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Sample records for developing countries social

  1. The Social Development Summit and the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, A P; Kulkarni, P D; Nanavatty, M C; Singh, R R

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses some concerns of the 1996 UN Summit on Social Development. Conference organizers identified the three key conference issues as poverty alleviation, social integration of the marginalized and disadvantaged, and expansion of productive employment. The goal of a "society for all" means dealing with the increasing differences between rich and poor countries, the survival of weaker economies in a competitive market system, wide variations in consumption patterns between countries, attainment of political stability while respecting ethnic identity, the rise in social problems among countries with a high human development index, and increasing joblessness. The Human Development Report for 1994 emphasizes human security. Social development is not the equivalent of human resource development nor a side issue of economic growth. The integration of ethnic groups poses social and political problems. There remains a question about what political system and culture would be best for social integration. Developed countries define poverty as the inability of people and government to provide resources and necessary services for people's productive activity. Poverty in developing countries is blamed on colonialism. Globally, developed countries control 71% of world trade. Sharing resources to meet basic needs throughout the world is not an operational ideal. The highest 20% of income earners receive 83% of the world income. The culture of poverty is the strategy used by the poor to survive. Welfare is not an end in itself but does enable the poor to improve their conditions. Development that focuses on productive employment is uncertain. Developed and developing countries do not share similar perceptions of human rights. There is a question as to who should set the priorities for social development. Sustainable social development is related to preservation of natural resources, control of population growth, and promotion of social security.

  2. Subtyping Social Anxiety Disorder in Developed and Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Lee, Sing; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena S.G.; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Karam, Elie G; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Browne, Mark Oakley; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is classified in DSM-IV into generalized and non-generalized subtypes, community surveys in Western countries find no evidence of disjunctions in the dose-response relationship between number of social fears and outcomes to support this distinction. We aimed to determine whether this holds across a broader set of developed and developing countries and whether subtyping according to number of performance versus interactional fears would be more useful. METHODS The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative undertook population epidemiological surveys in 11 developing and 9 developed countries using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess DSM-IV disorders. Fourteen performance and interactional fears were assessed. Associations between number of social fears in SAD and numerous outcomes (age-of-onset, persistence, severity, comorbidity, treatment) were examined. Additional analyses examined associations with number of performance fears versus number of interactional fears. RESULTS Lifetime social fears are quite common in both developed (15.9%) and developing (14.3%) countries, but lifetime SAD is much more common in the former (6.1%) than latter (2.1%) countries. Among those with SAD, persistence, severity, comorbidity, and treatment all have dose-response relationships with number of social fears, with no clear nonlinearity in relationships that would support a distinction between generalized and non-generalized SAD. The distinction between performance fears and interactional fears is generally not important in predicting these same outcomes. CONCLUSION No evidence is found to support subtyping SAD on the basis of either number of social fears or number of performance fears versus number of interactional fears. PMID:20037919

  3. Overcoming political, social and economic barriers to promote solar photovoltaic technology in a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesooriya, P.; Hande, H.; Gunaratne, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper narrates the experiences of a private sector commercial company and that of a private developers (non-profit organization) in their efforts to promote solar PV in a developing country. The country chosen is Sri Lanka, in which a considerable PV effort has already been witnessed. However, substantial political, economic and social barriers exist which have hindered PV promotion in that country. The authors point that similar constraints may impede promotional efforts in many developing countries and recommend that a global paradigm to promote the technology must assign an important role to the issue of obstacles.

  4. Ethics review in a developing country: a survey of South African social scientists' experiences.

    PubMed

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    We report the findings of a preliminary study of social science researchers' experiences of ethics review from a developing country perspective. Social science researchers' experiences of ethics review were coded as negative (42.6%), positive (21.3%), or mixed (36.2%). Ethics review was primarily experienced as negative for pragmatic reasons such as slow turnaround time, inadequate review and problems with the centralization of review. Our finding that South African researchers experience the same problems and frustrations with RECs as developed country researchers affirms that South Africa's problems with ethics review are not due to it being a less developed system, but to general review practices as they arise naturally in institutions. Developing countries thus have a unique opportunity to learn from the reported dissatisfactions and mistakes of developed countries, to avoid procedures that have hindered ethics review of much social science research in developed countries, and to fashion their own review procedures in ways that are more appropriate to key ethical issues arising in social science research and local conditions and resources.

  5. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scientific practices and social behaviors in managing landslide risks: comparing experiences between developing and developed countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    because of wrong or inadequate scientific practices, unethical landslide experts, complex bureaucracy and hierarchy at governmental level, presence of non-scientific public officials and politicians with lack of long-term landslide risk management knowledge, often interposed between landslide experts and public, or, because of others human behaviors, or social or political aspects that make this difficult? Are there any differences or similarities in landslide prevention between developed and developing countries? Where is better achieved a good communication between landslide experts and public? Where the multidisciplinary and interstitutional cooperation among specialists gives the most fruitful results? Is it possible and how we can exchange knowledge and experiences learned in developing countries?

  7. Out of sync? Demographic and other social science research on health conditions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Behrman, Julia A; Perez, Nykia M

    2011-01-18

    In this paper, we present a framework for considering whether the marginal social benefits of demographic and social science research on various health conditions in developing countries are likely to be relatively high. Based on this framework, we argue that the relative current and future predicted prevalence of burdens of different health/disease conditions, as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), provide a fairly accurate reflection of some important factors related to the relative marginal social benefits of demographic and social science research on different health conditions. World Health Organization (WHO) DALYs projections for 2005-30 are compared with (a) demographic and other social science studies on health in developing countries during 1990-2005, and (b) presentations made at the Population Association of America annual meetings during the same time period. These comparisons suggest that recent demographic and social science research on health in developing countries has focused too much on HIV/AIDS, and too little on non-communicable diseases.

  8. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  9. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  10. Pro-socially shareable entertainment television programmes: a programming alternative in developing countries?

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Svenkerud, P J

    1994-12-01

    Over the period 1975-82, the Mexican television network created and aired seven entertainment soap operas promoting educational-development themes like adult literacy, smaller family size norms, and an higher social status for women. These emissions earned high ratings in Mexico and in other Latin American countries where they were subsequently broadcast. Evidence suggests that many of the social objectives of the soaps were met. In light of such success, the authors investigated the potential of pro-socially shareable entertainment television programs in developing countries. These programs use entertaining media formats to carry pro-social messages to a wide, yet culturally-proximate audience group. Entertainment television genres such as melodramatic soap operas offer certain advantages for carrying pro-socially shareable messages to audiences. The possibility of using other television genres and media channels, however, also needs to be seriously considered. Pro-socially shareable entertainment programs do have their limitations and problems, with a certain degree of message dilution invariably accompanying the quest for shareability. Targeting specific problems in specific audience groups is difficult and the identity of a relatively small homogeneous group can be threatened in a larger culturally proximate group. The value-laden nature of pro-social content can also be problematic.

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Plorde, D S

    1981-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD.

  12. Maternal social capital and child nutritional status in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Mary J; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-06-01

    Social capital has been shown to be positively associated with a range of health outcomes, yet no studies have explored the association between maternal social capital and child nutritional status. Using data from the Young Lives study comprising 7242 1-year-old children from Peru, Ethiopia, Vietnam and the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, we find significant differences in the levels of, in particular, structural social capital (group membership and citizenship) between countries. While few associations were found between structural measures of social capital, support from individuals and cognitive social capital (e.g. trust, social harmony) displayed fairly consistent positive associations with child nutritional status across countries.

  13. Child health promotion in developing countries: the case for integration of environmental and social interventions?

    PubMed

    Ehiri, J E; Prowse, J M

    1999-03-01

    In spite of improving epidemiological knowledge in relation to child health, the challenge of promoting the survival and quality of life of infants and children in most parts of the developing world remains an abiding public health problem, for both the countries and the international agencies involved. Current infant and child health programmes largely reflect western style medical care, with emphasis placed on reducing mortality, and the preventive aspects confined mainly to immunisation, improved nutrition, provision of micronutrients, promotion of breast-feeding and birth spacing. In contrast, environmental and social factors which underpin the proliferation of disease agents are receiving minimal attention. This paper presents a critical review of current strategies for promoting child health in developing countries, and examines the environmental, social, and political factors that influence child health. Presenting a specific example of infant and childhood diarrhoea, the authors argue that in order for a real reduction in mortality, and improvements in quality of life to be sustained, attention needs to be focused equally on the environmental and social factors that underlie much of the childhood diseases in the developing world. This will involve the adoption of a broader strategy aimed at reducing childhood diarrhoea, using the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system in combination with other methods.

  14. Ethical, behavioral, and social aspects of HIV vaccine trials in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lurie, P; Bishaw, M; Chesney, M A; Cooke, M; Fernandes, M E; Hearst, N; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Koetsawang, S; Lindan, C P; Mandel, J

    1994-01-26

    Several investigators are preparing to conduct efficacy trials of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines in the developing world. Failure to adequately address the unique ethical, behavioral, and social issues that surround vaccine testing in that setting will jeopardize the success of these trials and future acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research in the host nation. Twelve investigators from Africa, Asia, North America, and South America reviewed previous experience with HIV trials in developing countries and explored potential solutions to these issues. Host country scientists, government officials, and media must be actively involved in all aspects of the trials. Minimum prerequisites for conducting the trial include the following: (1) researching vaccines active against developing world HIV isolates; (2) establishing and maintaining an adequate technological infrastructure; (3) assessing the feasibility of recruitment in countries where the existence of HIV may be denied; (4) designing methods to obtain informed consent from each individual subject, rather than exclusively from family members or community elders; (5) creating locally appropriate instruments to measure risk behavior; (6) identifying a behavioral intervention for placebo and treatment groups; (7) making available laboratory methods to distinguish between natural HIV infection and vaccine-induced seropositivity; and (8) guaranteeing that an effective vaccine is available free of charge to the placebo group and at affordable prices to other host country residents.

  15. Health Care Social Media: Expectations of Users in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Affordability, acceptability, accommodation, availability, and accessibility are the five most important dimensions of access to health services. Seventy two percent of the Indian population lives in semi-urban and rural areas. The strong mismatched ratio of hospitals to patients, rising costs of health care, rapidly changing demographics, increasing population, and heightened demands in pricing for technological health care usage in emerging economies necessitate a unique health delivery solution model using social media. A greater disease burden lies in the health care delivery in developing country like India. This is due to the lack of health care infrastructure in the majority of semi-urban and rural regions. New techniques need to be introduced in these regions to overcome these issues. In the present scenario, people use social media from business, automobiles, arts, book marking, cooking, entertainment, and general networking. Developed and advanced countries like the United States have developed their communication system for many years now. They have already established social media in a number of domains including health care. Similar practice incidences can be used to provide a new dimension to health care in the semi-urban regions of India. Objective This paper describes an extended study of a previous empirical study on the expectations of social media users for health care. The paper discusses what the users of social media expect from a health care social media site. Methods Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance of the affect of four factors (privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication) on the usage of health care social media. Privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication were the independent variables and health care social media was the dependant variable. Results There were 103 respondents who used the online questionnaire tool to generate their responses. The results from the multiple regression

  16. Health care social media: expectations of users in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Amrita; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2013-01-01

    Affordability, acceptability, accommodation, availability, and accessibility are the five most important dimensions of access to health services. Seventy two percent of the Indian population lives in semi-urban and rural areas. The strong mismatched ratio of hospitals to patients, rising costs of health care, rapidly changing demographics, increasing population, and heightened demands in pricing for technological health care usage in emerging economies necessitate a unique health delivery solution model using social media. A greater disease burden lies in the health care delivery in developing country like India. This is due to the lack of health care infrastructure in the majority of semi-urban and rural regions. New techniques need to be introduced in these regions to overcome these issues. In the present scenario, people use social media from business, automobiles, arts, book marking, cooking, entertainment, and general networking. Developed and advanced countries like the United States have developed their communication system for many years now. They have already established social media in a number of domains including health care. Similar practice incidences can be used to provide a new dimension to health care in the semi-urban regions of India. This paper describes an extended study of a previous empirical study on the expectations of social media users for health care. The paper discusses what the users of social media expect from a health care social media site. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significance of the affect of four factors (privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication) on the usage of health care social media. Privacy, immediacy, usability, and communication were the independent variables and health care social media was the dependant variable. There were 103 respondents who used the online questionnaire tool to generate their responses. The results from the multiple regression analysis using SPSS 20 showed that

  17. Is it possible to develop a cross-country test of social interaction?

    PubMed

    Berg, Brett; Atler, Karen; Fisher, Anne G

    2017-11-01

    The Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESI) is used in Asia, Australia, North America and Europe. What is considered to be appropriate social interaction, however, differs amongst countries. If social interaction varies, the relative difficulty of the ESI items and types of social exchange also could vary, resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) and test bias in the form of differential test functioning (DTF). Yet, because the ESI scoring criteria are designed to account for culture, the ESI should be free of DIF and DTF. The purpose, therefore, was to determine whether the ESI demonstrates DIF or DTF related to country. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study of 9811 participants 2-102 years, 55% female, from 12 countries was conducted using many-facet Rasch analyses. DIF analyses compared paired item and social exchange type values by country against a critical effect size (±0.55 logit). DTF analyses compared paired ESI measures by country to 95% confidence intervals. All paired social exchange types and 98.3% of paired items differed by less than ±0.55 logit. All persons fell within 95% confidence intervals. Minimal DIF resulted in no test bias, supporting the cross-country validity of the ESI.

  18. Social insurance for dental care in Iran: a developing scheme for a developing country.

    PubMed

    Jadidfard, Mohammad-Pooyan; Yazdani, Shahram; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad-Hossein

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the current situation with regard to dental care provided under social insurance in Iran in qualitative terms and to assess it critically with regard to equity and efficiency. After a thorough review of the relevant literature, a template of topics, which included population coverage, range of treatment provided, contracting mechanisms, fees, level of co-payments and dental share of total health expenditures, was developed by a panel of Iranian health finance experts. It was used during interviews with informed persons from the different Iranian social funds. These interviews were recorded and transcribed. The transcriptions were checked for accuracy by those who had been interviewed and were then analysed. It was found that, currently, four major social funds are involved in health (including dental) insurance in Iran, under the supervision of The Supreme Council of Health Insurance, located at the newly integrated Ministry of Cooperatives, Labour & Social Welfare. Around 90% of Iranians are covered for health insurance within a Bismarckian system to which the employed, the employers, and the Government contribute. The system has developed piecemeal over the years and is characterised by a complexity of revenue-collection schemes, fragmented insurance pools, and passive purchasing of dental services. The dental sector of Iranian social insurance should establish a strategic purchasing plan for dental care with the aim of improving performance and access to care. Within the plan, there should be a basic benefit package of dental services based on the relative cost-effectiveness of interventions, educating an adequate number of allied dental professionals to provide simple services, and introducing mixed payment methods.

  19. Social health insurance in a developing country: the case of the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Konrad; Jowett, Matthew R; Alcantara, Maria Ofelia O; Banzon, Eduardo P; Bodart, Claude

    2006-06-01

    Very little is known about the Philippine health care system, and in particular its experience with social health insurance (SHI). Having initiated an SHI programme 35 years ago, the Philippines hold many lessons for the development of such schemes in other low and middle-income countries. We analyse the challenges currently facing PhilHealth, the national health insurer. PhilHealth was formed in 1995 as a successor to the Medicare programme and was given a mandate to achieve universal coverage by 2010. To date, PhilHealth has been quite successful in some areas (e.g. enrollment), but lags behind in others (e.g. quality and price control). We conclude that SHI in the Philippines has been a success story so far and provides lessons for countries in a similar situation. For example: (i) SHI is based on value decisions and the clear statement of societal goals can give guidance in the technical execution, (ii) SHI is a financing institution and needs to be treated accordingly, (iii) SHI can be implemented independently of the current economic situation and might actually contribute to economic development, (iv) community-based health care financing schemes should be merged with the national SHI in the long run, and (v) there is a strong need to push for high quality care and improved physical access. No clear suggestions can be given with respect to the benefit catalogue and the balance between economies of scale and decentralisation. Although riddled with many inadequacies, PhilHealth was set up as a strong and largely politically independent institution for the development of SHI. SHI can act as a stabilizing institution in a politically and economically volatile environment.

  20. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  1. The social determinants of infant mortality and birth outcomes in Western developed nations: a cross-country systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-06-05

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world.

  2. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  3. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  4. Fertility differences among developing countries: are they still related to family planning program efforts and social settings?

    PubMed

    Jain, Anrudh K; Ross, John A

    2012-03-01

    In many developing countries, fertility has declined steadily in recent decades, while the average strength of family planning programs has increased and social conditions have improved. However, it is unclear whether the synergistic effect of family planning programs and social settings on fertility, first identified in the 1970s, still holds. Data from 40 developing countries in which Demographic and Health Surveys were conducted in 2003-2010 were used to examine associations among socioeconomic conditions, family planning program effort strength and fertility. Cross-tabulations and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Variation among countries in scores on the Family Planning Program Effort Index, but not on the Human Development Index, has diminished since the 1970s. On average, fertility levels were lower among countries with better social settings or stronger family planning programs than among those with poorer settings or weaker programs; they were lowest in the presence of both good social settings and strong programs. In addition, fertility was positively associated with infant mortality and negatively associated with female education, but not associated with poverty. About half of the 2.3-birth difference in fertility between countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and those elsewhere can be attributed to differences in program efforts and social settings. Policies focused on improving levels of female education, reducing infant mortality and improving family planning services can be expected to have mutually reinforcing effects on fertility decline.

  5. Social Indicators for Developing Countries: A New Approach. Cornell Rural Sociology Bulletin Series - Bulletin No. 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ruth C.

    Designed to be self-contained, the material in this workbook on social indicators can be used for teaching and research purposes by agency field workers and/or undergraduates from developing nations who do not have a social science background. Originally presented to 22 professional people from Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines as part of…

  6. Higher Education and Social Change. Promising Experiments in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W., Ed.; And Others

    Presented are the results of a study made by developing country educators for twelve national and international agencies, directed and coordinated by the International Council for Educational Development. Volume 2 contains the reports of 25 case studies of higher education institutions and systems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America: University of…

  7. Sharing Mechanisms for Information Technology in Developing Countries, Social Capital and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    For the majority of those living in developing countries (especially in the rural areas) sharing may be the only means of obtaining access to IT. Oddly, however, no-one has viewed "IT for development" specifically from this point of view for the Internet, computers and mobile phones. A good beginning, it seems to me, is to make an analytical…

  8. Children's Weekend Activities in Four Countries: Context for Personal and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdogru, Asil Ali

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-school time constitutes a major context of social and emotional development for children across cultures. Because it is not constrained by school attendance, weekend time allows cultural and gender differences in time usage to emerge. In this study, children's weekend activities, choice, and some of the related emotional outcomes were…

  9. Children's Weekend Activities in Four Countries: Context for Personal and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdogru, Asil Ali

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-school time constitutes a major context of social and emotional development for children across cultures. Because it is not constrained by school attendance, weekend time allows cultural and gender differences in time usage to emerge. In this study, children's weekend activities, choice, and some of the related emotional outcomes were…

  10. Potential benefits and harm of biotechnology in developing countries: the ethics and social dimensions.

    PubMed

    Mfutso-Bengo, J M; Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    The world has experienced phenomenal growth in science and knowledge since the second-world war. Infectious disease conditions that were almost always fatal in the early 1900s are now being effectively treated with antibiotics and other modalities emanating from science and prevented through the general improvements in vaccination, nutrition, sanitation and availability of safe water to many more people. Biotechnology as one aspect of this growth in knowledge and practice has particular potential to enable the development and increased accessibility of rapid and efficient diagnostic, preventive and health promotion tools, restoration of water quality, soil and other natural resources. This has the potential to make our environment much safer and also agriculturally more productive. Development of new biotechnology, especially in medicine, is essentially the domain of developed nations, and in Africa, a few countries like South Africa, Kenya and Egypt are leading the way. In this paper, we discuss the risks and benefits of biotechnology especially regarding human health in developing countries. We have drawn significantly from the ethical tenets of beneficence, autonomy of individuals, fairness or justice and informed consent.

  11. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875

  12. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well.

  13. Astronomy for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan H.

    Developing countries have many claims on their limited resources and astronomy can expect only a small share of a small "pie". A useful rule of thumb is that a country's expenditure on astronomy is likely to be of the same order of magnitude as its per capita Gross National Product multiplied by the number of professional astronomers in the country. In the light of this, we consider how governments of developing countries can help their astronomers, how we can help them and how they can help themselves.

  14. Hemovigilance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits has become an integral part of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) in the developed world and has contributed greatly to the development of the blood service. However developing countries are still grappling with donor recruitment and efforts towards sufficiency and safety of the blood supply. In these countries the BTS is generally fragmented and a national hemovigilance program would be difficult to implement. However a few developing countries have an effective and sustainable blood program that can deliver equitable, safe and sufficient blood supply to the nation. Different models of hemovigilance program have been introduced with variable success. There are deficiencies but the data collected provided important information that can be presented to the health authorities for effective interventions. Hemovigilance program modeled from developed countries require expertise and resources that are not available in many developing countries. Whatever resources that are available should be utilized to correct deficiencies that are already apparent and obvious. Besides there are other tools that can be used to monitor the blood program in the developing countries depending on the need and the resources available. More importantly the data collected should be accurate and are used and taken into consideration in formulating guidelines, standards and policies and to affect appropriate interventions. Any surveillance program should be introduced in a stepwise manner as the blood transfusion service develops.

  15. Changing Social Institutions to Improve the Status of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes: Morrisson, Christian

    2005-01-01

    One of the long-standing priorities of the international community is to reduce gender disparity in developing countries. Yet, the overall picture is still gloomy: women continue to be excluded from access to resources and employment and are denied basic human rights. This Policy Brief explains why progress has been so minimal and what should be…

  16. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations.

  17. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-01-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations. PMID:8781389

  18. Poverty and Social Developments in Peru, 1994-1997. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    From 1994 to 1997, social welfare improved in Peru. Areas of improvement included decreased poverty and severe poverty rates, increased school attendance and literacy, and a healthier population. Most important among health improvements was reduced malnutrition among young children. Social improvements stemmed from the favorable overall economic…

  19. Facebook Is a Source of Social Capital Building among University Students: Evidence From a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Syed Ali; Qazi, Wasim; Umer, Amna

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of Facebook usage on building social capital among university students in Karachi by using a modified framework of technology acceptance model. Important information was gathered utilizing organized questionnaire containing items of Facebook intensity, social self-efficacy, perceived ease of use, perceived…

  20. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs) between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated. PMID:22280469

  1. Social capital and health in the least developed countries: A critical review of the literature and implications for a future research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Story, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the linkage between social capital and health has grown in recent years; however, there is a dearth of evidence from resource-poor countries. This review examines the association between social capital and physical health (including health behaviours) in the least developed countries (LDCs). Citations were searched using three databases from 1990 to 2011 using the keyword ‘social capital’ combined with the name of each of the 48 LDCs. Of the 14 studies reviewed, 12 took place in Africa and two in South Asia. All used cross-sectional study designs, including five qualitative and nine quantitative studies. The literature reviewed suggests that social capital is an important factor for improving health in resource-poor settings; however, more research is needed in order to determine the best measures for social capital and elucidate the mechanisms through which social capital affects health in the developing world. Future research on social capital and health in the developing world should focus on applying appropriate theoretical conceptualizations of social capital to the developing country context, adapting and validating instruments for measuring social capital, and examining multilevel models of social capital and health in developing countries. PMID:24172027

  2. Hypertension in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  3. Social Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education: Insights from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamzadeh, Aidin; Azimi, Mohammad Ali; Kirby, David A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate awareness, intentions/support, and the contextual elements among higher education students in the University of Tehran (UT) in order to find the gap(s) in social entrepreneurship education in Iran. The authors used Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour as the theoretical framework. The research…

  4. [Communications in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manandhar, P. K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Eight articles on various aspects of communications in developing countries make up this newsletter issue: (1) "Extension and Communications in Nepal: Reforestation Program Uses Media Support" by P. K. Manandhar, E. Pelinck, and R. H. Gecolea; (2) "Using Puppets to Teach Ideas. 'Khel Dori Ka', an Audiovisual with Puppets from…

  5. Primary health care in developing countries: overcoming operational, technical, and social barriers.

    PubMed

    Chen, L C

    1986-11-29

    An analysis of survey data from Matlab, Bangladesh, suggests that the provision of primary health care is a more complex process than is reflected by current strategies. The Bangladesh experience indicates that single-outcome indicators (e.g., deaths averted) for assessing the effect of health measures, while necessary for comparing the cost-effectiveness of various approaches, rarely encapsulate all the aims of an intervention. For example, in the year after the introduction in Matlab of modern contraception and tetanus immunization for pregnant women, the intervention population had ab0ut a 25% lower crude birth and death rate, yet little difference was observed in infant mortality rates. Policies aimed at contering single diseases may cause factors such as nutrition, which has important biosocial interactions with infection, to be undervalued. Rather than viewing childhood morality in relation to specific diseases--an approach that promotes an emphsis on tchnology--childhood mortality should be seen as the result of sequential insults accumulated over time. the reluctance of eligible women to accept tetanus vaccine and the greater utilization of diarrhea treatment services for male than female children are examples of the significance of the demand factor. Also needed is improved knowledge of the interaction between the structure of health care delivery systems and a population's political economy. Public investments for primary health care in India have been targeted to large-scale public systems operated by a bureaucracy biased toward procedure rather than performance. Finally, future research should incorporate the strengths of both the natural and the social sciencs.

  6. Social Determinants of Non-Return: Foreign Students from Developing Countries in the United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Orlando

    Data on the problem of the loss of professional manpower by developing countries to develop countries is reported and analyzed from a survey of over 1,300 foreign students in over 30 U. S. colleges and universities. The ideological and scholarly debate generated by the brain drain and approaches to the study of professional migration are reviewed,…

  7. Marketing in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pickering, A H

    1979-10-27

    I fully support the views of Mr. Chetley of War on Want on the marketing of infant foods in developing countries (Oct. 6, p. 747). My experience of eight years medical work in West Africa prompts me to broaden the debate. Advertising and promotional practices used by many European and American pharmaceutical companies are in many instances directed primarily to the non-professional and often poorly educated general public and appear to be geared simply to achieve the maximum volume of sales. Likewise, the cynical disregard of cigarette manufacturers for the dangers of smoking is very apparent in the way in which advertising and promotional campaigns are conducted in developing countries. Fifteen years ago cigarettes were largely imported items but now, certainly in one major West African country, there is a large and flourishing tobacco industry which appears to be run primarily by European interests and which is obviously not there for the health benefit of the people. Is it not a sad reflection on the morality of the society in which we live that, while striving to control unethical and undesirable practices at home, we make little or no effort to regulate those practices abroad when profit is the objective?

  8. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  9. Facebook as a Learning Tool? A Case Study on the Appropriation of Social Network Sites from Mobile Phones in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimmer, Christoph; Linxen, Sebastian; Grohbiel, Urs

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory research investigates how students and professionals use social network sites (SNSs) in the setting of developing and emerging countries. Data collection included focus groups consisting of medical students and faculty as well as the analysis of a Facebook site centred on medical and clinical topics. The findings show how users,…

  10. Facebook as a Learning Tool? A Case Study on the Appropriation of Social Network Sites from Mobile Phones in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimmer, Christoph; Linxen, Sebastian; Grohbiel, Urs

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory research investigates how students and professionals use social network sites (SNSs) in the setting of developing and emerging countries. Data collection included focus groups consisting of medical students and faculty as well as the analysis of a Facebook site centred on medical and clinical topics. The findings show how users,…

  11. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  12. Reaching Out to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Stirling

    1984-01-01

    Some Canadian teachers play a special role in developing the teaching profession internationally. They participate in helping teachers in developing countries and promoting understanding worldwide. (MD)

  13. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1) Self-reported program data; 2) Scoping telephone interviews; and 3) In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance becomes a part of the

  14. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  15. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  16. [The problems of less developed countries].

    PubMed

    Vargas Salcedo, H

    1988-04-01

    The economic gap between the rich industrialized nations and the underdeveloped countries has been increasing in recent years even as the time needed to travel between them has shrunk. The poor countries of the world, with few exceptions, have remained poor or become poorer. The poor countries are not homogeneous; they vary in their depth of poverty, quantity and type of resources, population density, and other aspects. Obstacles to progress among them are extremely varied. Industrial development in the economically advanced countries may have worsened conditions in some of these countries, but it did not cause their poverty. Many currently underdeveloped countries have been poor since the dawn of history. Even though developing countries appear to have at their disposal the entire apparatus of modern technology, most economists believe that development in them will be much more difficult than in countries that developed in the 19th century. Among the nearly insurmountable obstacles to progress are the difficulty developing countries have in adapting to western technology, which tends to be capital intensive and to require a small though technically skilled labor force. In most developing countries, manpower is abundant but capital and skilled labor are scarce. Modernized technology adapted to the needs of developing countries in reality does not exist. Many poor countries lack preparation for an industrial revolution and require complete social and cultural revolutions as well, indicating that they are economically more impoverished than countries that developed in the 19th century. Most developing countries also have different and more serious population problems than those experienced by western countries in the 19th century. Population density in relation to land and resources and rapid population growth are particularly serious problems in Asia, the poorest and most overpopulated of the world's regions. Disguised unemployment is 1 of the profound problems

  17. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  18. [Clinical studies in developing countries].

    PubMed

    van den Munkhof, Hanna E

    2013-01-01

    In general, clinical trials in developing countries are met with resistance because the people are particularly vulnerable and medical assistance is often unaffordable. The prospect of free medication can then lead to exploitation since the local population can be persuaded to participate in trials that would never be allowed in Western countries due to ethical concerns. Placebo-controlled research that tests cheaper alternatives for treatments already registered could greatly improve the situation in developing countries, however. Expensive registered treatments are often unavailable in these countries. Therefore, I call for allowing such studies when the registered treatment is locally unavailable. This should be based on the four most important principles of medical ethics: the duty to help patients, avoid harm, justice and respect for autonomy. On the condition, however, that the population in developing countries benefits in the long term.

  19. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  20. Instructional Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of conditions that combine to influence the selection and implementation of instructional development as an approach to solving educational problems in developing nations focuses on prevailing traditions, economics, and internal and external politics. (MBR)

  1. Instructional Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of conditions that combine to influence the selection and implementation of instructional development as an approach to solving educational problems in developing nations focuses on prevailing traditions, economics, and internal and external politics. (MBR)

  2. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  3. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  4. Physics teaching in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  5. [Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Bjørn

    2008-11-06

    While bacterial infections are one of the most important causes of disease and death in developing countries, the prevalence and consequences of antimicrobial resistance are not well known. This is a review article based on literature retrieved from a non-systematic review and own experience from research on the topic. Research on antimicrobial resistance is increasing in developing countries, but most of the data are obtained from referral hospitals in capitals and major cities. Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria, including ESBL-(extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) producing bacteria have been documented in several countries and are associated with increased lethality. The most serious resistance problems in developing countries are associated with Gram-negative bacteria and tuberculosis and may result in increased risk of death. Developing countries have a much higher overall burden of infectious diseases than the rich western countries and also poor access to newer antibiotics, which can be lifesaving when treating infections caused by resistant bacteria. To combat overuse and misuse of antibiotics, the diagnosis of infectious diseases must be strengthened and antimicrobial resistance must be emphasized in education of health professionals and the general public. There is a need for improved surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and strengthened quality control of antimicrobial drugs. In the long-term perspective, poverty reduction, improved living conditions and hygiene, safe water supplies and access to quality health care (including vaccination and HIV care), may contribute to prevent emerging antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  7. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  8. Role of GIS in social sector planning: can developing countries benefit from the examples of primary health care (PHC) planning in Britain?

    PubMed

    Ishfaq, Mohammad; Lodhi, Bilal Khan

    2012-04-01

    Social sector planning requires rational approaches where community needs are identified by referring to relative deprivation among localities and resources are allocated to address inequalities. Geographical information system (GIS) has been widely argued and used as a base for rational planning for equal resource allocation in social sectors around the globe. Devolution of primary health care is global strategy that needs pains taking efforts to implement it. GIS is one of the most important tools used around the world in decentralization process of primary health care. This paper examines the scope of GIS in social sector planning by concentration on primary health care delivery system in Pakistan. The work is based on example of the UK's decentralization process and further evidence from US. This paper argues that to achieve benefits of well informed decision making to meet the communities' needs GIS is an essential tool to support social sector planning and can be used without any difficulty in any environment. There is increasing trend in the use of Health Management Information System (HMIS) in Pakistan with ample internet connectivity which provides well established infrastructure in Pakistan to implement GIS for health care, however there is need for change in attitude towards empowering localities especially with reference to decentralization of decision making. This paper provides GIS as a tool for primary health care planning in Pakistan as a starting point in defining localities and preparing locality profiles for need identification that could help developing countries in implementing the change.

  9. Energy planning in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides discussion of analytical methods for energy-sector planning in developing countries. The author addresses such topics as energy balances, the Reference Energy System (RES), approaches to demand forecasting, project evaluation (including capital budgeting), techniques for dealing with uncertainty, financial accounting as applied to the typical parastatal electric utility of a developing country, techniques for pricing studies, scenario analysis, and approaches to the evaluation of macroeconomic impacts of energy-sector decisions. Extensive use is made of case-study material, including examples from Haiti, Tunisia, the Sudan, Jordan, Mauritius, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Liberia.

  10. Soalr cooking in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1994-11-01

    Solar cooking must overcome a number of obstacles to realize its potential to improve the lives of women in developing countries. Unlike historical interest in solar cooking, current interest derives from vital environmental and human needs. Deforestation and reliance on wood for cooking lead to many hardships, especially for women, and women in developing countries need access to technology and funding. If the woman builds the oven herself, it notonly makes her more willing to use it but the process empower her with new knowledge and kills. The physical design of the oven must be adapted to local conditions and materials for the oven should be inexpensive and locally available.

  11. The Impact of Social Institutions on the Economic Role of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 234

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Jutting, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Donor agencies and policy makers tend to agree that increased access of women to education, health, credit, formal legal rights and employment opportunities, in conjunction with economic growth, will substantially improve the socio-economic role of women in developing countries. This paper challenges that view. It argues that these measures might…

  12. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  13. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  14. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  15. Knowledge Translation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, Nancy; Tugwell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the application of knowledge in developing countries is failing. One reason is the woeful shortage of health workers, but as this is redressed, it is also crucial that we have an evidence base of what works to minimize the "know-do gap." The World Health Organization and other international organizations are…

  16. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    PubMed

    Bergman, E

    1989-06-01

    Using a theoretical approach, this paper discusses the treatment of different aspects of the social effects of migration in receiving countries which centers around key issues such as ethnicity, discrimination, and the impact of general policy measures upon ethnic relations. Countries may be classified with respect to relations between ethnic groups in the following ways: 1) those that are either plural or multi-ethnic, 2) those consisting of mainly immigrants and their offspring, 3) those that have a fairly homogenous population and ethnic minorities resulting from post-war immigration, and 4) those that have a fairly homogenous population and 1 or more native minorities. International migration requires nations to formulate immigration, immigrant, and ethnic relations policies. Ethnic conflict often stems from a situation of need within competition for such facilities as education, housing, and employment. The underlying factors are mostly economic. The unequal distribution of influence and resources can be reduced by government policies designed to redistribute such influence and resources, and by providing better opportunities for individuals to gain influence and resources. Policy measures in the fields of general economic policy, labor market policy, housing policy, social policy, and educational policy probably affect ethnic relations more deeply than measures in the field of ethnic relations policy. Discrimination on ethnic, racial, or similar grounds is against the constitution of many countries. However, many difficulties arise in trying to use anti-discrimination laws in practice. Ethnicity is probably the most widespread cause of conflict in the world. The ethnic homogeneity of many countries has been reduced by the immigration of new ethnic elements. Can truly multicultural societies emerge from international migration? 3 possibilities exist: 1) unitary social systems will prevail where they 1st existed, 2) ethnic groups may segregate from each other

  17. Occupational cancer in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Blair, Aaron; Marrett, Loraine; Beane Freeman, Laura

    2011-04-05

    Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations. © 2011 Blair et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2011-07-01

    Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.

  19. Measuring health inequities in low and middle income countries for the development of observatories on inequities and social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Guerra, German; Borde, Elis; Salgado de Snyder, V Nelly

    2016-01-19

    Almost seven years after the publication of the final report of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), its third recommendation has not been attended to properly. Measuring health inequities (HI) within countries and globally, in order to develop and evaluate evidence-based policies and actions aimed at the social determinants of health (SDH), is still a pending task in most low and middle income countries (LMIC) in the Latin American region. In this paper we discuss methodological and conceptual issues to measure HI in LMIC and suggest a three-stage methodology for the creation of observatories on health inequities (OHI) and social determinants of health, based on the experience of the Brazilian Observatory on Health Inequities (BOHI) that has been successfully operating since 2010 at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ). A three-stage methodology for the creation of an OHI was developed based on a literature review on the following topics: SDH, HI measurement, and the process of setting-up of health observatories; followed by semi-structured interviews with key informants from the BOHI. We describe the three stages and discuss the replicability of this methodology in other Latin American countries. We also carried out a search of suitable national information systems to feed an OHI in Mexico, along with an outline of the institutional infrastructure to sustain it. When implementing the methodology for an OHI in LMIC such as Mexico, we found that having strong infrastructure of information systems for measuring HI is required, but not sufficient to build an OHI. Adequate funding and intersectoral network collaborations lead by a group of experts is a requirement for the consolidation and sustainability of an OHI in LMIC. According to the described methodology, and the available information systems on health, the creation of an OHI in LMIC, particularly in Mexico, is plausible in the near future. However, institutional

  20. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    PubMed

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12].

  1. Reflective practice and social responsibility in family medicine: Effect of performing an international rotation in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Loignon, Christine; Gottin, Thomas; Valois, Carol; Couturier, François; Williams, Robert; Roy, Pierre-Michel

    2016-11-01

    To explore the perceived effect of an elective international health rotation on family medicine resident learning. Qualitative, collaborative study based on semistructured interviews. Quebec. A sample of 12 family medicine residents and 9 rotation supervisors (N = 21). Semistructured interviews of residents and rotation supervisors. Residents and supervisors alike reported that their technical skills and relationship skills had benefited. All increased their knowledge of tropical pathologies and learned to expand their clinical examinations. They benefited from having very rich interactions in other care settings, working with vulnerable populations. The rotations had their greatest effect on relationship skills (communication, empathy, etc) and the ability to work with vulnerable patients. All of the participants were exposed to local therapies and local interpretations of disease symptoms and pathogenesis. The findings of this study will have a considerable effect on pedagogy. The residents' experiences of their international health rotations and what they learned in terms of medical skills and pedagogic approaches in working with patients are described. Using a collaborative approach with the rotation supervisors, the data were triangulated and the benefits of an international rotation on academic training were more accurately defined. The findings can now be used to enrich academic programs in social and preventive medicine and more adequately prepare future family physicians for work in various social and cultural settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Effect of social class disparities on disease stage, quality of treatment and survival outcomes in breast cancer patients from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Zeba; Iqbal, Javaid; Akram, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between social class disparities on disease stage on presentation, quality of treatment, and survival outcome of breast cancer patients in Pakistan and compare our data with SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) data from US on white and African-American women to evaluate differences in disease stage and survival outcomes. Patients were evaluated for age, tumor size, grade, receptor status, stage, and 5-year survival and were compared with SEER data. Socio-economic status was evaluated with financial income. Patients were divided in poor and middle/high groups. Excellent and comparable 5-year survival with SEER data was observed with localized disease in all groups from different strata. Advanced disease was more common in the disadvantaged group with negligible 5-year survivals. Development and implementation of early detection programs, public awareness, and clinical and breast self examination that are more pragmatic in the settings of countries with limited resources are essential.

  3. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  4. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  5. Social factors determining the experience of blindness among pregnant women in developing countries: the case of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's empowerment on developing blindness during pregnancy. Findings from logistic regression showed that several empowerment-related factors, including women's increased age at the birth of their first child, high school education, and participation in their own health care decisions, significantly reduced the odds of developing blindness, whereas their experience of spousal control, humiliation, and physical abuse significantly increased the odds of developing blindness during pregnancy. Interestingly, antenatal care visits that included nutritional advice and iron supplements during pregnancy had no effect on blindness after controlling for other factors. To reduce blindness during pregnancy in India, more attention should be given to delaying age at marriage and first birth; improving women and girl's education and autonomy; and implementing strategies to reduce spousal control, humiliation, and abuse.

  6. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  7. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  8. The importance of people compliance (social desirability bias) in the assessment of epilepsy prevalence in rural areas of developing countries. Results of the Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M

    2016-12-01

    Epilepsy is a major health issue in rural areas of developing countries. However, heterogeneity of epilepsy prevalence in different studies precludes assessment of the magnitude of the problem. Using similar protocols, two population-based surveys were conducted 12 years apart (2003 and 2015) in a rural Ecuadorian village (Atahualpa). The only difference was a higher people compliance with interviewers during the second survey. Epilepsy prevalence in the 2003 survey was 13.5 per 1,000 (18/1,332) in villagers aged ≥20 years. This rate increased to 26.8 per 1,000 (41/1,530) in the 2015 survey. Thirty-three persons with epilepsy detected during the second survey lived in the village in 2003; six of them had seizures starting after 2003. Of the remaining 27 cases, 13 (48%) denied their problem during the first survey. Further interview revealed that denial was related to lack of confidence with unacquainted field personnel. Social Desirability Scale-17 scores were lower in those who admitted having epilepsy than in those who denied their condition (p = 0.048). Lack of confidence with interviewers and a social desirability bias account for a sizable proportion of epilepsy denial in the study population, and may explain heterogeneity of epilepsy prevalence reported in studies conducted in poor rural settings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries: Current Perspectives. Reference Books in International Education, Volume 35. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 927.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael, Ed.; Vulliamy, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 11 essays that offer in-depth accounts of qualitative research in developing countries. Each chapter focuses upon a specific method and considers related theoretical and practical issues with reference to recent experiences in selected developing countries. Key issues addressed include: (1) the identification of appropriate…

  10. Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries: Current Perspectives. Reference Books in International Education, Volume 35. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 927.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael, Ed.; Vulliamy, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 11 essays that offer in-depth accounts of qualitative research in developing countries. Each chapter focuses upon a specific method and considers related theoretical and practical issues with reference to recent experiences in selected developing countries. Key issues addressed include: (1) the identification of appropriate…

  11. Maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thuriaux, M C; Lamotte, J M

    1985-09-01

    The authors of this letter respond to earlier letters prepared in response to their article on maternal mortality in developing countries. It is conceded that maternal mortality is high in India and Bangladesh; however, statistics from Gambia are based on small populations and are therefore inconclusive. It is noted that a 7-year survey of 4000 households in Machakos, Kenya, where 73% of deliveries occurred at home, yielded a maternal mortality rate of only 0.8/1000 deliveries. Finally, it is asserted that the measurement traditionally used in estimating maternal mortality for many African countries (ratio of recorded maternal deaths to recorded deliveries) is misleading. Maternal deaths are more likely than deliveries to be recorded. In Niger, the number of maternal deaths increased from 1980 (374) to 1982 (484). The ratio of maternal deaths to expected live births also increased from 135 to 166/100,000, whereas the traditionally calculated maternal mortality rate decreased from 519 to 420/100,000 due to changes in the denominators. It is recommended that health authorities of African countries such as Niger consider setting an absolute number of maternal deaths below which they would try to bring the current toll.

  12. Maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thuriaux, M C; Lamotte, J M

    1986-09-01

    The author stresses that uncritical reliance on the institutional maternal mortality rates in developing countries will provide spurious indications of improvement in this area. There appears to bean an important, although imprecisely known, differential in coverage between deliveries and maternal deaths. In 1 area, the institutional maternal mortality rate was 10 times higher among unbooked than among booked deliveries. Moreover, caution should be used in transposing maternal mortality estimates based on life table data from Europe and North America from the early 20th century to present-day Africa. Health statistics should be used to monitor health status; analyzed reduction in maternal mortality should be analyzed carefully to ensure they are valid.

  13. Pediatric anesthesia in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bösenberg, Adrian T

    2007-06-01

    To highlight the problems faced in developing countries where healthcare resources are limited, with particular emphasis on pediatric anesthesia. The fact that very few publications address pediatric anesthesia in the developing world is not surprising given that most anesthetics are provided by nonphysicians, nurses or unqualified personnel. In compiling this article information is drawn from pediatric surgical, anesthetic and related texts. In a recent survey more than 80% of anesthesia providers in a poor country acknowledged that with the limited resources available they could not provide basic anesthesia for children less than 5 years. Although many publications could be regarded as anecdotal, the similarities to this survey suggest that the lack of facilities is more generalized than we would like to believe. The real risk of anesthesia in comparison to other major health risks such as human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis and trauma remains undetermined. The critical shortage of manpower remains a barrier to progress. Despite erratic electrical supplies, inconsistent oxygen delivery, paucity of drugs or equipment and on occasion even lack of running water, many provide life-saving anesthesia. Perioperative morbidity and mortality is, however, understandably high by developed world standards.

  14. HIS priorities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Amado Espinosa, L

    1995-04-01

    Looking for a solution to fulfill the requirements that the new global economical system demands, developing countries face a reality of poor communications infrastructure, a delay in applying information technology to the organizations, and a semi-closed political system avoiding the necessary reforms. HIS technology has been developed more for transactional purposes on mini and mainframe platforms. Administrative modules are the most frequently observed and physicians are now requiring more support for their activities. The second information systems generation will take advantage of PC technology, client-server models and telecommunications to achieve integration. International organizations, academic and industrial, public and private, will play a major role to transfer technology and to develop this area.

  15. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  16. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  17. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  18. [The drug trade between European countries and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Bruneton, C; Naboulet, P; van der Heide, B; Rey, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of medicinal products marketed in developing countries has recently become the focus of lively debate and new interest. This report describes a survey conducted among officials from exporting and importing countries designed to evaluate the content and enforcement of current regulations. Resulting data indicated that, despite the high volume of trading in medicinal products between European and developing countries, regulations are poorly applied and many infractions occur. The most obvious abnormalities involve definition of market status. A list of banned is issued by the WHO but not by the European Economic Community. Regulations regarding generic products differ from one country to another and, since determination of the exact origin of a product may be difficult, compliance with good manufacturing practices is often unverifiable. A more cooperative attitude on the part of exporting countries and standardization of formalities on the part of importing countries will be necessary to stem the growing tendency to consider medicinal products as ordinary goods.

  19. Weaning foods in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S

    1979-10-01

    This letter, by an advisor in family health to the World Health Organization, is a response to and a further characterization of the connection of nutrition and weaning foods in developing countries where malnutrition frequently results from inadequate breast milk after 4-6 months of age and inadequate and late introduction of semisolid foods. The letter writer cites studies which led to his conclusion that semisolids be introduced at about 4 months of age, so that breast milk plus semisolids would sustain an adequate weight gain, a process not seen when breast milk alone is continued beyond 4-6 months without further supplementation. The author is not advocating cessation of breast feeding simply because it no longer fails to provide all of the child's nutritional requirments, rather supplementation of diet is advocated. He ends his argument with a list of appropriate semisolid foods for dietary supplement, and points out that the problem of malnutrition among infants in developing countries is more a result of poor education than lack of a "weanling food factory."

  20. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  1. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  2. Industry-sponsored research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abbas, E E

    2007-11-01

    Industry has become an important source of funding for clinical research; guidelines governing the relationship between industry and medical institutions are not clear in developing countries and hence we wanted to test attitudes and practices in those countries and compare them to developed countries. We conducted a survey amongst medical practitioners in developed and Arab countries representing developing countries, in order to document their views towards industry-sponsored research and their actual practice in this regard. A structured questionnaire was distributed by email, mail and through personal contacts. The questionnaire included information on characteristics of the practitioners involved, their attitudes towards industry-sponsored research and their actual practices. The questionnaire was distributed to 510 medical practitioners of countries in both groups. Practitioners representing developed countries were from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Those representing developing countries included Arab countries from Asia and Africa. We found that there were contrasting views and practices between the two groups although more than 80% in both groups agreed that industry-sponsored research is necessary. 69.7% of respondents in developed countries participated in industry-sponsored research while only 30.1% did so in developing countries. Guidelines governing such research were better adhered to in developed countries than in developing countries. Where there were no authors who were not part of investigators in developed countries, 16.3% of industry-sponsored research in developing countries included authors who were not part of the investigators. Research ethics committees were present in 94% and 58% of institutions in developed and developing countries respectively. Review bodies were available in 57% and 41% in developed and developing countries. Industry-sponsored research is necessary; it is much more common in developed

  3. [Research ethics and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Dieudonné, Désiré Adiogo

    2007-12-01

    Developing countries are a breeding ground for research, especially for infectious diseases and HIV. On one hand, due to the prevalence of these diseases in this part of the world, and on the other, due to its needs in terms of research, disease prevention and heath care. The actions taken in the fight against HIV infection over the past years, considering that the urgent state of the health care situation has been a sensitive issue for ethical deviation evident in the following examples: Nonoxynol 9 trial (1996-1999) in Cameroon; Tenofovir trial (2003-2005) in Cameroon; Trials of fusion inhibitors in Latin America. No sanctions were imposed due to these deviations, and there was no possibility of recourse. What can these poor states do faced with health care emergencies, the extreme vulnerability of these populations and the big powerful pharmaceutical companies whose turnover or even profits are higher than the GDP of these countries? It is of the utmost importance that an international court of appeal be established to handle litigation regarding research related issues and the fair sharing of the profits resulting from research. The protection of vulnerable populations and the strict respect of ethical rules can only be implemented to the fullest if sanctions are applied to abusers.

  4. Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

  5. Liberal Education: Why Developing Countries Should Not Neglect It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, David E.; Rosovsky, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that knowledge has become for both individuals and economies a competitive advantage on a global scale. Discusses why developing countries require the creation of liberally educated citizens to contribute to their nation's social and economic advancement. (EV)

  6. Problems Affecting Evaluation of Distance Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIsaac, Marina Stock

    1990-01-01

    Examines the problems affecting evaluation of distance education in developing countries in terms of economic, political, and social issues. Discusses one solution, a meta-analysis for synthesizing the results of research studies. (JOW)

  7. Power sector liberalization in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Seabright, J.

    1998-07-01

    Based on extensive experience of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) with power sector liberalization in developing countries over the past decade, it has become clear that liberalization is a powerful tool for helping achieve sustainable and environmentally sound social and economic development. The basic driving forces for liberalization are: The need for additional energy to support sustainable economic and social development; the lack of public sector financial resources for system improvement; the inefficiency of existing power generation, transmission, distribution and end use; and the poor environmental performance of public sector power utilities. Power sector liberalization has brought the benefits of greater efficiency in the power sector, increased investment, more economic pricing, greater independence from political interference, increased competition and dampening of tariff increase, and better environmental protection. Care needs to be taken, however, to insure that progress in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and rural electrification are not compromised in the drive to liberalize. USAID firmly believes that power sector liberalization offers a fundamental opportunity to all countries to improve the sustainable supply and use of energy for productive purposes for this and future generations. All nations should seriously consider energy sector liberalization and one or more of the various approaches.

  8. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  9. [French sanitary cooperation in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M

    2006-08-01

    In the face of a worsening public health situation throughout the world, French know-how in the field of sanitary cooperation warrants a far more active commitment from our country. Instead there have been only a few initiatives and we are witnessing a programmed decline of our presence. The statement issued by the Economic and Social Council in 2006--the highlights of which will be presented at this meeting--strongly advocates a voluntary program to revive sanitary cooperation by encouraging civic-spirited young people to express international solidarity through public service in impoverished areas. By compensating the shortage of human resources in developing countries, this program would allow immediate implementation of measures to promote action, training and research not as a replacement operation but rather as a genuine partnership. Deployment of our public aid for development in the field of health-care must not have a detrimental effect on the bilateral dimension of the relationship that indeed requires urgent strengthening. In addition tighter coordination of all parties involved in cooperation activities is needed to ensure greater efficiency and consistency. New funding sources (starting with the airline ticket tax) and greater mobilization of the European Union is necessary to ensure that developing countries have more financial resources to wage the "health-care battle". Reducing the "health-care gap" that cripples development and destabilizes societies must be the first priority of French Cooperation.

  10. Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of grid connected rural electrification projects in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Siyambalapitiya, D.J.T.; Rajapakse, S.T.K. ); de Mel, S.J.S.; Fernando, S.I.T.; Perera, B.L.P.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Extension of the power grid to rural and remote locations in a country has to be considered after detailed evaluation of technical, economic and social implications. The paper presents the application of conventional economic analytical techniques to evaluate proposed rural distribution systems in an oil-importing developing country environment. The parameters involved in the analyses are described in detail. Case studies are presented from a typical developing country. Revalidation of such evaluations incorporating socio-economic analysis is introduced.

  12. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  13. Food science in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-09

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point.

  14. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects.

  15. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  16. Establishing Information Services in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chander, J.; Scott, R.

    1978-01-01

    The information needs of developing countries engaged in the process of industrilization are indicated, and some practical suggestions offered for developing a national industrial information center. (MBR)

  17. Establishing Information Services in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chander, J.; Scott, R.

    1978-01-01

    The information needs of developing countries engaged in the process of industrilization are indicated, and some practical suggestions offered for developing a national industrial information center. (MBR)

  18. Harm reduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wong, C

    1998-06-29

    Manipur, a state in northeast India and one of its poorest areas, has widespread iv drug use and accompanying risky behavior. By the early 1990s, 50% of iv drug users (IDUs) there were infected with HIV. Initial efforts to implement harm reduction measures by the state government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were unsuccessful because of concerns regarding community resistance. According to Khomdon Singh Lisam, Project Director of the Manipur State AIDS Control Society, it was necessary to lay the groundwork for harm reduction by involving community and professional groups; this led to the adoption of the Manipur State AIDS Policy (MSAP) by the State Cabinet. This policy permits the implementation of a number of services, including needle exchange and education about sterilizing drug equipment. According to Lisam, there is strong community support for the harm reduction program. In the city of Madras, in southern India, needle exchange is illegal (the MSAP is one of a kind in India), but needles can be bought for a few centimes at pharmacies. However, according to M. Suresh Kumar, of the Society for Aid and Help for Addictive Illnesses (SAHAI) in Madras, IDUs cannot afford money for the needles. SAHAI has been working together with influential people to develop outreach programs. Education of IDUs must be face-to-face, because illiteracy is so high; the social networks and families of IDUs are also educated about risk reduction.

  19. Cancer Pain Management in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Saini, Shalini; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that more than 60% of the 14 million new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 were reported in the developing part of the world, including Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Cancer survival rate is poorer in developing countries due to diagnosis at late stage and limited access to timely treatment. Since the disease per se cannot be treated even with the best available treatment modalities, what remains important is symptom management and providing comfort care to these patients. The incidence of pain in advanced stages of cancer approaches 70-80%. Lack of preventive strategies, poverty, illiteracy, and social stigma are the biggest cause of pain suffering and patient presenting in advance stage of their disease. The need for palliative care is expanding due to aging of world's population and increase in the rate of cancer in developed and developing countries. A huge gap remains between demand and current palliative care services. Overcoming barriers to palliative care is a major global health agenda that need immediate attention. Main causes of inadequate pain relief remain lack of knowledge among physician and patients, lack of adequate supply of opioids and other drugs for pain relief, strong bureaucracy involved in terms of procurement, and dispensing of opioids. Beside this, poverty and illiteracy remain the most important factors of increased suffering.

  20. Cancer Pain Management in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Shalini; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that more than 60% of the 14 million new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 were reported in the developing part of the world, including Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Cancer survival rate is poorer in developing countries due to diagnosis at late stage and limited access to timely treatment. Since the disease per se cannot be treated even with the best available treatment modalities, what remains important is symptom management and providing comfort care to these patients. The incidence of pain in advanced stages of cancer approaches 70–80%. Lack of preventive strategies, poverty, illiteracy, and social stigma are the biggest cause of pain suffering and patient presenting in advance stage of their disease. The need for palliative care is expanding due to aging of world's population and increase in the rate of cancer in developed and developing countries. A huge gap remains between demand and current palliative care services. Overcoming barriers to palliative care is a major global health agenda that need immediate attention. Main causes of inadequate pain relief remain lack of knowledge among physician and patients, lack of adequate supply of opioids and other drugs for pain relief, strong bureaucracy involved in terms of procurement, and dispensing of opioids. Beside this, poverty and illiteracy remain the most important factors of increased suffering. PMID:27803557

  1. A MOOC Approach for Training Researchers in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugesan, Ravi; Nobes, Andy; Wild, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    We report on an online course in research writing offered in a massive open online course (MOOC) format for developing country researchers. The concepts of cognitive presence, teacher presence, and social presence informed the design of the course, with a philosophy of strong social interaction supported by guest facilitators. The course was…

  2. Preliminary working paper: satellite power system and lesser developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, T.E.; Ventry, L.T.; DuBois, C.; Dhanda, R.

    1980-02-03

    The objective of this report is to screen selected countries that, by geographical location, might be appropriate sites for the rectenna system and for which technical, environmental, social, demographic, political, and economic factors make a Satellite Power System (SPS) project appear possible. The study focused on countries that are referred to as Lesser Developed Countries (LDCs). Of 130 countries, sovereignties, and dependencies classified by the United Nations as less developed, thirteen countries were selected for study. The countries in the Americas are Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil. On the African continent, the countries are Algeria, Senegal, Gambia, Zaire, and Kenya. The countries in Asia and Oceania are The People's Republic of China, India, Thailand, and Indonesia. Certain general conclusions can be drawn from this study. Countries that might be able to support or contribute to SPS are the established, major energy exporters. The consumption of countries that export some energy virtually matches production. They may be able to pay for SPS in the years 2000 or 2025, but increased economic development and diversification of exports will need to be implemented first. Finally, those countries that import energy do not have an economic base by which they could support SPS unaided, but require energy. All thirteen nations could benefit from SPS. SPS could prove invaluable to these countries with sensitive economies. The added electrical energy could bolster their economies and provide for increased development so that the nations could suppport or contribute to SPS.

  3. Screening, Deschooling and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Keith

    1975-01-01

    Examines the present debate surrounding deschooling (abolition or non-setting up of schools) particularly hypotheses regarding the use of schooling as a screening device for occupational selection. Analyzes its relevance for low-income, low-schooling countries in light of recent data from Northern Nigeria on education and labor productivity. (JT)

  4. Cyberspace, Distance Learning, and Higher Education in Developing Countries: Old and Emergent Issues of Access, Pedagogy, and Knowledge Production. International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology, 94

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assie-Lumumba, N'Dri T., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Amidst the euphoria about the new frontiers of technology sometimes perceived as a panacea for expansion of higher education in developing countries, there is a need to analyze persistent and new grounds of unequal opportunity for access, learning, and the production of knowledge. This volume addresses fundamental questions about the educational…

  5. Cyberspace, Distance Learning, and Higher Education in Developing Countries: Old and Emergent Issues of Access, Pedagogy, and Knowledge Production. International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology, 94

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assie-Lumumba, N'Dri T., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Amidst the euphoria about the new frontiers of technology sometimes perceived as a panacea for expansion of higher education in developing countries, there is a need to analyze persistent and new grounds of unequal opportunity for access, learning, and the production of knowledge. This volume addresses fundamental questions about the educational…

  6. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Literacy and Development: What Works for Whom? Or, How Relevant is the Social Practices View of Literacy for Literacy Education in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papen, Uta

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the implications of a social view of literacy for the policy and practice of adult literacy. Taking the example of a recent literacy project in South Africa and comparing this with the author's own ethnographic research among learners from the National Literacy Programme in Namibia, the paper discusses the possible…

  8. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri…

  9. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri…

  10. Social Impact of the "Digital Divide" in a Central-Eastern European Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragulanescu, Nicolae-George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the social impact of the digital divide in Central-Eastern European countries as well as between them and industrialized developed countries, based on experiences in Romania. Highlights include facts relating to digital divide worldwide; transition to a democratic and market-based economy and from socialism to capitalism; barriers to…

  11. Women in developing countries and benefit sharing.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castillo, Fatima; Feinholz, Dafna

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that any process of benefit sharing that does not guarantee the representation and participation of women in the decision-making process, as well as in the distribution of benefits, contravenes a central demand of social justice. It is argued that women, particularly in developing countries, can be excluded from benefits derived from genetic research because of existing social structures that promote and maintain discrimination. The paper describes how the structural problem of gender-based inequity can impact on benefit sharing processes. At the same time, examples are given of poor women's ability to organise themselves and to achieve social benefits for entire communities. Relevant international guidelines (e.g. the Convention on Biodiversity) recognise the importance of women's contributions to the protection of biodiversity and thereby, implicitly, their right to a share of the benefits, but no mechanism is outlined on how to bring this about. The authors make a clear recommendation to ensure women's participation in benefit sharing negotiations by demanding seats at the negotiation table.

  12. Human Campylobacteriosis in Developing Countries1

    PubMed Central

    Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Thomas, Bolaji N.; Amisu, Kehinde O.; Obi, C. Larry

    2002-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a collective description for infectious diseases caused by members of the bacterial genus Campylobacter. The only form of campylobacteriosis of major public health importance is Campylobacter enteritis due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Research and control efforts on the disease have been conducted more often in developed countries than developing countries. However, because of the increasing incidence, expanding spectrum of infections, potential of HIV-related deaths due to Campylobacter, and the availability of the complete genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, interest in campylobacteriosis research and control in developing countries is growing. We present the distinguishing epidemiologic and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in developing countries relative to developed countries. National surveillance programs and international collaborations are needed to address the substantial gaps in the knowledge about the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in developing countries. PMID:11927019

  13. Strategies for greater impact in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C

    1993-01-01

    Effective AIDS education programs are needed to prevent AIDS. They must integrate HIV/AIDS messages into basic health care services and adapted them to cultural norms and values. They should eliminate the mystery surrounding human sexuality. Effective AIDS education programs must examine control of communicable diseases and the relationship between gender issues and effective health care treatment. The infrastructure and resources to direct vertical HIV/AIDS programs generally do not exist in developing countries. All too often senior professionals accept positions in these vertical programs, which limits their ability to lobby for integrated HIV/AIDS programs. Donor organizations should make sure that all projects which they support have an AIDS component and work with other organizations to ensure that prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)/HIV/AIDS is completely integrated into health care delivery services. All health workers should undergo AIDS prevention and control training. Supervisors should make sure that subordinates practice AIDS control. Benefit packages should not be offered to attract health workers. Just because nationals may make up an information, education, and communication (IEC) program does not mean that they will adapt the program to cultural values. Donors must provide appropriate educational strategies and programs to developing countries. Social change evolves from the culture. Health care workers must help find culturally appropriate education strategies. IEC has not reached its objectives in prevention and control of STDs. Communication mechanisms that allow human sexuality to be a subject of every day discussion without causing embarrassment, uneasiness, and outrage are needed.

  14. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  15. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  16. Surgical safety checklists in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Ravindran, Rahul Prashanth; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (WHO SSC) has demonstrated efficacy in developed and developing countries alike. Recent increases in awareness of surgical morbidity in developing countries has placed greater emphasis on strategies to improve surgical safety in resource-limited settings. The implementation of surgical safety checklists in low-income countries has specific barriers related to resources and culture. Adapting and amending existing surgical safety checklists, as well as considering factors unique to developing countries, may allow the potential of this simple intervention to be fully harnessed in a wider setting. This review will address the benefits and challenges of implementation of surgical safety checklists in developing countries. Moreover, inspiration for the original checklist is revisited to identify areas that will be of particular benefit in a resource-poor setting. Potential future strategies to encourage the implementation of checklists in these countries are also discussed.

  17. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  18. Fertilizer consumption trend in developing countries vs. developed countries.

    PubMed

    Motesharezadeh, Babak; Etesami, Hassan; Bagheri-Novair, Sepideh; Amirmokri, Hormoz

    2017-03-01

    The study of the chemical fertilizer consumption in different countries provides basal data for the decision-making of fertilizer production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizer application. Hence, the aim of this research was to study and compare the trend of the chemical fertilizer consumption from 1980 to 2012 in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA. For this purpose, various indices such as application rates (kg ha(-1)) of N, P, and K, arable land, and total fertilizer consumption were analysed. Results showed that the application rates of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA in 2012 were 100-42-7, 100-42-7, 100-94-60, 100-17-25, 100-13-38, and 100-33-35, respectively. The lowest and highest area under production were observed in Japan with 4.0 million ha (0.033 ha/person) and in the USA with 155.0 million ha (0.51 ha/person) during 2008-2015, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest application rates of net nutrient consumption were recorded in France and Germany (285 and 285 kg ha(-1)) and in Iran (66 kg ha(-1)), respectively. Overall, the average net consumption of fertilizers in the studied countries in three recent decades (million tonnes) decreased in the order: the USA (19.282) > France (4.601) > Germany (3.302) > Turkey (1.825) > Japan (1.604) > Iran (1.130). Regarding an estimated 9.2 billion people by 2050, the balanced consumption of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) and the principles of optimal consumption of fertilizers are keys for achieving the increased food production, food security, and environmental conservation.

  19. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  20. Energy and development in Central America. Volume 2: Country assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Gallagher, W.; Palmedo, P.; Doenberg, A.; Oberg, K.; Kyle, S.

    1980-03-01

    An energy assessment for each of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama is presented. The program assists the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America. The following issues are treated separately for each individual country; geographic, social and economic aspects; energy resources; current and future energy use; energy strategies.

  1. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the overall effect of country (including effects of age and gender and their interactions), and associations of disabilities with the Human Development Index. Developmental disabilities vary by child age and country, and younger children in developing countries with lower standards of living are more likely to screen positive for disabilities. The discussion of these findings revolves around research and policy implications. PMID:23294875

  2. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  3. [Control of iron deficiency in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Dillon, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldwide, especially in developing countries. It occurs when iron absorption cannot compensate iron requirements and losses. Requirements are especially high in pregnant women, infants, young children and adolescents who run a higher risk of being iron-deficient. In developing countries, the main cause of iron deficiency is the low iron bioavailability of the diet. The consequences of iron deficiency are many and serious, affecting not only individuals' health but also the development of societies and countries. The prevention and the control of iron deficiency and anemia in all groups of a population with different iron requirements imply to coordinate different interventions. Iron fortification of staple foods or condiments directed to the whole population is a sustainable and low cost-effective approach. However, at some periods of life, especially during pregnancy and in children from the age of 6 months, iron requirements are high. For pregnant women, the current approach favours the daily iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy but the results in terms of public health are disappointing. The preventive weekly iron-folate supplementation of women during their reproductive life, whose efficacy is recognized, offers a promising alternative; its impact in terms of public health is under current evaluation. For infants and young children, iron fortification of complementary food is effective but this food is generally imported and economically inaccessible to populations with limited resources. The production, by small private units from local products, of complementary foods of low viscosity, good nutritional quality, fortified with vitamins and minerals, and of low cost is at hand in several countries. When complementary foods are not available, the preventive iron supplementation from 6 to 18 months of age has to be advised. This approach should be strengthened by the advantages of the weekly

  4. Breast cancer screening in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    da Costa Vieira, René Aloísio; Biller, Gabriele; Uemura, Gilberto; Ruiz, Carlos Alberto; Curado, Maria Paula

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries have limited healthcare resources and use different strategies to diagnose breast cancer. Most of the population depends on the public healthcare system, which affects the diagnosis of the tumor. Thus, the indicators observed in developed countries cannot be directly compared with those observed in developing countries because the healthcare infrastructures in developing countries are deficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate breast cancer screening strategies and indicators in developing countries. A systematic review and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Timing, and Setting methodology were performed to identify possible indicators of presentation at diagnosis and the methodologies used in developing countries. We searched PubMed for the terms “Breast Cancer” or “Breast Cancer Screening” and “Developing Country” or “Developing Countries”. In all, 1,149 articles were identified. Of these articles, 45 full articles were selected, which allowed us to identify indicators related to epidemiology, diagnostic intervention (diagnostic strategy, diagnostic infrastructure, percentage of women undergoing mammography), quality of intervention (presentation of symptoms at diagnosis, time to diagnosis, early stage disease), comparisons (trend curves, subpopulations at risk) and survival among different countries. The identification of these indicators will improve the reporting of methodologies used in developing countries and will allow us to evaluate improvements in public health related to breast cancer. PMID:28492725

  5. Developing Social Indicators*

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Otis Dudley

    1974-01-01

    Recent progress in developing social indicators is described in terms of six activities. In regard to social bookkeeping, we are expanding the number of domains covered by population surveys, and survey data are being more widely disseminated. In social accounting, demographic stock-flow schemes show promise of integrating systems of social statistics. Social science theories have provided models of achievement and other social processes. Social forecasting is potentially an important component of work on social indicators, but a new definition of the purpose of forecasting is needed. The practice of social reporting is best exemplified in the work of recent commissions. Social advising, while it draws upon social indicators, involves functions that cannot be performed by any system of indicators alone. The most worthy aspiration of the social indicators movement would be to contribute to the enlightenment of a changing society.

  6. Distance Education and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John S.

    The purpose of this paper is to give those who work in distance education a better awareness of the factors at work in developing nations and to help those whose profession is national development gain a fuller understanding of distance education. It begins with a discussion of the process of national development which focuses on the factors that…

  7. Community Development in Emergent Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgdon, Linwood L.; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, these papers on community development in developing nations deal largely with conditions, requirements, and effective principles of rural extension; the government system of community development village workers in outlying regions of Thailand; the methods, organization, accomplishments, and prospects of…

  8. Energy planning in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, V.

    1984-01-01

    These papers focus on the capacity of developing nations to plan and implement the development of indigenous energy supplies. They emphasize the management of problems frequently encountered in the implementing even tailor-made energy plans and discuss such practical topics as: energy planning and implementation, energy supply and demand management information and manpower requirements, and the relationship of energy to economic development.

  9. Social Stratification and Education in Industrial Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereday, George Z. F.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the intersection of social stratification and schools, i.e., how stratification "shows up" in education. Assesses the responsibility and role of the school in creating a balance between the two forces. (Author/RK)

  10. Overview: epilepsy surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wieser, H G; Silfvenius, H

    2000-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery (ES) is addressed in relation to economic classifications of national resources and welfare in developing countries. A decade ago, ten developing countries conducted ES; now 26 such countries have reported results of ES. A number of international authorities define indicators of national economic welfare. Adopting the economic classification of the International Monetary Fund. we find that ES is nonexistent in 98% of African countries, 76% of Asian countries, 58% of European countries, 82% of Middle East countries, and in 86% of countries of the Western Hemisphere. The 1980-1990 global ES survey conducted by the International League Against Epilepsy identified ten developing countries reporting ES (DCRES): Brazil, China, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, Taiwan, the U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, and Viet Nam. The present survey based on the proceedings of the 19th-23rd International Epilepsy Congresses and Medline reports from 1991 to November 1999 revealed at least 26 (18.3%) DCRES of 142 developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Korea, Lithuania, Mexico, P.R.China, the U.S.S.R., Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and former Yugoslavia. National vital statistics expose the hardships of developing countries. The population ratio of developed countries to developing countries is approximately 1:5. The reverse per capita Gross Domestic Product ratio is 20:1. Great disparities exist in vital statistics, all to the disadvantage of the DCRES. The World Health Organization defines health-related sectors geographically, then divides developing countries into several subgroups. Disability caused by length of disease and years lived with disability can be quantified monetarily for epilepsy, and the total health expenditures of developed and developing countries can be compared. The DCRES are short of technology, and their ES

  11. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  12. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  13. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  14. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  15. Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S.…

  16. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  17. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Younas, Javed

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  18. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  19. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  20. Childrearing discipline and violence in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The prevalence of each response varied widely across countries, as did the amount of variance accounted for by country in relation to each response. Country-level indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment, and economic well-being were related to several responses to children's behavior. Country-level factors are widely related to parents' methods of teaching children good behavior and responding to misbehavior. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. [On the development of health insurance in low-income countries: the case of African countries].

    PubMed

    Letourmy, Alain

    2008-12-01

    Health financing reforms in most low-income countries promote social and micro health insurance, in order to reduce direct spending by patients. Three phases of development can be distinguished in African countries: at first, schemes were developed only for the formal sector, then micro health insurance targeted the informal sector, and finally, health insurance was included in larger plans to reach universal coverage. The impact of health insurance is, as yet, difficult to assess. If beneficiaries have a better access to health services, the financing of health sector is not significantly improved, and there is no change in professional behaviour, in particular, in public facilities. In spite of their limits, social health insurance schemes continue to be implemented, but as a part of hybrid financing system, fitting with the abilities of low-income countries.

  2. Improving Health, Social Welfare, and Human Development Through Women’s Empowerment in Developing Countries: The 2016 Girl Up Leadership Summit, Washington, DC, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Janel

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Foundation’s Girl Up campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting the health, education, and leadership of adolescent girls in developing communities around the world, hosted its annual Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, DC from July 11-13, 2016. The summit welcomed more than 275 girl empowerment and women empowerment proponents to take part in leadership training, listen to and learn from influential figures like United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore and Treasurer of the United States Rosie Rios, as well as engage in an official lobby day in the nation’s capital. Topics discussed at the summit ranged from the issue of child marriage and sexual and reproductive health rights to intersectional feminism and the importance of the next generation of global girl advocates. The purpose and, later on, achievement of the conference was the development of such leaders and Girl Up representatives. Summit attendee and Girl Up Campus Leader Janel Mendoza shares her experience as a longstanding Girl Up supporter and reflects on the preeminent conversations held during and following the summit. PMID:28058195

  3. Improving Health, Social Welfare, and Human Development Through Women's Empowerment in Developing Countries: The 2016 Girl Up Leadership Summit, Washington, DC, USA.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Janel

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Foundation's Girl Up campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting the health, education, and leadership of adolescent girls in developing communities around the world, hosted its annual Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, DC from July 11-13, 2016. The summit welcomed more than 275 girl empowerment and women empowerment proponents to take part in leadership training, listen to and learn from influential figures like United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore and Treasurer of the United States Rosie Rios, as well as engage in an official lobby day in the nation's capital. Topics discussed at the summit ranged from the issue of child marriage and sexual and reproductive health rights to intersectional feminism and the importance of the next generation of global girl advocates. The purpose and, later on, achievement of the conference was the development of such leaders and Girl Up representatives. Summit attendee and Girl Up Campus Leader Janel Mendoza shares her experience as a longstanding Girl Up supporter and reflects on the preeminent conversations held during and following the summit.

  4. Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan P; Wachs, Theodore D; Gardner, Julie Meeks; Lozoff, Betsy; Wasserman, Gail A; Pollitt, Ernesto; Carter, Julie A

    2007-01-13

    Poverty and associated health, nutrition, and social factors prevent at least 200 million children in developing countries from attaining their developmental potential. We review the evidence linking compromised development with modifiable biological and psychosocial risks encountered by children from birth to 5 years of age. We identify four key risk factors where the need for intervention is urgent: stunting, inadequate cognitive stimulation, iodine deficiency, and iron deficiency anaemia. The evidence is also sufficient to warrant interventions for malaria, intrauterine growth restriction, maternal depression, exposure to violence, and exposure to heavy metals. We discuss the research needed to clarify the effect of other potential risk factors on child development. The prevalence of the risk factors and their effect on development and human potential are substantial. Furthermore, risks often occur together or cumulatively, with concomitant increased adverse effects on the development of the world's poorest children.

  5. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  6. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-02-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world.

  7. Health economics in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abel-Smith, B

    1989-08-01

    The interpretation of health economics chosen for this paper is broad. It includes the relation between economic and other factors in health development. This interpretation has been chosen lest the acceptance of a disciplinary approach in the commissioning of papers should have the unintended effect of excluding some key areas of research which require the consideration of crucial interrelationships between disciplines. The only justification for covering this area in a paper on economics rather than, for example, epidemiology is that increasingly there is and indeed has to be a heavy focus on costs in considering alternative paths to health development. The word 'research' is loosely interpreted and not restricted to the type of activity which could lead to the award of a PhD. The compilation of experience in many areas is, in the view of the author, a priority need, to plan where further research and experiment is needed.

  8. The Impact of Social Services Interventions in Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence of Impact on Clinical Outcomes in People Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bateganya, Moses H.; Dong, Maxia; Oguntomilade, John; Suraratdecha, Chutima

    2015-01-01

    Background Social service interventions have been implemented in many countries to help people living with HIV (PLHIV) and household members cope with economic burden as a result of reduced earning or increased spending on health care. However, the evidence for specific interventions—economic strengthening and legal services—on key health outcomes has not been appraised. Methods We searched electronic databases from January 1995 to May 2014 and reviewed relevant literature from resource-limited settings on the impact of social service interventions on mortality, morbidity, retention in HIV care, quality of life, and ongoing HIV transmission and their cost-effectiveness. Results Of 1685 citations, 8 articles reported the health impact of economic strengthening interventions among PLHIV in resource-limited settings. None reported on legal services. Six of the 8 studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 reported on all 5 outcomes and 2 reported on 4 and 2 outcomes, respectively. The remaining 5 reported on 1 outcome each. Seven studies reported on quality of life. Although all studies reported some association between economic strengthening interventions and HIV care outcomes, the quality of evidence was rated fair or poor because studies were of low research rigor (observational or qualitative), had small sample size, or had other limitations. The expected impact of economic strengthening interventions was rated as high for quality of life but uncertain for all the other outcomes. Conclusions Implementation of economic strengthening interventions is expected to have a high impact on the quality of life for PLHIV but uncertain impact on mortality, morbidity, retention in care, and HIV transmission. More rigorous research is needed to explore the impact of more targeted intervention components on health outcomes. PMID:25768875

  9. Vector control in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Richard F.

    1963-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of California's population, leading to competition for space between residential, industrial and agricultural interests, the development of its water resources and increasing water pollution provide the basic ingredients of its present vector problems. Within the past half-century, the original mosquito habitats provided by nature have gradually given place to even more numerous and productive habitats of man-made character. At the same time, emphasis in mosquito control has shifted from physical to chemical, with the more recent extension to biological approaches as well. The growing domestic fly problem, continuing despite the virtual disappearance of the horse, is attributable to an increasing amount of organic by-products, stemming from growing communities, expanding industries and changing agriculture. The programme for the control of disease vectors and pest insects and animals directs its major effort to the following broad areas: (1) water management (including land preparation), (2) solid organic wastes management (emphasizing utilization), (3) community management (including design, layout, and storage practices of buildings and grounds), and (4) recreational area management (related to wildlife management). It is apparent that vector control can often employ economics as an ally in securing its objectives. Effective organization of the environment to produce maximum economic benefits to industry, agriculture, and the community results generally in conditions unfavourable to the survival of vector and noxious animal species. Hence, vector prevention or suppression is preferable to control as a programme objective. PMID:20604166

  10. Chasing the Dream - Astronomy in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, John R.; Batten, Alan H.

    1995-03-01

    The Sun never sets on the astronomical community. Astronomers are active in nearly 100 countries. Those in the developing world need help, but in return they enrich the profession -- and enlist billions of supporters.

  11. Assessing allergic rhinitis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Piau, J P; Massot, C; Moreau, D; Aït-Khaled, N; Bouayad, Z; Mohammad, Y; Khaldi, F; Bah-Sow, O; Camara, L; Koffi, N B; M'boussa, J; El Sony, A; Moussa, O A; Bousquet, J; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2010-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects 5% to 40% of the general population. In developing countries, AR is poorly documented and tracked due to a lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. 1) To validate a questionnaire standardised in industrialised countries to ascertain AR, the Score For Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR), in developing countries; 2) to better understand AR prevalence previously reported from developing countries by comparing results from the SFAR and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaires. Six African countries were selected for their climates. In each country, 70 individuals with and 30 without nasal symptoms filled out the SFAR and the ISAAC questionnaires. Skin prick tests (SPTs) for allergens were performed by the physician if necessary. The SFAR presented a close match with the gold standard (the physician's diagnosis of AR backed up by SPT where necessary) in terms of various performance parameters. In particular, it showed high sensitivity (0.84) and specificity (0.81). Compared to the ISAAC questionnaire, the SFAR had greater sensitivity and equal specificity. In the absence of a medical visit, the SFAR is a useful standardised screening instrument for the collection of information needed for the identification of AR in developing countries.

  12. Conduct of clinical trials in developing countries: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Singh, Kavita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2009-07-01

    To provide a broad perspective of contextual factors involved in the conduct of clinical trials in developing countries. The quantity of research in developing countries continues to be inadequate, with clinical trials comprising a small fraction of the total research output. Most trials done in developing countries tend to be designed in developed countries and led by investigators in those nations. The main challenges in the conduct of trials in developing countries stem from the vulnerability of the populations due to illiteracy, poverty, limited research infrastructure, lack of sufficient numbers of experienced investigators and trained support personnel, and fragmented healthcare system. There is a need to formulate and conduct trials to test treatments that are context-specific and socially relevant. With careful planning in advance and shared partnership among sponsors, host-country research practitioners, government agencies and the community, many of the challenges facing clinical trial research can be overcome over the medium to long term. This would enable conformity to contemporary guidelines in both letter and spirit and hopefully develop research questions addressing the needs of developing countries.

  13. Reforming Earth science education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    Improving the employability of Earth science graduates by reforming Earth science instruction is a matter of concern to universities worldwide. It should, however, be self-evident that the developing countries cannot follow the same blueprint for change as the industrialized countries due to constraints of affordability and relevance. Peanuts are every bit as nutritious as almonds; if one with limited means has to choose between a fistful of peanuts and just one almond, it is wise to choose the peanuts. A paradigm proposed here would allow institutions in developing countries to impart good quality relevant Earth science instruction that would be affordable and lead to employment.

  14. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sweat, Michael D; Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Six studies with a combined sample size of 23,048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42-2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51-2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour.

  15. Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin; Tedrow, Virginia; O'Reilly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between condom social marketing programmes and condom use. Methods Standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods were followed. The review included studies of interventions in which condoms were sold, in which a local brand name(s) was developed for condoms, and in which condoms were marketed through a promotional campaign to increase sales. A definition of intervention was developed and standard inclusion criteria were followed in selecting studies. Data were extracted from each eligible study, and a meta-analysis of the results was carried out. Findings Six studies with a combined sample size of 23 048 met the inclusion criteria. One was conducted in India and five in sub-Saharan Africa. All studies were cross-sectional or serial cross-sectional. Three studies had a comparison group, although all lacked equivalence in sociodemographic characteristics across study arms. All studies randomly selected participants for assessments, although none randomly assigned participants to intervention arms. The random-effects pooled odds ratio for condom use was 2.01 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–2.84) for the most recent sexual encounter and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.51–2.91) for a composite of all condom use outcomes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for both meta-analyses. Conclusion The evidence base for the effect of condom social marketing on condom use is small because few rigorous studies have been conducted. Meta-analyses showed a positive and statistically significant effect on increasing condom use, and all individual studies showed positive trends. The cumulative effect of condom social marketing over multiple years could be substantial. We strongly encourage more evaluations of these programmes with study designs of high rigour. PMID:22893745

  16. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  17. Structural Change and Employment in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzmin, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to structural changes in developing countries and concludes that unemployment and underemployment are best countered by generating new productive activities, developing economic linkages, and stimulating an increase in the number of workplaces. Advocates cooperation among developing nations. (JOW)

  18. Japanese Educational Assistance to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotta, Taiji

    1991-01-01

    To counter criticisms that its foreign aid is self-serving, Japan has developed new technical and educational assistance programs for students and trainees from developing nations. However, elements of these programs appear to further domestic economic development and to maintain political relationships with local elites in recipient countries.…

  19. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  20. Assessing Perceived Empathic and Social Self-Efficacy Across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Di Giunta, Laura; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, Anne; Steca, Patrizia; Tramontano, Carlo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    The Perceived Empathic Self-Efficacy Scale (PESE) and the Perceived Social Self-Efficacy Scale (PSSE) were developed to assess, respectively, individuals’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding both empathic responding to others’ needs or feelings and managing interpersonal relationships. In this study of young adults, a unidimensional factorial structure of both scales was found in Italy, the United States, and Bolivia. Complete invariance at the metric level and partial invariance at the scalar level were found across gender and countries for both scales. The construct and incremental validity of both PESE and PSSE were further examined in a different sample of Italian young adults. Patterns of association of the PESE or PSSE with self-esteem, psychological well-being, and the use of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies were found, often over and beyond their associations with empathy or extraversion, respectively. PMID:21228911

  1. Guidelines for Clinical Research in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Vray, Muriel; Simon, François; Bompart, François

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a review of current clinical research conditions in developing countries, guidelines have been formulated to ensure scientific validity as well as adherence to universal ethical principles. The main recommendation is that projects should be reviewed by two Institutional Review Boards, one in the country where the Study Sponsor is based, and another in the country where the study is being carried out. In addition, an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board should be set up and systems established to ensure the effective reporting of Serious Adverse Events and to specify the Sponsor's obligations after the end of the Study.

  2. Providing ethical guidance for collaborative research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Experience has shown that the application of ethical guidelines developed for research in developed countries to research in developing countries can be, and often is, impractical and raises a number of contentious issues. Various attempts have been made to provide guidelines more appropriate to the developing world context; however, to date these efforts have been dominated by the fields of bioscience, medical research and nutrition. There is very little advice available for those seeking to undertake collaborative social science or natural science research in developing countries and what is there tends to be held within disparate sources. Charting the development of a set of ethics documentation for future use by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme research community, this paper outlines past and present attitudes towards ethics procedures amongst this community and suggests ways in which ethics procedures might be made more relevant and user-friendly to researchers working in this area. PMID:26640509

  3. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  4. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  5. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  6. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  7. Paying for pharmaceutical registration in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Warren A; Laing, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Fees charged by drug regulatory authorities (DRAs) may be used as a policy instrument to speed up regulatory approval, to encourage retention of quality staff and to stimulate introduction of generics versus new chemical entities. Often, the cost recovery function of these registration fees is not related to the true cost of the pharmaceutical regulatory process. In this paper, we scaled new drug registration fees of various DRAs to indices of economic development - the GNP per capita and the total government health expenditure per capita. Based on our analyses of 34 countries, most DRA registration fees for new drug applications for developing/non-OECD countries are less than the current GNP/capita of that country or are about US dollars 5000 for each US dollars 1000 spent per capita on healthcare. At present, each US dollars 1000 new drug registration fee for the developing/non-OECD countries analyzed corresponds to a total pharmaceutical market share of about US dollars 85 million. Our analyses further suggest little relationship between DRA registration fees and drug approval times in developing countries. The situation is complex, however, as policy tradeoffs are important to consider. Differential registration fees, presumably designed to encourage locally produced versus imported products, may violate international trade regulations. Moreover, certain DRA registration fees may provide perverse incentives for the pharmaceutical industry. Developing countries should require that DRA registration fees be based on accurate accounting of the cost of services provided. At present levels, these fees could be increased without disincentive to the pharmaceutical industry. For new drug registration fees, our analyses suggest that developing countries could charge between 1-5 times their GNP per capita or between US dollars 17000 and US dollars 80000 for each US dollars 1000 spent per capita on healthcare.

  8. Problems of occupational carcinogenesis in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Taba, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of published information on occupational cancer and recorded ongoing occupational cancer research in developing countries is presented. The main cancers reported, of possible occupational origin, are skin carcinoma, leukemia due to exposure to benzene, asbestos-caused mesothelioma, vinyl chloride-induced hepatic angiosarcoma, carcinoma of bilharzial urinary bladder, stomach cancer reportedly associated with nitrogen fertilizers, lung cancer of nickel smelters, and nasopharyngeal and pulmonary carcinoma in workers exposed to the dust of hard wood. The difficulties of developing efficient occupational cancer prevention are discussed. Some options are analyzed regarding legislative, technological, environmental, medical, administrative, and educational cancer control applicable under conditions of developing countries.

  9. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  10. Education for Copeability: Perspective on Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atta-Safoh, Alex

    Stressing the application of progressive thought as a possible innovation toward development in developing countries, the paper discusses three major educational philosophies: romanticism, cultural transmission, and progressivisim (emphasizing the cognitive-developmental theory). Educational innovation and strategies for reform in the Soviet Union…

  11. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  12. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  13. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  14. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  15. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Design Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. Results The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health. PMID:22184501

  16. Social support, volunteering and health around the world: cross-national evidence from 139 countries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Calvo, Rocio; Avendano, Mauricio; Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-03-01

    High levels of social capital and social integration are associated with self-rated health in many developed countries. However, it is not known whether this association extends to non-western and less economically advanced countries. We examine associations between social support, volunteering, and self-rated health in 139 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Data come from the Gallup World Poll, an internationally comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 and over. Volunteering was measured by self-reports of volunteering to an organization in the past month. Social support was based on self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends. We started by estimating random coefficient (multi-level) models and then used multivariate logistic regression to model health as a function of social support and volunteering, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and religiosity. We found statistically significant evidence of cross-national variation in the association between social capital variables and self-rated health. In the multivariate logistic model, self-rated health were significantly associated with having social support from friends and relatives and volunteering. Results from stratified analyses indicate that these associations are strikingly consistent across countries. Our results indicate that the link between social capital and health is not restricted to high-income countries but extends across many geographical regions regardless of their national-income level.

  17. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Arya, Jaya; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-28

    Millions of people die of infectious diseases each year, mostly in developing countries, which could largely be prevented by the use of vaccines. While immunization rates have risen since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), there remain major challenges to more effective vaccination in developing countries. As a possible solution, microneedle patches containing an array of micron-sized needles on an adhesive backing have been developed to be used for vaccine delivery to the skin. These microneedle patches can be easily and painlessly applied by pressing against the skin and, in some designs, do not leave behind sharps waste. The patches are single-dose, do not require reconstitution, are easy to administer, have reduced size to simplify storage, transportation and waste disposal, and offer the possibility of improved vaccine immunogenicity, dose sparing and thermostability. This review summarizes vaccination challenges in developing countries and discusses advantages that microneedle patches offer for vaccination to address these challenges. We conclude that microneedle patches offer a powerful new technology that can enable more effective vaccination in developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  19. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  20. Implementing Information Technology Projects in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamugire, Athanase B.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the problems of implementing information technology in developing countries and cites examples from African projects. The use of CD-ROM for access to information is examined, and experiences at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia in introducing CD-ROM search services are described. (Contains five references.)…

  1. Essays on Education Programs in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Fang

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates programs seeking to address educational access and quality in developing countries. Chapter 1 examines the impact of two school feeding programs on enrollment in Sri Lanka. Chapter 2 assesses the relative productivity of several modes of implementing an Indian English education curriculum in India. Finally, chapter 3…

  2. Essays on Education Programs in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Fang

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates programs seeking to address educational access and quality in developing countries. Chapter 1 examines the impact of two school feeding programs on enrollment in Sri Lanka. Chapter 2 assesses the relative productivity of several modes of implementing an Indian English education curriculum in India. Finally, chapter 3…

  3. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  4. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  5. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  6. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  7. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  8. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  9. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  10. Accounting for health spending in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.

  11. [Impact of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Delacour, H

    2009-08-01

    Rotaviruses discovered in 1973 are the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children world-wide. Annually rotavirus infections are estimated to cause the deaths of more than 600,000 children under the age of 5 years with more than 90% of fatalities occurring in developing countries. In 2006 two live oral attenuated rotavirus vaccines were licensed: the monovalent human rotavirus vaccine (RotarixT) and the pentavalent bovine-human, reassortant vaccine (RotaTeqT). Both vaccines demonstrated excellent safety and protective effectiveness in large pre-licensing trials conducted in Europe, the United States and Latin America. Several countries in Latin and Central America have already decided to include rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization program. African and Asiatic countries have postponed their decisions pending the results of further studies.

  12. Foreign minorities from developing countries in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, V; Aguilera, M J; Gonzalez-yanci, M P

    1993-07-01

    "Spain, which has always been a land of emigrants, is currently a centre of attraction for immigrants, as are other countries in Mediterranean Europe. The proportion is not as high as in other countries with a longer tradition of immigration. In this survey we selected the six nationalities which provide the highest numbers of immigrants from the developing world, and which have the greatest racial or cultural contrast to the native population. We analyse their structural features, whether or not immigrants from the same country...collect in the Madrid Metropolitan Area, the recent mobility of the immigrant population, and the evolution of immigration since the Administration carried out a regularization process, as well as Spaniards' opinion of foreign immigrants."

  13. Congenital heart surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges in caring for individuals with congenital heart disease in developing countries and is drawn in part from the author's Presidential Address to the American Association for Thoracic Surgery in Philadelphia, May 2006. Economic globalization is resulting in demographic and lifestyle changes which are increasing the incidence of ischemic heart disease worldwide. A massive expansion of cardiothoracic surgery in developing countries is beginning. Although the rate of coronary surgery is contracting in Western countries, the population bulge that is approaching 65 years of age will also stretch surgical manpower and resources in developed countries within 10 to 20 years. The incidence of congenital heart disease is stable, but earlier and more accurate diagnosis is rapidly increasing the numbers of children needing the services of a congenital cardiac surgery team. Many opportunities for philanthropy are available, but care should be taken to assist in the most meaningful way by working with a long-term educational program and avoiding surgical tourism.

  14. Vocational Education & Training: Key Considerations when Designing Vocational Models and Curriculums Intended for Under-Educated and Socially Deprived Youths and Adults in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, John H.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades there has been a significant transformation in global fiscal trends from a traditional resource based to a fast moving knowledge and technologically centered market. While this readjustment has triggered a significant number of advantages, issues and consequences upon industrialized countries, it has created even more concerns…

  15. Social inequalities in obesity and overweight in 11 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Marion; Sassi, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of inequalities in obesity and overweight is available mostly from national studies. This article provides a broad international comparison of inequalities by education level and socio-economic status, in men and women and over time. Data from national health surveys of 11 OECD countries were used. The size of inequalities was assessed on the basis of absolute and relative inequality indexes. A regression-analysis approach was used to assess differences between social groups in trends over time. Of the countries examined, USA and England had the highest rates of obesity and overweight. Large social inequalities were consistently detected in all countries, especially in women. Absolute inequalities were largest in Hungary and Spain with a difference of 11.6 and 10% in obesity rates in men, and 18.3 and 18.9% in women, respectively, across the education spectrum. Relative inequalities were largest in France and Sweden with poorly educated men 3.2 and 2.8 times as likely to be obese as men with the highest education (18 and 17 times for women in Spain and Korea, respectively). Pro-poor inequalities in overweight were observed for men in USA, Canada, Korea, Hungary, Australia and England. Inequalities remained virtually stable during the last 15 years, with only small variations in England, Korea, Italy and France. Large and persistent social inequalities in obesity and overweight by education level and socio-economic status exist in OECD countries. These are consistently larger in women than in men.

  16. Changes in social inequalities in health in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    Anitua, C.; Esnaola, S.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the extent of the inequalities in self reported health between socioeconomic groups and its changes over time in the Basque Country (Spain).
DESIGN—Cross sectional data on the association between occupation, education and income and three health indicators was obtained from the Basque Health Surveys of 1986 and 1992. Representative population samples were analysed. In 1986 the number of respondents was 24 657 and in 1992, 13 277.
SETTING—Basque Country, Spain. 
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The effect of socioeconomic position on health and the magnitude of social inequalities in health were quantified using the odds ratios based on logistic regression analysis, and the Relative Index of Inequality.
RESULTS—As was expected, social inequalities in self reported health existed in both surveys, but the social gradient was greater in 1992. Social differences varied according to gender and health indicator. According to education an increase in social inequalities was observed consistently in all the health indicators except long term conditions in women. A consistent increase in inequalities in limiting longstanding illness was also observed according to all socioeconomic indicators.
CONCLUSIONS—These results agree to a large extent with those of previous studies in other countries. In this context the unequal distribution of material circumstances and working conditions between socioeconomic groups seem to play a major part in health inequalities. The worsening of the labour market during this period and the onset of a new economic recession may explain the increase in social inequalities over time.


Keywords: health inequalities; trends; social class; Spain PMID:10818119

  17. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  18. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  19. Preventing violence in developing countries: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Mercy, James A; Butchart, Alexander; Rosenberg, Mark L; Dahlberg, Linda; Harvey, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Violence is an enormous global public health problem that increases the risk of injury, disease and poor mental health while also impeding economic and social development. This paper articulates a framework for violence prevention in developing countries that is grounded in the knowledge gained from research and programmatic efforts in rich and in poor countries over several decades. This framework can be used by countries and funding agencies as a guide to building strong foundations for ongoing violence prevention efforts and for identifying violence prevention strategies most likely to be effective. The world has learned a lot about preventing violence and, without a doubt, there is a great deal more to learn. As a global community, however, it is not possible to wait for perfect solutions to these problems to act. The obligation is to act now to use the valuable knowledge that has been gained about violence prevention to improve the world.

  20. Abortion policy and women's health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1990-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half a million women in developing countries die in pregnancy and childbirth every year. Unsafe induced abortion is responsible for perhaps one-quarter of these deaths. In this article, the author reviews the legal, medical, and social contexts in which women in developing countries resort to clandestine abortion. Despite intensified international concern with reducing high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, national policy makers and participants at international conferences on maternal health--with a few important exceptions--have not recommended that safe, legal services for terminating unwanted pregnancies be offered as an essential element of basic reproductive health care. United States international policy on funding abortion-related activities in maternal health and family planning programs is especially restrictive. A new policy approach is clearly needed if unacceptably high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in many countries are to be reduced.

  1. Levels of maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Boerma, J T

    1987-01-01

    This paper is aimed at improving our ability to assess the magnitude of maternal mortality in developing countries, where reliable data on maternal deaths are scarce. First, the upper and lower limits of maternal mortality in a population are determined based on the general levels of mortality and fertility in a population. The relative importance of maternal deaths as a proportion of death among women of reproductive ages may, therefore, vary from less than 1 percent in low-mortality countries to about 25-30 percent in high-mortality countries. Second, the analysis and interpretation of maternal mortality data from health facilities and vital registration systems can be improved if a variety of other data sources are used, such as coverage of deliveries in hospitals and at home, and all causes of death among women of reproductive age. It is estimated that approximately 515,000 women died annually due to pregnancy-related causes in developing countries between 1980 and 1985. Ninety percent of these deaths took place in Africa and South Asia, where births are frequent and maternal mortality levels are high.

  2. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Trichinellosis in developing countries: is it neglected?

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2012-03-12

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, which is characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. The aim of the present review is to provide epidemiological information on animal and human trichinellosis occurring in developing countries in the different continents, where cooking habits along with poverty and poor sanitary conditions and lack of veterinary controls may facilitate the occurrence of human trichinellosis outbreaks. Countries have been considered according to the six regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO): 1) WHO African Region, 2) WHO Region of the Americas, 3) WHO South-East Asia Region, 4) WHO European Region, 5) WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, and 6) WHO Western Pacific Region. For the purposes of this article, developing countries are defined as those not industrialised according to the World Economic Outlook Report of the International Monetary Fund (http://www.imf.org); however, with regard to the European Region of WHO, only those countries that are not member states of the European Union will be considered.

  4. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation.

  5. Dental services and needs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pack, A R

    1998-06-01

    People in developing countries are burdened excessively by oral diseases, particularly periodontal disease. These are aggravated by poverty, poor living conditions, ignorance concerning health education, and lack of government funding and policy to provide sufficient oral health care workers. WHO and FDI have identified the problems and developed strategies. However, acceptable goals and standards of oral health have to be agreed. Furthermore, barriers to oral health promotion need to be overcome through co-operation at all levels and appreciation of cultural sensitivity. There is the need for research to determine which types of oral health care systems are most effective in reducing the extent of inequality in oral health. In developing countries where there are huge problems, intervention programmes focusing on primary care and prevention should be designed and implemented urgently and their effectiveness monitored and analysed scientifically. The WHO, FDI and national and international professional organisations should play a leading role in encouraging a determined, co-ordinated effort towards improving the oral health status of disadvantaged people in developing countries.

  6. Neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pal, D.; Carpio, A.; Sander, J.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease of poverty and underdevelopment. Little is known about the natural history of the infection in humans, but some of the mechanisms whereby the parasite remains silent and evades the host immune response are understood. Symptomatic neurocysticercosis usually results from host inflammatory response after parasite death, and the clinical manifestations can be diverse. There is no evidence that cysticidal treatment does more good than harm in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment. Population control measures involving immunisation or mass treatment have not shown long term effectiveness.
Epilepsy, similarly to neurocysticercosis, is a largely unrecognised but increasing burden on the welfare and economies of developing countries. The technology of drug treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation is well known but requires widespread and effective dissemination at low cost. There is little epidemiological data on risk factors for epilepsy in developing countries on which to base prevention strategies. The public health prioritisation of chronic disorders such as epilepsy remains a challenge for policy and practice in developing countries.
For both neurocysticercosis and epilepsy, there is a dilemma about whether limited public resources would better be spent on general economic development, which would be expected to have a broad impact on the health and welfare of communities, or on specific programmes to help individual affected people with neurocysticercosis and epilepsy. Either approach requires detailed economic evaluation.

 PMID:10644776

  7. Bicultural Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.

    2006-01-01

    The conditions that result in bicultural social development among Latino children and adolescents represent the central focus of this article. The literature surrounding bicultural development is reviewed from four perspectives: (a) immigrant children and adolescents, (b) second generation Latinos or the offspring of immigrants, (c) later…

  8. Bicultural Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.

    2006-01-01

    The conditions that result in bicultural social development among Latino children and adolescents represent the central focus of this article. The literature surrounding bicultural development is reviewed from four perspectives: (a) immigrant children and adolescents, (b) second generation Latinos or the offspring of immigrants, (c) later…

  9. Breast cancer control programme in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, J A; Barros, A C; Hegg, R; Zeferino, L C

    1993-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very important health problem in developing countries, where its incidence has increased in the last decades. Mortality rates due to breast cancer have also increased, and the main reason for this is late diagnosis. The authors demonstrate that organizing programmes for early breast cancer detection is possible by making use of simple resources. A set of tiered interventions is proposed, stratified in levels of complexity: Level 1--Identification of abnormal breast by health professionals; Level 2--Medical assistance to women whose breast is considered abnormal, in order to diagnose and treat benign diseases and recognize suspect cases of cancer; Level 3--Management of the women with suspected or diagnosed breast cancer by a multidisciplinary team. Therefore, a proposal for wide action for breast cancer control in developing countries is presented.

  10. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  11. Surgical services for children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bickler, S. W.; Rode, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood surgical conditions, especially injuries, are common in developing countries and that poor care results in significant numbers of deaths and cases of disability. Unfortunately, however, surgical care is not considered an essential component of most child health programmes. Strategies for improving paediatric surgical care should be evidence-based and cost-effective and should aim to benefit the largest possible number of children. The most likely way of achieving policy change is to demonstrate that childhood surgical conditions are a significant public health problem. For paediatric purposes, special attention should also be given to defining a cost-effective package of surgical services, improving surgical care at the community level, and strengthening surgical education. Surgical care should be an essential component of child health programmes in developing countries. PMID:12471405

  12. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

  13. Birth asphyxia survivors in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Halloran, DR; McClure, E; Chakraborty, H; Chomba, E; Wright, LL; Carlo, WA

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine the baseline incidence of birth asphyxia in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) survivors in a developing country and the early neurodevelopmental outcomes of such infants. Study Design This cross-sectional, prospective study collected diagnostic and examination findings on all infants seen in the University of Zambia NICU follow-up clinic over a 4-week period. Result Of the 182 infants, 42 (23%) had a clinical diagnosis of birth asphyxia. Of 42 infants with birth asphyxia, 13 (31%) had an abnormal neurologic examination during the clinic visit; in contrast, 13 of 141 infants without birth asphyxia (9%) had an abnormal examination (odds ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.8, 10.4). Conclusion Birth asphyxia survivors account for almost a quarter of NICU survivors in a developing country and half of those with an abnormal neurologic examination. Studies are necessary to determine the percent of birth asphyxia survivors who have permanent motor and cognitive disabilities. PMID:19037228

  14. Digital processing system for developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  15. Malnutrition and childhood epilepsy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hackett, R; Iype, T

    2001-12-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy in children is frequently found in developing countries. Though high rates of acquired brain injury may contribute, the possibility that malnutrition may lower seizure threshold has rarely been examined. This review suggests potential biochemical mechanisms that could adversely affect seizure threshold, particularly the effect of malnutrition on inhibitory neurotransmitters and electrolytes. Supporting evidence from animal research and epidemiological findings in children are discussed.

  16. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  17. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  18. Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. This paper describes a series of investigations that was undertaken in Iran, and these findings, together with reviews of research in other low-income countries, are used to identify key lessons in three areas of service provision of particular relevance to developing countries with scarce professional resources: first, the issues to be considered in establishing the prevalence of the condition nationally; second, identification of parental understanding of ASD and the impact it has on them as carers; third, the education and training that could be provided to families when professional supports are sparse. It is concluded that culturally sensitive, parental support strategies must be central to the planning and development of services. Moreover, future research should further elucidate the needs of families and evaluate the impact of culturally tailored interventions designed to promote the children's development and overall family quality of life. PMID:22937242

  19. [Obesity and developing countries of the south].

    PubMed

    Delpeuch, F; Maire, B

    1997-01-01

    An adult is considered as overweight if his body mass index is 25.0 kg/m2 or more and as obese if it is 30.0 kg/m2 or more. Since excess weight is a predisposing factor for many chronic diseases, e.g. diabetes, an increase in its incidence in the population is cause for concern. Until now, excess weight has been problem of epidemic proportions only in developed countries, but it has recently spread to the developing world. More than 30% of the population in Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Northern Africa is overweight. Populations living on Pacific and Indian Ocean islands have the highest prevalence of obesity in the world. In Asia and Black Africa, the overall prevalence of overweight is still low but incidence is high in urban areas. In most of these countries, both underweight and overweight people can now be seen. In many countries, the increase in the number of overweight people has occurred within the last few years. Excess weight appears first among the affluent and then among low-income classes including young children and teenagers. The main causes are a nutrition transition to lipid-rich diets and, above all, reduced physical activity in city dwellers. Obesity and associated diseases could become major problems in the future since malnutrition during fetal development and early childhood are predisposing factors. Already overweight is creating an extra burden for countries where malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies are still observed in young children. Given the economic costs of management of obesity-related diseases, surveillance and prevention programs are needed to stem the growth of this problem.

  20. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  1. Cleaner technology development--some practical steps for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A K A; Bhanujan, K V

    2004-10-01

    Cleaner technologies often originate from developed countries. Little developmental work is continued on the products sourced from developing countries. These products are by and large low value products generating large quantities of hazardous waste per unit of production. Methodology is proposed for phasing out such dirty technologies! products. The development of cleaner technologies is proposed for utilizing large quantity of hazardous waste generated from identified manufacturing process.

  2. Developing social capital in implementing a complex intervention: a process evaluation of the early implementation of a suicide prevention intervention in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation in the implementation of complex multilevel interventions can impact on their delivery and outcomes. Few suicide prevention interventions, especially multilevel interventions, have included evaluation of both the process of implementation as well as outcomes. Such evaluation is essential for the replication of interventions, for interpreting and understanding outcomes, and for improving implementation science. This paper reports on a process evaluation of the early implementation stage of an optimised suicide prevention programme (OSPI-Europe) implemented in four European countries. Methods The process analysis was conducted within the framework of a realist evaluation methodology, and involved case studies of the process of implementation in four European countries. Datasets include: repeated questionnaires to track progress of implementation including delivery of individual activities and their intensity; serial interviews and focus groups with stakeholder groups; and detailed observations at OSPI implementation team meetings. Results Analysis of local contexts in each of the four countries revealed that the advisory group was a key mechanism that had a substantial impact on the ease of implementation of OSPI interventions, particularly on their ability to recruit to training interventions. However, simply recruiting representatives of key organisations into an advisory group is not sufficient to achieve impact on the delivery of interventions. In order to maximise the potential of high level ‘gatekeepers’, it is necessary to first transform them into OSPI stakeholders. Motivations for OSPI participation as a stakeholder included: personal affinity with the shared goals and target groups within OSPI; the complementary and participatory nature of OSPI that adds value to pre-existing suicide prevention initiatives; and reciprocal reward for participants through access to the extended network capacity that organisations could accrue for

  3. Generation and transmission improvements in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Willingham, M.; Mak, K.N.; Da Silva, M.; Morozowski, M.; Blyden, B.K.

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses new realities in Power Development in Developing Countries as seen by the United Nations, The World Energy Council, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. At the outset, technical assistance given by the United Nations for global sustainability projects is summarized. Power system expansion and interconnection in China, greenhouse gas emission reduction in Egypt, and integrated development of the Arab-Mediterranean Regional and environmental considerations are among the projects that are highlighted. The pressing need of Developing Countries as seen by the World Energy Council to meet energy needs without prejudice to the environment where technological advances in the production, delivery and utilization of electrical energy are central to resolving conflicts between energy and the environment is then discussed. The paper goes on to discuss power system planning in deregulated environments where the Brazilian experience is highlighted. Global dynamics and potential for an integrated African Grid is then examined. Concepts associated with the growing interest in renewable resources in Central and East Africa for domestic, continental and international utilization are synthesized. Current and future energy development proposals are discussed with emphasis on operational reliability as a basis for potential large system design. Given are generalized representations to illustrate hydroelectric potential of the Central and East African regions and the kind of centralized pool that could be developed as a result. Other studies which include the Africa-Europe and Zaire-Egypt initiatives are also discussed.

  4. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  5. Evaluation of Organizational Readiness in Clinical Settings for Social Supporting Evidence-Based Information Seeking Behavior after Introducing IT in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Kahouei, Mehdi; Alaei, Safollah; Panahi, Sohaila Sadat Ghazavi Shariat; Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The health sector of Iran has endeavored to encourage physicians and medical students to use research findings in their practice. Remarkable changes have occurred, including: holding computer skills courses, digital library workshops for physicians and students, and establishing websites in hospitals. The findings showed that a small number of the participants completely agreed that they were supported by supervisors and colleagues to use evidence-based information resources in their clinical decisions. Health care organizations in Iran need other organizational facilitators such as social influences, organizational support, leadership, strong organizational culture, and climate in order to implement evidence-based practice.

  6. Introducing new vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara; Seeber, Lea D; Rundblad, Gabriella; Khamesipour, Ali; Ali, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    Vaccines offer the most cost-effective approach to controlling infectious diseases. Access to vaccines remains unequal and suboptimal, particularly in poorer developing countries. Introduction of new vaccines and long-term sustainability of immunization programs will require proactive planning from conception to implementation. International and national coordination efforts as well as local and cultural factors need to be known and accounted for. Adequate infrastructure should be in place for the monitoring of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness and vaccine safety, based on the common terminology and international consensus. This overview paper aims to raise awareness of the importance of introduction efforts for vaccines of special relevance to resource-poor countries. The target audiences are those involved in immunization programs, from planning or oversight roles to frontline providers, as well as health care professionals.

  7. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  8. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  9. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J; Baehni, Pierre C; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-10-01

    Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some developed countries where the periodontal profile is also less than satisfactory. Despite the fact that in several developed countries there are advanced programmes oriented to periodontal disease treatments, the concern is related to the lack of preventive oriented treatments. According to data available on periodontal status of populations from developed countries, despite the number of dentists and trained specialists, dental health professionals do not presently meet adequately the need for prevention, focusing mainly on curative care. The need for strengthening disease prevention and health promotion programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many

  10. OpportunitiesandPerceptionofSpaceProgramsintheDevelopingCountries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- (1) The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. (2) Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lacks the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. (3) The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase. Thanks for listening.

  11. Strengthening International Collaboration: Geosciences Research and Education in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2009-05-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches and global integration. Global warming, increasing CO2 levels and increased needs of mineral and energy resources emphasize impact of human activities. The planetary view of our Earth as a deeply complex interconnected system also emphasizes the need of international scientific cooperation. International collaboration presents an immense potential and is urgently needed for further development of geosciences research and education. In analyzing international collaboration a relevant aspect is the role of scientific societies. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities and can further assist communities in developing countries providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems. Most countries urgently require improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources and identification of major problems and needs. Questions may include what are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? what and how should international collaboration do? and what are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to examine some of these questions with reference to case examples and AGU role. We focus on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and then move to perspectives for potential development in an international context.

  12. Mutual benefits from epilepsy surgery in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayel, M H

    2000-01-01

    The last three decades have seen tremendous progress in the surgical management of patients with intractable epilepsy involving all facets of diagnosis, localization, operative technique, and research. Unfortunately, such progress has taken place and is in operation only in the developed countries of North America, Europe, and Japan. Epilepsy surgery programs in the developing countries of South America, Asia, and particularly Africa, if they exist at all, are the result of the individual efforts of physicians who were fortunate enough to receive their training abroad. These physicians face difficulties in financing their programs and in obtaining the necessary equipment, and they work without the assistance of trained personnel or technicians. The exchange of experience between physicians in developed and developing countries may be mutually beneficial. In the face of the high cost of health care in developed countries, it is unrealistic to expect patients with intractable epilepsy to continue to undergo elaborate investigative procedures indefinitely. On the other hand, physicians in developing countries need to keep updated on the latest technology and research and have to receive the necessary support from developed countries to slowly build up their programs. The global perspective of physicians dealing with epilepsy patients may be broadened by exposure to the experience from the "other side of the fence" and will ultimately lead to better patient education and more focused patient care.

  13. Changing theoretical perspectives on urbanisation in Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lin, G C

    1994-02-01

    European models of urbanization inadequately capture the process of growth of urban cities in Asian developing countries. The following theoretical issues were presented as illustrations of the inadequacies of European paradigms: 1) the role of cities in regional development, 2) the dual nature of employment in Asian cities, 3) foreign investments, and 4) socialism. The concept of extended metropolitan regions in Asian countries was advanced by the studies of McGee and Ginsburg; metropolitan regions were recognized as unique to Asia. Socioeconomic development led to the blurring of regions into distinct urban and rural areas and to the mixing of agricultural and nonagricultural areas. The city-based model of economic concentration was replaced with a region-based urbanization. There is no universally applicable model of urban transition, although the influence of Euro-Americanism can still be felt in the theories of developing country development. What is not known is whether the new form of urban transition is a viable option or is a compromise between city-biased strategy and the development of intermediate and small towns. The effects of extended metropolitan regions are still unknown. Primary urbanization has its roots in early civilizations. Peterson developed the notions of the transitional stages of industrialization and urbanization: 1) preindustrial with high birth, death, and infant mortality rates of young, small populations; 2) early Western industrialization with reduced mortality and increased births; and 3) modern Western society with low birth and mortality rates and older, larger populations. Kingsley Davis provided the conception of rural-to-urban migration and urban growth, associated with urban economic and social opportunity and a shift from agricultural to nonagricultural employment. McGee postulated demographic, economic, and social transitions as part of the urbanization process. There is an increasing awareness that urban growth and the

  14. Multilingualism and Educational Development: (The Fate of the Child in a Developing Country).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Sybil L.

    Noting that reading development is a crucial factor in breaking down social, intellectual, and political barriers, this paper uses Nigeria as an example of a developing multilingual country in order to examine the problems and challenges that learners and educators in multilingual societies face. The discussion is focused on children at the…

  15. Does Critical Mass Matter? Women's Political Representation and Child Health in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Liam; Fallon, Kathleen M.; Burgos, Giovani

    2012-01-01

    Studies on developed countries demonstrate that an increase in women legislators leads to a prioritization in health, an increase in social policy spending, and a decrease in poverty. Women representatives could therefore improve development trajectories in developing countries; yet, currently, no cross-national and longitudinal studies explore…

  16. Does Critical Mass Matter? Women's Political Representation and Child Health in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Liam; Fallon, Kathleen M.; Burgos, Giovani

    2012-01-01

    Studies on developed countries demonstrate that an increase in women legislators leads to a prioritization in health, an increase in social policy spending, and a decrease in poverty. Women representatives could therefore improve development trajectories in developing countries; yet, currently, no cross-national and longitudinal studies explore…

  17. The urban environment, poverty and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stephens, C

    1995-06-01

    The process of urbanization could be described as one of the major global environmental changes directly affecting human health today. Populations particularly affected are in developing countries where rapid urban growth has been accompanied by massive urban poverty. Urban environmental health impacts, particularly the impact on adults of an environment of poverty, are still poorly understood. Definitions of the urban environment tend to be physical, excluding the complex ramifications of a social setting of disadvantage. This paper provides a brief overview of existing knowledge on the links between environment, poverty and health in urban areas of developing countries, with an emphasis on the policy implications implied by research on health differential between groups within cities. The paper argues that urban poverty and inequalities in conditions between groups within cities present a central crisis confronting urban policy in terms of human health and quality of life. The paper suggests that definitions of the urban environment tend to consider only the physical, and not the social complexity of the urban setting. The review concludes that the scale and the complexity of the urban crisis in developing countries demands a real commitment to re-thinking the management of cities to address multiple deprivation. The paper suggests that this challenges urban professionals who continue to act with a bias towards unintegrated single sector solutions despite claims to the contrary.

  18. Obstetric infection control in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Cronin, W A; Quansah, M G; Larson, E

    1993-01-01

    In Ghana, infection has been identified as a major cause of birth-related mortality. Results of a 2-month observation of infection control practices among Ghanaian obstetric nurses and midwives indicated that most personnel did not practice basic rules of asepsis. Problems included frequent breaks in technique, inadequate sterilization and disinfection, and repeated exposure to large amounts of blood and vaginal secretions. Supplies were limited and, even when available, not always used appropriately. The situation in developing countries is different from that in the United States. Therefore, an observational needs assessment is essential to plan relevant and practical measures for change.

  19. Subclinical intestinal malabsorption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Asymptomatic small intestinal disease characterized by abnormalities of structure and function has been reported from many developing countries. Abnormalities of structure include changes in villus architecture and in appearance under both the light and the electron microscope. Changes in function include abnormalities in the absorption of xylose, fat, vitamin B12, amino acids, and dipeptides and excessive faecal losses of nitrogen and energy. The etiology of the condition is unknown but appears to be closely related to exposure to the environment. The nutritional consequences of this condition have not been fully explored but for people living on marginally sufficient dietary intakes they may be extremely important. PMID:800354

  20. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  1. [Pathological diagnosis of leprosy in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Goto, Masamichi; Aung, Thida; Kitajima, Shinichi

    2005-09-01

    In the developing countries where leprosy is prevalent, diagnosis of leprosy is made from clinical signs and symptoms. However, when difficult and doubtful cases increase after the advance of leprosy control programs, definitive diagnosis of leprosy by histopathology become necessary. This report describes our experience of technical support to re-establish histopathology service and introduction of immunohistochemistry in the leprosy referral center of Myanmar, and we discuss the ideal way of international technical support. This activity was performed as a part of leprosy control and basic health services project of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2000 to 2005.

  2. Neuropsychiatric genetics in developing countries: Current challenges.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diego A; Vélez-van-Meerbeke, Alberto; Deshpande, Smita N; Nicolini, Humberto; Perry, George

    2014-12-22

    Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) constitute a heavy burden on public health systems around the world and studies have demonstrated that the negative impact of NPDs is larger in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In recent decades, several studies have come to the understanding that genetic factors play a major role in the risk for a large number of NPDs. However, few neuropsychiatric genetics studies have been published from LMICs. In this Editorial, we discuss important issues impinging on advances in neuropsychiatric genetics research in LMICs. It is essential that scientists educate policymakers and officials of funding agencies on the importance of providing adequate funding for research in these areas. Development of local well-supported research programs focused on NPD genetics should be an important asset to develop; it would facilitate the establishment of sustainable research efforts that could lead to appropriate diagnosis and specific, affordable and feasible interventions in LMICs. It is important to point out that research into the biological basis of human NPDs is not only an academic effort reserved for a few elite institutions in economically developed countries, but it is vitally important for the mental health of people around the world.

  3. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis Across European Countries.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-04-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the second approach misses the possibility to investigate cross national differences. The present study aims at bringing these two approaches closer together by constructing diversity measures based on the European Social Survey (ESS). The ESS is collected every 2 years since 2002 and includes individual level data that allow replicating earlier measures of ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity for 30 European countries. Furthermore, since respondents are asked to indicate in what region they live, measured with the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics classification, it is possible to construct disaggregated measures. Comparing the new indicators with existing diversity scores leads to the following conclusions. First, the new and old measures are strongly correlated at the national level. Secondly, investigating the relationship between diversity and different kinds of sociality (interpersonal trust, institutional trust, and support for government redistribution) shows that regional diversity is more strongly related to them than diversity at the national level.

  4. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  5. Foreign Study for Development or Dependency of Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    Foreign study has been growing worldwide since the end of World War II. There is a significant flow of students from less developed countries to more developed ones. This paper presents findings of a study that assessed two theories of development, modernization theory and dependency theory, and applied these theories to identify the impact of…

  6. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  7. Histopathology of childhood pneumonia in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V M; Turner, T

    1991-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory infection in children is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Viral and bacterial agents incite characteristic host responses at the level of the bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar walls, and air spaces that correlate with the clinical course. A systematic review of histopathologic features will enhance the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms and cofactors that influence the disease process, particularly how tissue injury may be influenced by nutritional status and access to antibiotics. Research priorities include immunologic assessment, micronutrient assays, and standardized autopsies in developing countries. DNA probes for organisms and immunocytochemical identification of cell markers in tissue promise a new era in microscopic visualization of pathogen-host interactions. International collaborative research between ministries of public health and medical universities must be encouraged as a means of providing technical assistance and of advancing new knowledge. Systematic standardized autopsy studies from multiple geographic areas may help define pathologic mechanisms, monitor the natural history of disease, and evaluate interventions in diverse populations.

  8. Natural disasters in developing countries: an environmental health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, B A; Spickett, J T

    2007-01-01

    Inadequate water supply and sanitation services underscore the lives of billions of people in the developing world. This situation is compounded when natural disasters strike because the existing infrastructure is destroyed, and scarce resources are diverted to cope with the crisis and then the reconstruction. In comparison, many industrialised countries have prevention measures in place to reduce the risk of damage, and policies and actions in place to reduce the impact of the next disaster. Environmental health professionals from both government and non-government organisations can play an important role in disaster prevention, mitigation and response in these situations. However, the success of environmental health programmes does depend on the existing social inequities. This is because in many developing countries, the poorest and least powerful people already live in a situation with poor water supply and sanitation, which is compounded by natural disasters.

  9. Appropriate financing for petroleum development in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Agmon, T.; Lessard, D.R.; Paddock, J.L.

    1984-07-01

    The availability of appropriate financing is likely to be a dominant factor determining the scope and pace of energy investment by developing countries in the 1980s. Reliance on self-finance will severely limit development for most countries, but traditional external finance - credit from private banks or multilateral agencies such as the World Bank - will probably play a smaller role than it did in the 1970s. The uncertainty of oil prices is the biggest problem for countries for which oil represents a large part of the wealth, and existing mechanisms for financing oil development tend to exacerbate rather than alleviate the effects of oil price uncertainty. There are several measures that could substantially increase the availability of appropriate finance for potential oil producers, however. These include developing oil-price-linked financing alternatives by multilateral lenders and establishing an international oil development fund that combines the transfer of oil-related risks with a concessional financing element. 23 references.

  10. Population and growth causality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kapuria-foreman, V

    1995-07-01

    This study empirically tests the null hypotheses of no causality between population growth and economic growth and of no causality between economic growth and population growth in 15 developing countries. The model follows the Cheng Hsiao form with lag lengths to minimize Akaike's Final Prediction Error (FPE). Equations are run separately for each country. Lag lengths and Granger causality test were chosen according to three steps. 1) Each of the variables was regressed on its own lagged values with a maximum lag of five years. A lag length was chosen that minimized FPE, which was calculated for each regression. 2) Bivariate regressions were run with a fixed lag length for population growth and mixed lag lengths for the other variable, until the lag length which minimized FPE was determined. 3) The last step involved checking the lag length of population growth by keeping the lag fixed for economic growth. The economic growth measure was gross domestic product per capita. Findings indicate that in seven countries the null hypothesis of no causality between population growth and economic growth, either positive or negative, cannot be rejected (Ghana, Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Philippines, Syria, Thailand, and Argentina). In Nepal, India, China, Guatemala, Peru, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico lagged values of population growth improve predictions of economic growth. Higher economic growth has no significant effect on population growth rates in Nepal, Bolivia, Philippines, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, Argentina, and Mexico. Interaction between economic growth and population growth was found in India, China, Turkey, and Chile. The direction of causation tests indicate that population growth has a significant positive impact on income growth in China, Guatemala, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico. India shows a negative impact of population growth on income. A significant negative impact of economic growth on population growth is evident only in Sri Lanka. There is weak evidence of a

  11. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  12. Teamwork and program organization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Kathleen N; Castillo, Sergio Hernandez; Claro, Carlos Duarte; Novick, William M

    2011-04-01

    Establishment of congenital heart surgery programs in developing countries is often impeded by competition among providers for scarce resources and opportunities. To avoid this problem, the authors have sought to focus program development on a domestic medical team that includes a visiting North American surgeon. A leadership group was formed consisting of a domestic cardiologist and surgeon, the visiting surgeon, and leading local benefactors. Surgery was initiated beginning with closed cases, and the volume and complexity were gradually increased. The team was mentored by the visiting surgeon, and full medical brigades visited periodically. All members of the leadership group interacted with local health care providers, missionary groups, and visiting medical teams from international organizations, aiming to develop a single congenital heart surgery center. Over a period of 3 years, 185 children have been operated on and the team has progressed to do more complex open and closed cases. Overall mortality is 6.5%. Actively working with the program are 3 of the 5 local pediatric cardiologists, 2 of 4 pediatric intensivists, the only pediatric perfusionist, and the only active pediatric heart surgeon. Three additional international organizations currently participate in program development. Fundraising by the domestic nonprofit organization has increased approximately 20-fold in 5 years, and the program has been evaluated and approved by the government-based health insurance program. Focusing program development around a domestic leadership team allows coordination of patient referrals and resources, which contributes to excellent patient care and program sustainability.

  13. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  14. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  15. Education and Rural Development with Reference to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, G.M.

    Seeking full use of the educational resources available to developing countries in the areas of rural education and agricultural training, this paper is concerned with ways in which the efforts of organizations and institutions concerned with rural development might be improved and expanded. A generalized critical analysis of different facets of…

  16. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties.

  17. Scurvy Is Still Present in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Velandia, Bertha; McConnell, Vicky; Shah, Mobin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Scurvy, while uncommon, still occurs in developed countries despite the widespread availability of vitamins and fortified foods. A vitamin C deficiency prevalence of 10 to 14% in adults was reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1994. Objective We report the case of a 57-year-old male who presented with a combined vitamin C deficiency (scurvy) and a Zinc deficiency. Interventions He came to the emergency department complaining of a painful swollen ecchymotic leg and dyspnea. Prescriptions for narcotics did not relieve his symptoms. When a detailed dietary history was obtained, we added scurvy to the differential diagnosis. An extensive evaluation excluded trauma, coagulopathies, neoplasia, and vasculitides. Main Result The combination of a classic skin biopsy and a low vitamin C level confirmed the diagnosis. Conclusion This presentation illustrates the necessity of including scurvy in the differential diagnosis of ecchymoses and demonstrates specific populations at risk: single adults and the elderly with deficient diets. PMID:18459013

  18. Acute diarrhoeal disease in less developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John E.; Béhar, Moisés; Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1964-01-01

    The programme presented in this article for controlling the diarrhoeas and dysenteries of less developed countries is based on epidemiological principles applicable to acute undifferentiated diarrhoeal disease—its specific as well as its non-specific elements. The dominant importance of weanling diarrhoea requires a main emphasis on maternal and child health procedures, with nutrition singled out for attention, along with public health education and medical care of patients: this in addition to the established worth of means for promoting environmental sanitation. The several features of the suggested programme are within four broad divisions: preventive measures; control of patients, contacts and the immediate environment; measures specifically useful in epidemics; and international measures conducive to broad restriction of the syndrome. PMID:14230891

  19. Managing nutritional programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslam, R; Abdollahi, Z; Haghighi, F N

    2004-11-01

    Improving community nutrition in developing countries requires a detailed epidemiological picture of the prevalent nutritional problems in different regions and age groups. This makes it possible to identify priorities, sensitize policy-makers, establish political commitment and design appropriate community programmes for income generation and education for the best use of food resources. Experiences acquired from community-based nutritional programmes show that ownership of a programme by the community and using a tailor-made approach are essential factors in the successful implementation of programmes. A multifaceted approach is needed, involving a range of sectors-agriculture, commerce, education and health--and commitment at all levels from government to communities and individuals.

  20. Information technology for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bukachi, Frederick; Pakenham-Walsh, Neil

    2007-11-01

    Poverty has deepened the crisis in health-care delivery in developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, which is a region facing a disease burden that is unmatched in the world. Whether access to proven and powerful information and communication technologies (ICTs) can improve health indicators is an ongoing debate. However, this brief review shows that in the last decade there has been significant growth in Internet access in urban areas; health-care workers now use it for communication, access to relevant health-care information, and international collaboration. The central message learned during this period about the application of ICTs is that infrastructural and cultural contexts vary and require different models and approaches. Thus, to harness the full potential of ICTs to the benefit of health systems, health workers, and patients will demand an intricate mix of old and new technologies.

  1. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge. PMID:25964453

  2. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Andrew J

    2015-06-19

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol fuels: options for developing countries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes information on alcohol fuel technologies for planners, investors, and technical assistance agencies in developing countries. Although the information is primarily aimed at the non-technical reader, it does contain some details of the technologies: references are included for those who wish more specialized information. This report explores the production and use of alcohol fuels and the production of ethanol and methanol. In addition it looks at the social, economic and environmental implications of using alcohol fuels. Positive and negative factors of using alcohol fuels are given. The report includes information on various tropical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional and novel proceses.

  4. Trends in nuclear medicine in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas; Zaknun, John; Bastos, Fernando Mut; Pynda, Yaroslav

    2011-12-01

    This article describes trends in nuclear medicine in the developing world as noted by nuclear medicine professionals at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The trends identified are based on data gathered from several sources, including information gathered through a database maintained by the IAEA; evaluation of country program frameworks of various IAEA Member States; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; official proceedings and meeting reports of the IAEA; participation in numerous national, regional, and international conferences; discussions with the leadership of major professional societies; and relevant literature. The information presented in this article relied on both objective and subjective observations. The aims of this article were to reflect on recent developments in the specialty of nuclear medicine and to envision the directions in which it is progressing. These issues are examined in terms of dimensions of practice, growth, and educational and training needs in the field of nuclear medicine. This article will enable readers to gain perspective on the status of nuclear medicine practice, with a specific focus on the developing world, and to examine needs and trends arising from the observations.

  5. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  6. Child development in developing countries: introduction and methods.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and violence, and the home environment. They address 2 common questions: How do developing and underresearched countries in the world vary with respect to these central indicators of children's development? How do key indicators of national development relate to child development in each of these substantive areas? The Special Section concludes with policy implications from the international findings.

  7. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and violence, and the home environment addressing two common questions: How do developing and underresearched countries in the world vary with respect to these central indicators of children's development? and How do key indicators of national development relate to child development in each of these substantive areas? The Special Section concludes with policy implications from the international findings. PMID:22277004

  8. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  9. Sustainable transfer of biotechnology to developing countries: fighting poverty by bringing scientific tools to developing-country partners.

    PubMed

    Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Poverty and social inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious and other diseases but also the course of disease in those affected. The lack of proper diagnosis and access to adequate health services only compounds the problem. In low-resource settings, the burden of disease can be reduced if the basic human and material resources exist to support the use of low-cost interventions by appropriately trained personnel. For 20 years, the Sustainable Sciences Institute has built scientific capacity in developing countries to recognize, prevent, and respond to the threats posed by disease.

  10. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  11. Money, Sociability and Happiness: Are Developed Countries Doomed to Social Erosion and Unhappiness? Time-Series Analysis of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Western Europe, Australia, Canada and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarracino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Discovering whether social capital endowments in modern societies have been subjected or not to a process of gradual erosion is one of the most debated topics in recent economic literature. Inaugurated by Putnam's pioneering studies, the debate on social capital trends has been recently revived by Stevenson and Wolfers (2008) contending…

  12. Money, Sociability and Happiness: Are Developed Countries Doomed to Social Erosion and Unhappiness? Time-Series Analysis of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Western Europe, Australia, Canada and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarracino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Discovering whether social capital endowments in modern societies have been subjected or not to a process of gradual erosion is one of the most debated topics in recent economic literature. Inaugurated by Putnam's pioneering studies, the debate on social capital trends has been recently revived by Stevenson and Wolfers (2008) contending…

  13. Synchrotron Light Sources in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman; Pianetta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    The more than 50 light sources now in operation around the world include facilities in Brazil, Korea, and Taiwan which started their programs in the 1980's when they were developing countries. They came on line in the 1990's and have since trained hundreds of graduate students locally, without sending them abroad and losing many of them. They have also attracted dozens of mid-career diaspora scientists to return. Their growing user communities have demanded more advanced facilities, leading to the funding of higher performance new light sources that are now coming into operation. Light sources in the developing world now include the following: SESAME in the Middle East which is scheduled to start research in 2017 (www.sesame.org); The African Light Source, in the planning stage (www.africanlightsource.org); and The Mexican Light Source, in the planning stage (http://www.aps.org/units/fip/newsletters/201509/mexico.cfm). See: http://wpj.sagepub.com/content/32/4/92.full.pdf +html; http://www.lightsources.org/press-release/2015/11/20/grenoble-resolutions-mark-historical-step-towards-african-light-source. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  14. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  15. Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D; Paskin, R; Gutiérrez, M; Kasterine, A

    2005-08-01

    Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and poultry sectors from three countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows that at present there is only a small trade in these products but that this can have a major effect at a national level. In the beef export trade from Namibia, the existence of the only assurance scheme in Africa setting standards in hygiene, veterinary care and animal welfare has created a trusted, safe and healthy product and ensured that Namibia has grown into Africa's largest exporter of beef to the European Union. In Thailand, the broiler industry, which has enjoyed annual growth in the past 15 years, is developing value-added products to develop markets to counter competition from other countries. The development and implementation of standards for organic products in both Thailand and Argentina over the past decade have also resulted in growth in the export markets of these products. The paper concludes that there is growth potential for the sectors in all three markets which can be assisted by the development of OIE baseline standards.

  16. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  17. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  18. 48 CFR 25.404 - Least developed countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Least developed countries... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.404 Least developed countries. For acquisitions covered by the WTO GPA, least developed country end products, construction material, and services must...

  19. Strategic issues in preventing cataract blindness in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ellwein, L. B.; Kupfer, C.

    1995-01-01

    Cataract blindness is a public health problem of major proportions in developing countries. Intracapsular cataract extraction with aphakic spectacles has been the standard surgical technique for restoring sight. Because of image magnification in the operated eye, however, the result in unilaterally blind patients is less than satisfactory. Fortunately, with the availability of low-cost intraocular lenses (IOL) and ophthalmologists trained in extracapsular surgery, it is now practical to intervene successfully in the unilateral case. The need for increased attention on the quality of the visual high prevalence of cataract blindness in developing countries and an increasing cataract incidence due to an aging population require substantial increases in surgical volume. The third issue relates to cost. If significant increases in surgical volume and quality of outcomes are to be realized without an increased need for external funding, service delivery must be made more efficient. The expansion of IOL surgery for unilateral blindness is a favourable trend in ensuring financial sustainability of delivery systems; patients can be operated on while still economically productive and able to pay rather than waiting for bilateral blindness and a less favourable economic and social impact. If the quality, volume, and cost issues are to be successfully addressed, operational and structural changes to eye care delivery systems are necessary. These changes can be effected through training, technology introduction, management of facilities, social marketing, organizational partnerships, and evaluation. With improved understanding of the critical factors in successful models their widespread replication will be facilitated. PMID:8846495

  20. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  1. Affordable Earth Observatories for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, R. H.

    Traditionally high cost has been the principal impediment to developing nations desiring to pursue space programs. More particularly, the benefits derivable from a space system have been less than adequate to justify the investment required. Chief among the causes has been the inability of the system to produce results with sufficient direct economic value to the peoples of their countries. Over the past 15 years, however, "the Microspace Revolution" has resulted in dramatic reductions in the cost of space systems, while at the same time technology has improved to provide greater capabilities in the smallest micro- and nano-class1 satellites. Because of these advances, it behooves developing nations to reevaluate space as an option for their national development. This paper summarizes two new micro-satellite concepts - NanoObservatoryTM and MicroObservatoryTM that offer the prom- ise of a dedicated Earth remote sensing capability at costs comparable to or less than simply buying data from the best known large systems, Landsat and SPOT. Each system is defined both by its observation capabilities and technical parameters of the system's design. Moreover, the systems are characterized in terms of the other potential benefits to developing economies, i.e., education of a technical workforce or applications of Earth imagery in solving national needs. Comparisons are provided with more traditional Earth observing satellites. NanoObservatoryTM is principally intended to serve as a developmental system to build general technical expertise space technology and Earth observation. MicroObservatoryTM takes the next step by focusing on a more sophisticated optical imag- ing camera while keeping the spacecraft systems simple and affordable. For both programs, AeroAstro is working with non- profit institutions to develop a corresponding program of technical participation with the nations that elect to pursue such programs. Dependent upon current capabilities, this might include

  2. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

    2012-02-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society

  3. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  4. Transfer of regulatory toxicology from developed to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Salinas, J A

    1988-12-01

    Over the past two decades, industrialized nations have addressed and attempted to solve the problems of chemical risk through the development of laws, government and private organizations, and specialized manpower. Developing nations are now recognizing that the presence of toxicants in the environment, foods, consumer products, and the workplace can seriously affect human health, the ecology, international relations, and economic activities such as trade and tourism. The design and implementation of regulatory programs in developing countries is hampered by lack of government and public concern, pressure of more urgent needs, vested interests of industry, and lack of adequately trained professionals. These factors have allowed developed nations to sell abroad drugs, pesticides, and other chemicals considered too hazardous for use in their own countries. Conversely, products from developing nations must comply with rigorous standards for acceptance by developed nations. Some of these problems would be lessened by agreement on international chemical control guidelines. Multilateral availability of complete information about chemicals is essential. The coordination of this effort should be in the hands of international organizations and reinforced by bilateral agreements between countries. Appropriate public education and economic incentives at the national level would help in enforcing regulatory toxicology.

  5. Technology Integration in Education in Developing Countries: Guidelines to Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jhurree, Vikashkumar

    2005-01-01

    Technology such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a potent force in driving economic, social, political and educational reforms. Countries, particularly developing ones, cannot afford to stay passive to ICT if they are to compete and strive in the global economy. The health of the economy of any country, poor or rich, developed…

  6. Improving diabetes care in developing countries: the example of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Riaz, Musarrat; Fawwad, Asher

    2015-02-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with limited recourses and diverse economic social patterns. Pakistan has high prevalence of diabetes and its complication, which is a huge challenge to the existing health care system. The major contributing risk factors are urbanization and change in lifestyle, maternal and fetal malnutrition and genetic factors. National action plans for control of diabetes have been made since 1995 but actions in this regard were not perfect. Training of primary care physicians and development of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams was initiated. Prioritization strategies were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidance, mainly focusing on diabetic foot, diabetes education and children with diabetes. Researches for better understanding and management of diabetes in Pakistan were undertaken. Collaboration between various stakeholders was promoted at national and international level. In summary, public private relationships and development of multifaceted approaches is expected to improve the lives of millions of diabetics of Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Education for social development.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Education for social development is a life long activity that requires cooperation with donors, governments, and community organizations to solve problems in areas such as agriculture productivity, infant mortality, AIDS, malnutrition, population growth, and drug and alcohol abuse. Education should be a 2-way street with the audience in control, driven by the needs of the individual. Behavioral change is the most important goal in education, because what a person does will liberate him from disease, addiction, hunger, and inequalities. Interpersonal communications are best for teaching complex skills, broadcast media work well for simple ideas, and print media is best suited for detailed material for repeated referral. To design an educational program the audiences needs must be assessed in the following areas: the technical, social/psychological, and environmental. Project implementation must take into consideration political and economic needs of the environment in which it will operate. Evaluation requires testing the product in draft form with a target audience, and getting them involved in the evaluation. If the target group can't understand the message or identify with the image and finds the material unattractive, then it is changed and tested again.

  8. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Coastal resource development and management needs of developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The coastal regions of the large proportion of developing countries that border on oceans and seas include many of those countries' major population centers. In fact, well over 50% of the world's people live either at the coasts or in adjacent coastal lowlands areas. Coastal lands and waters also comprise substantial quantities of the nations' agricultural, mineral and living resources, so that the coastal degradation problems such as erosion, decreased water quality, and the destruction of living resources are issues of major concern. The types of technical assistance in the development and management of coastal resources that the United States might best provide in the context of national programs to encourage and assist international development are evaluated.

  10. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  11. The Measurement of Economic, Social and Environmental Performance of Countries: A Novel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cracolici, Maria Francesca; Cuffaro, Miranda; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical framework for assessing spatial disparities among countries. It takes for granted that the analysis of a country's performance cannot be limited solely to either economic or social factors. The aim of the paper is to combine relevant economic and "non-economic" (mainly social) aspects of a country's performance…

  12. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  13. Illustrative Statistics on Women in Selected Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimer, Thomas; Bachu, Amara

    Data pertaining to some basic aspects of women's participation in selected developing countries are presented in 13 charts, arranged alphabetically by region and country within region. Countries in each of the three major developing regions--Africa, Asia, and Latin America--are included when possible. Each chart presents data for a single topic in…

  14. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  15. Country Life and the Country School: A Study of the Agencies of Rural Progress and of the Social Relationship of the School to the Country Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Mabel

    Written in 1912, this book addresses the role of teachers in improving rural farm life. Rural-to-urban migration had resulted in the loss of leadership from rural localities and the decline of agriculture, and country life had lost its prestige both socially and economically. This book suggests that the country school is the key to achieving…

  16. Intra-family distribution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Behrman, J R

    1994-01-01

    Intra-household allocations are important in the determination of time use, human resource investments, and intra- and inter-generation of transfers in developing countries. During the 1980s through the mid-1990s there has been substantial progress in modeling intra-household allocations despite data limitations regarding the nature of the allocation of unobserved variables and the impact of unobserved heterogeneous endowments. The economic models of intra-household allocations include the pure parental altruism models with unified preferences, and within this the wealth model, which states that parents are concerned with each child's total wealth, but are not concerned with the sources of wealth. The next model is the separable earnings-transfers (SET) model, in which the parental welfare function is separable between their children's distribution of income from labor earnings and their children's distribution of income from physical and financial transfers received from their parents. The wealth model and the SET model have implications for identifying returns to schooling as well as implications for the interpretation of schooling as child quality. Models of qualified parental altruism include the rotten kid theorem, which states that variations in parental transfers to selfish children force such children to consider their parents' interests, as each beneficiary maximizes the total family income available to the altruistic benefactor. Under the strategic bequest or exchange model the parents influence the behavior of their children by holding wealth in bequeathable form. Collective models of household behavior, which focus on decisions between husbands and wives, include Nash bargaining models of intra-household allocations, which generalize the comparative statics of a unified preference constrained maximization. The Pareto-efficient collective household models assume that allocations are Pareto-efficient without assuming any explicit solution process.

  17. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... a great imitator, he will be learning important social skills from the way you handle conflicts between the ... be helpful. Helping, like sharing, is a vital social skill, and the sooner he develops it, the more ...

  18. Remediation technologies for organochlorine-contaminated sites in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Navia, Rodrigo; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Barra, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Despite its importance in human life, until recently the relationship between soils and human health has been undervalued, especially in least developed countries. Currently, a holistic approach has been incorporated to identify best practices in soil science, defining it as "the task of all people concerned with the soil to direct their interest, not just towards the physical, chemical, and biological aspects, but also to those environmental, economic, social, legal, and technical aspects that affect soil use" (Abrahams 2002; Fent 2003). Considering this definition, the European Union (EU) as well as most developed countries have recognized organochlorine-contaminated sites as potential threats to the human health, threats that take different forms, such as their influence on water (e.g., drinking water resources), soil, and air as well as their interrelationships, which can directly affect human health (EC 2002; EP 2002; Bezama et al. 2004). Moreover, economic expansion and industrial growth are linked with growing lack of "greenfields" (a term that defines all areas without previous history of development): the supply of new building sites is limited and must contend with other competing uses, such as housing, recreation, nature, traffic, or agriculture (De Sousa 2001; Tedd et al. 2001). Thus, cleaning and reusing contaminated sites can be a meaningful alternative to address this issue, because most contaminated sites are located in metropolitan centres and are, therefore, prime candidates for urban development (Lorber et al. 2004).

  19. Disabled older people's use of health and social care services and their unmet care needs in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Bien, Barbara; McKee, Kevin J; Döhner, Hanneli; Triantafillou, Judith; Lamura, Giovanni; Doroszkiewicz, Halina; Krevers, Barbro; Kofahl, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    The national health and social care systems in Europe remain poorly integrated with regard to the care needs of older persons. The present study examined the range of health and social care services used by older people and their unmet care needs, across six European countries. Family carers of older people were recruited in six countries via a standard protocol. Those providing care for disabled older people (n = 2629) provided data on the older person's service use over a 6-month period, and their current unmet care needs. An inventory of 21 services common to all six countries was developed. Analyses considered the relationship between older people's service use and unmet care needs across countries. Older people in Greece, Italy and Poland used mostly health-oriented services, used fewer services overall and also demonstrated a higher level of unmet care needs when compared with the other countries. Older people in the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden used a more balanced profile of socio-medical services. A negative relationship was found between the number of different services used and the number of different areas of unmet care needs across countries. Unmet care needs in older people are particularly high in European countries where social service use is low, and where there is a lack of balance in the use of health and social care services. An expansion of social care services in these countries might be the most effective strategy for reducing unmet needs in disabled older people.

  20. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  1. Teacher Labor Markets in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries--an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly,…

  2. Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Barry N.

    1986-01-01

    There are only three durable solutions to the refugee problem--voluntary repatriation, local settlement, and third-country resettlement--and all depend on political will, diplomacy, and statesmanship. It is important to remember, however, that humanitarian concerns must outweigh costs consciousness when durable solutions are sought. (Author/GC)

  3. Operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Lin; Routray, Jayant K

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews relevant literature on the sustainability indicators theoretically proposed and practically applied by scholars over the past 15 years. Although progress is being made in the development and critical analysis of sustainability indicators, in many cases existing or proposed indicators are not the most sensitive or useful measures in developing countries. Indicator selection needs to meet the following criteria: relative availability of data representing the indicators, sensitivity to stresses on the system, existence of threshold values and guidelines, predictivity, integratability and known response to disturbances, anthropogenic stresses, and changes over time. Based on these criteria, this paper proposes a set of operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing countries. These indicators include ecological indicators involving amounts of fertilizers and pesticides used, irrigation water used, soil nutrient content, depth to the groundwater table, water use efficiency, quality of groundwater for irrigation, and nitrate content of both groundwater and crops. Economic indicators include crop productivity, net farm income, benefit-cost ratio of production, and per capita food grain production. Social indicators encompass food self-sufficiency, equality in food and income distribution among farmers, access to resources and support services, and farmers' knowledge and awareness of resource conservation. This article suggests that the selection of indicators representing each aspect of sustainability should be prioritized according to spatial and temporal characteristics under consideration.

  4. Childhood cancers: challenges and strategies for management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chirdan, Lohfa B; Bode-Thomas, Fidelia; Chirdan, Oluwabunmi O

    2009-01-01

    The developing countries bear the greatest burden of childhood cancers as over 90% of the world's children live in these countries. Childhood cancer in most instances is curable, but many children die from cancer because most children live in developing countries without access to adequate treatment due to high cost of treatment and poor organization in these countries. Initiatives to increase cancer care in developing countries would therefore include establishment of standard cancer care centres, manpower training, establishment of standardized management protocols, procurements of standard drugs and collaboration with international organizations.

  5. Indoor air pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, B H; Hong, C J; Pandey, M R; Smith, K R

    1990-01-01

    Of the four principal categories of indoor pollution (combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals), research in developing countries has focused on combustion-generated pollutants, and principally those from solid-fuel-fired cooking and heating stoves. Such stoves are used in more than half the world's households and have been shown in many locations to produce high indoor concentrations of particulates, carbon monoxide and other combustion-related pollutants. Although the proportion of all such household stoves that are used in poorly ventilated situations is uncertain, the total population exposed to excessive concentrations is potentially high, probably several hundred million. A number of studies were carried out in the 1980s to discover the health effects of such stove exposures. The majority of such studies were done in South Asia in homes burning biomass fuels or in China with coal-burning homes, although a sprinkling of studies examining biomass-burning have been done in Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Of the health effects that might be expected from such exposures, little, if any, work seems to have been done on low birthweight and eye problems, although there are anecdotal accounts making the connection. Decreased lung function has been noted in Nepali women reporting more time spent near the stove as it has for Chinese women using coal stoves as compared to those using gas stoves. Respiratory distress symptoms have been associated with use of smoky fuels in West India, Ladakh and in several Chinese studies among different age groups, some with large population samples. Acute respiratory infection in children, one of the chief causes of infant and childhood mortality, has been associated with Nepali household-smoke exposures. Studies of chronic disease endpoints are difficult because of the need to construct exposure histories over long periods. Nevertheless, chronic obstructive lung disease has been associated with the daily time spent near

  6. Developing countries: Non-nuclear energy technology. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning generation of non-nuclear energy technology developed and used by developing countries. Technical, social, economic, and commercial aspects are presented. Applications in the solar, geothermal, synfuels, ocean thermal, and wind power energy industries are discussed. Forecasts and future prospects for these energy industries in developing countries are included. (Contains a minimum of 154 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Inclusion Education and the Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Gholam

    2005-01-01

    Following the trends of "Inclusion" movement in the USA and some Western countries, a number of Developing countries have been imbued with the philosophy of inclusion education. Some of these countries have enacted laws to safeguard the educational rights and welfare of children with disabilities, and others have been trying to initiate…

  8. Creating World-Class Universities: Implications for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are now creating world-class universities (WCUs) as essential parts of their higher education reform agendas, and as national goals. It is legitimate to ask whether every country that aspires to build a WCU can do so--especially developing countries. To answer this question, this paper provides a three-step framework. The first step…

  9. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  10. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  11. Ethical and social issues facing obstetricians in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ogwuegbu, Chigbu Chibuike; Eze, Onah Hyacinth

    2009-06-01

    A review of publications on ethical and social issues from low-income countries was done with the aim of highlighting the major ethical and social issues facing obstetricians in these countries. Low-income countries were identified using the World Health Organization income group classification of member nations. Obstetricians in low-income countries face a wide range of special social and ethical issues that reflect the peculiarities of their practice environment characterized by poverty, low education, deep attachment to tradition and culture, low social status of women, and high levels of physician's paternalism.

  12. [Illiteracy and reproductiveness in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Kowaleski, J T

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between illiteracy and fertility in countries of the 3rd World, primarily those of Africa and Asia, is examined. In African countries with a large number of adult illiterates (from 50 to 90%), total fertility rates have increased, e.g. Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Burundi, Guinea Bissau, Benin, Mali, and Somalia. On the other hand, rates have decreased in Algeria, Egypt, Cape Verde, Togo, and Morocco. It should be noted that illiteracy in the latter group is mostly in the 50-60% bracket. In all other African countries, rates have changed only slightly, up or down, or stabilized. It was found that these changes could be the result of increased literacy only to a minor degree. Any effects which improved education might have on the reproduction rate are manifested only with a certain time lag. It was observed that illiteracy as a large scale phenomenon leads to stabilization of the birth rate. It is in Asia that the link between birth rate and number of illiterates is most pronounced, while in Africa the birth rate is dictated more by moral and cultural factors, including religion. Most governments in both regions consider birth rates too high and unsatisfactory from the standpoint of their effect on the future demographic situation and economically in terms of an excessive increase in the size of the labor force relative to employment opportunity and limitation on economic growth.

  13. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country.

    PubMed

    Gausia, Kaniz; Moran, Allisyn C; Ali, Mohammed; Ryder, David; Fisher, Colleen; Koblinsky, Marge

    2011-06-09

    In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8%) of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9%) with healthy babies (p = < 0.001). Depression status were significantly associated with women reporting negative life changes such as worse relationships with their husband (adjusted OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 1.37-11.04) and feeling guilty (adjusted OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.22-5.63) following the results of their last pregnancy outcome after 6 months of childbirth. This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  14. Emergency preparedness and public health systems lessons for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2008-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries, where emerging diseases often make their debut, are also likely to bear the harshest consequences of a potential influenza pandemic. Yet public health systems in developing countries are underfunded, understaffed, and in many cases struggling to deal with the existing burden of disease. As a result, developed countries are beginning to expand assistance for emergency preparedness to the developing world. Given developing countries' weak infrastructure and many competing public health priorities, it is not clear how to best direct these resources. Evidence from the U.S. and other developed countries suggests that some investments in bioterror and pandemic emergency preparedness, although initially implemented as vertical programs, have the potential to strengthen the general public health infrastructure. This experience may hold some lessons for how global funds for emergency preparedness could be invested in developing countries to support struggling public health systems in responding to current health priorities as well as potential future public health threats.

  15. [Anthropology and oral health projects in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Grasveld, A E

    2016-01-01

    The mouth and teeth play an important role in social interactions around the world. The way people deal with their teeth and mouth, however, is determined culturally. When oral healthcare projects are being carried out in developing countries, differing cultural worldviews can cause misunderstandings between oral healthcare providers and their patients. The oral healthcare volunteer often has to try to understand the local assumptions about teeth and oral hygiene first, before he or she can bring about a change of behaviour, increase therapy compliance and make the oral healthcare project sustainable. Anthropology can be helpful in this respect. In 2014, in a pilot project commissioned by the Dutch Dental Care Foundation, in which oral healthcare was provided in combination with anthropological research, an oral healthcare project in Kwale (Kenia) was evaluated. The study identified 6 primary themes that indicate the most important factors influencing the oral health of school children in Kwale. Research into the local culture by oral healthcare providers would appear to be an important prerequisite to meaningful work in developing countries.

  16. Pathology services in developing countries-the West African experience.

    PubMed

    Adeyi, Oyedele A

    2011-02-01

    Histopathology, like other branches of medicine in West Africa, has suffered largely from economic, political, social, and infrastructural problems, becoming a shadow of the top quality that had been obtained in the past. To address the prevailing problems, one needs to attempt defining them. The existing structure of training and practice are discussed, highlighting the author's perception of the problems and suggesting practical ways to address these while identifying potential roles for North American pathology organizations. The author's past and ongoing association with pathology practice in Nigeria forms the basis for this review. Pathology practice is largely restricted to academic medical centers. The largest of academic centers each accession around 4000 or fewer surgical specimens per year to train 9 to 12 residents. Histopathology largely uses hematoxylin-eosin routine stains, sometimes with histochemistry but rarely immunohistochemistry. Pathologists depend largely on their skills in morphology (with its limitations) to classify and subclassify tumors on routine stains, including soft tissue and hematolymphoid malignancies. Immunofluorescence, intraoperative frozen section diagnosis, electronic laboratory system, and gross and microscopic imaging facilities are generally not available for clinical use. The existing facilities and infrastructure can be augmented with provision of material and professional assistance from other pathology associations in more developed countries and should, among other things, focus on supplementing residency education. Virtual residency programs, short-visit observerships, development of simple but practical laboratory information systems, and closer ties with pathologists in these countries are some of the suggested steps in achieving this goal.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual risks and social determinants.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jeon, Christie Y; Cohen, Ted; Murray, Megan B

    2011-04-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the role of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evidence from developing countries with the highest TB burdens is lacking. In developing countries, TB is most common among the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk, social determinants and population health in these settings. We performed individual-level analyses using the World Health Survey (n = 124,607; 46 countries). We estimated the relationship between TB and diabetes, adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, education, housing quality, crowding and health insurance. We also performed a longitudinal country-level analysis using data on per-capita gross domestic product and TB prevalence and incidence and diabetes prevalence for 1990-95 and 2003-04 (163 countries) to estimate the relationship between increasing diabetes prevalence and TB, identifying countries at risk for disease interactions. In lower income countries, individuals with diabetes are more likely than non-diabetics to have TB [univariable odds ratio (OR): 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-3.10; multivariable OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.37-2.39]. Increases in TB prevalence and incidence over time were more likely to occur when diabetes prevalence also increased (OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 1.0-22.5; OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 1.9-40.4). Large populations, prevalent TB and projected increases in diabetes make countries like India, Peru and the Russia Federation areas of particular concern. Given the association between diabetes and TB and projected increases in diabetes worldwide, multi-disease health policies should be considered.

  18. Can Norms Developed in One Country Be Applicable to Children of Another Country?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim this study was to investigate whether a gross motor proficiency norm developed in one country could be applied to young children in another country. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the gross motor proficiency of Hong Kong preschoolers aged five years. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) (subtests…

  19. [The informed consent in international clinical trials including developing countries].

    PubMed

    Montenegro Surís, Alexander; Monreal Agüero, Magda Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The informed consent procedure has been one of the most important controversies of ethical debates about clinical trials in developing countries. In this essay we present our recommendations about important aspects to consider in the informed consent procedure for clinical trials in developing countries. We performed a full publications review identified by MEDLINE using these terms combinations: informed consent, developing countries, less developed countries and clinical trials. To protect volunteers in less developed countries should be valuated the importance of the community in the informed consent proceeding. The signing and dating of the informed consent form is not always the best procedure to document the informed consent. The informed consent form should be written by local translators. Alternative medias of communications could be needed for communicatios of the information to volunteers. Comparing with developed countries the informed consent proceeding in clinical trials in developing countries frequently require additional efforts. The developing of pragmatic researches is needed to implement informed consent proceedings assuring subjects voluntarily in each developing country. The main aspects to define in each clinical trial for each country are the influence of the community, the effective communication of the information, the documentation of the informed consent and local authority's control.

  20. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviors on individuals' lives in Western and East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Rapee, Ronald M; Kim, Jinkwan; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Xinghua; Hofmann, Stefan G; Chen, Junwen; Oh, Kyung Ya; Bögels, Susan M; Arman, Soroor; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn E

    2011-09-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical vignettes describing socially withdrawn and shy behaviors versus socially outgoing and confident behaviors. Participants then answered questions following each vignette indicating the extent to which they would expect the subject of the vignette to be socially liked and to succeed in their career. Participants also completed measures of their own social anxiety and quality of life. The results indicated significant vignette-by-country interactions in that the difference in perceived social and career impact between shy and outgoing vignettes was smaller among participants from East Asian countries than from Western countries. In addition, significant negative correlations were shown between personal level of shyness and experienced quality of life for participants from both groups of countries, but the size of this relationship was greater for participants from Western than East Asian countries. The results point to the more negative impact of withdrawn and socially reticent behaviors for people from Western countries relative to those from East Asia. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  2. The threshold hypothesis: evidence from less developed Latin American countries, 1950 to 1980.

    PubMed

    Cutright, P; Hargens, L

    1984-11-01

    Historical research among European countries finds large differences in the level of social, economic or demographic development among countries, or regions within countries at the time marital fertility rates began their decline from traditional high levels. This research tests a threshold hypothesis which holds that fertility will decline from traditional high levels if threshold levels of life expectancy and literacy are surpassed. Using a pooled regression analysis of 1950, 1960, 1970 and 1980 crude births rates (CBRs) in 20 less developed Latin American countries, in conjunction with 10-year lagged measures of social, economic and family planning program development, analyses reveal statistically significant effects of passing Beaver's (1975) threshold levels of 1950 literacy, or 1950 life expectancy, that are independent of levels of lagged literacy (or lagged life expectancy), economic and family planning program development, as well as measures that control period effects.

  3. Financing Education for Economic Development in [a] Cross Section of Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    Education is the key for economic growth and social development in developing countries. This paper presents findings of a study that analyzed the impact of overall educational expenditures on economic growth in developing nations. It also identifies the levels of education that should be allocated more public expenditures. The study used…

  4. Chemicals and environmentally caused diseases in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Jamall, I.S.; Davis, B. )

    1991-06-01

    This chapter discusses international aspects of diseases resulting from exposure to chemical pollutants in the environment, with an emphasis on developing countries. These countries share many of the same problems of air, water, and pesticide pollution that face the more industrialized countries. In developing countries, however, the problems are compounded by a number of unique situations, viz., economic priorities, high burden of infectious diseases, impoverishment, and absence of a regulatory framework for the disposal of toxic chemicals. This discussion emphasizes the importance of interactions among toxicants, malnutrition, and infectious diseases for both urban and rural populations insofar as these interactions contribute to disease. Toxicants not only produce disease directly but also exacerbate diseases with other causes. Specific examples from developing countries demonstrate how human health effects from exposures to environmental chemicals can be assessed. While they do not strictly fall under the rubric of developing countries, the public health consequences of inadequate control of environmental pollution in the East European countries should demonstrate the magnitude of the problem, except that in developing countries the public health consequence of environmental chemicals will be aggravated by the widespread malnutrition and high prevalence of infectious diseases. Much needs to be done before we can adequately quantify the contribution of environmental chemicals to morbidity and mortality in developing countries with the level of sophistication now evident in the charting of infectious diseases in these countries. 52 references.

  5. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries.

  6. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: Assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country

    PubMed Central

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009–10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries. PMID:24495808

  7. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  8. Communication for extension: developing country experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A J

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes several major approaches to the use of communication in support of agricultural extension and suggests directions for change. The approaches discussed include: direct farmer contact, farmer forums, open broadcasting, advertising and social marketing, print media, multiple channel systems (campaigns and distance teaching), and comprehensive communication systems. Although all programs should be able to use media in interaction with training and the coordination of other inputs, this approach has not been comprehensively implemented in extension programs. There are few examples of cases where multiple methods have been brought together under a comprehensive communications strategy and institutionalized as part of an ongoing extension system. Lessons from social marketing in other sectors have not been exploited, while lessons from distance teaching have been underutilized. In addition, the networking and feedback functions of communication in extenson have not been given adequate attention. There is substantial potential for increasing the coverage and impact of agricultural extension through the more systematic and comprehensive use of communication.

  9. Issues in natural resources management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thapa, G B; Weber, K E

    1994-05-01

    The use and management of public and private natural resources is greatly affected by institutional, politicoeconomic, and socioeconomic factors. These factors operate in tandem at the household, regional, national, and international levels in affecting resource management. Any policy that focuses only on one dimension of the problem, such as population growth, and ignores such issues as poverty, environmentally unsuitable cropping systems, and the unavailability of nonfarm employment opportunities will be inadequate. National policies must consider structural factors: resource use, property rights regimes, poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and population growth. A comprehensive strategy should account for these structural features, be tailored to regional circumstances, and have the input of local governments. Local governments and communities must be in a position to implement and monitor resource management. Hardin identified common property as a major contributor to land degradation and declining forest resources in developing countries. Only with a common agreement by the community to invest in planting trees and managing pastures can communal lands benefit multiple users in the long and short run. Social forestry projects have failed due to poor community participation, fragmented communities, poor social organization, and disputes over the distribution of profits. Traditional communal hunting and gathering activities adhered to institutional regulation; with the inception of urbanization, industrialization, and monetization of agriculture, the destruction of forests and pasture began. There was an increased need for food for the urban population; a small and powerful group of politicians, social leaders, and administrators retained access to public or "crown" lands and disenfranchised small and marginal farmers and the landless poor from previously accessible lands. Land redistribution schemes have not effectively distributed land resources. Commercial

  10. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level.

  11. National policies and national experts. Basic requirements in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stocking, B; Smith, C E

    1981-01-17

    Developing countries are going to have to formulate their own development policies and establish their own core of national expertise on which they can draw. It is more appropriate that the policies spring from the needs and conditions of the country itself than from the direction of any donor country or agency. Self-reliance rather than self-sufficiency is what is being emphasized. Many of these developing countries are going to need international aid for their development programs for years to come. The programs derived from the needs of the country will have a greater chance to succeed, since they will be drawn in conjuncton with local customs, historical traditions, and ecological conditions. The national experts can be assembled in a scientific council, functioning across departmental lines. Each country will have to formulate policies which will enhance their experts' sense of job satisfaction and guard against the phenomenon of "brain drain."

  12. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  13. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  14. Emergency management of disasters involving livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E; Kenyon, S J; Zepeda Sein, C A

    1999-04-01

    Different disasters have similar consequence on the health and welfare of livestock. Numerous geophysical disasters can exacerbate epizootics, resulting in the deaths of many animals and the reduction of production efficiency. These disasters also present a considerable threat of spoilage of processed foods, endangering public health. Furthermore, large-scale disasters involving animals can modify the long-term stability of national economies, the environment and social structures. The authors discuss the vulnerability of the livestock industry to natural disasters and the impact of floods, droughts and transboundary diseases and pests on national economies. Examples are given on how some losses can be avoided, evaluated and compensated. The role of the veterinarian is presented in relation to work conducted by other relief organisations in cases of emergency. In developing countries, mitigation programmes should focus on strengthening global animal health services. Preparedness needs to be community based, with education provided in a timely manner. Effective recovery from disasters should be based on mitigation programmes, including international trade and mutual aid agreements between neighbouring countries to supply appropriate goods and environmentally and culturally appropriate breeds of livestock. Disaster relief for the care of livestock should be recognised as a form of humanitarian assistance, given the benefits to be derived for public health and the socio-economic implications of successful intervention.

  15. Space research policies in advanced and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    The motivations for the conduct of space research and the development of space research policies by different constituencies and different types of countries are analyzed. Concerning space research in developing countries, four main aspects are discussed: 1. The role of space research for the achievement of ``critical mass'' by research groups; 2. The role of space research in higher education; 3. The identification of space research problems to which a country can make significant contributions; and 4. Multinational cooperation among developing countries in space research.

  16. Disaster risk, social vulnerability, and economic development.

    PubMed

    Ward, Patrick S; Shively, Gerald E

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which economic development decreases a country's risk of experiencing climate-related disasters as well as the societal impacts of those events. The paper proceeds from the underlying assumption that disasters are not inherently natural, but arise from the intersection of naturally-occurring hazards within fragile environments. It uses data from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT), representing country-year-level observations over the period 1980-2007. The study finds that low-income countries are significantly more at risk of climate-related disasters, even after controlling for exposure to climate hazards and other factors that may confound disaster reporting. Following the occurrence of a disaster, higher income generally diminishes a country's social vulnerability to such happenings, resulting in lower levels of mortality and morbidity. This implies that continued economic development may be a powerful tool for lessening social vulnerability to climate change. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  17. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    PubMed

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products.

  18. Postmortem sperm retrieval in context of developing countries of Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Sikary, Asit Kumar; Murty, O. P.; Bardale, Rajesh V.

    2016-01-01

    There was a request for postmortem sperm retrieval (PMSR) from the wife of a deceased, but we had to decline. We have no guideline in place for the procedure in such cases. When we explored the international scenario on the issue of PMSR, we found that most of the developed countries have their guidelines about it, whether to allow or not to. There is not guideline available in developing countries, as such, for the procedure and various medical, legal, and social issues related thereto. In this article, we have explored the status of postmortem retrieval and feasibility of the procedure in developing countries of Indian subcontinent. PMID:27382231

  19. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  20. Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Lyndsey R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children's adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children's social competence, internalizing, and…

  1. Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Lyndsey R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between reactive and regulatory dimensions of temperament may be particularly relevant to children's adjustment but are examined infrequently. This study investigated these interactions by examining effortful control as a moderator of the relations of fear and frustration reactivity to children's social competence, internalizing, and…

  2. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ghaiath MA

    2009-01-01

    Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries. PMID:19463174

  3. Comparing relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, Elsie R; Fuchs, Regina; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has often considered education and economic resources as separate indicators of socioeconomic status. From a policy perspective, however, it is important to understand the relative strength of the effect of these social factors on health outcomes, particularly in developing countries. It is also important to examine not only the impact of education and economic resources of individuals, but also whether community and country levels of these factors affect health outcomes. This analysis uses multilevel regression models to assess the relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality at the family, community, and country level using data from demographic and Health Surveys in 43 low-and lower-middle-income countries. We find strong effects for both per capita gross national income and completed secondary education at the country level, but a greater impact of education within families and communities.

  4. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  5. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions.

  6. Waste biorefineries: Enabling circular economies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nizami, A S; Rehan, M; Waqas, M; Naqvi, M; Ouda, O K M; Shahzad, K; Miandad, R; Khan, M Z; Syamsiro, M; Ismail, I M I; Pant, Deepak

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification. However, the selection or integration of biorefinery technologies in any developing country should be based on its waste characterization. Waste biorefineries if developed in developing countries could provide energy generation, land savings, new businesses and consequent job creation, savings of landfills costs, GHG emissions reduction, and savings of natural resources of land, soil, and groundwater. The challenges in route to successful implementation of biorefinery concept in the developing countries are also presented using life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance-Centered Design for Developing Countries: Emphasizing Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance-centered design (PCD) for developing countries and demonstrates how the process of internationalization and localization needs to go beyond the traditional functionality checklists of culture and language. Describes how the unique nature of developing country economic, human capacity, and infrastructure contexts has to be…

  8. Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries: Impact on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Retia Scott

    1988-01-01

    Women are the primary producers of food in developing countries and can be empowered to become catalysts in the struggle to combat world hunger. It is important to understand the problem and the barriers women face and to appreciate the progress made by women in developing countries. (JOW)

  9. Outcomes of Students with Disabilities in a Developing Country: Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sheilah M.

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, research studies that investigate the effects of special education on student outcomes have become conventional practice. However, in developing countries such as the twin-island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, there are no studies about the progress and outcomes of students and youths with disabilities. This…

  10. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  11. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  12. Computer Needs and Computer Problems in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huskey, Harry D.

    A survey of the computer environment in a developing country is provided. Levels of development are considered and the educational requirements of countries at various levels are discussed. Computer activities in India, Burma, Pakistan, Brazil and a United Nations sponsored educational center in Hungary are all described. (SK/Author)

  13. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  15. Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries: Impact on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Retia Scott

    1988-01-01

    Women are the primary producers of food in developing countries and can be empowered to become catalysts in the struggle to combat world hunger. It is important to understand the problem and the barriers women face and to appreciate the progress made by women in developing countries. (JOW)

  16. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  18. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  19. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  20. On the Use of Social Clocks for the Monitoring of Multidimensional Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Georg P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new methodology for monitoring multidimensional social development using social clocks: comparisons with so called reference trajectories make it possible to establish the development stage of a country along a number of independent time axes, thus affording new opportunities for analyzing leads, lags, and asynchronies…

  1. Micronutrient deficiencies in developing and affluent countries.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; de las Cagigas, A; Rodríguez, R

    2003-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, also known as 'hidden hunger', are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. Three nutritional problems that have serious consequences are deficiencies of iron, vitamin A and iodine. It is estimated that in today's world, iron deficiency anemia affects two billion people, mostly women and children. Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency affects 2.8 million children under 5 years of age. Iodine deficiency disorders affect 740 million people. Cuba is employing various programs to deal with these micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary diversification, fortification of foods and supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations are included in Cuba's response to these deficiencies. Urban agriculture is one strategy to increase dietary diversity. The aim is to increase both the availability and consumption of vegetables and fruits. Food fortification takes many forms in Cuba today and various supplementation programs are carried out. The most common supplemental program in the country is the prenatal program. This program provides four essential nutrients: iron, ascorbic acid, vitamin A and folic acid. At present, iodination covers more than 90% of the total amount of salt used for human consumption. Results of research carried out in Cuba have shown that vitamin A deficiency is nonexistent in children up to 7 y of age. Foods and preparations for these programs are delivered gratuitously or at very low prices.

  2. Urban primacy in developing countries: the case of Mali.

    PubMed

    Sokona, O

    1985-04-01

    Only 17% of Mali's population is urban; however, the country's urban population is highly concentrated in the capital city of Bamako. Urban primacy, i.e., the concentration of the urban population in only 1 or 2 centers, is characteristic of many developing countries and is viewed by many social scientists as detrimental to the balanced development of the country as a whole. Political power is frequently concentrated in these large urban complexes. Consequently, the urban centers receive a larger and disproportionate share of the resouces of the nation. In addition, the cities are overburdened and unable to meet the increasing demand for housing and services. In Mali onlu 1.3 million of the country's 7.6 million inhabitants live in cities of 5000 or more; but 38.9% of these urban dwellers live in Bamako. More than 1/2 of the urban dwellers who live in Mali's 13 cities of 10,000 or more are residents of Bamako. Mali's urban population distribution was examined in reference to established urban primacy indicators or standards. The rank size rule is considered to be a standard for the ideal distribution of the urban population. According to the rule, the largest city should only be 2 times as large as the 2nd largest city, the 2nd largest city should only be 3 times as the 3rd largest city, and so on. If the largest city is several times larger than the 2nd city, then the 1st city is considered to be a primate city. Bamako is more than 6 times larger than Segou, the 2nd largest city. Bamako is clearly a primate city. Other indices of primacy are the 4-city primacy index, i.e., the population of the largest city/total population of the next 3 largest cities, and the 11-city primacy index, i.e., the population of the largest city/total population of the next 10 largest cities. These indexes reveal that the population of Bamako is 2.49 times larger than the total population of the next 3 largest cities and 2.34 times larger than the total population of the next 10 cities

  3. Palliative care: a public health priority in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Webster, Ruth; Lacey, Judith; Quine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Palliative care is an emerging specialist discipline worldwide with the majority of services located in developed countries. Developing countries, however, have higher incidences of cancer and AIDS and most of these patients would benefit from palliative care. While there is prominent coverage of this issue in the palliative care literature, there is limited coverage in the specialist public health literature, which suggests that the challenges of palliative care may not yet have been generally recognized as a public health priority, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this article is to introduce the topic of "Palliative care in developing countries" into the specialist public health literature to raise awareness and stimulate debate on this issue among public health professionals and health policy makers, thereby potentially facilitating establishment of palliative care services in developing countries.

  4. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  5. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis across European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the…

  6. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis across European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the…

  7. Environmental technologies for developing countries. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, N.R.S.

    1991-02-01

    Industrialization and economic growth in developed and developing nations alike are often achieved at the expense of the environment. Incorporating environmental considerations into overall development objectives is an emerging issue within U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). USAID has a potentially significant role in espousing sound environmental policies, sponsoring research and disseminating practical information on the feasible options, and providing technical assistance where appropriate. The paper attempts to identify and assess the relative costs of some of the currently available environmental technologies.

  8. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  9. Regional Disparities in Primary School Participation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joel D.

    2008-01-01

    Education for All has focused international attention on the goals of universal primary education and improved education quality. However, national indicators related to these goals often mask significant differences among demographic and social groups, as well as among geographical regions within countries. This paper, based on a study…

  10. Mobiles for Literacy in Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Castillo, Nathan M.; Murphy, Katie M.; Crofton, Molly; Zahra, Fatima Tuz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the advent of low-cost digital and mobile devices has led to a strong expansion of social interventions, including those that try to improve student learning and literacy outcomes. Many of these are focused on improving reading in low-income countries, and particularly among the most disadvantaged. Some of these early efforts have…

  11. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moro-oka, Kazufusa

    The report on recurrent education in Japan is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  12. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moro-oka, Kazufusa

    The report on recurrent education in Japan is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  13. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  14. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  15. Mobiles for Literacy in Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Castillo, Nathan M.; Murphy, Katie M.; Crofton, Molly; Zahra, Fatima Tuz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the advent of low-cost digital and mobile devices has led to a strong expansion of social interventions, including those that try to improve student learning and literacy outcomes. Many of these are focused on improving reading in low-income countries, and particularly among the most disadvantaged. Some of these early efforts have…

  16. Education for Development in Underdeveloped Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacchus, M. Kazim

    1981-01-01

    Past "elitist" development efforts modeled on Western academic education have failed to meet manpower needs but resist change due to popular preference for "modern" occupations. A new development strategy providing universal basic education and improved general living standards is needed. (Part of a theme issue on Third World educational…

  17. Appropriate Technology for Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Stephen T.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses appropriate technology such as folk theater and instructional radio in the development of Third-World nations and emphasizes the importance of community participation in all stages of the educational process. Ways in which this can be stimulated and channelled to support development in other areas are examined. Sixteen references are…

  18. Perception of the Needs for Scientific and Technical Information in Less Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracevic, Tefko

    This review surveys the literature emanating from less developed countries (LDCs) and international agencies that deals with their perception of the needs of LDCs for scientific and technical information (STI) in relation to social and economic development. It explores five major areas: (1) recognition of STI as it is expressed through…

  19. Building surgical capacity in developing countries: lessons from Haiti and Honduras.

    PubMed

    Hottinger, Daniel G; Patel, Bhavesh M; Frechette, Richard L; Walent, Wynn; Augustin, Marc E; Daly, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The unmet burden of surgical disease in developing countries is large and growing. We successfully initiated two surgical field hospitals in austere environments. Similar problems were encountered in the areas of facility development, operations, and social considerations. A literature review was performed to contextualize our experience and compare it with that of others.

  20. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.

  1. Education for Rural Development: The Attempt of Many Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Nicholas

    1975-01-01

    A new system of education designed to solve problems facing rural areas in developing countries is needed. Guidelines for the rural development functional literacy systems for Upper Volta, Tanzania, China, Cuba, and Thailand are described. (BP)

  2. Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice.

    PubMed Central

    Olweny, C

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary issues such as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation and gene therapy, which occupy the minds of ethicists in the industrialized countries are, for the moment, irrelevant in most developing countries. There, the ethics of scarcity, sacrifice, cross-cultural research, as well as the activities of multinational companies, are germane. In this article, only the ethics of scarcity and sacrifice will be discussed. Structural adjustment programmes, designed to solve the economic problems of the developing countries, muddied the waters. The dilemma confronting practitioners in developing countries is how to adhere to the basic principles of medical ethics in an atmosphere of hunger, poverty, war and ever-shrinking and often non-existent resources. Nowhere else in the world is the true meaning of scarcity portrayed as vividly as in the developing countries. Consequently, the doctor's clinical freedom may have to be sacrificed by the introduction of an essential drugs list and practice guidelines. The principle of greater good, while appealing, must be carefully interpreted and applied in the developing countries. Thus, while health promotion and disease prevention must be the primary focus, health planners should avoid pushing prevention at the expense of those currently sick. Health care reform in developing countries must not merely re-echo what is being done in the industrialized countries, but must respond to societal needs and be relevant to the community in question. PMID:7996563

  3. Mediational pathways connecting secondary education and age at marriage to maternal mortality: A comparison between developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hagues, Rachel Joy; Bae, DaYoung; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown that maternal mortality rates have been improving worldwide, rates are still high across developing nations. In general, poor health of women is associated with higher maternal mortality rates in developing countries. Understanding country-level risk factors can inform intervention and prevention efforts that could bring high maternal mortality rates down. Specifically, the authors were interested in investigating whether: (1) secondary education participation (SEP) or age at marriage (AM) of women were related to maternal mortality rates, and (2) adolescent birth rate and contraceptive use (CU) acted as mediators of this association. The authors add to the literature with this current article by showing the relation of SEP and AM to maternal mortality rates globally (both directly and indirectly through mediators) and then by comparing differences between developed and developing/least developed countries. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model using country level longitudinal data from 2000 to 2010 obtained from United Nations publications, World Health Organization materials, and World Bank development reports. Findings include a significant correlation between SEP and AM for developing countries; for developed countries the relation was not significant. As well, SEP in developing countries was associated with increased CU. Women in developing countries who finish school before marriage may have important social capital gains.

  4. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  5. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  6. What has bioethics to offer the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ren-Zong

    1993-04-01

    My paper consists of three parts. In the first part I try to explain the intellectual basis of bioethics in developing countries. In the second part I describe the bioethical dilemmas facing these countries. In the third part I shall discuss the changes that have to be made in bioethics if it is to take root in these countries, and thereby help them to improve the human existence.

  7. Associations of neighborhood social environment attributes and physical activity among 9-11 year old children from 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Samaah M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Barreira, Tiago V; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Tim; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2017-07-01

    We investigated whether associations of neighborhood social environment attributes and physical activity differed among 12 countries and levels of economic development using World Bank classification (low/lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high- income countries) among 9-11 year old children (N=6161) from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle, and the Environment (ISCOLE). Collective efficacy and perceived crime were obtained via parental/guardian report. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with waist-worn Actigraph accelerometers. Neighborhood environment by country interactions were tested using multi-level statistical models, adjusted for covariates. Effect estimates were reported by country and pooled estimates calculated across World Bank classifications for economic development using meta-analyses and forest plots. Associations between social environment attributes and MVPA varied among countries and levels of economic development. Associations were more consistent and in the hypothesized directions among countries with higher levels economic development, but less so among countries with lower levels of economic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Academic Patents and Access to Medicines in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is a widespread and growing concern that patents hinder access to life-saving drugs in developing countries. Recent student movements and legislative initiatives emphasize the potential role that research universities in developed countries could have in ameliorating this “access gap.” These efforts are based on the assumption that universities own patents on a substantial number of drugs and that patents on these drugs are currently filed in developing countries. I provide empirical evidence regarding these issues and explore the feasibility and desirability of proposals to change university patenting and licensing practices to promote access to medicines in the developing world. PMID:19008514

  9. Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Morel, Carlos M; Acharya, Tara; Broun, Denis; Dangi, Ajit; Elias, Christopher; Ganguly, N K; Gardner, Charles A; Gupta, R K; Haycock, Jane; Heher, Anthony D; Hotez, Peter J; Kettler, Hannah E; Keusch, Gerald T; Krattiger, Anatole F; Kreutz, Fernando T; Lall, Sanjaya; Lee, Keun; Mahoney, Richard; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo; Mashelkar, R A; Matlin, Stephen A; Mzimba, Mandi; Oehler, Joachim; Ridley, Robert G; Senanayake, Pramilla; Singer, Peter; Yun, Mikyung

    2005-07-15

    Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation.

  10. Top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Daar, Abdallah S; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Martin, Douglas K; Smith, Alyna C; Nast, Shauna; Singer, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Most research into genomics and other related biotechnologies is concerned with the priorities of industrialized nations, and yet a limited number of projects have shown that these technologies could help improve health in developing countries. To encourage the successful application of biotechnology to global health, we carried out a study in which we asked an international group of eminent scientists with expertise in global health issues to identify the top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries. The results offer concrete guidance to those in a position to influence the direction of research and development, and challenge common assumptions about the relevance and affordability of biotechnology for developing countries.

  11. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.

  12. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  13. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  14. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  15. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  16. Domain specificity in social interactions, social thought, and social development.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov (this issue) have taken good steps in formulating a domain-specific view of parent-child interactions. This commentary supports the introduction of domain specificity to analyses of parenting. Their formulation is an advance over formulations that characterized parental practices globally. This commentary calls for inclusion of definitions of the classification system of domain-specific interactions and criteria for each domain. It is also maintained that Grusec and Davidov's domains of social interaction imply that processes of development are involved, along with socialization; that bidirectionality in parent-child relations needs to be extended to include mutual influences and the construction of domains of social thought; and that conflicts and opposition within families coexist with compliance and social harmony.

  17. Sickle cell disease: management options and challenges in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Daniel; Akoto, Alex Osei; Ocloo, Delaena; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In a developing countries like Ghana, new-born screening is now about to be implemented on a national scale. Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on early counselling, new-born screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  18. Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels--results from an international study.

    PubMed

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Kim

    2013-04-01

    International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries. Data on 101,525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals' education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries. For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives.

  19. Meeting the Challenge of Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries face unique difficulties preparing for an influenza pandemic. Our current top-down approach will not provide these countries with adequate supplies of vaccines and antiviral agents. Consequently, they will have to use a bottom-up approach based on inexpensive generic agents that either modify the host response to influenza virus or act as antiviral agents. Several of these agents have shown promise, and many are currently produced in developing countries. Investigators must primarily identify agents for managing infection in populations and not simply seek explanations for how they work. They must determine in which countries these agents are produced and define patterns of distribution and costs. Because prepandemic research cannot establish whether these agents will be effective in a pandemic, randomized controlled trials must begin immediately after a new pandemic virus has emerged. Without this research, industrialized and developing countries could face an unprecedented health crisis. PMID:19239746

  20. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  1. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  2. Radio and Television for Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Dean T.

    The potential role of radio and television in improving equity and efficiency in the delivery of education in developing countries is discussed. The following four sections discuss major educational issues and reforms involving the use of instructional television and radio in countries such as American Samoa, El Salvador, and the Ivory Coast: (1)…

  3. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  4. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  5. The role of health systems and policy in producing behavior and social change to enhance child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Luis F; Sanitato, Mary; Barry, Donna; Alilio, Martin; Apfel, Franklin; Coe, Gloria; Garcia, Amparo; Kaufman, Michelle; Klein, Jonathan; Kutlesic, Vesna; Meadowcroft, Lisa; Nilsen, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Gael; Peterson, Stefan; Raiten, Daniel; Vorkoper, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based behavior change interventions addressing health systems must be identified and disseminated to improve child health outcomes. Studies of the efficacy of such interventions were identified from systematic searches of the published literature. Two hundred twenty-nine of the initially identified references were judged to be relevant and were further reviewed for the quality and strength of the evidence. Studies were eligible if an intervention addressed policy or health systems interventions, measured relevant behavioral or health outcomes (e.g., nutrition, childhood immunization, malaria prevention and treatment), used at least a moderate quality research design, and were implemented in low- or middle-income countries. Policy or systems interventions able to produce behavior change reviewed included media (e.g., mass media, social media), community mobilization, educational programs (for caregivers, communities, or providers), social marketing, opinion leadership, economic incentives (for both caregiver and provider), health systems strengthening/policy/legislation, and others. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research are given based on fairly strong data across the areas of health service delivery, health workforce, health financing, governance and leadership, and research.

  6. The Role of Health Systems and Policy in Producing Behavior and Social Change to Enhance Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Examination of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Luis F.; Sanitato, Mary; Barry, Donna; Alilio, Martin; Apfel, Franklin; Coe, Gloria; Garcia, Amparo; Kaufman, Michelle; Klein, Jonathan; Kutlesic, Vesna; Meadowcroft, Lisa; Nilsen, Wendy; O'Sullivan, Gael; Peterson, Stefan; Raiten, Daniel; Vorkoper, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based behavior change interventions addressing health systems must be identified and disseminated to improve child health outcomes. Studies of the efficacy of such interventions were identified from systematic searches of the published literature. Two hundred twenty-nine of the initially identified references were judged to be relevant and were further reviewed for the quality and strength of the evidence. Studies were eligible if an intervention addressed policy or health systems interventions, measured relevant behavioral or health outcomes (e.g., nutrition, childhood immunization, malaria prevention and treatment), used at least a moderate quality research design, and were implemented in low- or middle-income countries. Policy or systems interventions able to produce behavior change reviewed included media (e.g., mass media, social media), community mobilization, educational programs (for caregivers, communities, or providers), social marketing, opinion leadership, economic incentives (for both caregiver and provider), health systems strengthening/policy/legislation, and others. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research are given based on fairly strong data across the areas of health service delivery, health workforce, health financing, governance and leadership, and research. PMID:25207449

  7. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  8. Advances in plant biotechnology and its adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Toenniessen, Gary H; O'Toole, John C; DeVries, Joseph

    2003-04-01

    Developing countries are already benefiting and should continue to benefit significantly from advances in plant biotechnology. Insect-protected cotton containing a natural insecticide protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton) is providing millions of farmers with increased yields, reduced insecticide costs and fewer health risks. Many other useful plant biotechnology products that can benefit poor farmers and consumers are in the research and development pipelines of institutions in developing countries, and should soon reach farmers' fields.

  9. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world’s 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries. PMID:27167738

  10. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed

    Barbier, Edward B; Hochard, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world's 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries.

  11. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Cosivi, O.; Grange, J. M.; Daborn, C. J.; Raviglione, M. C.; Fujikura, T.; Cousins, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Huchzermeyer, H. F.; de Kantor, I.; Meslin, F. X.

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable; therefore, many epidemiologic and public health aspects of infection remain largely unknown. We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. PMID:9452399

  12. Lawmakers: population and social development inseparable. Social development summit.

    PubMed

    1995-05-01

    Parliamentarians from around the world endorsed action to promote social development by approving the Copenhagen Statement on Population and Social Development during the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development held at the National Parliament in Copenhagen, Denmark, March 4-5, 1995. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is a similar meeting held ahead of the International Conference on Population and Development during September 1994 in Cairo, Egypt. Among the key points of the Copenhagen Statement is the recognition of the importance of slowing rapid population growth, eradicating poverty, protecting the environment, creating jobs, and promoting social integration so that people can participate equally and fully in all spheres of social, cultural, economic, and political life. The document also acknowledges the need to promote universal access to education and health care, affirms the 20/20 principle as an useful concept against poverty and in development cooperation, and notes South-South cooperation as a means to promote national and international cooperation. Shin Sakurai, chairman of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, presided over the event and led the Japanese delegation of four legislators. The first such national suprapartisan body of lawmakers concerned with population and development, the Japan Parliamentarians Federation for Population was established in 1974. The federation has since been a pioneer in Asia and worldwide in fostering political commitment on population and development, playing an important role in gaining and maintaining support in Japan for multilateral and bilateral assistance in the field. Sakurai stressed in his March 4 address that population problems cannot be resolved without social development.

  13. Failing to Fulfill Tasks of Social Justice Weakens Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an interview with Walter Mondale in which the former vice president expressed fears that the United States will be weakened by current policies of removing government from the tasks of social justice. Topics discussed include social security cuts, reduction of student loans, and elimination of the legal aid program. (DB)

  14. Uganda: Social Sectors. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The objective of this report was to assist the Ugandan government in considering how its intended improvement in social services can be achieved over the decade of the 1990s. Part 1 provides the necessary background. Chapter 1 illustrates in which areas, and to what extent, Uganda is in a social deficit situation in comparison with other African…

  15. Uganda: Social Sectors. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The objective of this report was to assist the Ugandan government in considering how its intended improvement in social services can be achieved over the decade of the 1990s. Part 1 provides the necessary background. Chapter 1 illustrates in which areas, and to what extent, Uganda is in a social deficit situation in comparison with other African…

  16. How the United States exports managed care to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C

    2001-01-01

    As their expansion slows in the United States, managed care organizations will continue to enter new markets abroad. Investors view the opening of managed care in Latin America as a lucrative business opportunity. As public-sector services and social security funds are cut back, privatized, and reorganized under managed care, with the support of international lending agencies such as the World Bank, the effects of these reforms on access to preventive and curative services will hold great importance throughout the developing world. Many groups in Latin America are working on alternative projects that defend health as a public good, and similar movements have begun in Africa and Asia. Increasingly, this organizing is being recognized not only as part of a class struggle but also as part of a struggle against economic imperialism--which has now taken on the new appearance of rescuing less developed countries from rising health care costs and inefficient bureaucracies through the imposition of neoliberal managed-care solutions exported from the United States.

  17. Establishing space industry in developing countries: Opportunities and difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloglu, U. M.; Kocaoglan, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although it is generally agreed that the outer space should be used for the benefit of all mankind, only a fraction of the countries have the necessary technological base for accessing space. Space technology, with its implications on science, economy and well-being of citizens, is mostly chosen as one of the priority areas for technological development by developing countries. However, there is already an over-capacity in global space industry and there are doubts on necessity of additional capacity establishment by developing countries. In this study, the importance and benefits of capacity-building in these countries are emphasized and the advantages and disadvantages that developing countries have in the framework of space technology acquisition are briefly presented. The feasibility of certain levels of space technology is discussed and the necessity of combining existing indigenous capabilities with technology obtained from foreign sources in the optimal way is stressed. We have also mentioned various general mechanisms of technology transfer and argued the importance of licensing in catching-up developed countries. After considering the necessary conditions of efficiency of technology, such as establishment of regional centers of space science and technology education by United Nations, joint development of space systems, complete technology transfer packages, cooperative space projects within regional organizations, coordinated constellations and special agreements with large space agencies, which are specific mechanisms already in use, are reviewed. Some typical examples of mechanisms are also given with special emphasize on small satellite technology that makes access to space affordable for many countries. Through sharing and analyzing the experience of developing countries in their odyssey of space capacity-building, the difficulties can be negotiated and the vicious circles can be broken. This study, in our view, is a step to incite a general

  18. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  19. Diarrhea among children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nataro, James P

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to stand among the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Although the introduction of oral rehydration and other case-management strategies have reduced acute diarrhea fatalities, many of the survivors develop persistent diarrhea and/or deficiencies of growth and cognition. Thus understanding the true global burden of diarrhea requires attention to acute diarrhea as well is its sequelae. To understand the etiology of moderate to severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia we performed a comprehensive case-control study of children under 5 years of age at seven sites. Each site employed an identical case-control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. Results of the studies will inform diarrhea prevention and management efforts worldwide.

  20. Strengthening capacity building in space science research: A developing country perspective on IHY activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyeme, G.

    The economic and social impact of science based technologies has become increasingly dominant in modern world The benefits are a result of combined leading-edge science and technology skills which offers opportunities for new innovations Knowledge in basic sciences has become the cornerstone of sustainable economic growth and national prosperity Unfortunately in many developing countries research and education in basic sciences are inadequate to enable science play its full role in national development For this reason most developing countries have not fully benefited from the opportunities provided by modern technologies The lack of human and financial resources is the main reason for slow transfer of scientific knowledge and technologies to developing countries Developing countries therefore need to develop viable research capabilities and knowledge in basic sciences The advert of the International Heliophysical Year IHY may provide opportunities for strengthening capacity in basic science research in developing countries Among the science goals of the IHY is the fostering of international scientific cooperation in the study of heliophysical phenomena This paper will address and provide an in depth discussion on how basic science research can be enhanced in a developing country using the framework of science goals and objectives of IHY It will further highlight the hurdles and experiences of creating in-country training capacity and research capabilities in space science It will be shown that some of these hurdles can be

  1. A decade of improvement in pain education and clinical practice in developing countries: IASP initiatives.

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael

    2012-05-01

    1. Epidemiological studies, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, on the extent of pain in the community of western countries revealed a prevalence of around 18%, with significant effects on work and social activities despite 30 years of pain education programmes. 2. A survey by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Developing Countries on the extent of pain education and clinical training, and the barriers to them, was published as report in 2007 and confirmed significant deficiencies and problems in all areas. 3. An IASP Developing Countries Taskforce was established in 2002 to facilitate improvements in pain education and management in developing countries through a grants support programme for bottom-up projects from developing country members. 4. Clinical training posts in centres in Thailand, South America and South Africa have been established to improve the clinical training of pain clinicians and, through them, to develop pain services in their countries of origin in which services are poorly developed or absent. 5. There has been a major surge in the demand for and development of programmes and clinical training in developing countries since 2002, reflected in greatly increased local activity in various regions of the world. 6. Based on the ethical/moral belief that pain treatment is a human right, the IASP has recently increased its levels of advocacy to support this belief.

  2. The future of transgenic plants in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Weil, A

    2001-12-01

    Whatever their own policies may be, developing countries will inevitably be affected by the development of genetically-modified organisms in industrialized countries. While maintaining a cautious attitude, most of these countries wish to keep their options open, thus protecting themselves from the risk of being deprived of future technologies that might allow them to achieve self-sufficiency in food production, to resolve certain problems confronting their most vulnerable populations and to preserve the international competitiveness of their products. Companies should see that it is in their interest to help these countries implement their own policies, notably through an open attitude to industrial property. If the value of genetic engineering is thus confirmed, then it perhaps in this manner that GMOs will earn the legitimacy required to make them acceptable to the people of Northern countries where the majority of solvent markets are located.

  3. Cross-cultural prevention program transfer: Questions regarding developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, N D; Hadiyono, J P; Latkin, C A; Padilla, J

    1995-06-01

    To prevent mental illness and promote psychological health, developing countries might learn from demonstrated successes in other countries. This exploratory qualitative project involved interviewing 27 informants knowledgeable about both the United States and selected developing countries of Asia and South America. Informants reviewed five preventive programs shown to be effective in North America and then evaluated the programs as to their applicability in the other country. In general the programs were seen as not very transferrable, and in some cases not needed. Among transfer problems identified were funding, training, cultural traditions and higher priorities for other things in impoverished countries. The primary recommendation is that prevention programs be developed in other countries based on their needs and cultural characteristics and using indigenous human resources. Such programs could be informed by general principles and evaluation procedures developed in Western prevention programs. Informants noted that there are also important things for Americans to learn from the developing countries, such as family closeness and greater acceptance and relaxation about stresses of life.

  4. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  5. Social factors associated with centenarian rate (CR) in 32 OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last fifty years, the number of centenarians has dramatically increased. The centenarian rate (CR) is representative of the general longevity prevalent in a nation; it indicates the number of individuals aged 100 years or above at a given date divided by the size of the corresponding cohort of a given age. Two important attributes of the CR (50–54) are that it reflects both unchanged age-specific fertility and the absence of migration in populations. It can generally be used in longevity-based evaluations of the broader concept of successful ageing. As such, this retrospective analysis of the social factors that contribute to the CR (50–54) may help to identify the factors associated with successful ageing. This study estimates the CR (50–54) and elucidates the influence of social factors on successful ageing and the CR (50–54), examining 32 member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Methods The social indicators for this study were obtained from the United Nations database. The data for the analysis of centenarians in the 32 OECD countries were obtained from the world population prospects conducted by the United Nations. Associations between social factors and CR (50–54) were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the CR (50–54) and the social factors of expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (HEGDP: r = 0.411, p < 0.021), general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure (GGEH: r = 0.474, p < 0.006), the proportion of fixed-telephone subscriptions in the population (FTS: r = 0.489, p < 0.005), and the human development index (HDI: r = 0.486, p < 0.005). Finally, these CR (50–54) predictors were used to form a model of successful ageing, with higher HEGDP and GGEH as health expenditure, higher FTS as

  6. Refractory status epilepticus: a developing country perspective.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Prashantha, D K; Thennarasu, K; Umamaheshwara Rao, G S; Satishchandra, P

    2010-03-15

    To analyse the underlying causes, therapeutic response and outcomes of convulsive refractory status epilepticus (RSE). This retrospective analysis was carried on 98 patients with RSE (age: 16.9+/-14.5 years). All had received a combination of parenteral benzodiazepine and phenytoin or phenobarbitone followed by other anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). The clinical, EEG, imaging features of convulsive RSE and long-term seizure outcome were analysed. Seventy six patients had de novo RSE for the first time in life. The mean duration of RSE, before and during NICU admission was 3.4+/-3.2 days and 2.9+/-2.4 days respectively. The mean duration of NICU stay and mechanical ventilation was 17.4+/-14.5 was 14.4+/-12.8 days respectively. The precipitating factors included viral fever - 13, AEDs stoppage - 7 and alcohol - 1. EEG was abnormal in 81.5% of patients. CT and MRI were abnormal in 63.4% and 82.3% respectively. Thirty-four patients died and compared to those surviving, patients were older, had lesser duration of NICU stay and elevated CSF protein. Dependence for activities of daily living (ADL) at discharge was: recovered - 29, mild to moderate - 13 and severe - 22. Seizure outcome in 64 patients after 43.5+/-58.2 weeks were - seizure-free: 65.6%, one seizure: 21.8%, >1 seizure/month: 14.1%, and seizure recurrence requiring admission: 1.5%. After six and twelve months of follow up, the long-term seizure outcome were: seizure-free: 48.3% and 28.6%; one seizure: 27.6% and 38.1%; >1 seizure/month: 20.7% and 28.6%; and seizure recurrence requiring admission: 3.4% and 4.7% respectively. Among those survived 49 de novo RSE, about one-third developed post-SE symptomatic seizures after 30.1+/-54.4 weeks. Seizures could still be controlled in two-thirds of patients with convulsive RSE. About 30% of patients achieved long-term seizure freedom.

  7. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  8. Modeling energy-sector issues of developing and industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper identifies important energy-planning issues in industrializing and developing countries based on the Argonne experience in energy-planning studies for Egypt, Korea, Portugal, Argentina, and Jamaica. Modeling approaches are reviewed for applicability to these issues.

  9. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  10. GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

  11. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  12. Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses four problems which concern engineering education in developing countries: (1) less value of handiwork; (2) lack of industrial culture; (3) low salary of faculty; and (4) cultural distortions. Describes three successful cases in Indonesia and Thailand. (YP)

  13. Mobile diabetes eye care: experience in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Krishna R; Murthy, Praveen R; Kapur, Anil; Owens, David R

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in developing countries is on the increase and along with it the need to provide structured care to avoid the feared long term complications among them loss of vision and blindness due to diabetic retinopathy (DR). The biggest hurdle facing most developing countries is the lack of resources and trained manpower to both screen and treat the large number of people with DR. Countries also face the additional problem of unequal distribution of resources between the urban and rural areas. To overcome these challenges models of mobile diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment aided by the use of telemedicine have been introduced and demonstrated to be popular and effective. The aim of this review article is to describe different mobile diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment models developed in India, which can be readily replicated in developing countries presented with similar difficulties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  15. Technology transfer to developing countries. Lessons from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Serpa-Flórez, F

    1993-01-01

    Medical technology will contribute to improving the health status of people in developing countries only when it is carefully implemented after proper planning. Providers, users, health ministry employees, and industry all share responsibility for proper planning and careful implementation.

  16. GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

  17. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  18. Globetrotting firms: Canada's health biotechnology collaborations with developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ray, Monali; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla

    2009-09-01

    A survey of Canadian biotech firms reveals that their biotech collaborations with developing countries are not only significant but also increasingly reciprocal in terms of the exchange of financial resources and technological know-how.

  19. Good clinical practice in developing countries: applying recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bompart, François; Hirsch, François; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for clinical research in developing countries were published in 2007 and the present article deals with issues which were not initially raised or discussed in depth. In particular, we discuss specific questions linked to trials conducted in developing countries with regard to informed consent, research project review by two ethics committees, standards of care, management of biological samples, study follow-up committees, notification of Serious Adverse Events, paediatric trials, and Contract Research Organizations.

  20. Regional anesthesia for maxillofacial surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min; Seo, Mi Hyun; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Regional anesthesia in the maxillofacial region is safer and more efficient than general anesthesia when its indications are carefully considered. In addition, the majority of medical institutions in developing countries are not well equipped for proper anesthesia and elective surgery. In this review, we describe regional anesthesia and cutaneous nerve divisions in the maxillofacial region. In addition, we summarize detailed regional anesthetic techniques adapted for representative cleft lip cases in developing countries.

  1. Friendly and Hostile Country Perceptions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Beytullah; Topçu, Ersin

    2017-01-01

    Peace education requires that students have a correct and academic perception regarding other countries. These perceptions of students, who acquire certain perceptions starting from primary school to university, need to be based on real facts and should not contain extravagance. This study aims to determine whether 3rd year Prospective Social…

  2. The economics of environmental degradation from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises in less developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Grivoyannis, E.C.

    1997-06-01

    The economic productivity of ecological systems constitutes imperfectly known resources for many developing countries and, as a result, national incentives for their preservation are hampered. Scarcity of capital and foreign exchange, on the other hand, creates for these countries an economic pressure to reduce environmental quality standards in return for foreign exchange from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises. For a bargaining outcome to be considered successful, the host country`s marginal cost of environmental protection should be equal to the social scarcity cost of foreign exchange for capital accumulation. However, imperfections in the international capital markets and in he information processing of private and government institutions as well as government failure may upgrade the value of foreign exchange relative to environmental protection. As a result, many developing countries may prefer to have more direct investment gains derived from an inflow of foreign exchange by allowing pollution-intensive multinationals an excessive amount of pollution, than the strategically optimal one, if these enterprises are prepared to shift operations to their country. Strategic bargaining by pollution-intensive multinationals can turn the economic pressures of developing countries into an exploitable dependence. This paper investigates the socio-economic outcome from strategic bargaining opportunities between developing countries and pollution-intensive multinationals in an effort to provide a better understanding of what is negotiable in the presence of exploitable dependencies.

  3. Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

  4. Reaching the Unreached for Library and Information Science Education: A Perspective for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, S. B.

    Open and distance learning is seen as a viable alternative to provide education for all, particularly in the context of developing countries. Open learning is basically a philosophy, while distance learning is a method of flexible education for the unreached, i.e., socially, economically, physically, and geographically disadvantaged groups of the…

  5. Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

  6. From Special Schools to Inclusive Education: The Way forward for Developing Countries South of the Sahara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charema, John

    2007-01-01

    Persons with disabilities, especially children and the young continue to be the most disadvantaged groups in all societies (Hegarty & Alur, 2002). They manifest a number of limitations and are subjected to social discrimination, impoverished educational experiences and above all, very limited work opportunities. In developing countries, where…

  7. Randomized Experiments for Planning and Testing Projects in Developing Countries: Threshold Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael L.; Boruch, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Determining which program evaluations in developing countries are appropriate/feasible for randomized experiments to plan and evaluate social programs is discussed. Five threshold conditions are defined. Reviews of experiments from Barbados, China, Colombia, Kenya, Israel, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Taiwan, and the United States illustrate the issues…

  8. From Special Schools to Inclusive Education: The Way forward for Developing Countries South of the Sahara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charema, John

    2007-01-01

    Persons with disabilities, especially children and the young continue to be the most disadvantaged groups in all societies (Hegarty & Alur, 2002). They manifest a number of limitations and are subjected to social discrimination, impoverished educational experiences and above all, very limited work opportunities. In developing countries, where…

  9. Examination on ICT Integration into Special Education Schools for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksal, Fahriye Altinay; Gazi, Zehra Altinay

    2015-01-01

    Information, communication and technology (ICT) is a bridge in fostering learning who have special needs in education. It becomes a medium of connecting their way of lives and their socialization within education life. Integration of ICT plays a great role in special education. Most of the developing countries pay attention to ICT practices in…

  10. Ageing, lifestyle modifications, and cardiovascular disease in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, L J; Galioto, A; Ferlisi, A; Pineo, A; Putignano, E; Belvedere, M; Costanza, G; Barbagallo, M

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries face the double menace of still prevalent infectious diseases and increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) with epidemic proportions in the near future, linked to demographic changes (expansion and ageing), and to urbanisation and lifestyle modifications. It is estimated that the elderly population will increase globally (over 80% during the next 25 years), with a large share of this rise in the developing world because of expanding populations. Increasing longevity prolongs the time exposure to risk factors, resulting in a greater probability of CVD. As a paradox, increased longevity due to improved social and economical conditions associated with lifestyle changes in the direction of a rich diet and sedentary habits in the last century, is one of the main contributors to the incremental trend in CVD. The variable increase rate of CVD in different nations may reflect different stages of "epidemiological transition" and it is probable that the relatively slow changes seen in developing populations through the epidemiological transition may occur at an accelerated pace in individuals migrating from nations in need to affluent societies (i.e. Hispanics to the USA, Africans to Europe). Because of restrained economic conditions in the developing world, the greatest gains in controlling the CVD epidemic lies in its prevention. Healthy foods should be widely available and affordable, and healthy dietary practices such as increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of saturated fat, salt, and simple sugars, may be promoted in all populations. Specific strategies for smoking and overweight control may be regulation of marketed tobacco and unhealthy fast food and promotion of an active lifestyle. Greater longevity and economic progress are accompanied by an increasing burden of CVD and other chronic diseases with an important decrease in quality of life, which should question the benefit of these additional years without

  11. Chronic airflow limitation in developing countries: burden and priorities.

    PubMed

    Aït-Khaled, Nadia; Enarson, Donald A; Ottmani, Salah; El Sony, Asma; Eltigani, Mai; Sepulveda, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory disease has never received priority in relation to its impact on health. Estimated DALYs lost in 2002 were 12% globally (similar for industrialized and developing countries). Chronic airflow limitation (due mainly to asthma and COPD) alone affects more than 100 million persons in the world and the majority of them live in developing countries. International guidelines for management of asthma (GINA) and COPD (GOLD) have been adopted and their cost-effectiveness demonstrated in industrialized countries. As resources are scarce in developing countries, adaptation of these guidelines using only essential drugs is required. It remains for governments to set priorities. To make these choices, a set of criteria have been proposed. It is vital that the results of scientific investigations are presented in these terms to facilitate their use by decision-makers. To respond to this emerging public health problem in developing countries, WHO has developed 2 initiatives: "Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL)" and the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)", and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (The Union) has launched a new initiative to increase affordability of essential asthma drugs for patients in developing countries termed the "Asthma Drug Facility" (ADF), which could facilitate the care of patients living in these parts of the world.

  12. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  13. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, N.; Lavis, J.; Broomberg, J.; Mills, A.

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact. PMID:8261563

  14. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, N; Lavis, J; Broomberg, J; Mills, A

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact.

  15. Perceived discrimination and health by gender, social class, and country of birth in a Southern European country.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Muntaner, Carles; Gil-González, Diana; Artazcoz, Lucia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine; García-Calvente, Mar; Villegas, Rodrigo; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES.: This study aimed to examine the association between perceived discrimination and five health outcomes in Spain as well as to analyze whether these relationships are modified by sex, country of birth, or social class. METHODS.: We used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected as part of the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. The present analysis was restricted to the population aged 16-64 years (n=23,760). Five dependent variables on health obtained through the questionnaire were examined. Perceived discrimination was the main independent variable. We obtained the prevalence of perceived discrimination. Logistic regression models were fitted. RESULTS.: Perceived discrimination was higher among populations originating from low income countries and among women and showed positive and consistent associations with all poor health outcomes among men and with 3 poor health outcomes among women. Poor mental health showed the largest difference between people who felt and those who did not feel discriminated (prevalence for these 2 groups among men was 42.0% and 13.3%, and among women, was 44.7% and 22.8%). The patterns found were modified by gender, country of birth, and social class. CONCLUSION.: This study has found a consistent relationship of discrimination with five health indicators in Spain, a high-income Southern European country. Public policies are needed that aim to reduce discrimination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  17. Problems of modern urban drainage in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A L L

    2002-01-01

    Socio-economic factors in developing countries make it more difficult to solve problems of urban drainage than in countries that are more advanced. Factors inhibiting the adoption of modern solutions include: (1) in matters of urban drainage, 19th-century sanitary philosophy still dominates; (2) both legal and clandestine land settlement limits the space that modern solutions require; (3) contamination of storm runoff by foul sewage, sediment and garbage prevents adoption of developed-country practices; (4) climatic and socio-economic factors favour the growth of epidemics where runoff is retained for flood-avoidance and to increase infiltration; (5) lack of a technological basis for adequate drainage management and design; (6) lack of the interaction between community and city administration that is needed to obtain modern solutions to urban drainage problems. Awareness of these difficulties is fundamental to the search for modern and viable solutions appropriate for developing countries.

  18. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  19. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  20. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  1. Ergonomics in industrially developing countries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Huck-Soo, Loo; Richardson, Stanley

    2012-12-01

    The two final decades of the 20th century saw a significant increase in ergonomics activity (and resulting publications) in industrially developing countries (IDCs). However, a few ergonomics papers from Singapore, for example, were published in 1969 and 1970. This paper reviews developments in ergonomics in industrially developing countries from 1969 relying heavily on published papers although their quality varies considerably. Some criticism of these papers is offered. Most were concerned with the use of work tools, workstation operations, material handling and working environments especially in tropical climates. The similar problems encountered in a variety of countries are discussed, and the importance of low-cost solutions stressed. This study presents an overview of er gonomics research in IDCs. It concentrates on ASEAN countries whilst recognising the valuable work done in other areas.

  2. Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries?

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality.

  3. Social mobility and health in European countries: Does welfare regime type matter?

    PubMed

    Campos-Matos, Inês; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Health inequalities pose an important public health challenge in European countries, for which increased social mobility has been suggested as a cause. We sought to describe how the relationship between health inequalities and social mobility varies among welfare regime types in the European region. Data from six rounds of the European Social Survey was analyzed using multilevel statistical techniques, stratified by welfare regime type, including 237,535 individuals from 136 countries. Social mobility among individuals was defined according to the discrepancy between parental and offspring educational attainment. For each welfare regime type, the association between social mobility and self-rated health was examined using odds ratios and risk differences, controlling for parental education. Upwardly mobile individuals had between 23 and 44% lower odds of reporting bad or very bad self-rated health when compared to those who remained stable. On an absolute scale, former USSR countries showed the biggest and only significant differences for upward movement, while Scandinavian countries showed the smallest. Downward social mobility tended to be associated with worse health, but the results were less consistent. Upward social mobility is associated with worse health in all European welfare regime types. However, in Scandinavian countries the association of upward mobility was smaller, suggesting that the Nordic model is more effective in mitigating the impact of social mobility on health and/or of health on mobility.

  4. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  5. Hearing assistive technologies in developing countries: background, achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Bradley

    2014-09-01

    The burden of hearing impairment and disability is substantial in the developing world. This review outlines the associated need for amplification devices in low and medium income countries and some of the initiatives that have been taken to improve access to such devices, particularly hearing aids. The main observed barriers to access are listed and possible ways to improve access are considered. Prevalence estimates for disabling hearing impairment are reviewed and a number of national and international examples of initiatives to facilitate use of hearing assistive devices in low and medium income countries are provided. Technologies that are potentially appropriate for hearing instruments in developing countries are suggested, as well as fitting programs that are more likely to be maintained over the long term. Challenges to successful hearing instrument fitting in low and medium income countries are many. However, some programs point the way to improved access to such devices. Successful hearing aid fitting programs in developing countries have typically combined appropriate technology with a sustainable local support base. With a rising middle class in many developing countries, advances in technology, and ongoing training programs for those involved in amplification fitting, hearing device usage rates may eventually reach parity with those in developed economies. The historical development of affordable hearing device fitting provision in low and middle income countries is outlined. Three key barriers to widespread access to hearing device provision in many low and middle income countries (LMICs) are identified: lack of trained personnel, the high cost of many existing devices marketed in LMICs and limited public awareness of the benefits of hearing assistive technologies. Examples of programs that have sought to overcome these barriers in LMICs are given and may influence the ways in which future hearing health care is provided.

  6. 78 FR 46792 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... through the Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG) and the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC). These changes... February 13, 2013, to incorporate the changes to the UN Least Developed Countries List, the USTR has...: Changed the name of East Timor to Timor-Leste, reflecting the change on the UN list. Removed the Maldives...

  7. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  8. New Strategies for Environmental Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examples of new environmental education strategies in developing countries are provided including, among others, programs which stress that properly-conceived development should include respect for the local environment and research projects helping villagers define what is meant by development. Provides an example of the use of television in the…

  9. University Science and Agriculture Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlett, J. T.; Macfarlane, Ian G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of enrollment and degree rates in science, agriculture, and non-sciences in developing and developed countries suggests patterns are similar, with science and agriculture degrees somewhat higher for some developing nations. Results suggest that emphasis on science and agriculture are less crucial than overall enrollment in producing…

  10. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  11. Space technology transfer to developing countries: opportunities and difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloglu, U. M.; Kocaoglan, E.

    Space technology, with its implications on science, economy and security, is mostly chosen as one of the priority areas for technological development by developing countries. Most nations aspiring to begin playing in the space league prefer technology transfer programs as a first step. Decreasing initial costs by small satellite technology made this affordable for many countries. However, there is a long way from this first step to establishment of a reliable space industry that can both survive in the long term with limited financial support from the government and meet national needs. This is especially difficult when major defense companies of industrialized countries are merging to sustain their competitiveness. The prerequisites for the success are implementation of a well-planned space program and existence of industrialization that can support basic testing and manufacturing activities and supply qualified manpower. In this study, the difficulties to be negotiated and the vicious circles to be broken for latecomers, that is, developing countries that invest on space technologies are discussed. Especially, difficulties in the technology transfer process itself, brain drain from developing countries to industrialized countries, strong competition from big space companies for domestic needs, costs of establishing and maintaining an infrastructure necessary for manufacturing and testing activities, and finally, the impact of export control will be emphasized. We will also try to address how and to what extent collaboration can solve or minimize these problems. In discussing the ideas mentioned above, lessons learned from the BILSAT Project, a technology transfer program from the UK, will be referred.

  12. Quality assurance in toxicology studies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Morris, C R

    1989-03-01

    As developing countries become more involved in the international chemical trade, they must adhere to certain requirements for importation of their chemicals into foreign countries. These developing countries will be required to provide basic safety information on their chemical products, including data developed from chemical and toxicologic testing. These data must be developed in accordance with the national requirements of the importing country. Many importing countries have adopted the OECD Test Guidelines and the OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) as primary guidance to assure the quality of laboratory data. These procedures provide a basis for internationally acceptable data. Several countries have incorporated many of these provisions into their national laws or administrative procedures. These procedures describe the process of documenting the conduct of laboratory studies, including recording of data, reporting of study results, and storage of data gathered. This process is intended to assure the quality and integrity of the data so that, if required, the study can be reconstructed by an auditor or an inspector. Details of these procedures and their applicability to the international chemical trade are discussed.

  13. Sharing health materials and information in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ritson, R

    1988-01-01

    The recent emergence of intercountry networks of collaboration on training materials for the health sector is a positive indication of increasing self-reliance in developing countries. Several developing countries are collaborating -- sharing staff, equipment, and consultants -- to produce their own health training materials. Over 20 countries now participate in the Interregional Health Learning Materials (HLM) Program, which is coordinated by a central clearinghouse in the Division of Health Manpower Development at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva. The primary objective of the Interregional HLM Program are 2-fold: to enable developing countries to produce their own relevant teaching, learning, and promotional materials for their national health care staffs; and to encourage interregional sharing of scarce resources and to promote exchange of materials and production experiences. To operate effectively on a longterm basis, national HLM projects must be well integrated into a national ministerial infrastructure or face possible collapse when financing is withdrawn. Those countries participating in the Interregional HLM Programs are being equipped with compatible microcomputers and are beginning to exchange training materials texts on diskettes for adaptation purposes. To share materials and information, a reliable transfer system must be available and microcomputers equipped with word processing software. The exchange of information on the production of national training materials have focused primarily on 4 main language groups -- the English-speaking network, the francophone group, the Portuguese-language countries in Africa, and the Arab network.

  14. Vocational Education and Training Against Social Exclusion: Albania. Country Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxhiymeri, Edlira; Shala, Zef; Muca, Mirela

    The main causes of social exclusion in Albania were studied along with ways in which vocational education and training could help combat it. The study identified target groups, analyzed existing policies and the role of education and training for target groups, and pilot tested projects to support the identified groups. The following policy…

  15. PATH's approach to product introduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Harner-Jay, Claudia; Sherris, Jacqueline

    2008-12-01

    Health interventions developed for wealthy nations are difficult to introduce in developing countries due to a lack of sufficient technological, financial, political, or infrastructural resources. Increasingly, however, product developers are creating new technologies that meet the needs of low-resource settings. Experience has shown that many activities must be undertaken to prepare health systems to accept and embrace new, improved, or under-utilized health technologies. This article describes three health technologies--a diagnostic test for vitamin A deficiency, new cervical cancer vaccines, and the vaccine vial monitor--that PATH, a global health organization, has helped advance for developing-country markets.

  16. Corporate social responsibility in countries with mature and emerging pharmaceutical sectors.

    PubMed

    Volodina, Anna; Sax, Sylvia; Anderson, Stuart

    2009-10-01

    In recent decades the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been adopted by many business sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. However, in this and other sectors its application remains variable, particularly between mature and developing economies. Its stakeholders include pharmacy and medical students, their attitude to the involvement of companies in socially responsible activities will be important determinants of public response to the industry. To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of senior medical and pharmacy students towards the CSR concept in the pharmaceutical sector in mature (Germany) and developing (Russia) markets. A questionnaire survey was carried out among senior pharmacy and medical students during the summer semester 2008 in two Russian and one German university. In each country 120 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 95% in Russia and 93% in Germany. Although the relevance of CSR was widely acknowledged by the students, very few were aware of CSR practices currently performed by companies. THE REPUTATION OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY WAS GENERALLY POOR: less than 15% of respondents gave credence to the information provided in advertisements and fully supported pricing strategies as well as policies towards the developing countries. When choosing an employer more than 90% of respondents consider the policies affecting an employee directly as pivotal. However, for a high proportion of students (59% in Russia and 64% in Germany) socially irresponsible behavior by companies has a significant negative impact. This paper identifies practices which students believe should be a part of the CSR programmes for the pharmaceutical industry, and also some that should be abandoned. It recommends that corporate communication on CSR should be expanded. Key differences are seen in perceptions of students in Germany and Russia towards the extent of irresponsible actions and the variation between them.

  17. Corporate social responsibility in countries with mature and emerging pharmaceutical sectors

    PubMed Central

    Volodina, Anna; Sax, Sylvia; Anderson, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been adopted by many business sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. However, in this and other sectors its application remains variable, particularly between mature and developing economies. Its stakeholders include pharmacy and medical students, their attitude to the involvement of companies in socially responsible activities will be important determinants of public response to the industry. Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of senior medical and pharmacy students towards the CSR concept in the pharmaceutical sector in mature (Germany) and developing (Russia) markets. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among senior pharmacy and medical students during the summer semester 2008 in two Russian and one German university. In each country 120 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 95% in Russia and 93% in Germany. Results: Although the relevance of CSR was widely acknowledged by the students, very few were aware of CSR practices currently performed by companies. The reputation of the pharmaceutical industry was generally poor: less than 15% of respondents gave credence to the information provided in advertisements and fully supported pricing strategies as well as policies towards the developing countries. When choosing an employer more than 90% of respondents consider the policies affecting an employee directly as pivotal. However, for a high proportion of students (59% in Russia and 64% in Germany) socially irresponsible behavior by companies has a significant negative impact. Conclusions: This paper identifies practices which students believe should be a part of the CSR programmes for the pharmaceutical industry, and also some that should be abandoned. It recommends that corporate communication on CSR should be expanded. Key differences are seen in perceptions of students in Germany and Russia towards the extent of

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment for a Developing Country like India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shamsuzzaman; Saha, Indranil

    2017-04-01

    The developing world is facing an increased risk of accelerating disaster losses. A concrete risk assessment along with subsequent management program involving identification, mitigation and preparedness will assist in rehabilitation and reconstruction once the disaster has struck is critical to subvert the magnitude of the loss incurred. A developing country like India has been taken as an example to highlight the elements mentioned. Most countries like India in the developing world is facing a mounting challenge to promote economic growth and bring down poverty. In this scenario, significant climatic changes will not only impact key economic sectors but also add to the existing conundrum. Sudden onset of natural calamities pose an increasing problem to the developing countries for which risk management strategies need to be forged in order to deal with such hazards. If this is not the case, then a substantial diversion of financial resources to reconstruction in the post disaster phase severely messes up the budget planning process. This compromises economic growth in the long run. Envisaging cost effective mitigation measures to minimize environmental and socio economic toll from natural disasters is the immediate requirement. Often it has been found that an apparent lack of historical data on catastrophic events makes hazard assessment an extremely difficult process. For this it is useful to establish preliminary maps to identify high risk zones and justify the utilization of funds. Vulnerability studies assess the physical, social and economic consequences that result from the occurrence of a severe natural phenomenon. Also they take into account public awareness of risk and the consequent ability to cope with such risks. Risk analysis collates information from hazard assessment and vulnerability studies in the form of an estimation of probable future losses in the face of similar hazards. Promoting different governmental schemes to catastrophe risk absorption

  19. The World Summit for Social Development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The three goals of the UN World Summit for Social Development are to attack poverty, build solidarity, and create jobs. Unprecedented population growth has led to recognition of the need for a new, people-centered vision of development to counter the mutually reinforcing threats posed to world stability by poverty, unemployment, and social disintegration. This population growth may result in an inability of humanity to adapt and create unrelenting pressure on the world's natural resources. It has become increasingly recognized that improvements in the status of women will be vital to ensuring the future of humanity. Giving women the ability to decide their family size will eliminate hundreds of thousands of maternal deaths each year and will slow population growth while it increases women's productivity and control over resources. As the industrialized nations engage in unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, the lowest-income countries are caught in a "poverty-population-environment spiral." Although population growth is gradually slowing, the population of the world could double by 2050, with 95% of the growth occurring in developing countries. Concern is also mounting over the increasing urbanization of the world as well as the fact that while the populations of poor countries are becoming larger and younger, the population of industrialized countries are becoming older and smaller. The new vision of sustainable development involves generating economic growth, distributing benefits equitably, and allowing the regeneration of the environment. Without such security, the world can not achieve peace. The symptoms of social discrimination include social exclusion, which affects 90% of the world's population; sex and racial discrimination, which lowers the quality of life and increases life-threatening risks for women, indigenous people, and Blacks; violence and abuse, reflected in fact that the US has the highest incidence of murder in the world, in the

  20. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.