countries share full responsibility for conducting research which is both ethical and which meets the health priorities of the recipient country. PMID:9881288

  3. Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akubue, Anthony I.

    2001-01-01

    Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

  4. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  5. Teacher Labor Markets in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries--an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly,…

  6. Indoor air pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, B H; Hong, C J; Pandey, M R; Smith, K R

    1990-01-01

    Of the four principal categories of indoor pollution (combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals), research in developing countries has focused on combustion-generated pollutants, and principally those from solid-fuel-fired cooking and heating stoves. Such stoves are used in more than half the world's households and have been shown in many locations to produce high indoor concentrations of particulates, carbon monoxide and other combustion-related pollutants. Although the proportion of all such household stoves that are used in poorly ventilated situations is uncertain, the total population exposed to excessive concentrations is potentially high, probably several hundred million. A number of studies were carried out in the 1980s to discover the health effects of such stove exposures. The majority of such studies were done in South Asia in homes burning biomass fuels or in China with coal-burning homes, although a sprinkling of studies examining biomass-burning have been done in Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Of the health effects that might be expected from such exposures, little, if any, work seems to have been done on low birthweight and eye problems, although there are anecdotal accounts making the connection. Decreased lung function has been noted in Nepali women reporting more time spent near the stove as it has for Chinese women using coal stoves as compared to those using gas stoves. Respiratory distress symptoms have been associated with use of smoky fuels in West India, Ladakh and in several Chinese studies among different age groups, some with large population samples. Acute respiratory infection in children, one of the chief causes of infant and childhood mortality, has been associated with Nepali household-smoke exposures. Studies of chronic disease endpoints are difficult because of the need to construct exposure histories over long periods. Nevertheless, chronic obstructive lung disease has been associated with the daily time spent near

  7. Operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Lin; Routray, Jayant K

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews relevant literature on the sustainability indicators theoretically proposed and practically applied by scholars over the past 15 years. Although progress is being made in the development and critical analysis of sustainability indicators, in many cases existing or proposed indicators are not the most sensitive or useful measures in developing countries. Indicator selection needs to meet the following criteria: relative availability of data representing the indicators, sensitivity to stresses on the system, existence of threshold values and guidelines, predictivity, integratability and known response to disturbances, anthropogenic stresses, and changes over time. Based on these criteria, this paper proposes a set of operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing countries. These indicators include ecological indicators involving amounts of fertilizers and pesticides used, irrigation water used, soil nutrient content, depth to the groundwater table, water use efficiency, quality of groundwater for irrigation, and nitrate content of both groundwater and crops. Economic indicators include crop productivity, net farm income, benefit-cost ratio of production, and per capita food grain production. Social indicators encompass food self-sufficiency, equality in food and income distribution among farmers, access to resources and support services, and farmers' knowledge and awareness of resource conservation. This article suggests that the selection of indicators representing each aspect of sustainability should be prioritized according to spatial and temporal characteristics under consideration.

  8. Developing countries: Non-nuclear energy technology. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning generation of non-nuclear energy technology developed and used by developing countries. Technical, social, economic, and commercial aspects are presented. Applications in the solar, geothermal, synfuels, ocean thermal, and wind power energy industries are discussed. Forecasts and future prospects for these energy industries in developing countries are included. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries.

  10. Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Lyndsey R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children's adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children's social competence, internalizing, and…

  11. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual risks and social determinants

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jeon, Christie Y; Cohen, Ted; Murray, Megan B

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence supports the role of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evidence from developing countries with the highest TB burdens is lacking. In developing countries, TB is most common among the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk, social determinants and population health in these settings. Methods We performed individual-level analyses using the World Health Survey (n = 124 607; 46 countries). We estimated the relationship between TB and diabetes, adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, education, housing quality, crowding and health insurance. We also performed a longitudinal country-level analysis using data on per-capita gross domestic product and TB prevalence and incidence and diabetes prevalence for 1990–95 and 2003–04 (163 countries) to estimate the relationship between increasing diabetes prevalence and TB, identifying countries at risk for disease interactions. Results In lower income countries, individuals with diabetes are more likely than non-diabetics to have TB [univariable odds ratio (OR): 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84–3.10; multivariable OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.37–2.39]. Increases in TB prevalence and incidence over time were more likely to occur when diabetes prevalence also increased (OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 1.0–22.5; OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 1.9–40.4). Large populations, prevalent TB and projected increases in diabetes make countries like India, Peru and the Russia Federation areas of particular concern. Conclusions Given the association between diabetes and TB and projected increases in diabetes worldwide, multi-disease health policies should be considered. PMID:21252210

  12. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  13. Inclusion Education and the Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Gholam

    2005-01-01

    Following the trends of "Inclusion" movement in the USA and some Western countries, a number of Developing countries have been imbued with the philosophy of inclusion education. Some of these countries have enacted laws to safeguard the educational rights and welfare of children with disabilities, and others have been trying to initiate inclusion…

  14. Creating World-Class Universities: Implications for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are now creating world-class universities (WCUs) as essential parts of their higher education reform agendas, and as national goals. It is legitimate to ask whether every country that aspires to build a WCU can do so--especially developing countries. To answer this question, this paper provides a three-step framework. The first step…

  15. The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

  16. Assessing the nutritional vulnerability of older people in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The nutrition of older people in developing countries, and the effect of their nutritional status on the quality of life, have not received sufficient attention. A 1997 symposium held at the London (England) School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine addressed the assessment of nutritional vulnerability in older people in rural and urban settings. Reported were the results of a collaborative study conducted in the urban slums of Mumbai, India; a refugee camp for Rwandans in Karagwe, Tanzania; and rural communities in Malawi. Physical impairment was highest in India and increased with both age and deteriorating nutritional status in all three settings. Among the risk factors for nutritional vulnerability identified through the study to date are living alone, social isolation, reduced food intake, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and certain diseases. A field handbook to assess nutritional vulnerability has been prepared based on the research program and will be published in 1988. PMID:12293175

  17. The Case for Research in Pure Physics in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mweene, H. V.

    Science and technology are the keys to modern economic development. But, it has often been argued that poor countries cannot really afford to support research, or that they should at most devote their efforts to applied science only. The scientific knowledge necessary for development would then be partly or wholly obtained from other countries. In this paper, the case will be argued that developing countries cannot afford to leave research, both pure and applied, to the developed countries and that the only way the developing world is going to solve its problems is through development driven by their own research activities. With reference to physics, the importance of research by researchers in poor countries is explained. Lastly, it is outlined how the logistics of doing research under the difficult conditions prevailing in poor countries can be managed.

  18. A Manner of Characterizing the Development of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Robert; Montroll, Elliott W.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize the socio-economic state and the temporal evolution of countries by the use of labor force distribution data on a multidimensional phase plot so that the development of a country is represented by an evolutionary track of a phase point. The evolutionary tracks of several countries are examined, and the phase points of many countries are compared. Snowflake diagrams, which make easy comparison of the socio-economic character of various countries, have also been developed. PMID:16592022

  19. Communication for extension: developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A J

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication.

  20. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  1. Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Boland, R

    1990-01-01

    An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws.

  2. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  3. Issues in natural resources management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thapa, G B; Weber, K E

    1994-05-01

    The use and management of public and private natural resources is greatly affected by institutional, politicoeconomic, and socioeconomic factors. These factors operate in tandem at the household, regional, national, and international levels in affecting resource management. Any policy that focuses only on one dimension of the problem, such as population growth, and ignores such issues as poverty, environmentally unsuitable cropping systems, and the unavailability of nonfarm employment opportunities will be inadequate. National policies must consider structural factors: resource use, property rights regimes, poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and population growth. A comprehensive strategy should account for these structural features, be tailored to regional circumstances, and have the input of local governments. Local governments and communities must be in a position to implement and monitor resource management. Hardin identified common property as a major contributor to land degradation and declining forest resources in developing countries. Only with a common agreement by the community to invest in planting trees and managing pastures can communal lands benefit multiple users in the long and short run. Social forestry projects have failed due to poor community participation, fragmented communities, poor social organization, and disputes over the distribution of profits. Traditional communal hunting and gathering activities adhered to institutional regulation; with the inception of urbanization, industrialization, and monetization of agriculture, the destruction of forests and pasture began. There was an increased need for food for the urban population; a small and powerful group of politicians, social leaders, and administrators retained access to public or "crown" lands and disenfranchised small and marginal farmers and the landless poor from previously accessible lands. Land redistribution schemes have not effectively distributed land resources. Commercial

  4. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  5. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  6. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level. PMID:25174731

  7. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with the level of the non-poor within countries, but also across countries. This is an application of the method presented in Grimm et al. (World Development 36(12):2527–2546, 2008) to a sample of 21 low and middle income countries and 11 industrialized countries. In particular the inclusion of the industrialized countries, which were not included in the previous work, implies to deal with a number of additional challenges, which we outline in this paper. Our results show that inequality in human development within countries is high, both in developed and industrialized countries. In fact, the HDI of the lowest quintiles in industrialized countries is often below the HDI of the richest quintile in many middle income countries. We also find, however, a strong overall negative correlation between the level of human development and inequality in human development. PMID:20461123

  8. Chemicals and environmentally caused diseases in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Jamall, I.S.; Davis, B. )

    1991-06-01

    This chapter discusses international aspects of diseases resulting from exposure to chemical pollutants in the environment, with an emphasis on developing countries. These countries share many of the same problems of air, water, and pesticide pollution that face the more industrialized countries. In developing countries, however, the problems are compounded by a number of unique situations, viz., economic priorities, high burden of infectious diseases, impoverishment, and absence of a regulatory framework for the disposal of toxic chemicals. This discussion emphasizes the importance of interactions among toxicants, malnutrition, and infectious diseases for both urban and rural populations insofar as these interactions contribute to disease. Toxicants not only produce disease directly but also exacerbate diseases with other causes. Specific examples from developing countries demonstrate how human health effects from exposures to environmental chemicals can be assessed. While they do not strictly fall under the rubric of developing countries, the public health consequences of inadequate control of environmental pollution in the East European countries should demonstrate the magnitude of the problem, except that in developing countries the public health consequence of environmental chemicals will be aggravated by the widespread malnutrition and high prevalence of infectious diseases. Much needs to be done before we can adequately quantify the contribution of environmental chemicals to morbidity and mortality in developing countries with the level of sophistication now evident in the charting of infectious diseases in these countries. 52 references.

  9. On the Use of Social Clocks for the Monitoring of Multidimensional Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Georg P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new methodology for monitoring multidimensional social development using social clocks: comparisons with so called reference trajectories make it possible to establish the development stage of a country along a number of independent time axes, thus affording new opportunities for analyzing leads, lags, and asynchronies…

  10. The Principalship in Developing Countries: Context, Characteristics and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to shed light on the contexts and characteristics of principalship in developing countries, as well as to examine similarities and differences between principals in developed and developing countries. Twenty-seven papers constitute the data on which external influences on principalship, patterns of leadership styles and…

  11. Value Conflicts in Computing Developments: Developed and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Rob

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the value conflicts engendered by computing developments in two different institutional settings: electronic funds transfer systems and instructional computing in primary and secondary schools. While specific values depend upon culture and upon the character of the particular institutional setting studied, these two cases serve…

  12. Innovations and Reforms in Schooling in Asia's Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of problems facing Asia's developing countries as they strive to achieve economic development. Reviews trends in universal primary education; continuing education; restructuring secondary education; communications technology, vocational education, and professional development of teachers. (CFR)

  13. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    PubMed

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products. PMID:17286015

  14. Domain specificity in social interactions, social thought, and social development.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov (this issue) have taken good steps in formulating a domain-specific view of parent-child interactions. This commentary supports the introduction of domain specificity to analyses of parenting. Their formulation is an advance over formulations that characterized parental practices globally. This commentary calls for inclusion of definitions of the classification system of domain-specific interactions and criteria for each domain. It is also maintained that Grusec and Davidov's domains of social interaction imply that processes of development are involved, along with socialization; that bidirectionality in parent-child relations needs to be extended to include mutual influences and the construction of domains of social thought; and that conflicts and opposition within families coexist with compliance and social harmony.

  15. Communication for extension: developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A J

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication. PMID:12268503

  16. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  17. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis across European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the…

  18. "Health for all" in a least-developed country.

    PubMed Central

    Shonubi, Aderibigbe M. O.; Odusan, Olatunde; Oloruntoba, David O.; Agbahowe, Solomon A.; Siddique, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) concept of primary healthcare as the basis for comprehensive healthcare delivery for developing countries has not been effectively applied in many of these countries. The Kingdom of Lesotho, one of the world's least-developed countries, has been able to provide a fairly comprehensive healthcare system for its citizenry based on prmary healthcare principles and a strong commitment on the part of the government despite severe limitations of finance and human resource capacity as well as difficult mountainous terrains. This paper presents the highlights of this system of healthcare delivery with the hope that other developing countries would draw some lessons from the model. PMID:16080673

  19. Postmortem sperm retrieval in context of developing countries of Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Murty, O P; Bardale, Rajesh V

    2016-01-01

    There was a request for postmortem sperm retrieval (PMSR) from the wife of a deceased, but we had to decline. We have no guideline in place for the procedure in such cases. When we explored the international scenario on the issue of PMSR, we found that most of the developed countries have their guidelines about it, whether to allow or not to. There is not guideline available in developing countries, as such, for the procedure and various medical, legal, and social issues related thereto. In this article, we have explored the status of postmortem retrieval and feasibility of the procedure in developing countries of Indian subcontinent. PMID:27382231

  20. Postmortem sperm retrieval in context of developing countries of Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Murty, O. P.; Bardale, Rajesh V.

    2016-01-01

    There was a request for postmortem sperm retrieval (PMSR) from the wife of a deceased, but we had to decline. We have no guideline in place for the procedure in such cases. When we explored the international scenario on the issue of PMSR, we found that most of the developed countries have their guidelines about it, whether to allow or not to. There is not guideline available in developing countries, as such, for the procedure and various medical, legal, and social issues related thereto. In this article, we have explored the status of postmortem retrieval and feasibility of the procedure in developing countries of Indian subcontinent. PMID:27382231

  1. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  2. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Social Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  3. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  4. Control of oral cancer in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world. In Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka it is the most common and accounts for about a third of all cancers. More than 100 000 new cases occur every year in south and south-east Asia, with poor prospects of survival. The importance of oral cancer as a public health priority is underscored by the fact that the suffering, disfigurement, and death it causes need not occur. The commonest cause of oral cancer—tobacco use—is well known and can be eliminated. For the oral cancer cases that do occur, detection at an early stage is possible, allowing simple inexpensive treatment, and resulting in long-term survival. Enough is already known about the disease and its prevention for action to be taken. With firm commitment, correct priorities, and concerted efforts by governments and individuals, strategies can be designed, programmes can be implemented, and the disease can be prevented. The economic saving in health care costs to a country, by itself, justifies these steps; the prevention of suffering and death of oral cancer victims makes them mandatory. This article reviews the current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of oral cancer. It describes a strategy for controlling the disease, sets priorities, and recommends actions that governments and individuals can take. Finally, it identifies targets for future research. PMID:6335843

  5. Performance-Centered Design for Developing Countries: Emphasizing Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance-centered design (PCD) for developing countries and demonstrates how the process of internationalization and localization needs to go beyond the traditional functionality checklists of culture and language. Describes how the unique nature of developing country economic, human capacity, and infrastructure contexts has to be…

  6. A Perspective from Developing Countries. Background Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunsheye, F. Adetowun

    This paper describes the problems, services, and role of school libraries and media centers in the developing countries, and an experimental research project at the Abadina Media Resource Center (AMRC) in Nigeria. Six problems facing developing countries in the provision of school media services are discussed. An overview of the present state of…

  7. Outcomes of Students with Disabilities in a Developing Country: Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sheilah M.

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, research studies that investigate the effects of special education on student outcomes have become conventional practice. However, in developing countries such as the twin-island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, there are no studies about the progress and outcomes of students and youths with disabilities. This…

  8. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  9. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  10. Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries: Impact on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Retia Scott

    1988-01-01

    Women are the primary producers of food in developing countries and can be empowered to become catalysts in the struggle to combat world hunger. It is important to understand the problem and the barriers women face and to appreciate the progress made by women in developing countries. (JOW)

  11. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Regional Disparities in Primary School Participation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joel D.

    2008-01-01

    Education for All has focused international attention on the goals of universal primary education and improved education quality. However, national indicators related to these goals often mask significant differences among demographic and social groups, as well as among geographical regions within countries. This paper, based on a study…

  13. Mobiles for Literacy in Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Castillo, Nathan M.; Murphy, Katie M.; Crofton, Molly; Zahra, Fatima Tuz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the advent of low-cost digital and mobile devices has led to a strong expansion of social interventions, including those that try to improve student learning and literacy outcomes. Many of these are focused on improving reading in low-income countries, and particularly among the most disadvantaged. Some of these early efforts have…

  14. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services. PMID:18797803

  15. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.

  16. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  17. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  18. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  19. Strengthening blood programs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Terri Konstenius; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The lack of an adequate and safe blood supply is a major limitation to health care in the developing world. It is estimated that about 80% of the worlds' population has access to only 20% of the world's blood supply. When experts from the developed world attempt to provide assistance to blood programs in the developing world, this must be done with respect for the situation and the people who often work under difficult conditions. Important factors in the potential to strengthen blood availability and safety are government support, a national blood policy, the nature and leadership of the blood organization, transfusion medicine expertise, and hospital relations. A key first step is to carry out a needs assessment of the policies, governmental support, organizations, public attitudes about blood donation, and personnel and operations involved in providing the current blood supply. The important facets of the assessment are: the tool itself, the manner in which the assessment is conducted, and the presentation of the results. The assessment should provide recommendations for infrastructure, operations, standard procedures, testing strategies, training programs, types of donors and donor recruitment, budgeting, quality systems, and hospital relations. A sound assessment provides the groundwork and strategy for moving forward. Technical assistance from developed world experts to colleagues in the developing world can be extremely valuable in improving blood availability, safety, and the quality of blood services in the developing world.

  20. The Role of Health Systems and Policy in Producing Behavior and Social Change to Enhance Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Examination of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Luis F.; Sanitato, Mary; Barry, Donna; Alilio, Martin; Apfel, Franklin; Coe, Gloria; Garcia, Amparo; Kaufman, Michelle; Klein, Jonathan; Kutlesic, Vesna; Meadowcroft, Lisa; Nilsen, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Gael; Peterson, Stefan; Raiten, Daniel; Vorkoper, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based behavior change interventions addressing health systems must be identified and disseminated to improve child health outcomes. Studies of the efficacy of such interventions were identified from systematic searches of the published literature. Two hundred twenty-nine of the initially identified references were judged to be relevant and were further reviewed for the quality and strength of the evidence. Studies were eligible if an intervention addressed policy or health systems interventions, measured relevant behavioral or health outcomes (e.g., nutrition, childhood immunization, malaria prevention and treatment), used at least a moderate quality research design, and were implemented in low- or middle-income countries. Policy or systems interventions able to produce behavior change reviewed included media (e.g., mass media, social media), community mobilization, educational programs (for caregivers, communities, or providers), social marketing, opinion leadership, economic incentives (for both caregiver and provider), health systems strengthening/policy/legislation, and others. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research are given based on fairly strong data across the areas of health service delivery, health workforce, health financing, governance and leadership, and research. PMID:25207449

  1. The role of health systems and policy in producing behavior and social change to enhance child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Luis F; Sanitato, Mary; Barry, Donna; Alilio, Martin; Apfel, Franklin; Coe, Gloria; Garcia, Amparo; Kaufman, Michelle; Klein, Jonathan; Kutlesic, Vesna; Meadowcroft, Lisa; Nilsen, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Gael; Peterson, Stefan; Raiten, Daniel; Vorkoper, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based behavior change interventions addressing health systems must be identified and disseminated to improve child health outcomes. Studies of the efficacy of such interventions were identified from systematic searches of the published literature. Two hundred twenty-nine of the initially identified references were judged to be relevant and were further reviewed for the quality and strength of the evidence. Studies were eligible if an intervention addressed policy or health systems interventions, measured relevant behavioral or health outcomes (e.g., nutrition, childhood immunization, malaria prevention and treatment), used at least a moderate quality research design, and were implemented in low- or middle-income countries. Policy or systems interventions able to produce behavior change reviewed included media (e.g., mass media, social media), community mobilization, educational programs (for caregivers, communities, or providers), social marketing, opinion leadership, economic incentives (for both caregiver and provider), health systems strengthening/policy/legislation, and others. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research are given based on fairly strong data across the areas of health service delivery, health workforce, health financing, governance and leadership, and research.

  2. Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice.

    PubMed Central

    Olweny, C

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary issues such as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation and gene therapy, which occupy the minds of ethicists in the industrialized countries are, for the moment, irrelevant in most developing countries. There, the ethics of scarcity, sacrifice, cross-cultural research, as well as the activities of multinational companies, are germane. In this article, only the ethics of scarcity and sacrifice will be discussed. Structural adjustment programmes, designed to solve the economic problems of the developing countries, muddied the waters. The dilemma confronting practitioners in developing countries is how to adhere to the basic principles of medical ethics in an atmosphere of hunger, poverty, war and ever-shrinking and often non-existent resources. Nowhere else in the world is the true meaning of scarcity portrayed as vividly as in the developing countries. Consequently, the doctor's clinical freedom may have to be sacrificed by the introduction of an essential drugs list and practice guidelines. The principle of greater good, while appealing, must be carefully interpreted and applied in the developing countries. Thus, while health promotion and disease prevention must be the primary focus, health planners should avoid pushing prevention at the expense of those currently sick. Health care reform in developing countries must not merely re-echo what is being done in the industrialized countries, but must respond to societal needs and be relevant to the community in question. PMID:7996563

  3. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  4. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  5. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  6. Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Morel, Carlos M; Acharya, Tara; Broun, Denis; Dangi, Ajit; Elias, Christopher; Ganguly, N K; Gardner, Charles A; Gupta, R K; Haycock, Jane; Heher, Anthony D; Hotez, Peter J; Kettler, Hannah E; Keusch, Gerald T; Krattiger, Anatole F; Kreutz, Fernando T; Lall, Sanjaya; Lee, Keun; Mahoney, Richard; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo; Mashelkar, R A; Matlin, Stephen A; Mzimba, Mandi; Oehler, Joachim; Ridley, Robert G; Senanayake, Pramilla; Singer, Peter; Yun, Mikyung

    2005-07-15

    Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation.

  7. Academic Patents and Access to Medicines in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is a widespread and growing concern that patents hinder access to life-saving drugs in developing countries. Recent student movements and legislative initiatives emphasize the potential role that research universities in developed countries could have in ameliorating this “access gap.” These efforts are based on the assumption that universities own patents on a substantial number of drugs and that patents on these drugs are currently filed in developing countries. I provide empirical evidence regarding these issues and explore the feasibility and desirability of proposals to change university patenting and licensing practices to promote access to medicines in the developing world. PMID:19008514

  8. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  9. Food from developing countries: steps to improve compliance.

    PubMed

    Horton, L R

    1998-01-01

    Developing countries seeking to expand their exports often turn to food exports and seek to market these products in developed countries such as the United States. To be successful, developing countries must overcome an array of obstacles, including the need to comply with the food safety and other requirements of the importing country. This article discusses how compliance with international food norms and national food laws benefits exporting and importing countries, what trends in food trade influence measures to deal with food problems, and what categories of controls are available to deal with good products offered for importation. The article concludes by outlining several suggested steps that can be taken to improve the likelihood of acceptability of food offered for importation. These steps include assessing the needs of the importing country and improving the physical, legal, and technical infrastructure in various ways. Technical assistance from developed countries and international organizations can assist developing countries, but such assistance needs to be carefully designed and coordinated. PMID:11795330

  10. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  11. Social factors associated with centenarian rate (CR) in 32 OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last fifty years, the number of centenarians has dramatically increased. The centenarian rate (CR) is representative of the general longevity prevalent in a nation; it indicates the number of individuals aged 100 years or above at a given date divided by the size of the corresponding cohort of a given age. Two important attributes of the CR (50–54) are that it reflects both unchanged age-specific fertility and the absence of migration in populations. It can generally be used in longevity-based evaluations of the broader concept of successful ageing. As such, this retrospective analysis of the social factors that contribute to the CR (50–54) may help to identify the factors associated with successful ageing. This study estimates the CR (50–54) and elucidates the influence of social factors on successful ageing and the CR (50–54), examining 32 member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Methods The social indicators for this study were obtained from the United Nations database. The data for the analysis of centenarians in the 32 OECD countries were obtained from the world population prospects conducted by the United Nations. Associations between social factors and CR (50–54) were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the CR (50–54) and the social factors of expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (HEGDP: r = 0.411, p < 0.021), general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure (GGEH: r = 0.474, p < 0.006), the proportion of fixed-telephone subscriptions in the population (FTS: r = 0.489, p < 0.005), and the human development index (HDI: r = 0.486, p < 0.005). Finally, these CR (50–54) predictors were used to form a model of successful ageing, with higher HEGDP and GGEH as health expenditure, higher FTS as

  12. Appropriate Technology and Information Services in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Examines reasons for the failure to bring about massive and direct transfers of advanced technology to developing countries. Certain necessary conditions for success require that the project be seen as (1) relevant to the client country (2) consistent with local attitudes, practices and traditions (3) capable of producting some visible and useful…

  13. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  14. Radio and Television for Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Dean T.

    The potential role of radio and television in improving equity and efficiency in the delivery of education in developing countries is discussed. The following four sections discuss major educational issues and reforms involving the use of instructional television and radio in countries such as American Samoa, El Salvador, and the Ivory Coast: (1)…

  15. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  16. How the United States exports managed care to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C

    2001-01-01

    As their expansion slows in the United States, managed care organizations will continue to enter new markets abroad. Investors view the opening of managed care in Latin America as a lucrative business opportunity. As public-sector services and social security funds are cut back, privatized, and reorganized under managed care, with the support of international lending agencies such as the World Bank, the effects of these reforms on access to preventive and curative services will hold great importance throughout the developing world. Many groups in Latin America are working on alternative projects that defend health as a public good, and similar movements have begun in Africa and Asia. Increasingly, this organizing is being recognized not only as part of a class struggle but also as part of a struggle against economic imperialism--which has now taken on the new appearance of rescuing less developed countries from rising health care costs and inefficient bureaucracies through the imposition of neoliberal managed-care solutions exported from the United States. PMID:11562002

  17. How the United States exports managed care to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C

    2001-01-01

    As their expansion slows in the United States, managed care organizations will continue to enter new markets abroad. Investors view the opening of managed care in Latin America as a lucrative business opportunity. As public-sector services and social security funds are cut back, privatized, and reorganized under managed care, with the support of international lending agencies such as the World Bank, the effects of these reforms on access to preventive and curative services will hold great importance throughout the developing world. Many groups in Latin America are working on alternative projects that defend health as a public good, and similar movements have begun in Africa and Asia. Increasingly, this organizing is being recognized not only as part of a class struggle but also as part of a struggle against economic imperialism--which has now taken on the new appearance of rescuing less developed countries from rising health care costs and inefficient bureaucracies through the imposition of neoliberal managed-care solutions exported from the United States.

  18. Optics education in a developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonathan, Enock

    2005-10-01

    An optics laboratory plays a critical role in optics education. A major challenge for optics educators in Africa is the shortage or non-availability of laboratory teaching equipment. Optics teaching equipment is beyond the budget of most universities in the developing world such as the new National University of Science and Technology in Zimbabwe. The paper details a successful strategy - local fabrication/assembling of optics laboratory teaching aids - adopted by the Applied Physics Department at Zimbabwe's National University of Science and Technology. Students and technical staff under the guidance of an academic member of staff do equipment fabrication and assembling. The paper describes some of the project-type set-ups for performing experiments on (1) laser light scattering and impurity determination; (2) industrial imaging inspection (3) light transmission and reflection and (4) refractive index measurement.

  19. Appropriate waste management for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Curi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This First International symposium presents information on the following topics: environmental technology, environmental management, appropriate sanitation technology, development of low-waste and waste-free technologies, reliability engineering, recycling of wastes of production and consumption, biological treatment of urban and industrial effluents, surface characteristics of biological solids, sludge methods, treatment of piggery wastes, sewage derived methane as a vehicle fuel, anaerobic treatment of olive oil wastewater, and treatment of wastewater from the Egyptian canning industry. Other topics of discussion include: purification of refinery wastes by means of flocculation with ferric chloride, current issues in hazardous chemical waste disposal, the use of plastic outfalls as a low-cost waste disposal alternative, and retentivity of copper from waste effluents.

  20. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  1. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Cosivi, O.; Grange, J. M.; Daborn, C. J.; Raviglione, M. C.; Fujikura, T.; Cousins, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Huchzermeyer, H. F.; de Kantor, I.; Meslin, F. X.

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable; therefore, many epidemiologic and public health aspects of infection remain largely unknown. We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. PMID:9452399

  2. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world’s 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries. PMID:27167738

  3. Social insurance provisions for children with disabilities in selected industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Zeitzer, I R

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, low-income families who have a child or children with a disability may be eligible for cash benefits payable under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In the last few years, the number of these children on the SSI rolls has increased dramatically due, in large part, to new standards developed in response to a 1990 Supreme Court decision and the subsequent retroactive activity as a result of that decision. The rise in the number of child beneficiaries has led to increased concerns as to whether cash benefits are the best way to help these children and their families deal with the additional needs and expenses caused by disabilities. This article begins with a summary of recent American developments regarding the childhood disability issue as background to an exploration of comparative practices. In light of the current interest in the United States concerning children with disabilities, it seems timely to explore the approaches used by other countries' social insurance programs. This study details the practices and provisions of 14 European countries and 4 other developed countries (Australia, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand). In addition to examining the variables involved in making cash benefits available and awarding them to families on behalf of disabled children, the article also provides information on in-kind benefits to which such families would be entitled and gives some insight as to the philosophy and policy goals of selected foreign programs.

  4. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  5. A decade of improvement in pain education and clinical practice in developing countries: IASP initiatives.

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael

    2012-05-01

    1. Epidemiological studies, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, on the extent of pain in the community of western countries revealed a prevalence of around 18%, with significant effects on work and social activities despite 30 years of pain education programmes. 2. A survey by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Developing Countries on the extent of pain education and clinical training, and the barriers to them, was published as report in 2007 and confirmed significant deficiencies and problems in all areas. 3. An IASP Developing Countries Taskforce was established in 2002 to facilitate improvements in pain education and management in developing countries through a grants support programme for bottom-up projects from developing country members. 4. Clinical training posts in centres in Thailand, South America and South Africa have been established to improve the clinical training of pain clinicians and, through them, to develop pain services in their countries of origin in which services are poorly developed or absent. 5. There has been a major surge in the demand for and development of programmes and clinical training in developing countries since 2002, reflected in greatly increased local activity in various regions of the world. 6. Based on the ethical/moral belief that pain treatment is a human right, the IASP has recently increased its levels of advocacy to support this belief. PMID:26516474

  6. Strengthening capacity building in space science research: A developing country perspective on IHY activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyeme, G.

    The economic and social impact of science based technologies has become increasingly dominant in modern world The benefits are a result of combined leading-edge science and technology skills which offers opportunities for new innovations Knowledge in basic sciences has become the cornerstone of sustainable economic growth and national prosperity Unfortunately in many developing countries research and education in basic sciences are inadequate to enable science play its full role in national development For this reason most developing countries have not fully benefited from the opportunities provided by modern technologies The lack of human and financial resources is the main reason for slow transfer of scientific knowledge and technologies to developing countries Developing countries therefore need to develop viable research capabilities and knowledge in basic sciences The advert of the International Heliophysical Year IHY may provide opportunities for strengthening capacity in basic science research in developing countries Among the science goals of the IHY is the fostering of international scientific cooperation in the study of heliophysical phenomena This paper will address and provide an in depth discussion on how basic science research can be enhanced in a developing country using the framework of science goals and objectives of IHY It will further highlight the hurdles and experiences of creating in-country training capacity and research capabilities in space science It will be shown that some of these hurdles can be

  7. Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries?

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality.

  8. Social mobility and health in European countries: Does welfare regime type matter?

    PubMed

    Campos-Matos, Inês; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Health inequalities pose an important public health challenge in European countries, for which increased social mobility has been suggested as a cause. We sought to describe how the relationship between health inequalities and social mobility varies among welfare regime types in the European region. Data from six rounds of the European Social Survey was analyzed using multilevel statistical techniques, stratified by welfare regime type, including 237,535 individuals from 136 countries. Social mobility among individuals was defined according to the discrepancy between parental and offspring educational attainment. For each welfare regime type, the association between social mobility and self-rated health was examined using odds ratios and risk differences, controlling for parental education. Upwardly mobile individuals had between 23 and 44% lower odds of reporting bad or very bad self-rated health when compared to those who remained stable. On an absolute scale, former USSR countries showed the biggest and only significant differences for upward movement, while Scandinavian countries showed the smallest. Downward social mobility tended to be associated with worse health, but the results were less consistent. Upward social mobility is associated with worse health in all European welfare regime types. However, in Scandinavian countries the association of upward mobility was smaller, suggesting that the Nordic model is more effective in mitigating the impact of social mobility on health and/or of health on mobility. PMID:26318213

  9. Social mobility and health in European countries: Does welfare regime type matter?

    PubMed

    Campos-Matos, Inês; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Health inequalities pose an important public health challenge in European countries, for which increased social mobility has been suggested as a cause. We sought to describe how the relationship between health inequalities and social mobility varies among welfare regime types in the European region. Data from six rounds of the European Social Survey was analyzed using multilevel statistical techniques, stratified by welfare regime type, including 237,535 individuals from 136 countries. Social mobility among individuals was defined according to the discrepancy between parental and offspring educational attainment. For each welfare regime type, the association between social mobility and self-rated health was examined using odds ratios and risk differences, controlling for parental education. Upwardly mobile individuals had between 23 and 44% lower odds of reporting bad or very bad self-rated health when compared to those who remained stable. On an absolute scale, former USSR countries showed the biggest and only significant differences for upward movement, while Scandinavian countries showed the smallest. Downward social mobility tended to be associated with worse health, but the results were less consistent. Upward social mobility is associated with worse health in all European welfare regime types. However, in Scandinavian countries the association of upward mobility was smaller, suggesting that the Nordic model is more effective in mitigating the impact of social mobility on health and/or of health on mobility.

  10. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  11. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  12. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  13. Attitudes on Conducting Thesis Research in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, S. C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a survey conducted to study attitudes toward agronomy graduate students conducting thesis research in developing countries. Compares perceptions of executive officers of international program offices and departments of agronomy, and major professors. (TW)

  14. The World Summit for Social Development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The three goals of the UN World Summit for Social Development are to attack poverty, build solidarity, and create jobs. Unprecedented population growth has led to recognition of the need for a new, people-centered vision of development to counter the mutually reinforcing threats posed to world stability by poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration. This population growth may result in an inability of humanity to adapt and create unrelenting pressure on the world's natural resources. It has become increasingly recognized that improvements in the status of women will be vital to ensuring the future of humanity. Giving women the ability to decide their family size will eliminate hundreds of thousands of maternal deaths each year and will slow population growth while it increases women's productivity and control over resources. As the industrialized nations engage in unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, the lowest-income countries are caught in a "poverty-population-environment spiral." Although population growth is gradually slowing, the population of the world could double by 2050, with 95% of the growth occurring in developing countries. Concern is also mounting over the increasing urbanization of the world as well as the fact that while the populations of poor countries are becoming larger and younger, the population of industrialized countries are becoming older and smaller. The new vision of sustainable development involves generating economic growth, distributing benefits equitably, and allowing the regeneration of the environment. Without such security, the world can not achieve peace. The symptoms of social discrimination include social exclusion, which affects 90% of the world's population; sex and racial discrimination, which lowers the quality of life and increases life-threatening risks for women, indigenous people, and Blacks; violence and abuse, reflected in fact that the US has the highest incidence of murder in the world, in the

  15. Vocational Education and Training Against Social Exclusion: Albania. Country Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxhiymeri, Edlira; Shala, Zef; Muca, Mirela

    The main causes of social exclusion in Albania were studied along with ways in which vocational education and training could help combat it. The study identified target groups, analyzed existing policies and the role of education and training for target groups, and pilot tested projects to support the identified groups. The following policy…

  16. The Mass Media in Adult Education in the Developing Countries: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueulette, David G.

    This literature review is in the form of a critique of the typical approaches to education in developing countries and the lack of attention to broad-based ethical issues. It is stated that no one is willing to discuss the real implications of promoting education in any land. Questions of social upheaval or loss of traditional values caused by…

  17. From Special Schools to Inclusive Education: The Way forward for Developing Countries South of the Sahara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charema, John

    2007-01-01

    Persons with disabilities, especially children and the young continue to be the most disadvantaged groups in all societies (Hegarty & Alur, 2002). They manifest a number of limitations and are subjected to social discrimination, impoverished educational experiences and above all, very limited work opportunities. In developing countries, where…

  18. Examination on ICT Integration into Special Education Schools for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksal, Fahriye Altinay; Gazi, Zehra Altinay

    2015-01-01

    Information, communication and technology (ICT) is a bridge in fostering learning who have special needs in education. It becomes a medium of connecting their way of lives and their socialization within education life. Integration of ICT plays a great role in special education. Most of the developing countries pay attention to ICT practices in…

  19. Ageing, lifestyle modifications, and cardiovascular disease in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, L J; Galioto, A; Ferlisi, A; Pineo, A; Putignano, E; Belvedere, M; Costanza, G; Barbagallo, M

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries face the double menace of still prevalent infectious diseases and increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) with epidemic proportions in the near future, linked to demographic changes (expansion and ageing), and to urbanisation and lifestyle modifications. It is estimated that the elderly population will increase globally (over 80% during the next 25 years), with a large share of this rise in the developing world because of expanding populations. Increasing longevity prolongs the time exposure to risk factors, resulting in a greater probability of CVD. As a paradox, increased longevity due to improved social and economical conditions associated with lifestyle changes in the direction of a rich diet and sedentary habits in the last century, is one of the main contributors to the incremental trend in CVD. The variable increase rate of CVD in different nations may reflect different stages of "epidemiological transition" and it is probable that the relatively slow changes seen in developing populations through the epidemiological transition may occur at an accelerated pace in individuals migrating from nations in need to affluent societies (i.e. Hispanics to the USA, Africans to Europe). Because of restrained economic conditions in the developing world, the greatest gains in controlling the CVD epidemic lies in its prevention. Healthy foods should be widely available and affordable, and healthy dietary practices such as increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of saturated fat, salt, and simple sugars, may be promoted in all populations. Specific strategies for smoking and overweight control may be regulation of marketed tobacco and unhealthy fast food and promotion of an active lifestyle. Greater longevity and economic progress are accompanied by an increasing burden of CVD and other chronic diseases with an important decrease in quality of life, which should question the benefit of these additional years without

  20. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, N.; Lavis, J.; Broomberg, J.; Mills, A.

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact. PMID:8261563

  1. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  2. Corporate social responsibility in countries with mature and emerging pharmaceutical sectors

    PubMed Central

    Volodina, Anna; Sax, Sylvia; Anderson, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been adopted by many business sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. However, in this and other sectors its application remains variable, particularly between mature and developing economies. Its stakeholders include pharmacy and medical students, their attitude to the involvement of companies in socially responsible activities will be important determinants of public response to the industry. Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of senior medical and pharmacy students towards the CSR concept in the pharmaceutical sector in mature (Germany) and developing (Russia) markets. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among senior pharmacy and medical students during the summer semester 2008 in two Russian and one German university. In each country 120 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 95% in Russia and 93% in Germany. Results: Although the relevance of CSR was widely acknowledged by the students, very few were aware of CSR practices currently performed by companies. The reputation of the pharmaceutical industry was generally poor: less than 15% of respondents gave credence to the information provided in advertisements and fully supported pricing strategies as well as policies towards the developing countries. When choosing an employer more than 90% of respondents consider the policies affecting an employee directly as pivotal. However, for a high proportion of students (59% in Russia and 64% in Germany) socially irresponsible behavior by companies has a significant negative impact. Conclusions: This paper identifies practices which students believe should be a part of the CSR programmes for the pharmaceutical industry, and also some that should be abandoned. It recommends that corporate communication on CSR should be expanded. Key differences are seen in perceptions of students in Germany and Russia towards the extent of

  3. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  4. Immunization coverage and infant mortality rate in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shimouchi, A; Ozasa, K; Hayashi, K

    1994-01-01

    We examined whether immunization coverage (IMC) is one of the predictors of infant mortality rate (IMR), as a single indicator representing the availability of primary health care (PHC) services in developing countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that partial correlation coefficients for IMR with immunization coverage (-0.224), logarithm of per capita GNP (-0.294), total fertility rate (0.269), and adult literacy rate (-0.325) were all statistically significant (p < 0.001) in 97 developing countries which make up more than 97% of the population in all the developing countries of the world. Multiple correlation coefficients of IMR with these four variables in 97 countries was 0.921. Thus, more than 80% of variation of IMR in developing countries were explained by the variation of the four variables. The study also showed that IMC was well correlated (simple correlation) with the four indicators of the availability of primary health care services; access to local care (0.730), care of pregnant women (0.603), delivery care (0.666), and infant care (0.553), all of which were statistically significant (p < 0.001) in the 48 developing countries which make up 42% of the population of all developing countries. Multiple correlation coefficients of these four variables was 0.787. About 60% of the variation of IMC will be explained by the variation of the four variables. Thus we conclude that immunization coverage is one of the main predictors of the infant mortality rate. It represents one of the health intervention components which can be used as a proxy indicator of the availability of PHC service in developing countries.

  5. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  6. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  7. [Epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Minodier, Ph; Laporte, R; Miramont, S

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections are frequent in developing countries but the epidemiology is incompletely known. In 2005, 90 % of symptomatic pharyngitis, 96 % of invasive diseases and 97 % of deaths due to GAS were observed in these countries. Clinical features of GAS invasive infections are identical to those reported in developed countries, but frequency and mortality are higher, as is the number of the different emm types involved. In the world, from 15.6 to 19.6 millions of persons are affected by rheumatic heart disease (282,000 new cases and 233,000-468,000 deaths per year). Incidence of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis varies with time and location: in 2005, 472,000 new cases have been reported in the world (83 % in a developing country). World Heart Federation recently aimed at reducing the burden of rheumatic heart diseases by 25 % among < 25 years persons in 2025.

  8. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  9. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  10. Well-being and social capital on planet earth: cross-national evidence from 142 countries.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Rocío; Zheng, Yuhui; Kumar, Santosh; Olgiati, Analia; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level) models and then use multivariate (individual-level) Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the two affective

  11. Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpe, Lars; Lolle, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Many see trust as an important social resource for the welfare of individuals as well as nations. It is therefore important to be able to identify trust and explain its sources. Cross-country survey analysis has been an important tool in this respect, and often one single variable is used to identify social trust understood as trust in strangers,…

  12. Construct Validation and Application of a Common Measure of Social Cohesion in 33 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickes, Paul; Valentova, Marie; Borsenberger, Monique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the construct validation of a multidimensional measure of social cohesion which is well theoretically grounded and has an equivalent/comparable interpretation across all European countries. Up-to-now published research on social cohesion is deficient in either one or both of these important aspects. This paper…

  13. New Strategies for Environmental Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examples of new environmental education strategies in developing countries are provided including, among others, programs which stress that properly-conceived development should include respect for the local environment and research projects helping villagers define what is meant by development. Provides an example of the use of television in the…

  14. University Science and Agriculture Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlett, J. T.; Macfarlane, Ian G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of enrollment and degree rates in science, agriculture, and non-sciences in developing and developed countries suggests patterns are similar, with science and agriculture degrees somewhat higher for some developing nations. Results suggest that emphasis on science and agriculture are less crucial than overall enrollment in producing…

  15. Reconsidering Graduate Programs for Students from Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines issues related to graduate programs in agricultural and extension education for students from developing nations who are studying in developed countries. Implications are drawn for developing graduate programs that prepare individuals for their most likely career paths. Such programs may not be congruent given the current…

  16. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  17. Mortality and income inequality among economically developed countries.

    PubMed

    Duleep, H O

    1995-01-01

    The absence of a correlation between age-adjusted death rates and the average income levels of economically developed countries has led researchers to conclude that income does not affect the mortality levels of economically developed countries. The mortality experiences of the former Soviet Union and some of the eastern European countries have further brought into question the importance of income's distribution in determining mortality among economically developed countries; prior to its breakup, the income distribution of the Soviet Union was as equal as that of Sweden, yet the life expectancy of the Soviets has been dramatically shorter than that of the Swedes. Using insights from a longitudinal microanalysis of U.S. mortality, this study presents evidence that, even for economically developed countries, the income distribution of a nation is an important determinant of its mortality. The results of this study also suggest that the relatively unequal income distribution of the United States is an important contributing factor to its low life expectancy relative to other high-income countries.

  18. Education and Youth Employment in Less Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Alberto Hernandez; And Others

    The education/employment situations of young people in Mexico and South Asia are examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in developing nations. In Mexico, economic growth between 1940 and 1970 was considerably greater than achievement of social goals such as full employment and…

  19. [Measles outbreaks in developed countries: A lesson for Chile].

    PubMed

    Cerda, Jaime; Abarca, Katia; Jiménez, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    The measles vaccine has been used for over 50 years and has proven to be safe, effective and inexpensive, Nevertheless, in 2013 145,700 measles deaths occurred, mostly in countries with low per capita income and weak health infrastructure. The occurrence of measles cases is not restricted to developing countries, but also affects developed countries (Europe and USA), where is associated with a reduction in vaccination coverage, explained by a loss of confidence of some parents in the vaccine. This perspective article addresses the loss of confidence in the vaccine, and the individual and collective consequences of the decision to not vaccinate a child. Various strategies to reverse this phenomenon are presented, most notably the continuing education of health professionals, parents and patients using scientific arguments, given in an understandable and interesting language. Finally, the current situation of Chile (a country with current certification of measles elimination) is presented, emphasizing the importance of maintaining this condition. PMID:26230440

  20. Economic burden of torture for a refugee host country: development of a model and presentation of a country case study

    PubMed Central

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Frey, Conrad; Chastonay, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Torture is an important social and political problem worldwide that affects millions of people. Many host countries give victims of torture the status of refugee and take care of them as far as basic needs; health care, professional reinsertion, and education. Little is known about the costs of torture. However, this knowledge could serve as an additional argument for the prevention and social mobilization to fight against torture and to provide a powerful basis of advocacy for rehabilitation programs and judiciary claims. Objectives Development of a model for estimating the economic costs of torture and applying the model to a specific country. Methods The estimation of the possible prevalence of victims of torture was based on a review of the literature. The identification of the socioeconomic factors to be considered was done by analogy with various health problems. The estimation of the loss of the productivity and of the economic burden of disease related to torture was done through the human capital approach and the component technique analysis. Case study The model was applied to the situation in Switzerland of estimated torture victims Switzerland is confronted with. Results When applied to the case study, the direct costs – such as housing, food, and clothing – represent roughly 130 million Swiss francs (CHF) per year; whereas, health care costs amount to 16 million CHF per year, and the costs related to education of young people to 34 million CHF per year. Indirect costs, namely those costs related to the loss of the productivity of direct survivors of torture, have been estimated to one-third of 1 billion CHF per year. This jumps to 10,073,419,200 CHF in the loss of productivity if one would consider 30 years of loss per survivor. Conclusion Our study shows that a rough estimation of the costs related to torture is possible with some prerequisites, such as access to social and economic indicators at the country level. PMID:24729721

  1. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  2. Child Development in Developing Countries: Child Rights and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context…

  3. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  4. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    The successful implementation of the environmental practices in the mining industry is of a paramount importance, as it not only prevents both local and trans-border pollution but also guarantees clean and healthy environment for the people regardless of their place of habitation. It is especially important to encourage the progress of the environmental practices implementation in developing countries because such countries have resource-oriented economy based on exploitation of nonrenewable resources. Poor environmental practices in developing countries will lead to local environmental crises that could eventually spill into surrounding countries including the most economically advanced. This abstract is a summary of a two-year research project attempted (1) to determine deficiencies of the mining sector ecological practices in developing countries and (2) to suggest substitute practices from developed countries that could be adapted to the developing countries reality. The following research methods were used: 1. The method of the system analysis, where the system is an interaction of the sets of environmental practices with the global mining sector; 2. The comparative method of inquiry, where the comparison was made between environmental protection practices as implemented in the US (developed country) and the developing countries such as RF, Mongolia mining sectors; 3. Quantitative date analysis, where date was collected from "The collection of statistic data", Russian Geographic Society Annual reports, the US EPA open reports, and the USGS Reports; The following results were obtained: Identified the systemic crisis of the ecological environmental policies and practices in the mining sector in developing countries based on the exploitation of nonrenewable resources, absence of the ecological interest by the mining companies that lack mechanisms of environmental and public health protection, the lack of insurance policy, the lack of risk assistance, and in the

  5. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  6. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  7. Haemophilia in the developing countries: the Iranian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Karimi, Mehran; Aghighi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Management of haemophilia and inherited bleeding disorders is a major challenge especially in developing countries, because of a shortage or absence of products, the cost and the infrastructural health problems. Development of local expertise which results in an improved outlook and reduction in mortality and morbidity in these countries can be helpful for advocators in other developing countries. However, very little information on demography and organizational models for haemophilia care in developing countries are available in the literature. Our aim is a comprehensive report of haemophilia status and its management in Iran. Material and methods The Management Center of Transplantation and Special Diseases (MCTSD) of the Ministry of Health of Iran decided to carry out a complete review and compilation of all of the published or available data about patients with haemophilia (PWH) in Iran: their health status, their management planning, organizations, treatment products, facilities and care problems during 2007. Results 6496 patients with congenital bleeding disorders were registered. Most of them had haemophilia A and B and von Willebrand disease (vWD). However, rare bleeding disorders are seen more than expected. Inhibitor development is 14–28%. There are different data about virological status of PWH. Factor products and facilities are fairly available with more than 1.5 units per capita of inhabitant factor consumption. Conclusions A national formulary based on facilities of the country should be considered and followed by collaboration among the Ministry Of Health, universities and non-governmental organizations. PMID:22371725

  8. Women, Work and Early Childhood: The Nexus in Developed and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    Most female workers in developing countries do not have wage jobs. However, the preponderance of female workers in non-wage jobs is not consistent across all developing countries. It is highly likely that the proportion of non-wage female workers in developing countries is greater than is suggested by the statistics. Consequently, mothers in the…

  9. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth. PMID:12292278

  10. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  11. HIV prevention among injecting drug users: responses in developing and transitional countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, A L; Rana, S; Dehne, K L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated with injecting drug use has been reported in at least 98 countries and territories worldwide. There is evidence that new epidemics are emerging in different regions, including Eastern Europe, Latin American, and the eastern Mediterranean. The authors provide a global overview of the situation of HIV infection associated with injecting drug use and responses that have been implemented in various developing and transitional countries. METHODS: Although there has been extensive documentation of the extent and nature of of HIV infection associated with injecting drug use in many developed countries and the various interventions implemented in those countries, there is very limited information on the situation in developing and transitional countries. This chapter brings together information from a broad range of sources, including published literature; "gray" or "fugitive" literature; data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP); personal communications; and direct observation by the authors. The authors have traveled extensively to a wide range of developing and transitional countries and have accessed information not readily available to the international research community. RESULTS: A wide range of HIV prevention strategies targeting injecting drug users (IDUs) has been implemented in developing countries and countries in transition. Interventions include opioid substitution pharmacotherapy, needle syringe exchange and distribution, condom and bleach distribution, outreach to IDUs, peer education programs, and social network interventions. In some communities, completely new models of intervention and service delivery have developed in response to specific local needs and limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Although empirical data may currently be lacking to demonstrate the

  12. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  13. Social marketing as a tool to improve behavioral health services for underserved populations in transition countries.

    PubMed

    Szydlowski, Steven J; Chattopadhyay, Satya P; Babela, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Human development efforts continue to change the world and improve quality of life for humans. Without the struggle and drive to contemplate new ideas to improve society, the global community would be in a constant state of oppression. Although cultures and norms change as international boundaries are crossed, the universal goal is to improve standards of living to include behavioral health services for underserved populations. In recent times, pioneers and community groups have used social marketing as an instrument to change public perceptions and behaviors within societies. These efforts have transformed nations in the acceptance and understanding of community health and rehabilitation, education, service, and human rights. This article examines the justification for utilization of the concepts and tools of social marketing to bring about proactive behavior modification among segments of underserved populations. A section of this article provides an overview of the basics of social marketing for the benefit of makers of health policy in transition countries. Finally, the case of 2 underserved population segments in the Republic of Slovakia, a new member of the European Union (former socialist block member), is examined for possible implementation. PMID:15825815

  14. Social marketing as a tool to improve behavioral health services for underserved populations in transition countries.

    PubMed

    Szydlowski, Steven J; Chattopadhyay, Satya P; Babela, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Human development efforts continue to change the world and improve quality of life for humans. Without the struggle and drive to contemplate new ideas to improve society, the global community would be in a constant state of oppression. Although cultures and norms change as international boundaries are crossed, the universal goal is to improve standards of living to include behavioral health services for underserved populations. In recent times, pioneers and community groups have used social marketing as an instrument to change public perceptions and behaviors within societies. These efforts have transformed nations in the acceptance and understanding of community health and rehabilitation, education, service, and human rights. This article examines the justification for utilization of the concepts and tools of social marketing to bring about proactive behavior modification among segments of underserved populations. A section of this article provides an overview of the basics of social marketing for the benefit of makers of health policy in transition countries. Finally, the case of 2 underserved population segments in the Republic of Slovakia, a new member of the European Union (former socialist block member), is examined for possible implementation.

  15. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  16. Funding Problems of Technical Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Surek

    During the past decade, funding mechanisms for universities and technical education institutions and colleges have undergone massive restructuring in developed and developing countries alike. Governmental support has generally decreased, resulting in greater reliance on fee-based education or creation of privately sponsored engineering/technical…

  17. Remote sensing utilization of developing countries: An appropriate technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conitz, M. W.; Lowe, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the Agency for international development were discussed. Regional and national training centers were established to create an understanding of the role and impact of remote sensing on the developing process. Workshops, training seminars, and demonstration projects were conducted. Research on application was carried out and financial and technical assistance to build or strengthen a country's capability were granted.

  18. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  19. Tailoring Information Strategies for Developing Countries: Some Latin American Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Warren

    This article addresses the conditions of developing countries which must be taken into account in developing information strategies for their public and educational institutions or projects. Its central argument is that newer information science concepts, although they demand technological and conceptual sophistication, can be useful in the…

  20. Building Education Research Capacity in Developing Countries: Some Fundamental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puryear, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how to develop education research capacity in developing countries, using Chile's experience as a case study. Education research capacity is defined as a productive, modern, diverse, and self-reproducing professional community conducting research at internationally acceptable levels of quality. I argue that 3 general…

  1. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

  2. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  3. Educational Technology and the Developing Countries, A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Inc., New York, NY.

    A survey, presented in looseleaf handbook format, reviews a number of ideas about educational development, technology, change, and the improvement of learning. Its primary focus is on the situation in developing countries. The materials presented are largely descriptive--going from theory to planning, and then on to case studies of educational…

  4. Engineering Education Projects for Improving Agriculture in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peikert, F. W.

    Agricultural engineers have been working for a number of years with colleges and universities in many developing countries to improve their agriculture. Much of the activity in university development assistance has been taken over the last 20 years. The greatest portion of the support has come from USAID. Among the common problems facing the…

  5. The Place of Calculators in Mathematics Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a major force in developing curricula and educational practice in mathematics education internationally. While many technologies are important in affluent developed countries, the hand-held calculator continues to be the technology most likely to be available to students when and where they need it. Modern calculators have…

  6. Corporate Environmentalism in Developing Countries: A Tale of Three Multinationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Allen L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Multinational corporations bring both economic opportunities and technological hazards to developing countries. Discusses the trade-offs between the profit and development objectives and the environmental, health, and safety objectives as seen in three case studies involving Occidental Chemical and Du Pont corporations in Thailand, and Xerox…

  7. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  8. The Impact of Clinical Social Franchising on Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Background The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. Objectives and Methods We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Results Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Conclusions Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising

  9. Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

  10. Energy efficiency initiatives in emerging markets and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon-Cox, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    During the Presidential Missions to India, Pakistan, China, and South Africa, led by Secretary of Energy, Hazel R. O`Leary, energy efficiency and sustainable energy development have been important focus areas that relate to the issues of Global Warming and Climate Change. The missions have provided opportunities to discuss energy efficiency, sustainable energy development and economic progress with the host countries and to identify areas where there are opportunities for cooperative ventures in energy efficiency technologies and practices that will lead to both economic and environmental benefits. The format for the development of opportunities in energy efficiency technologies and practices in the above countries has been for the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with a broad cross section of industrial companies, energy efficiency organizations and other interested parties to develop country specific teams with designated team leaders for each area identified during the mission. The US teams then draft action plans which serve as a basis for discussion with their international counterparts leading to mutually acceptable implementation plans. US country specific, coordinating committees, comprising DOE personnel and team leaders hold meetings with their international counterparts to review progress and overcome any issues or barriers encountered. The paper describes the progress made to date by the US-China and US-India teams. It should be noted that this paper is not a comprehensive review of DOE`s international energy efficiency activities in the aforementioned countries.

  11. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  12. Reverse the trend. Fragile ecosystems in developing countries are threatened.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M H

    1991-12-01

    Homo sapiens as 1 species out of millions consume 40% of the primary products of the earth. The domestication of plants and animals produced significant change in how we survived as a species. It ultimately led to civilization, cities, the division of labor, and population growth. Presently we face a paradox between controlling the development of tropical areas even though it was through such means that progress was made in the 1st place. The tropical regions are full of life. It is estimated that 95% of all species live in tropical areas. By 2000 over 66% of the human population will live in the tropics. The forests are already being destroyed and such projections of population growth will only increase their rate of loss. The loss of tropical forests has severe impacts and consequences. Because of their rich species diversity they must be seen as a rich storehouse of natural resources that must be protected. The potential for medicine and food from the tropical forests has just been tapped and what we know already should force us to stop destroying them. An example is the alkaloid compound DMDP which was found in the leaves of a Panamanian moth's larval food plant. DMDP is a fructose analog that is currently the subject of 5 active areas of research, 4 of which involve human diseases: obesity, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS. This is just 1 single find out of millions of potential beneficial species. The forces of destruction that harm tropical forests are slash and burn agriculture, timber extraction, fuel wood extraction, and pasture creation for beef production. The greatest threat to forests, however, is poverty. Land management and internal migration laws in many countries make it desirable for landless people to start small farms. As population grows, so does the need for this type of land. If any progress is to be made in stopping deforestation, progress toward social justice and equality of opportunity must precede it. PMID:12284680

  13. Veterinary vaccines and their use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lubroth, J; Rweyemamu, M M; Viljoen, G; Diallo, A; Dungu, B; Amanfu, W

    2007-04-01

    The burden of infectious diseases in livestock and other animals continues to be a major constraint to sustained agricultural development, food security, and participation of developing and in-transition countries in the economic benefits of international trade in livestock commodities. Targeted measures must be instituted in those countries to reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. Quality veterinary vaccines used strategically can and should be part of government sanctioned-programmes. Vaccination campaigns must be part of comprehensive disease control programmes, which, in the case of transboundary animal diseases, require a regional approach if they are to be successful. This paper focuses on the salient transboundary animal diseases and examines current vaccine use, promising vaccine research, innovative technologies that can be applied in countries in some important developing regions of the world, and the role of public/private partnerships.

  14. Practising cloud-based telemedicine in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    In industrialised countries, telemedicine has proven to be a valuable tool for enabling access to knowledge and allowing information exchange, and showing that it is possible to provide good quality of healthcare to isolated communities. However, there are many barriers to the widespread implementation of telemedicine in rural areas of developing countries. These include deficient internet connectivity and sophisticated peripheral medical devices. Furthermore, developing countries have very high patients-per-doctor ratios. In this paper, we report our work on developing a cloud-based health information system, which promotes telemedicine and patient-centred healthcare by exploiting modern information and communication technologies such as OWL-ontologies and SQL-triggers. The reason for using cloud technology is twofold. First, cloud service models are easily adaptable for sharing patients health information, which is of prime importance in patient-centred healthcare as well as in telemedicine. Second, the cloud and the consulting physicians may locate anywhere in the internet. PMID:24191340

  15. New strategies for providing hormonal contraception in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Townsend, John W; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Williams, Katherine; Askew, Ian; Brill, Klaus

    2011-05-01

    Even with progress in increasing access to effective contraception over the past decades, and the growing range of contraceptive methods available on the market, women in developing countries continue to report an unmet need for family planning. This constraint continues to challenge reproductive health policies and programs, while the momentum of population growth and the young age structure in developing countries leads to larger numbers of potential contraceptive users and increasing global demand in contraceptive markets. Of late, there is a renewed focus on increasing access to long-acting hormonal methods to effectively meet this need, establishing and effectively implementing new service delivery strategies. A number of processes have profoundly affected the procurement and use of hormonal contraceptive methods in developing countries: a supportive policy environment, evidence-based practices and an increasing diversity of delivery strategies play a significant part in increasing number of contraceptive users and the demand for hormonal contraception.

  16. Technology, Limitations and Applications of space technology in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Romero, J.; Stamminger, P.; Pauly, K.

    A number of developing countries are undertaking projects pertaining to design and development of space technology either using their own resources or in collaboration with foreign countries on regional or international basis. This paper reviews a cooperation in different areas of space technology applications in South America. It gives a brief overview of the overarching goals and vision and the general institutional framework of south-american space researches cooperation. A few examples of previous and current activities in space technology applications and some opportunities for expanding the usage of these technology in the region are described. The major challenges to full-blown regional cooperation in space technology are also examined. The main aims of these efforts are to give a fillip to the country's R&D efforts in space technology and develop human resources in this field through hands-on experience in building and operation of satellites, and acquisition of new skills in project definition, funding and implementation

  17. Social capital, income inequality, and self-rated health in 45 countries.

    PubMed

    Mansyur, Carol; Amick, Benjamin C; Harrist, Ronald B; Franzini, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the relationship between the social environment and health. Among the concepts that have emerged over the past decade to examine this relationship are socio-economic inequality and social capital. Using data from the World Values Survey and the World Bank, we tested the hypothesis that self-rated health is affected by social capital and income inequality cross-nationally. The merit of our approach was that we used multilevel methods in a larger and more diverse sample of countries than used previously. Our results indicated that, for a large number of diverse countries, commonly used measures of social capital and income inequality had strong compositional effects on self-rated health, but inconsistent contextual effects, depending on the countries included. Cross-level interactions suggested that contextual measures can moderate the effect of compositional measures on self-rated health. Sensitivity tests indicated that effects varied in different subsets of countries. Future research should examine country-specific characteristics, such as differences in cultural values or norms, which may influence the relationships between social capital, income inequality, and health.

  18. Promotion of smoking cessation in developing countries: a framework for urgent public health interventions

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, A; Husten, C

    2004-01-01

    The rapid rise in smoking in many developing countries will have devastating consequences; by 2030 the developing world is expected to have 7 million deaths annually from tobacco use. Many smokers express a desire to quit, but they often fail because they are addicted to tobacco. Although a number of cessation aids are now available in the developed world, their applicability and affordability in developing countries is less clear. Successful interventions will require many stakeholder groups to take action at the local, national, and international levels. We discuss smoking cessation as a means of reducing disease burden, examine factors that may limit the promotion of smoking cessation in developing countries, and propose a framework for public health action. This framework should comprise intervention with healthcare professionals, strengthening national commitment, development of a model for developing countries, changing the social acceptability of smoking, strengthening community participation, integration of smoking cessation with other healthcare services, specifying the role of healthcare professionals, development of guidelines, mobilisation of the business community, provision of financial incentives, establishing population specific smoking cessation services, increased collaboration between countries, and development of international initiatives. PMID:15223875

  19. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  20. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. Methods In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. Results and discussion HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. Conclusion On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security

  1. Correlation Analysis of Cultural Development and Social Security in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, K.; Alizadeh, H.; Meshkini, A.; Kohsari, M. J.

    In recent years, politicians have paid more attention to planning methods considering environmental, economical, social and cultural potentials of place. According to general principles and experiences has been achieved by the developed countries, there is a direct link between social security and cultural development. Where the society and region is culturally more developed, social security level is higher and vice versa. Considering this leading point, this research aims to establish a rational correlation between the provinces of Iran considering cultural development ranking and social security levels using planning models and analysis. To reach this goal, different variables in various sectors such as physical, social, economical, etc. were classified leading to developmental indicators of the provinces in the related sectors. In addition to this, many variables concerning the social security levels in provinces such as homicide, robbery, suicide, etc. were also classified to identify the social security level in each province. According to the results, more culturally developed and wealthier provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars, have lower social security degree and less culturally developed provinces, like Sistan va Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Elam have higher social security level. In other words, the mentioned principle, the correlation between social security and cultural development, does not work in the same direction in Iranian context.

  2. The development of social referencing.

    PubMed

    Walden, T A; Ogan, T A

    1988-10-01

    The development of social referencing in 40 infants aged 6-9, 10-13, and 14-22 months was investigated in this study. Social referencing was defined broadly to include children's looks toward parents, their instrumental toy behaviors, affective expressions, and other behaviors toward parents. Children's looks at parents were more selective with increasing age, with older infants preferring to look directly at their parents' faces and younger infants showing no preference for looks to faces over looks elsewhere at the parent. Younger infants looked most often when their parents expressed positive affect, whereas older infants looked most often when parents displayed fearful reactions toward a stimulus. Evidence of a behavioral regulatory effect on instrumental toy behaviors was found only among infants 10-13 months of age. However, only infants older than 14 months of age inhibited touching the toy until after referencing the parent. On some measures these older infants showed a preference for toys associated with fearful messages. Affective expressions were in line with positive and negative behavior toward toys. No support for mood modification or simple imitation as explanations for the effects was found. Results indicated that the looking behavior of younger children may function differently than that of older children, and that social referencing involves a number of component skills that develop during the end of the first year and throughout the second year of life. PMID:3168639

  3. Infertility and the provision of infertility medical services in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, Willem; Cooke, Ian; Dyer, Silke; Serour, Gamal; Devroey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Worldwide more than 70 million couples suffer from infertility, the majority being residents of developing countries. Negative consequences of childlessness are experienced to a greater degree in developing countries when compared with Western societies. Bilateral tubal occlusion due to sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy-related infections is the most common cause of infertility in developing countries, a condition that is potentially treatable with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). New reproductive technologies are either unavailable or very costly in developing countries. This review provides a comprehensive survey of all important papers on the issue of infertility in developing countries. METHODS Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica and EMBASE searches identified relevant papers published between 1978 and 2007 and the keywords used were the combinations of ‘affordable, assisted reproduction, ART, developing countries, health services, infertility, IVF, simplified methods, traditional health care'. RESULTS The exact prevalence of infertility in developing countries is unknown due to a lack of registration and well-performed studies. On the other hand, the implementation of appropriate infertility treatment is currently not a main goal for most international non-profit organizations. Keystones in the successful implementation of infertility care in low-resource settings include simplification of diagnostic and ART procedures, minimizing the complication rate of interventions, providing training-courses for health-care workers and incorporating infertility treatment into sexual and reproductive health-care programmes. CONCLUSIONS Although recognizing the importance of education and prevention, we believe that for the reasons of social justice, infertility treatment in developing countries requires greater attention at National and International levels. PMID:18820005

  4. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ezeah, Chukwunonye Fazakerley, Jak A.; Roberts, Clive L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Reviewed emerging trends in Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) in developing countries. • In some countries we found that ISR is the key factor in the recycling of waste materials. • Overall impact of ISR upon the urban economy and environment is positive. • In some instances ISR subsidises large areas of the formal sector. • Ignoring the informal sector could result in unsustainable interventions. - Abstract: Optimistic estimates suggest that only 30–70% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These ‘scavengers’ as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the

  5. Economic development and fertility decline: lessons from Asia's newly industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1991-03-01

    The general thesis that economic development and fertility decline are interrelated is substantiated in literature that discusses the successes of the newly industrialized countries of Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. When countries are developing rapidly, family planning accelerates the rate of fertility change, particularly among the poor uneducated rural population. Relying on economic and social development is not enough. National policy in Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea, and Taiwan recognized that population growth drains resources and the family planning programs operating since the 1960s contributed to a drop from 5 children/woman to 2 by 1988, and 70% of married couples used contraception. Coupled with this, age at marriage rose, contraception became more available, and educational and employment opportunities increased. Economically, the growth rate in the 1980's was 6-10% annually, with growth in the manufacturing and service sectors and export trade. Close economic ties evolved between governments and private sectors. Social development programs had been fully funded and gains evident in education, living standards, health care and nutrition, and life expectancy. The success of family planning is attributed to encouraging contraceptive awareness and use. Fertility reduction may occur with social and economic development, but no developing countries have reduced fertility without family planning. The relative importance of family planning may change over time, and reducing the cost through government sponsored family planning programs and encouraging the acceptability of contraceptive usage. PMID:12283895

  6. Opportunities for energy conservation in the developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Koshel, P.; Allen, E.L.; Cecelski, E.; Dougher, R.; Ring, L.

    1981-03-01

    Energy problems faced by developing countries are explored and opportunities for saving energy and for using fuels other than petroleum in the modern sector are assessed. Specific resources assessed include oil and gas, coal, hydropower, and traditional fuels. Trends in commercial energy consumption by the developing countries are assessed and the domestic fuel resources of these countries are examined. Patterns of commercial energy use in several LDCs including Sri Lanka, Haiti, India, Kenya, Egypt, the Phillippines, the Republic of Korea, and Brazil are examined. Sri Lanka and Haiti are the subjects for case studies reported in the appendixes. Opportunities for conservation in the modern sector, which include most industrial activities, transportation, and electric power generation as well as some agricultural activities and large residential and commercial buildings, are discussed. The concluding section explores policies which might be initiated by LDC governments to encourage energy conservation. (MCW)

  7. The cancer burden and cancer control in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Substantial changes in large parts of the developing world have materialised in the last three decades. These are extremely diverse countries with respect to culture, societal values and political arrangements, but sharing one feature - prevalent poverty and limited resources to protect the health of individuals. The control of emerging chronic diseases in low-resource countries is a formidable challenge. For this reason any intervention should be kept logistically simple and incorporated into a general plan aiming at building gradually the infrastructure that is necessary to bring care to the population at large. The present contribution summarizes some of the priorities in cancer prevention in developing countries and the underlying evidence base, and addresses some of the challenges. PMID:21489212

  8. Establishing a head and neck unit in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Aswani, J; Baidoo, K; Otiti, J

    2012-06-01

    Head and neck cancers pose an especially serious problem in developing countries due to late presentation requiring complex surgical intervention. These countries are faced with many challenges, ranging from insufficient health care staff to problems with peri-operative requirements, diagnostic facilities, chemoradiation services and research funding.These challenges can be addressed through the training of head and neck surgeons and support personnel, the improvement of cancer awareness in local communities, and the establishment of dedicated head and neck institutes which focus on the special needs of head and neck cancer patients.All these changes can best be achieved through collaborative efforts with external partners. The Karl Storz Fellowship in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer, enabling training at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, has served as a springboard towards establishing head and neck services in developing sub-Saharan African countries. PMID:22643201

  9. Economic impact of transgenic crops in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raney, Terri

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic crops are being adopted rapidly at the global level, but only a few developing countries are growing them in significant quantities. Why are these crops so successful in some countries but not in others? Farm level profitability ultimately determines whether farmers adopt and retain a new technology, but this depends on much more than technical performance. Recent economic studies in developing countries find positive, but highly variable, economic returns to adopting transgenic crops. These studies confirm that institutional factors such as national agricultural research capacity, environmental and food safety regulations, intellectual property rights and agricultural input markets matter at least as much as the technology itself in determining the level and distribution of economic benefits.

  10. Adolescents and youth in developing countries: Health and development issues in context.

    PubMed

    Fatusi, Adesegun O; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition, marked by physical, psychological, and cognitive changes underpin by biological factors. Today's generation of young people - the largest in history - is approaching adulthood in a world vastly different from previous generations; AIDS, globalisation, urbanisation, electronic communication, migration, and economic challenges have radically transformed the landscape. Transition to productive and healthy adults is further shaped by societal context, including gender and socialisation process. With the evidence that young people are not as healthy as they seem, addressing the health and development issues of young people, more than ever before, need concerted and holistic approach. Such approach must take the entire lifecycle of the young person as well as the social environment into context. This is particularly critical in developing countries, where three major factors converge - comparatively higher proportion of young people in the population, disproportionately high burden of youth-related health problems, and greater resources challenge. PMID:20598362

  11. Adolescents and youth in developing countries: Health and development issues in context.

    PubMed

    Fatusi, Adesegun O; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-08-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition, marked by physical, psychological, and cognitive changes underpin by biological factors. Today's generation of young people - the largest in history - is approaching adulthood in a world vastly different from previous generations; AIDS, globalisation, urbanisation, electronic communication, migration, and economic challenges have radically transformed the landscape. Transition to productive and healthy adults is further shaped by societal context, including gender and socialisation process. With the evidence that young people are not as healthy as they seem, addressing the health and development issues of young people, more than ever before, need concerted and holistic approach. Such approach must take the entire lifecycle of the young person as well as the social environment into context. This is particularly critical in developing countries, where three major factors converge - comparatively higher proportion of young people in the population, disproportionately high burden of youth-related health problems, and greater resources challenge.

  12. The Health Impact of Child Labor in Developing Countries: Evidence From Cross-Country Data

    PubMed Central

    Roggero, Paola; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Bustreo, Flavia; Rosati, Furio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Research on child labor and its effect on health has been limited. We sought to determine the impact of child labor on children’s health by correlating existing health indicators with the prevalence of child labor in selected developing countries. Methods. We analyzed the relationship between child labor (defined as the percentage of children aged 10 to14 years who were workers) and selected health indicators in 83 countries using multiple regression to determine the nature and strength of the relation. The regression included control variables such as the percentage of the population below the poverty line and the adult mortality rate. Results. Child labor was significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious disease. Conclusions. Longitudinal studies are required to understand the short- and long-term health effects of child labor on the individual child. PMID:17194870

  13. Socially Disadvantaged Students in Socially Disadvantaged Schools: Double Jeopardy in Mathematics Achievement in the G8 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Traci Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Using the G8 countries' (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States) samples from the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study aimed to explore the phenomenon of double jeopardy in mathematics achievement for socially disadvantaged students. Double…

  14. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  15. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  16. Essays on the Economics of Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Uttam

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on a key challenge facing developing countries intent on enhancing their human capital base--namely, the issue of quality. One of the chapters evaluates the effectiveness of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) initiative in Nepal's primary and lower-secondary schools. Although the OLPC program is being heavily promoted in…

  17. The Educational Implications of Introducing a NQF for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The one-year research project on the implementation of NQFs in developing countries was launched by the ILO 2009 in collaboration with the ETF. This article reviews some of the educational issues that arose from the project. The findings of the case studies raise issues that are important for how future research and policy on NQFs is taken…

  18. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing…

  19. Computer Education in Developing Countries: Facing Hard Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the adoption of computer technology for use in education in developing countries. Topics discussed include criteria for technology adoption; costs; instructional effectiveness; cost effectiveness; the concept of computer literacy; meeting job market demands; educational improvement; computer education policies; hardware and software…

  20. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  1. Locally sourced probiotics, the next opportunity for developing countries?

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-04-01

    We describe factors promoting the exploration of locally sourced probiotics, targeting local populations to balance human needs and market opportunities. This would be particularly beneficial for people in developing countries, who generally lack access to affordable probiotics and are often exposed to poor hygiene conditions, toxic compounds, malnutrition, and chronic enteric infections.

  2. Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

  3. Real and Potential Benefits of Bilingual Programmes in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that bilingual education in developing countries represents an encouraging facet of efforts to improve primary schooling both quantitatively in terms of participation and qualitatively in terms of learning processes. Using examples from Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Mozambique, and Bolivia, demonstrates advantages of bilingual programming in…

  4. School Choice and Academic Performance: Some Evidence from Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Bao, Yong; Dixon, Pauline; Merrifield, John

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern about differences in the quality of state-run and private schooling. The concerns are especially severe in the numerous developing countries where much of the population has left state-provided schooling for private schooling, including many private schools not recognized by the government. The fees charged by the…

  5. Using Special Libraries to Interface with Developing Country Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; George, Paulette Foss

    1986-01-01

    Describes two special collections focusing on postharvest systems of handling, transportation, storage, and marketing of food and feed grain. Highlights include information needs of developing countries (e.g., Egypt, Honduras, Pakistan), and information center activities (communication and marketing, collection building, interpreting client needs,…

  6. Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Jeff, Ed.; Talbot, Christopher, Ed.; Cipollone, Daiana B., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the product of research conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The papers, which were presented at a 2001 workshop, "Refugee Education in Developing Countries: Policy and Practice," are: "Education in Emergencies" (Margaret Sinclair), which reviews the rationale for education in…

  7. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith; Caillods, Francoise

    This book explores the problems and issues of secondary-school financing in developing countries. It outlines the rationale for expanding secondary education, investigates under what conditions it might be possible to do so at sustainable cost levels, presents case studies of secondary-school financing, and offers policy recommendations. The first…

  8. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  9. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  10. Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This publication reports on 18 months of research, debate, and deliberation by the Task Force on Higher Education and Society, convened by the World Bank and UNESCO, to bring together experts from 13 countries to explore the future of higher education in developing nations. The publication's six chapters address: (1) the long-standing problems and…

  11. Small integrated solar energy systems for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreitmueller, K. R.

    1982-11-01

    Solar enegy applications in developing countries cover processing of food and other agricultural products, fresh water production, operation of cooling and freezing equipment, of water pumps and processing machinery. Evacuated tubular collectors turn out to be best suited for process heat generation; photovoltaic generators for electricity production. The Mexican fisher village of Las Barrancas gives a good example of an integrated solar energy system.

  12. Advancing Energy Development in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  13. Higher Education Challenges in Developing Countries: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.

    2004-01-01

    This review of literature was written in preparation for conducting a research study on the U.S. community college system as a potential model for developing countries, and using Vietnam as a specific case. It is divided into four sections: (a) a discussion of the purposes of higher education (HE), (b) an examination of problems faced by the HE…

  14. Locally sourced probiotics, the next opportunity for developing countries?

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-04-01

    We describe factors promoting the exploration of locally sourced probiotics, targeting local populations to balance human needs and market opportunities. This would be particularly beneficial for people in developing countries, who generally lack access to affordable probiotics and are often exposed to poor hygiene conditions, toxic compounds, malnutrition, and chronic enteric infections. PMID:25812840

  15. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…

  16. Financing Training in Developing Countries: The Role of Payroll Taxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, John; Ziderman, Adrian

    1990-01-01

    Although in most developing countries, major vocational training programs are financed from general government revenues, earmarked payroll taxes are becoming increasingly popular. This paper summarizes international experience with these payroll taxes, distinguishing between the more traditional revenue-raising schemes of the Latin American model…

  17. Food Science in Developing Countries: A Selection of Unsolved Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Presented are summaries of 42 unsolved problems in food science which exist in various developing countries throughout the world. Problems deal with new foods, food processing, food composition, nutrition, and health. Each problem presented includes the problem description, background information, possible approaches to solutions, special…

  18. Education Aid to Developing Countries: A General or Differentiated Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas; Postlethwaite, T. Neville

    1989-01-01

    Grouping developing countries by financial and educational indicators for receiving educational aid is discussed. An example is given of the way in which existing information on such indicators can be used in secondary analysis to derive relationships that policy makers can use at the international level. (SLD)

  19. The Teaching of Political Science in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Raul Bejar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    College level political science teaching in developing nations will be more relevant to students if it is developed within an interdisciplinary framework and is related to theories of organization, conflict, and social ecology. Journal available from UNIPUB, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New York 10016. (Author/DB)

  20. Market-based licensing for HPV vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines hold great promise for preventing cervical cancer, but 93 percent of mortality worldwide occurs in low- and middle-income countries, where high vaccine costs can restrict dissemination. Current models for promoting international access to health care innovations include differential pricing, advance market commitments, and voluntary and compulsory licensing. Some of these mechanisms have been effective, but much room for improvement remains. We discuss the usefulness of a new type of license that uses market forces to lower prices through generic competition in low- and middle-income countries while ensuring that pharmaceutical companies are appropriately reimbursed for their research and development.

  1. Can Universities Develop Advanced Technology and Solve Social Problems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Ones, Isarelis; Núñez Jover, Jorge

    This paper presents case studies on how Cuban universities have increasingly become directly involved with the economic and social development of the country. The paper shows how Cuban universities, from the early 1980s and early 1990s, started reorientation and organization of their scientific research, becoming more directly and intensely involved in the economic and social development of the country. In this way, special reference is made to the case of a research group at the University of Havana: the Laboratory of Synthetic Antigens. This group developed the first synthetic vaccine for human use approved in the world. In the article, public policies involved in this success as well as different obstacles are discussed. These obstacles demonstrate the difficulties and challenges that universities face when carrying out research and innovation activities related to economic and social development.

  2. Engaging Students in Water Resources Issues in Developing Countries (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J.; Lutz, A.

    2010-12-01

    When all is said and done, what does it mean to work in the developing world? The need for access to clean water and sanitation and the desire to end poverty and disease cannot be disputed. But as engineers and physical scientists, we often step into a scenario with a problem-identification-and-solving approach. However, to successfully apply engineering and science in developing countries, we should also consider questions such as: how the problems have come to be; have our approaches been appropriate; and what have the effects of projects been on local populations? A short course to help us better address critical needs begins with readings that cover the history of development, development theories, review of “players” in development, case studies, and possibilities on the road ahead. It is also important to include key guest speakers with experience in developing countries as part of an international course curriculum. Within this overall course context, discussion of case studies provides an opportunity to critically assess positive, negative, and a combination of outcomes for communities. These case studies are building blocks for solving some of the most important water and sanitation issues in developing countries.

  3. Differences in social anxiety between men and women across 18 countries

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Vicente E.; Salazar, Isabel C.; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences between men and women in social anxiety are largely unexplored. This study sought to shed some light on this topic. We administered self-report measures of social anxiety to community samples of 17,672 women and 13,440 men from 16 Latin American countries, Spain and Portugal, as well as to a clinical sample of 601 patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Small but significant differences were found between men and women in the general degree of social anxiety and self-reported fears of interactions with the opposite sex, criticism and embarrassment, and speaking in public-talking to people in authority. These results point to small, but meaningful differences between men and women in social anxiety. Implications of these results for the self-report measurement of social anxiety in men and women are discussed. PMID:24976665

  4. Energy and the Oil-Importing Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, Joy; Ramsay, William

    1982-05-01

    Oil-importing developing countries will need more energy during the 1980's to sustain development and to support their subsistence sectors. Development plans must be revised to reflect the potentially disastrous effects of high-cost oil on foreign exchange reserves and on national indebtedness. Energy use efficiency must be increased, and wider use must be made of domestic sources of energy--of conventional fossil and hydro sources and of new and renewable options such as biomass and other solar resources. The international community can help by careful management of world financial flows and trade agreements, expansion of capital assistance, and provision of technical assistance. The importance of improving levels of scientific and technical expertise in the less-developed countries is a challege to the worldwide scientific and engineering community.

  5. A Primer for Using Transgenic Insecticidal Cotton in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Ann M.; Heuberger, Shannon; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Many developing countries face the decision of whether to approve the testing and commercial use of insecticidal transgenic cotton and the task of developing adequate regulations for its use. In this review, we outline concepts and provide information to assist farmers, regulators and scientists in making decisions concerning this technology. We address seven critical topics: 1) molecular and breeding techniques used for the development of transgenic cotton cultivars, 2) properties of transgenic cotton cultivars and their efficacy against major insect pests, 3) agronomic performance of transgenic cotton in developing countries, 4) factors affecting transgene expression, 5) impact of gene flow between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton, 6) non-target effects of transgenic cotton, and 7) management of pest resistance to transgenic cotton. PMID:19613464

  6. Soil erosion in developing countries: a socio-economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Jayanath; Herath, Gamini

    2003-08-01

    Soil erosion is the single most important environmental degradation problem in the developing world. Despite the plethora of literature that exists on the incidence, causes and impacts of soil erosion, a concrete understanding of this complex problem is lacking. This paper examines the soil erosion problem in developing countries in order to understand the complex inter-relationships between population pressure, poverty and environmental-institutional dynamics. Two recent theoretical developments, namely Boserup's theory on population pressure, poverty and soil erosion and Lopez's theory on environmental and institutional dynamics have been reviewed. The analysis reveals that negative impacts of technical change, inappropriate government policies and poor institutions are largely responsible for the continued soil erosion in developing countries. On the other hand, potential for market-based approaches to mitigate the problem is also low due to the negative externalities involved. A deeper appreciation of institutional and environmental dynamics and policy reforms to strengthen weak institutions may help mitigate the problem.

  7. The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ‑ a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

  8. Medical technologies in developing countries: issues of technology development, transfer, diffusion and use.

    PubMed

    Bonair, A; Rosenfield, P; Tengvald, K

    1989-01-01

    The difficulties experienced in transfer of medical technology to developing countries are aggravated by partial and incomplete understanding of the cultural, social, economic, and institutional factors affecting technology development, transfer, dissemination and use. In this paper, it is argued that a more dynamic and comprehensive approach is needed for the analysis of these factors. Such an approach would provide the basis for linking existing information stemming from partial analyses of problems related to individual users, the health services or systems, and the technology itself. The starting point of any comprehensive analysis must be the structure of the society in which the technology is to be used. The value of a comprehensive analytical approach is illustrated by discussion of a medical technology still under development, a vaccine against malaria. This discussion further indicates that consideration of cultural, social, economic, and institutional factors in the developmental phases of a technology can contribute to ensuring acceptability and sustainability of the technology under the multifaceted conditions in which it is to be used.

  9. Climate Change and Food Security: Health Impacts in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bentham, Graham; Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Draper, Alizon; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Hulme, Mike; Hunter, Paul R.; Nichols, Gordon; Waldron, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anthropogenic climate change will affect global food production, with uncertain consequences for human health in developed countries. Objectives: We investigated the potential impact of climate change on food security (nutrition and food safety) and the implications for human health in developed countries. Methods: Expert input and structured literature searches were conducted and synthesized to produce overall assessments of the likely impacts of climate change on global food production and recommendations for future research and policy changes. Results: Increasing food prices may lower the nutritional quality of dietary intakes, exacerbate obesity, and amplify health inequalities. Altered conditions for food production may result in emerging pathogens, new crop and livestock species, and altered use of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and affect the main transfer mechanisms through which contaminants move from the environment into food. All these have implications for food safety and the nutritional content of food. Climate change mitigation may increase consumption of foods whose production reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Impacts may include reduced red meat consumption (with positive effects on saturated fat, but negative impacts on zinc and iron intake) and reduced winter fruit and vegetable consumption. Developed countries have complex structures in place that may be used to adapt to the food safety consequences of climate change, although their effectiveness will vary between countries, and the ability to respond to nutritional challenges is less certain. Conclusions: Climate change will have notable impacts upon nutrition and food safety in developed countries, but further research is necessary to accurately quantify these impacts. Uncertainty about future impacts, coupled with evidence that climate change may lead to more variable food quality, emphasizes the need to maintain and strengthen existing structures and policies to regulate

  10. Well-Being and Social Capital on Planet Earth: Cross-National Evidence from 142 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Rocío; Zheng, Yuhui; Kumar, Santosh; Olgiati, Analia; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level) models and then use multivariate (individual-level) Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the two affective

  11. Social--Population Growth Rate Learning Module. Development Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' abilities to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

  12. [The status of women and fertility: the experience of developed countries].

    PubMed

    Blayo, C

    1985-01-01

    The author critically examines recent studies that have cited various changes in women's status in developed countries as the cause of changes in the number of children desired. It is suggested that "the number has decreased as a consequence of the social pressures tending to limit the total fertility of women so as to be compatible with the new behaviour patterns of an industrialized society." (summary in ENG, ITA)

  13. The future of information technology for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ratzan, Scott C; Busquets, Maria I

    2002-01-01

    What is the future of communication technology for health in developing countries? This chapter sets out to answer this question by first considering the background and potential of information technology, identifying some of the issues and trends in communication, and finally following with some challenges and opportunities of how communication technologies can make a difference in health in developing countries. Past research has shown that communication can contribute to all aspects of population, health, and nutrition programs and is relevant in a number of contexts. Some of the trends in using information technology can be classified in the following categories: competition, cognitive-based presentations, comprehensive translation, convergence, and culture. Challenges include finding a way to include the South in the exchange of ideas and information. In addition, reaching a consensus on worldwide quality standards will not be easy. Yet, beyond these challenges, there are many opportunities being created for international development agencies to increase their capacity for impact.

  14. Geothermal development opportunities in central and east European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Cohut, I.; Bendea, C.

    1997-12-31

    Many Central and East European (CEE) countries have significant low enthalpy geothermal resources suitable for direct heat utilisation. Up to present, these resources have only been partially used, mainly for health and recreational bathing, and for greenhouse heating. The involvement of highly developed countries is both needed and desired, but it has a major disadvantage: it is expensive. Even if the first steps for a collaboration profitable for both parties have been stumbling, having to surpass many obstacles, it is now clear that a new market is developing, which first significant commercial opportunities and which will probably comply to the old rule, {open_quotes}first-come, first-served{close_quotes}. To illustrate the investment opportunities in CEE geothermal projects, the development of the geothermal heating facilities of the City of Oradea, Romania, is presented as a case study.

  15. Rating maternal and neonatal health services in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Ross, John A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal and neonatal health services in 49 developing countries. METHODS: The services were rated on a scale of 0 to 100 by 10 - 25 experts in each country. The ratings covered emergency and routine services, including family planning, at health centres and district hospitals, access to these services for both rural and urban women, the likelihood that women would receive particular forms of antenatal and delivery care, and supporting elements of programmes such as policy, resources, monitoring, health promotion and training. FINDINGS: The average rating was only 56, but countries varied widely, especially in access to services in rural areas. Comparatively good ratings were reported for immunization services, aspects of antenatal care and counselling on breast feeding. Ratings were particularly weak for emergency obstetric care in rural areas, safe abortion and HIV counselling. CONCLUSION: Maternal health programme effort in developing countries is seriously deficient, particularly in rural areas. Rural women are disadvantaged in many respects, but especially regarding the treatment of emergency obstetric conditions. Both rural and urban women receive inadequate HIV counselling and testing and have quite limited access to safe abortion. Improving services requires moving beyond policy reform to strengthening implementation of services and to better staff training and health promotion. Increased financing is only part of the solution. PMID:12378290

  16. Promoting astronomy in developing countries: A historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhar, Rk

    2006-08-01

    Any international effort to promote astronomy world wide today must necessarily take into account its cultural and historical component. The past few decades have ushered in an age, which we may call the Age of Cultural Copernicanism. In analogy with the cosmological principle that the universe has no preferred location or direction, Cultural Copernicanism would imply that no cultural or geographical area, or ethnic or social group, can be deemed to constitute a superior entity or a benchmark for judging or evaluating others. In this framework, astronomy (as well as science in general) is perceived as a multi-stage civilizational cumulus where each stage builds on the knowledge gained in the previous stages and in turn leads to the next. This framework however is a recent development. The 19th century historiography consciously projected modern science as a characteristic product of the Western civilization decoupled from and superior to its antecedents, with the implication that all material and ideological benefits arising from modern science were reserved for the West. As a reaction to this, the orientalized East has often tended to view modern science as "their" science, distance itself from its intellectual aspects, and seek to defend, protect and reinvent "our" science and the alleged (anti-science) Eastern mode of thought. This defensive mindset works against the propagation of modern astronomy in most of the non-Western countries. There is thus need to construct a history of world astronomy that is truly universal and unselfconscious. Similarly , the planetarium programs , for use the world over, should be culturally sensitive. IAU can help produce cultural-specific modules. Equipped with this paradigmatic background, we can now address the question of actual means to be adopted for the task at hand. Astronomical activity requires a certain minimum level of industrial activity support. Long-term maintenance of astronomical equipment is not a trivial task

  17. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  18. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  19. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  20. [Deficient information in developing countries: Internet alone is no solution].

    PubMed

    Sluijs, M B; Veeken, H; Overbeke, A J P M

    2006-06-17

    Health-care personnel in developing countries have poor access to information, partly because the books are out of date and journals and Internet access are lacking, and partly because the information that is available is not appropriate for the local situation. There is too little research aimed at the problems of the Third World. This is due to a lack of interest in Western countries and because local scientists have done too little research. Internet solves the problem of access to information for health-care personnel in large hospitals and institutes, but there is still a shortage of relevant information for them as well. The editorial boards of professional journals could make a contribution by facilitating the publication of relevant research. Health-care personnel in rural areas will remain dependent upon basic books. This basic component of the provision of information should continue to receive attention. For the time being, Internet will remain inaccessible for rural health-care personnel. One of the initiatives being undertaken in order to improve the provision of information to health-care personnel in developing countries is the distribution of the 'blue trunk library' of the WHO with a selection of more than 100 basic books in every trunk. A number of journals have also taken action: the BMJ Publishing Group offers access to its journals free of charge to the 118 poorest countries and the Canadian Medical Association Journal provides free copies to libraries in developing countries. Moreover, a number ofwebsites have been started with a view to enlarging the information for health-care personnel in the Third World. PMID:16808368

  1. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries: determinants and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Jones, E F; Forrest, J D; Goldman, N; Henshaw, S K; Lincoln, R; Rosoff, J I; Westoff, C F; Wulf, D

    1985-01-01

    Because of the high adolescent fertility rates in the US, the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) conducted a 1985 study of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in 37 developed countries. This was an effort to unveil those factors responsible for determining teenage reproductive behavior. This article presents the data from that study. Birthrates were collected and separated into 2 age groups: for those under 18 and those women 18 to 19 years of age. A 42 variable questionnaire was sent to the public affairs officer of the American embassy and family planning organization in each foreign country to provide additional socioeconomic, behavioral, and educational data. Childbearing was found to be positively correlated with agricultural work, denoting a socioeconomic influence. Adolescent birthrates showed a positive correlation with levels of maternity leaves and benefits offered in the country. The lowest birthrates were found in those countries with the most liberal attitudes toward sex as demonstrated through media representation of female nudity, extent of nudity on public beaches, sales of sexually explicit literature, and media advertising of condoms. A negative correlation was seen for equitable distribution of income and the under 18 birthrate. The older teenage birthrate was found to be lower for countries with higher minimum ages for marriage. They also suggested a responsiveness to government efforts to increase fertility. Some general patterns emerged to explain the high teenage birthrate for the US: it is less open about sexual matters than countries with lower adolescent birthrates and the income in the US is distributed to families of low economic status. A more subtle factor is that although contraception is available, it is not that accessible to young men and women because of the cost. Case studies were presented to provide a more detailed understanding of the reasons for the high adolescent birthrates. Examined are desire for pregnancy, exposure to

  2. Social Conditionality of Multilinguism Education in Educational Establishments of the Country in the Modern Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golovanova, Inna I.; Lopareva, Tatyana A.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the examined issue is stipulated by inconsistency between social services commissioning to speak several foreign languages and inadequate implementation of these services in educational establishments of the country. The aim of the article is to justify the necessity to reconsider models of mastering the language and to alter…

  3. Social Segregation in Secondary Schools: How Does England Compare with Other Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Micklewright, John; Schnepf, Sylke V.

    2008-01-01

    New evidence is provided about the degree of social segregation in England's secondary schools, employing a cross-national perspective. Analysis is based on data for 27 industrialised countries from the 2000 and 2003 rounds of the Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA). We allow for sampling variation in the estimates. England is…

  4. Social Justice, Capabilities and the Quality of Education in Low Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon; Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper sets out a theoretical approach for understanding the quality of education in low income countries from a social justice perspective. The paper outlines and critiques the two dominant approaches that currently frame the debate about education quality, namely, the human capital and human rights approaches. Drawing principally on the ideas…

  5. Social Change and Adult Education Research. Adult Education Research in Nordic Countries 1992/93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampere Univ., Hameelinna (Finland). Dept. of Education.

    This yearbook contains 18 papers reflecting the major trends in adult education research in the Nordic countries in 1992-93. The following papers are included: "Popular Adult Education and Social Mobilization: Reflections in Connection with the Swedish Committee on Power" (Rubenson); "Direction of Finnish Adult Education Policies within the…

  6. Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

  7. Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Launay, Ludivine; Lillini, Roberto; Vercelli, Marina; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández Fontelo, Amanda; Borrell, Carme; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; de Pina, Maria Fatima; Mayer, Alexandra; Delpierre, Cyrille; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries—Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. Methods and results The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. Conclusions For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health. PMID:26659762

  8. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  9. Reflections on the development of health economics in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Health economics is a relatively new discipline, though its antecedents can be traced back to William Petty FRS (1623–1687). In high-income countries, the academic discipline and scientific literature have grown rapidly since the 1960s. In low- and middle-income countries, the growth of health economics has been strongly influenced by trends in health policy, especially among the international and bilateral agencies involved in supporting health sector development. Valuable and influential research has been done in areas such as cost–benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, financing of healthcare, healthcare provision, and health systems analysis, but there has been insufficient questioning of the relevance of theories and policy recommendations in the rich world literature to the circumstances of poorer countries. Characteristics such as a country's economic structure, strength of political and social institutions, management capacity, and dependence on external agencies, mean that theories and models cannot necessarily be transferred between settings. Recent innovations in the health economics literature on low- and middle-income countries indicate how health economics can be shaped to provide more relevant advice for policy. For this to be taken further, it is critical that such countries develop stronger capacity for health economics within their universities and research institutes, with greater local commitment of funding. PMID:25009059

  10. Reflections on the development of health economics in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne

    2014-08-22

    Health economics is a relatively new discipline, though its antecedents can be traced back to William Petty FRS (1623-1687). In high-income countries, the academic discipline and scientific literature have grown rapidly since the 1960s. In low- and middle-income countries, the growth of health economics has been strongly influenced by trends in health policy, especially among the international and bilateral agencies involved in supporting health sector development. Valuable and influential research has been done in areas such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, financing of healthcare, healthcare provision, and health systems analysis, but there has been insufficient questioning of the relevance of theories and policy recommendations in the rich world literature to the circumstances of poorer countries. Characteristics such as a country's economic structure, strength of political and social institutions, management capacity, and dependence on external agencies, mean that theories and models cannot necessarily be transferred between settings. Recent innovations in the health economics literature on low- and middle-income countries indicate how health economics can be shaped to provide more relevant advice for policy. For this to be taken further, it is critical that such countries develop stronger capacity for health economics within their universities and research institutes, with greater local commitment of funding.

  11. Company, country, connections: counterfactual origins increase organizational commitment, patriotism, and social investment.

    PubMed

    Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; King, Brayden G

    2010-10-01

    Four studies examined the relationship between counterfactual origins--thoughts about how the beginning of organizations, countries, and social connections might have turned out differently--and increased feelings of commitment to those institutions and connections. Study 1 found that counterfactually reflecting on the origins of one's country increases patriotism. Study 2 extended this finding to organizational commitment and examined the mediating role of poignancy. Study 3 found that counterfactual reflection boosts organizational commitment even beyond the effects of other commitment-enhancing appeals and that perceptions of fate mediate the positive effect of counterfactual origins on commitment. Finally, Study 4 temporally separated the counterfactual manipulation from a behavioral measure of commitment and found that counterfactual reflection predicted whether participants e-mailed social contacts 2 weeks later. The robust relationship between counterfactual origins and commitment was found across a wide range of companies and countries, with undergraduates and M.B.A. students, and for attitudes and behaviors.

  12. A developing country perspective on vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    John, T. Jacob

    2004-01-01

    When the Expanded Programme on Immunization was established and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was introduced for developing countries to use exclusively, national leaders of public health had no opportunity to make an informed choice between OPV and the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Today, as progress is made towards the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis attributable to wild polioviruses, all developing countries where OPV is used face the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Until recently, awareness of VAPP has been poor and quantitative risk analysis scanty but it is now well known that the continued use of OPV perpetuates the risk of VAPP. Discontinuation or declining immunization coverage of OPV will increase the risk of emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) that re-acquire wild virus-like properties and may cause outbreaks of polio. To eliminate the risk of cVDPV, either very high immunization coverage must be maintained as long as OPV is in use, or IPV should replace OPV. Stopping OPV without first achieving high immunization coverage with IPV is unwise on account of the possibility of emergence of cVDPV. Increasing numbers of developed nations prefer IPV, and manufacturing capacities have not been scaled up, so its price remains prohibitively high and unaffordable by developing countries, where, in addition, large-scale field experience with IPV is lacking. Under these circumstances, a policy shift to increase the use of IPV in national immunization programmes in developing countries is a necessary first step; once IPV coverage reaches high levels (over 85%), the withdrawal of OPV may begin. PMID:15106301

  13. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  14. Management of Haemophilia in Developing Countries: Challenges and Options.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2016-09-01

    There are significant challenges in managing haemophilia patients in developing countries. These challenges are (i) Lack of proper health care infrastructure and human resources suitable for haemophilia care (ii) Competing health care priorities of the government. (iii) Lack of penetrance of medical insurance in the population. (iv) Lesser visibility of the haemophilia patients in health care system (v) Low awareness across the medical profession, population and the policy makers about the condition (vi) Non availability of factor concentrates (vii) Inadequate utilization of knowledge for reducing factor concentrate use. (viii) Inadequate pain relief (ix) Challenges due to inhibitor developing (x) Viral hepatitis & (xi) Lack of research publications relevant to the country are some of the challenges faced by PWH for their management in developing country. The solutions are not easy but development of a strong patient organization with linkages with World Federation of Haemophilia is an important initial step. Following that internal and international twinning, use of internal sources, strong advocacy programme targeting government, doctors, opinion makers will solve many of the challenges in the time to come. PMID:27429529

  15. Emergency medical care in developing countries: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Razzak, Junaid A.; Kellermann, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Prevention is a core value of any health system. Nonetheless, many health problems will continue to occur despite preventive services. A significant burden of diseases in developing countries is caused by time-sensitive illnesses and injuries, such as severe infections, hypoxia caused by respiratory infections, dehydration caused by diarrhoea, intentional and unintentional injuries, postpartum bleeding, and acute myocardial infarction. The provision of timely treatment during life-threatening emergencies is not a priority for many health systems in developing countries. This paper reviews evidence indicating the need to develop and/or strengthen emergency medical care systems in these countries. An argument is made for the role of emergency medical care in improving the health of populations and meeting expectations for access to emergency care. We consider emergency medical care in the community, during transportation, and at first-contact and regional referral facilities. Obstacles to developing effective emergency medical care include a lack of structural models, inappropriate training foci, concerns about cost, and sustainability in the face of a high demand for services. A basic but effective level of emergency medical care responds to perceived and actual community needs and improves the health of populations. PMID:12481213

  16. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  17. Large Earthquakes in Developing Countries: Estimating and Reducing their Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2003-12-01

    Recent efforts to reduce the risk of earthquakes in developing countries have been diverse, earnest, and inadequate. The earthquake risk in developing countries is large and growing rapidly. It is largely ignored. Unless something is done - quickly - to reduce it, both developing and developed countries will suffer human and economic losses far greater than have been experienced in the past. GeoHazards International (GHI) is a nonprofit organization that has attempted to reduce the death and suffering caused by earthquakes in the world's most vulnerable communities, through preparedness, mitigation and prevention. Its approach has included raising awareness, strengthening local institutions and launching mitigation activities, particularly for schools. GHI and its partners around the world have achieved some success: thousands of school children are safer, hundreds of cities are aware of their risk, tens of cities have been assessed and advised, and some local organizations have been strengthened. But there is disturbing evidence that what is being done is insufficient. The problem outpaces the cure. A new program is now being considered that would attempt to improve earthquake-resistant construction of schools, internationally, by publicizing well-managed programs around the world that design, construct and maintain earthquake-resistant schools. While focused on schools, this program might have broader applications in the future.

  18. International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1983-01-01

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue

  19. Smoking control strategies in developing countries: report of a WHO Expert Committee.

    PubMed

    Masironi, R

    1984-01-01

    An Expert Committee met in World Health Organization Headquarters in Geneva in November 1982 to discuss Smoking Control Strategies in Developing Countries. They reviewed the harmful health effects of different types of tobacco which characterized developing countries and the adverse effects of tobacco use on their economics due to smoking related diseases and higher smokers' work absenteeism. It advised on the objectives of smoking control programs, including data collection; education and information; legislation; smoking cessation; the role of medical, political, social, and religious leaders; the role of WHO, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations; research on smoking behavior; and evaluation of program efficacy. In addition, the Committee provided guidance on how to counteract tobacco industry arguments. More than a million people worldwide die prematurely each year because of cigarette smoking. In developed countries smoking is generally understood to cause lung cancer, coronary heart disease, chronic bronchitis, and other respiratory disorders. Major campaigns have been launched to reduce the rate of smoking. The public in most developing countries are unaware of the dangers, and no educational, legislative, or other measures are being taken to combat the smoking epidemic. The Committee called for firm steps to be taken to prevent this unnecessary modern epidemic. The incidence of tobacco related diseases is increasing in developing countries. Many of the developing countries have cigarettes on sale with high yields of tar and nicotine. Tobacco cultivation has spread to about 120 countries, becoming a substantial source of employment and creating new vested interests. Overall, the costs outweigh the "benefits." Tobacco taxes may be Politically comfortable," that is, easy to administer and generally acceptable to smokers, but these taxes do not contribute to national wealth but merely redistribute wealth. They cannot offset the economic losses caused

  20. Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mohammad S.; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S.; Khuroo, Naira S.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an RNA virus of the Hepeviridae family, has marked heterogeneity. While all five HEV genotypes can cause human infections, genotypes HEV-1 and -2 infect humans alone, genotypes HEV-3 and -4 primarily infect pigs, boars and deer, and genotype HEV-7 primarily infects dromedaries. The global distribution of HEV has distinct epidemiological patterns based on ecology and socioeconomic factors. In resource-poor countries, disease presents as large-scale waterborne epidemics, and few epidemics have spread through person-to-person contact; however, endemic diseases within these countries can potentially spread through person-to-person contact or fecally contaminated water and foods. Vertical transmission of HEV from infected mother to fetus causes high fetal and perinatal mortality. Other means of transmission, such as zoonotic transmission, can fluctuate depending upon the region and strain of the virus. For instance, zoonotic transmission can sometimes play an insignificant role in human infections, such as in India, where human and pig HEV infections are unrelated. However, recently China and Southeast Asia have experienced a zoonotic spread of HEV-4 from pigs to humans and this has become the dominant mode of transmission of hepatitis E in eastern China. Zoonotic HEV infections in humans occur by eating undercooked pig flesh, raw liver, and sausages; through vocational contact; or via pig slurry, which leads to environmental contamination of agricultural products and seafood. Lastly, blood transfusion-associated HEV infections occur in many countries and screening of donors for HEV RNA is currently under serious consideration. To summarize, HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause epidemic and endemic diseases in resource poor countries, primarily spreading through contaminated drinking water. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 on the other hand, cause autochthonous infections in developed, and many developing countries, by means of a unique zoonotic food

  1. Efficacy of Professional Development Schools in Developing Countries: Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon; Shaklee, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the creation and implementation of the first Professional Development School (PDS) model of teacher education in Panama. The authors set the context within brief histories of international education and PDSs and provide operational definitions of the critical terminology. To be sure, the scope and scale of the…

  2. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  3. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A. S.; Cagle, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  4. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature.

  5. Assesment of publication practices in geosciences in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A.; Barbe, V.

    2003-12-01

    We present results of a study which goal was to investigate in which journals scientists in geosciences (i.e., in the fields covered by the AGU) in developing countries publish most of their papers.We were interested in particular in looking at the percentage of publications in AGU journals. Using science indicators collected by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), we analysed publication practices for 1997-2002 in the following countries : India, China, Russia, Brazil, Argentina and Chile. We investigated the evolution of the number of publications through time, identified most used journals, determined times cited and impact factors of papers published in the top 15 most used journals. We also determined the percentage of articles published in AGU journals versus other journals. We found that for the 6 counties considered, this percentage varies from about 2 to 3 percent (Argentina, China) to about 8 percent (the other 4 countries). Investigation of authors addresses indicates that the majority of articles published in AGU journals are multi-countries publications, involving international collaboration mainly with scientists from North America and Europe. Implications on page-charge and access to AGU journals are also discussed.

  6. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature. PMID:23535471

  7. The Study on Complex Project Management in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwen, Wang

    Different factors that can influence project performance have been identified, classified based on their nature, and discussed. Due to the inherent complexity and various problems encountered in implementing infrastructure project in developing countries, the project manager must appreciate the project environment, maintain flexibility, and be competent to analyze the nature of associated problems and their adverse effects on the success of the project, and address these promptly.

  8. Benefits and challenges of newborn hearing screening for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, B O; Luxon, L M; Wirz, S L

    2004-03-01

    The late detection of permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL) often has severe effects on linguistic, speech, cognitive and educational development in affected children. Since newborn hearing screening (NHS) allows most PCEHL to be detected early enough for optimal intervention, the prospects of its introduction in the developing world are reviewed in this paper. It is observed that a simple generalisation on the feasibility of NHS for the developing countries seems inappropriate in view of the diversities in the health and socio-economic status of these countries and the recent favourable reports of universal newborn hearing screening from the region. NHS empowers parents to make timely choices that will allow their hearing impaired children to be given a good start in life and be fully integrated into the wider community. It also compels attention towards the development of essential hearing healthcare services, besides the specific documented benefits. Existing child-healthcare structures such as the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI), baby friendly hospital initiatives (BFHI) and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provide opportunities for the introduction of some form of NHS in many of these countries where routine or systematic childhood hearing screening does not exist. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness and the uncertainty regarding the commitment from healthcare practitioners may present some challenges but these are not insurmountable. Pilot studies are necessary in each country to provide empirical data that will guide healthcare providers who wish to introduce such a programme at any level of healthcare delivery. PMID:15129939

  9. Producer gas engines in villages of less-developed countries.

    PubMed

    Datta, R; Dutt, G S

    1981-08-14

    Producer gas engines could have an important role in the decentralized production of mechanical energy in rural areas of less-developed countries. With this technology mechanical energy is produced from solid fuels by use of internal combustion engines. A comparison with other renewable energy options, on the common basis of energy efficiency and economics, shows that producer gas engines may have significant advantages and deserve serious attention.

  10. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S. A. Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  11. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S A Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-02-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  12. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  13. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  14. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  15. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  16. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The impact of economic, political and social globalization on overweight and obesity in the 56 low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Lobstein, Tim; James, W Philip T; Suhrcke, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Anecdotal and descriptive evidence has led to the claim that globalization plays a major role in inducing overweight and obesity in developing countries, but robust quantitative evidence is scarce. We undertook extensive econometric analyses of several datasets, using a series of new proxies for different dimensions of globalization potentially affecting overweight in up to 887,000 women aged 15-49 living in 56 countries between 1991 and 2009. After controlling for relevant individual and country level factors, globalization as a whole is substantially and significantly associated with an increase in the individual propensity to be overweight among women. Surprisingly, political and social globalization dominate the influence of the economic dimension. Hence, more consideration needs to be given to the forms of governance required to shape a more health-oriented globalization process.

  18. The impact of economic, political and social globalization on overweight and obesity in the 56 low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Lobstein, Tim; James, W. Philip T.; Suhrcke, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal and descriptive evidence has led to the claim that globalization plays a major role in inducing overweight and obesity in developing countries, but robust quantitative evidence is scarce. We undertook extensive econometric analyses of several datasets, using a series of new proxies for different dimensions of globalization potentially affecting overweight in up to 887,000 women aged 15–49 living in 56 countries between 1991 and 2009. After controlling for relevant individual and country level factors, globalization as a whole is substantially and significantly associated with an increase in the individual propensity to be overweight among women. Surprisingly, political and social globalization dominate the influence of the economic dimension. Hence, more consideration needs to be given to the forms of governance required to shape a more health-oriented globalization process. PMID:25841097

  19. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned.

  20. Community factors affecting rising caesarean section rates in developing countries: an analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Leone, Tiziana; Padmadas, Sabu S; Matthews, Zoë

    2008-10-01

    Caesarean section rates have risen dramatically in several developing countries, especially in Latin America and South Asia. This raises a range of concerns about the use of caesarean section for non-emergency cases, not least the progressive shift of resources to non-essential medical interventions in resource-poor settings and additional health risks to mothers and newborns following a caesarean section. There are only a few studies that have systematically examined the factors influencing the recent increase in caesarean rates. In particular, it is not clear whether high elective caesarean rates are driven by medical, institutional or individual and family decisions. Where a woman's decisions predominate her interaction with peers and significant others have an impact on her caesarean section choices. Using random intercept logistic regression analyses, this paper analyses the institutional, socio-economic and community factors that influence caesarean section in six countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Morocco and Vietnam. The analyses, based on data from over 20,000 births, show that women of higher socio-economic background, who had better access to antenatal services are the most likely to undergo a caesarean section. Women who exchange reproductive health information with friends and family are less likely to experience a caesarean section than their counterparts. The study concludes that there is a need to pursue community-based approaches for curbing rising caesarean section rates in resource-poor settings.

  1. The Double Edged Sword: A Brief Comparison of IT and Internet Development in Malaysia and Some Few Neighboring Countries in the Context of Digital Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samad, Ramli Abdul

    This paper shows that, although a digital divide exists between developed and developing countries, the development of information technology (IT) and the Internet has had a profound political, social, and economic impact on developing countries. IT and the Internet revolution are shaping the world into new polarized entities due to the uneven…

  2. Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Forrest, J D

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.

  3. Rehabilitation of the hospital infrastructure in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, H

    2001-01-01

    Mongolia is in fact not a developing country at all but a country of transitional economy (since 1990) with a fairly comprehensive health care infrastructure. However, the health care is facing great difficulties comparable to those in a developing country. Hospital infrastructure rehabilitation was a part of a wider health sector development project with 3 remote aimags (provinces) as the target areas. The Mongolian system of health care has been built up over many years as a country-wide network of community-based feldschers and doctors, supported by a hierarchy of hospitals and mobile emergency teams. Health standards are also impacted by many factors (better housing, water supplies, better roads and rail links) outside the control of the Ministry of Health, and of health care providers. The majority of the rural hospitals lack the basic facilities. There are operating theatres without running water, hospitals with electricity only from 8 to 10 in the evening etc. The hygienic standard is unacceptable. Central heating systems do not function. Many of the facilities are underutilised and in poor condition due an ongoing lack of maintenance. The project aimed for a network that would offer services for all people, including nomadic people. The number of rural hospitals was slightly reduced and some of them were upgraded to first referral unit with basic clinical services. Approximately one third of the rural hospitals had to be rebuilt. The project recommended and started multiphased long-term master planning for those 3 aimag hospitals, all of which displayed difficulties similar to the rural hospitals.

  4. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries. PMID:26709109

  5. Exploring Modular Architecture for Nano Satellite and Opportunity for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhaman, M. K.; Monowar, M. I.; Shakil, S. R.; Kafi, A. H.; Antara, R. S. I.

    2015-01-01

    SPACE Technology has the potential to provide information, infrastructure and inspiration that meets national needs in developing countries like Bangladesh. Many countries recognize this; in response they are investing in new national satellite programs to harness satellite services. Technology related to space is one example of a tool that can contribute to development both by addressing societal challenges and by advancing a nation's technological capability. To cope up with the advanced world in space technology Bangladesh seems to be highly potential country for satellite, Robotics, embedded systems and renewable energy research. BRAC University, Bangladesh is planning to launch a nano satellite with the collaboration of KIT, Japan. The proposed nano satellite project mission is to experiment about social, commercial and agricultural survey needs in Bangladesh. Each of the proposed applications of the project will improve the lives of millions of people of Bangladesh and it will be a pathfinder mission for the people of this country. Another intention of this project is to create a cheap satellite based remote sensing for developing countries as the idea of large space systems is very costly for us therefore we have decided to make a Nano-satellite.

  6. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries.

  7. GLOBE Earth Science Education and Public Outreach in Developing Countries GLOBE Earth Science Education and Public Outreach in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Boger, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    GLOBE is an international hands-on earth science education program that involves scientists, teachers and students in more than 16,000 primary and secondary schools. GLOBE is funded by the National Aeronautics Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE works with schools (teachers and students) through more than 100 U.S. GLOBE partnerships with universities, state and local school systems, and non-government organizations. Internationally, GLOBE is partnered with 109 countries that include many developing nations throughout the world. In addition to the GLOBE's different areas of investigation e.g. Atmosphere/ Weather, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover Biology and Phenology ( plant and animal), there are special projects such as the GLOBE Urban Phenology Year Project (GUPY) that engages developing and developed countries ( Finland, United States, Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Jordan, Kyrgystan, Senegal, Poland, Estonia, and the Dominican Republic) in studying the effects of urbanization on vegetation phenology, a sensitive indicator of climate change. Vegetation phenology integrates different components of the Earth system i.e. carbon and geochemical cycling, water cycling and energy cycling and is an excellent way to engage students in collaborative projects. This presentation will highlight the GUPY project and provide additional examples of local initiatives and collaborations with indigenous communities that use GLOBE and an inquiry approach to revise science education in developing countries .

  8. Criticism of drinking as informal social control: a study in 18 countries

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Jan; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Derickx, Mieke; Selin, Klara Hradilova; Holmila, Marja

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on informal control of drinking, indicated by criticism of people in the social network on someone's alcohol consumption. It studies country and gender differences in the extent drinkers suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use report informal control from others (reactive informal control), and country and gender differences in the extent comments on someone's drinking are (also) directed at those who do not suffer from these symptoms (pro-active informal control). The data come from eighteen general population surveys, selected from an integrated dataset on drinking and drinking-related factors including more than 35 countries. The criteria for inclusion were that data for both men and women were available and that at least 3 items about symptoms of severe physiological consequences and about criticism of drinking had valid responses. The results show that men suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use are more likely to be criticized than equivalent women (reactive control). Irrespective of gender, reactive informal control is more prevalent in poorer countries and in countries with a high proportion of abstainers. Concerning pro-active control, among women a larger part of criticism appeared to be directed at those who (as yet) do not suffer from symptoms typical for heavy or prolonged alcohol use. There is a lot of variation between countries in pro-active informal control. This variation is only weakly related to prosperity of a country but not to its proportion of abstainers. PMID:21691455

  9. Public health crises of cities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wang'ombe, J K

    1995-09-01

    During the decade and a half after Alma Ata hundreds of projects were started in developing countries to implement the principles of PHC and start community based health care programs in the rural areas of developing countries. Until the past five years urban health was not seen as a special health problem. Population pressure in the rural areas has created shortages of land, food and employment opportunities. These forces have generated major population movements to the urban centres. The population movements have encouraged unprecedented expansion of urban centres. This sudden concentration of large populations in small geographical areas has resulted in the urban health crises of the developing world. The poor who live in the slum areas have no access to adequate health services, they experience frequent epidemics of communicable diseases like cholera, they live within a heavily polluted environment, and their children have very poor health because they are not immunized and are malnourished. The paper agrees with approaches which have been championed by development agencies to address the urban health crises. These approaches propose the reorientation of urban health systems to include adoption of PHC for urban health programs, intersectoral collaboration and extra budgetary support. The paper argues for further strengthening of the reorientation approach by adjusting the development planning model. It is proposed that the urban plan be integrated into the national development plan so that emerging urban health crises can receive special attention in resource allocation.

  10. Loneliness, Social Networks, and Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Uribe, Laura Alejandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is widely recognized that social networks and loneliness have effects on health. The present study assesses the differential association that the components of the social network and the subjective perception of loneliness have with health, and analyzes whether this association is different across different countries. Methods A total of 10 800 adults were interviewed in Finland, Poland and Spain. Loneliness was assessed by means of the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Individuals’ social networks were measured by asking about the number of members in the network, how often they had contacts with these members, and whether they had a close relationship. The differential association of loneliness and the components of the social network with health was assessed by means of hierarchical linear regression models, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In all three countries, loneliness was the variable most strongly correlated with health after controlling for depression, age, and other covariates. Loneliness contributed more strongly to health than any component of the social network. The relationship between loneliness and health was stronger in Finland (|β| = 0.25) than in Poland (|β| = 0.16) and Spain (|β| = 0.18). Frequency of contact was the only component of the social network that was moderately correlated with health. Conclusions Loneliness has a stronger association with health than the components of the social network. This association is similar in three different European countries with different socio-economic and health characteristics and welfare systems. The importance of evaluating and screening feelings of loneliness in individuals with health problems should be taken into account. Further studies are needed in order to be able to confirm the associations found in the present study and infer causality. PMID:26761205

  11. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun; Wu, Yue; Schwebel, David C.; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%). Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries. PMID:27399740

  12. Setting priorities for waste management strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Paul H; Fellner, Johann

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the waste management systems, that are presently applied in affluent countries are appropriate solutions for waste management in less developed regions. For this purpose, three cities (Vienna, Damascus and Dhaka) which differ greatly in their gross domestic product and waste management were compared. The criteria for evaluation were economic parameters, and indicators as to whether the goals of waste management (protection of human health and the environment, the conservation of resources) were reached. Based on case studies, it was found that for regions spending 1-10 Euro capita(-1) year(-1) for waste management, the 'waste hierarchy' of prevention, recycling and disposal is not an appropriate strategy. In such regions, the improvement of disposal systems (complete collection, upgrading to sanitary landfilling) is the most cost-effective method to reach the objectives of solid waste management. Concepts that are widely applied in developed countries such as incineration and mechanical waste treatment are not suitable methods to reach waste management goals in countries where people cannot spend more than 10 Euro per person for the collection, treatment and disposal of their waste. It is recommended that each region first determines its economic capacity for waste management and then designs its waste management system according to this capacity and the goals of waste management. PMID:17612323

  13. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis.

  14. Development of a windmill for water pumping for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Chandra, S.K.; Mantrawadi, S.C.

    1983-12-01

    Development of an all-metal windmill with 5 meter wheel diameter and 12 blades is described. Sound methods of mechanical and aerodynamic design are used, even though the windmill is simple enough to be fabricated in a small workshop using commonly available mild steel sections. The windmill is connected to a single acting reciprocating pump which can be inserted in a tubewell. Stroke of the pump as well as pump diameter can be varied to suit the site conditions as the water table and wind velocity vary. The designed windspeed is kept low at 14 KMPH so that the windmill is suitable for low wind regimes and the cut-in wind speed is as low as 6 KMPH. The overall efficiency of the wind pump is found to be about 12-15 percent. The cost of the wind pump together with all metallic 7 meter high tower is about US $1,200, with a life expectancy of 20 years. Few of the windmills are already working and cost of water pumping is comparable to diesel or electric pumping.

  15. Publication Rates and Trends in International Collaborations for Astronomers in Developing Countries, Eastern European Countries, and the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James C., II

    1992-06-01

    I surveyed two major astronomical journals for the thirty-year period 1960 to 1989 looking for papers with either principal or co-authors from developing countries, formerly communist Eastern European countries, and the former Soviet Union. The number of papers with authors from these areas has increased during the period surveyed, but the percentage of papers with such authors is less than 10% of the total number of papers over the period. The number of papers by collaborations between astronomers from developing countries and industrialized countries was found to be approximately the same as the number of papers by astronomers from developing countries only. Astronomers from Eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union, however, were found to either prefer or require collaborations with Western astronomers. (SECTION: Astronomical Sociology)

  16. Girls' Access to Education in a Developing Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissinger, Helen

    1997-09-01

    Papua New Guinea is a developing country which gained its independence from Australia in 1975. Many of its educational structures inherited from the time of the early missions and the colonial administration influence the practices of today. Women have not advanced in the new country as far as was prophesied in the early 1970s leading up to Independence. Although the current poor economic conditions have some effect on women's advancement, the difficulties they face in even obtaining a basic education form one of the major factors which hinder their progress. This paper describes a number of the barriers which prevent girls from accessing education at every level, from gaining enrolment in the first year of school to positioning themselves for university entry. Distance education provides one of the few "second chances" that young Papua New Guineans can gain, provided they can afford the fees and engage with the somewhat independent study required for success.

  17. Breast Surgery International--breast cancer in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, K; Apffelstaedt, J P; Abdullah, H; Murray, E M; Ajuluchuku, E U

    2002-01-01

    Breast Surgery International (BSI) was formed in 1999 as an integrated society within the International Surgical Society ISS/SIC. One goal is to promote breast surgery world wide and focus on the situation in the developing countries. An edited summary of a symposium on locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and the current situation in two African countries and in Malaysia is reported. Diagnosis, management and treatment options differ from recommendations that prevail due to lack of resources, lack of access to facilities and cultural and socioeconomic barriers. Younger age at onset, more men are affected and locally advanced breast cancer dominates the clinical panorama. A rational treatment plan for LABC should have chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy as armaments. A unique opportunity exists for international interchange within a professional organization such as BSI, for providing training opportunities, for clinical and experimental studies of the world' s most common female malignancy. PMID:12449462

  18. Social networks and the development of social skills in cowbirds.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah

    2012-07-01

    The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended. PMID:22641827

  19. Social networks and the development of social skills in cowbirds.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah

    2012-07-01

    The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended.

  20. The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2006-02-01

    Thirty years ago international nutritionists were focussing on childhood malnutrition, the 'protein gap' and how to feed the world's burgeoning population, and medical services in the developing world were concentrated on the fight against infectious diseases. Today the World Health Organization (WHO) finds itself needing to deal with the new pandemic of obesity and its accompanying non-communicable diseases (NCDs) while the challenge of childhood malnutrition has far from disappeared, TB and malaria rates are escalating, and the scourge of AIDS has emerged. This has created a 'double burden' of disease that threatens to overwhelm the health services of many resource-poor countries. WHO warns that the greater future burden of obesity and diabetes will affect developing countries, and the projected numbers of new cases of diabetes run into the hundreds of millions within the next 2 decades. The obesity pandemic originated in the US and crossed to Europe and the world's other rich nations before, remarkably, it penetrated even the world's poorest countries especially in their urban areas. The pandemic is transmitted through the vectors of subsidized agriculture and multinational companies providing cheap, highly refined fats, oils, and carbohydrates, labour-saving mechanized devices, affordable motorized transport, and the seductions of sedentary pastimes such as television. This paper briefly reviews these macro-environmental trends as well as considering some of the socio-behavioural influences on weight gain in traditional societies. It concludes, pessimistically, that the pandemic will continue to spread for the foreseeable future, and that, apart from educational campaigns, the governments and health services of poor countries will have few effective public health levers with which they can try to arrest the trend. PMID:16326822