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Sample records for developing safer systems

  1. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  2. Enhanced trabeculectomy: the Moorfields Safer Surgery System.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Peng Tee; Chiang, Mark; Shah, Peter; Sii, Freda; Lockwood, Alastair; Khalili, Ashkan

    2012-01-01

    Trabeculectomy with anti-fibrotic treatment is still the most popular incisional procedure for glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS) worldwide. The advent of anti-fibrotic agents reduced failure due to scarring but resulted in increased complications. Advances in trabeculectomy surgery have been driven by the need to minimise the risk of: (1) complications and (2) surgical failure. This chapter covers preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative strategies, which improve the outcome of GFS. Strategies to reduce the risk of complications centre on the prevention of postoperative hypotony by minimising the risk of overdrainage, postoperative wound leaks and poor bleb morphology. Surgical techniques to reduce the risk of postoperative fibrosis by the use of anti-fibrotic agents (including mitomycin C) are discussed in detail. These techniques are based on a combination of considerable clinical experience, observation and laboratory research. The need to address pre-, intra- and postoperative issues in each individual patient is emphasised. These changes are embodied in the system we call the 'Moorfields Safer Surgery System'. The use of these strategies has considerably reduced the incidence of major complications including hypotony, cystic blebs and endophthalmitis in practices around the world. Most of these techniques are simple, require minimal equipment and can be easily mastered. They are associated with an improvement in overall outcome and it is hoped that this chapter will help the reader benefit from these advances.

  3. SAFER Inspection of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon C.; Rajula, Sudhakar

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of the space shuttle Columbia accident, it quickly became clear that new methods would need to be developed that would provide the capability to inspect and repair the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS). A boom extension to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with a laser topography sensor package was identified as the primary means for measuring the damage depth in acreage tile as well as scanning Reinforced Carbon- Carbon (RCC) surfaces. However, concern over the system's fault tolerance made it prudent to investigate alternate means of acquiring close range photographs and contour depth measurements in the event of a failure. One method that was identified early was to use the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion system to allow EVA access to damaged areas of concern. Several issues were identified as potential hazards to SAFER use for this operation. First, the ability of an astronaut to maintain controlled flight depends upon efficient technique and hardware reliability. If either of these is insufficient during flight operations, a safety tether must be used to rescue the crewmember. This operation can jeopardize the integrity of the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) or delicate TPS materials. Controls were developed to prevent the likelihood of requiring a tether rescue, and procedures were written to maximize the chances for success if it cannot be avoided. Crewmember ability to manage tether cable tension during nominal flight also had to be evaluated to ensure it would not negatively affect propellant consumption. Second, although propellant consumption, flight control, orbital dynamics, and flight complexity can all be accurately evaluated in Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, there are some shortcomings. As a crewmember's hand is extended to simulate measurement of tile damage, it will pass through the vehicle without resistance. In reality, this force will push the crewmember away from the

  4. Challenges and approaches for the development of safer immunomodulatory biologics.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Jean G; Sethu, Swaminathan; Bielsky, Marie-Christine; de Haan, Lolke; French, Neil S; Govindappa, Karthik; Green, James; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Holgate, Stephen; Jones, David; Kimber, Ian; Moggs, Jonathan; Naisbitt, Dean J; Pirmohamed, Munir; Reichmann, Gabriele; Sims, Jennifer; Subramanyam, Meena; Todd, Marque D; Van Der Laan, Jan Willem; Weaver, Richard J; Park, B Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Immunomodulatory biologics, which render their therapeutic effects by modulating or harnessing immune responses, have proven their therapeutic utility in several complex conditions including cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, unwanted adverse reactions--including serious infections, malignancy, cytokine release syndrome, anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity as well as immunogenicity--pose a challenge to the development of new (and safer) immunomodulatory biologics. In this article, we assess the safety issues associated with immunomodulatory biologics and discuss the current approaches for predicting and mitigating adverse reactions associated with their use. We also outline how these approaches can inform the development of safer immunomodulatory biologics. PMID:23535934

  5. Building Safer Systems With SpecTRM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    System safety, an integral component in software development, often poses a challenge to engineers designing computer-based systems. While the relaxed constraints on software design allow for increased power and flexibility, this flexibility introduces more possibilities for error. As a result, system engineers must identify the design constraints necessary to maintain safety and ensure that the system and software design enforces them. Safeware Engineering Corporation, of Seattle, Washington, provides the information, tools, and techniques to accomplish this task with its Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology (SpecTRM). NASA assisted in developing this engineering toolset by awarding the company several Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center. The technology benefits NASA through its applications for Space Station rendezvous and docking. SpecTRM aids system and software engineers in developing specifications for large, complex safety critical systems. The product enables engineers to find errors early in development so that they can be fixed with the lowest cost and impact on the system design. SpecTRM traces both the requirements and design rationale (including safety constraints) throughout the system design and documentation, allowing engineers to build required system properties into the design from the beginning, rather than emphasizing assessment at the end of the development process when changes are limited and costly.System safety, an integral component in software development, often poses a challenge to engineers designing computer-based systems. While the relaxed constraints on software design allow for increased power and flexibility, this flexibility introduces more possibilities for error. As a result, system engineers must identify the design constraints necessary to maintain safety and ensure that the system and software design enforces them. Safeware Engineering

  6. Developing safer systems in a NPP environment using the operator`s comfort parameters and virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The contents of this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays from the operator`s point of view, and the utilization of virtual reality for operations, training and maintenance repairs. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its use in strengthening design choices from the user`s perspective model of the environment. The contents of this paper focuses on the results which may be implemented in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing systems which are less inherently error prone.

  7. Integrating zebrafish toxicology and nanoscience for safer product development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The design, manufacture and application of safer products and manufacturing processes have been important goals over the last decade and will advance in the future under the umbrella of "Green Chemistry". In this review, we focus on the burgeoning diversity of new engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the prescient need for a nanotoxicology paradigm that quickly identifies potentially hazardous nanochemistries. Advances in predictive toxicological modeling in the developing zebrafish offer the most immediate translation to human hazard that is practically achievable with high throughput approaches. Translation in a vertebrate model that is also a low cost alternative to rodents for hazard prediction has been a desirable but elusive testing paradigm. The utility of zebrafish, if applied early in the ENM discovery pipeline, could greatly enhance efforts toward greener and more efficient nanoscience. Early pipeline detection of human and environmental health impacts will quickly inform decisions in the design and production of safer commercial ENMs. PMID:23772181

  8. Governance, policy and system-level efforts to support safer healthcare.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ross G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years there have been concerted efforts across Canada to create safer healthcare systems both by improving practices at the frontline and by creating an environment that encourages the development of effective safety practices and a safety culture. There have been major changes in organizational policies regarding the disclosure of adverse events to patient and families, the reporting of patient safety incidents to facilitate learning, and new accreditation requirements. Governing bodies for healthcare organizations have been given clearer accountabilities for quality of care and patient safety, and improved performance measurement, greater engagement of patients and families, and a trend toward greater transparency have aided efforts to improve patient safety. However, some areas where changes were anticipated, including the reform of medical liability processes and changes to regulations that govern health professional practices have not progressed as much as some expected. Overall, a decade following the release of the Canadian Adverse Events Study and the creation of the Canadian Patient Safety Institute many healthcare organizations have made only limited progress toward the creation of "a culture of safety" and a safer healthcare system.

  9. Fly-by-Wire Systems Enable Safer, More Efficient Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Using the ultra-reliable Apollo Guidance Computer that enabled the Apollo Moon missions, Dryden Flight Research Center engineers, in partnership with industry leaders such as Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory, demonstrated that digital computers could be used to fly aircraft. Digital fly-by-wire systems have since been incorporated into large airliners, military jets, revolutionary new aircraft, and even cars and submarines.

  10. Safer Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.

  11. Towards safer, better healthcare: harnessing the natural properties of complex sociotechnical systems

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, J; Runciman, W B; Merry, A F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To sustain an argument that harnessing the natural properties of sociotechnical systems is necessary to promote safer, better healthcare. Methods: Triangulated analyses of discrete literature sources, particularly drawing on those from mathematics, sociology, marketing science and psychology. Results: Progress involves the use of natural networks and exploiting features such as their scale-free and small world nature, as well as characteristics of group dynamics like natural appeal (stickiness) and propagation (tipping points). The agenda for change should be set by prioritising problems in natural categories, addressed by groups who self select on the basis of their natural interest in the areas in question, and who set clinical standards and develop tools, the use of which should be monitored by peers. This approach will facilitate the evidence-based practice that most agree is now overdue, but which has not yet been realised by the application of conventional methods. Conclusion: A key to health system transformation may lie under-recognised under our noses, and involves exploiting the naturally-occurring characteristics of complex systems. Current strategies to address healthcare problems are insufficient. Clinicians work best when their expertise is mobilised, and they flourish in groupings of their own interests and preference. Being invited, empowered and nurtured rather than directed, micro-managed and controlled through a hierarchy is preferable. PMID:19204130

  12. Recent developments toward the safer use of opioids, with a focus on hydrocodone.

    PubMed

    Covvey, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids have become a mainstay of treatment for pain in the United States, with over 250 million prescription issued in 2012 alone. The increased prescribing of these medications has also contributed to the unintended consequence of a widening prevalence of abuse and misuse, and therefore safety has become a top agenda item for both government and health care providers alike. The move toward new abuse-deterrent formulation technologies, enhanced regulatory requirements from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and developments in national/state policies have worked together to target a goal of promoting safer clinician prescribing, pharmacy dispensing and patient use of opioids. Hydrocodone in particular, as the most widely prescribed opioid product, has recently been subject to a myriad of changes, both through the federal rescheduling of hydrocodone-combination products (HCPs) to Schedule II, as well as the introduction of two new extended-release formulations to the USA market. These efforts represent a first step toward tackling the opioid harms epidemic, although continuing follow-up through research and policy implementation is needed to see any measureable impact on safety in the future. PMID:25769501

  13. Integrating MBSE into Ongoing Projects: Requirements Validation and Test Planning for the ISS SAFER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Herbert A.; Williams, Antony; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Simplified Aid for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) is the spacewalking astronaut's final safety measure against separating from the ISS and being unable to return safely. Since the late 1990s, the SAFER has been a standard element of the spacewalking astronaut's equipment. The ISS SAFER project was chartered to develop a new block of SAFER units using a highly similar design to the legacy SAFER (known as the USA SAFER). An on-orbit test module was also included in the project to enable periodic maintenance/propulsion system checkout on the ISS SAFER. On the ISS SAFER project, model-based systems engineering (MBSE) was not the initial systems engineering (SE) approach, given the volume of heritage systems engineering and integration (SE&I) products. The initial emphasis was ensuring traceability to ISS program standards as well as to legacy USA SAFER requirements. The requirements management capabilities of the Cradle systems engineering tool were to be utilized to that end. During development, however, MBSE approaches were applied selectively to address specific challenges in requirements validation and test and verification (T&V) planning, which provided measurable efficiencies to the project. From an MBSE perspective, ISS SAFER development presented a challenge and an opportunity. Addressing the challenge first, the project was tasked to use the original USA SAFER operational and design requirements baseline, with a number of additional ISS program requirements to address evolving certification expectations for systems operating on the ISS. Additionally, a need to redesign the ISS SAFER avionics architecture resulted in a set of changes to the design requirements baseline. Finally, the project added an entirely new functionality for on-orbit maintenance. After initial requirements integration, the system requirements count was approaching 1000, which represented a growth of 4x over the original USA SAFER system

  14. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; George, Jeffrey A.; Gefert, Leon P.; Doherty, Michael P.; Sefcik, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power, and small NEP systems

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, John S.; George, Jeffrey A.; Gefert, Leon P.; Doherty, Michael P.; Sefcik, Robert J.

    1994-03-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for 'split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with 'reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower 'initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power, and small NEP systems

  16. Nuclear Electric Propulsion: A ``Better, Safer, Cheaper'' Transportation System for Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, John S.; George, Jeffrey A.; Gefert, Leon P.; Doherty, Michael P.; Sefcik, Robert J.

    1994-07-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for ``split-sprint'' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with ``reference'' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower ``initial mass in low earth orbit'' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very large cost savings! Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion: A better, safer, cheaper transportation system for human exploration of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S.; George, J.A.; Gefert, L.P.; Doherty, M.P.; Sefcik, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    NASA has completed a preliminary mission and systems study of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for split-sprint' human exploration and related robotic cargo missions to Mars. This paper describes the study, the mission architecture selected, the NEP system and technology development needs, proposed development schedules, and estimated development costs. Since current administration policy makers have delayed funding for key technology development activities that could make Mars exploration missions a reality in the near future, NASA will have time to evaluate various alternate mission options, and it appears prudent to ensure that Mars mission plans focus on astronaut and mission safety, while reducing costs to acceptable levels. The split-sprint nuclear electric propulsion system offers trip times comparable to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems, while providing mission abort opportunities that are not possible with reference' mission architectures. Thus, NEP systems offer short transit times for the astronauts, reducing the exposure of the crew to intergalactic cosmic radiation. The high specific impulse of the NEP system, which leads to very low propellant requirements, results in significantly lower initial mass in low earth orbit' (IMLEO). Launch vehicle packaging studies show that the NEP system can be launched, assembled, and deployed, with about one less 240-metric-ton heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) per mission opportunity - a very Technology development cost of the nuclear reactor for an NEP system would be shared with the proposed nuclear surface power systems, since nuclear systems will be required to provide substantial electrical power on the surface of Mars. The NEP development project plan proposed includes evolutionary technology development for nuclear electric propulsion systems that expands upon SP-100 (Space Power - 100 kw(e)) technology that has been developed for lunar and Mars surface nuclear power.

  18. Can text messages increase safer sex behaviours in young people? Intervention development and pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Free, Caroline; McCarthy, Ona; French, Rebecca S; Wellings, Kaye; Michie, Susan; Roberts, Ian; Devries, Karen; Rathod, Sujit; Bailey, Julia; Syred, Jonathan; Edwards, Phil; Hart, Graham; Palmer, Melissa; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Younger people bear the heaviest burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Partner notification, condom use and STI testing can reduce infection but many young people lack the knowledge, skills and confidence needed to carry out these behaviours. Text messages can provide effective behavioural support. The acceptability and feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of safer sex support delivered by text message are not known. OBJECTIVES To assess the acceptability and feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a safer sex intervention delivered by text message for young people aged 16-24 years. DESIGN (1) Intervention development; (2) follow-up procedure development; (3) a pilot, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial with allocation via remote automated randomisation (ratio of 1 : 1) (participants were unmasked, whereas researchers analysing samples and data were masked); and (4) qualitative interviews. SETTING Participants were recruited from sexual health services in the UK. PARTICIPANTS Young people aged 16-24 years diagnosed with chlamydia or reporting unprotected sex with more than one partner in the last year. INTERVENTIONS A theory- and evidence-based safer sex intervention designed, with young people's input, to reduce the incidence of STIs by increasing the correct treatment of STIs, partner notification, condom use and STI testing before unprotected sex with a new partner. The intervention was delivered via automated mobile phone messaging over 12 months. The comparator was a monthly text message checking contact details. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES (1) Development of the intervention based on theory, evidence and expert and user views; (2) follow-up procedures; (3) pilot trial primary outcomes: full recruitment within 3 months and follow-up rate for the proposed primary outcomes for the main trial; and (4) participants' views and experiences regarding the acceptability of the intervention. RESULTS In total, 200 participants

  19. Look before you build; geologic studies for safer land development in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair-Tyler, Martha

    1995-01-01

    This Circular provides a general description of the types of geologic hazards that exist throughout the United States. In nontechnical language this book describes how geologic information can be incorporated in the land-use development process and contains useful discussion of several examples from the San Francisco Bay area and elsewhere in the United States of how geologic information is already being used in the development process by some cities and counties.

  20. How can we improve our understanding of cardiovascular safety liabilities to develop safer medicines?

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, HG; Benson, C; Cartwright, EJ; Cross, MJ; Garland, C; Hammond, T; Holloway, C; McMahon, N; Milligan, J; Park, BK; Pirmohamed, M; Pollard, C; Radford, J; Roome, N; Sager, P; Singh, S; Suter, T; Suter, W; Trafford, A; Volders, PGA; Wallis, R; Weaver, R; York, M; Valentin, JP

    2011-01-01

    Given that cardiovascular safety liabilities remain a major cause of drug attrition during preclinical and clinical development, adverse drug reactions, and post-approval withdrawal of medicines, the Medical Research Council Centre for Drug Safety Science hosted a workshop to discuss current challenges in determining, understanding and addressing ‘Cardiovascular Toxicity of Medicines’. This article summarizes the key discussions from the workshop that aimed to address three major questions: (i) what are the key cardiovascular safety liabilities in drug discovery, drug development and clinical practice? (ii) how good are preclinical and clinical strategies for detecting cardiovascular liabilities? and (iii) do we have a mechanistic understanding of these liabilities? It was concluded that in order to understand, address and ultimately reduce cardiovascular safety liabilities of new therapeutic agents there is an urgent need to: Fully characterize the incidence, prevalence and impact of drug-induced cardiovascular issues at all stages of the drug development process. Ascertain the predictive value of existing non-clinical models and assays towards the clinical outcome. Understand the mechanistic basis of cardiovascular liabilities; by addressing areas where it is currently not possible to predict clinical outcome based on preclinical safety data. Provide scientists in all disciplines with additional skills to enable them to better integrate preclinical and clinical data and to better understand the biological and clinical significance of observed changes. Develop more appropriate, highly relevant and predictive tools and assays to identify and wherever feasible to eliminate cardiovascular safety liabilities from molecules and wherever appropriate to develop clinically relevant and reliable safety biomarkers. PMID:21306581

  1. [Development of a New Neuro-Endoscope Cylinder for Safer Neuro-Endoscopic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toshihito; Endo, Katsuhiro; Endo, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Ohta, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    Objective:Successful endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage has previously been hampered by impaired visualization during the operation to remove the clot, leading to a relatively low removal efficiency for hematomas. However, in multiple case series, intracerebral hematomas have been reported to be removed using endoscopic visualization. Although using tubular retractors in cranial surgery is one technique to gain access to deep-seated lesions, it is difficult to confirm the depth of the retractor's sheath in the surgical field using only the outer sheath. We built various-sized cylinders, developed by the Japan Science and Technology Agency's(JST)program for revitalization promotion, with scales that are visible during both endoscopic and radiographic procedures. We report the use of these cylinders in clinical cases. Method and Results:The JST-developed cylinders benefit from new techniques for plating and tantalum film implantation used to form tubes made of fluorinated ethylene propylene. We successfully removed various hematomas using these cylinders, as we were able to clearly visualize the border of the brain parenchyma and the depth of the hematoma using the cylinder. Conclusion:Cylinders with visible scales for both endoscopic and radiographic uses developed by the JST programs may provide greater patient safety during endoscopic surgery. We next plan to improve the hardness, length, and smoothness of the groove on the cylinder. PMID:27605475

  2. How to sell safer sex.

    PubMed

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.

  3. The use of global positioning systems in promoting safer walking for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-07-01

    There are about 5 million people in Europe who have dementia, approximately half of whom need daily care. A common reason why dementia sufferers are admitted to long-term care is because of "wandering", i.e. leaving home without informing a carer, thereby potentially putting themselves at risk. Common methods of managing wandering include locking doors or alerting carers when a door is opened. A new method of managing wandering is by using electronic location devices. These depend on the satellite-based global positioning system (GPS). People can wear a location device in the form of a watch or pendant, or carry it like a mobile phone. This offers affected individuals the possibility of safe walking, with the reassurance that they can be found quickly if lost. However, it is not known how effective this method is and its use raises questions about safety and individual civil liberties. GPS location is a potentially useful method of managing wandering in dementia and there is considerable pressure on caregivers from commercial organisations to adopt the technique. Research is therefore required to determine which people are best suited for such devices, how effective they are in practice and what effect they have on important outcomes.

  4. Safer Head Start Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Gayle; Hendricks, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Argues that there are three areas to evaluate when creating safer playgrounds for children: environment, supervision, and education. Discusses the importance of safe and properly installed equipment, resilient surfacing, removal of hazards, proper maintenance, appropriate adult-to-child ratio, and enforcement of proper playground safety and injury…

  5. Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—convened meeting

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Cheryl S.; Frey, Meghan T.; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F.; Chambers, Christina D.; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy. PMID:24881821

  6. Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--convened meeting.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F; Chambers, Christina D; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy.

  7. Developing a systematic approach to safer medication use during pregnancy: summary of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--convened meeting.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Greene, Michael F; Chambers, Christina D; Sahin, Leyla; Collins Sharp, Beth A; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    To address information gaps that limit informed clinical decisions on medication use in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) solicited expert input on a draft prototype outlining a systematic approach to evaluating the quality and strength of existing evidence for associated risks. The draft prototype outlined a process for the systematic review of available evidence and deliberations by a panel of experts to inform clinical decision making for managing health conditions in pregnancy. At an expert meeting convened by the CDC in January 2013, participants divided into working groups discussed decision points within the prototype. This report summarizes their discussions of best practices for formulating an expert review process, developing evidence summaries and treatment guidance, and disseminating information. There is clear recognition of current knowledge gaps and a strong collaboration of federal partners, academic experts, and professional organizations willing to work together toward safer medication use during pregnancy. PMID:24881821

  8. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services.

    PubMed

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV-serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  9. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV–serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  10. Technologies that make administration of vaccines safer.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John; Larsen, Gordon; Jodar, Luis

    2004-05-01

    There is an ever-expanding technology that is aimed at making the administration of vaccines safer. Conventional ways of administering vaccines are being upgraded, modified or replaced by a wide variety of innovations. The paradigm of liquid vaccines, needles and syringes is slow to change, but already developments are occurring that will change for ever the way vaccines are administered and will improve the safety record of immunization. The oral route of vaccine administration has generally been thought of as safe, but until now only the polio vaccine has been widely used in this way. The conventional method of vaccine administration is by injection. Many ingenious devices have become available that now make injecting safer. Inventors are now looking imaginatively to alternative routes and technologies for delivering vaccines. Vaccines are generally manufactured to extremely high standards and rarely are shown to be the cause of safety issues. People remain the weakest safety link is vaccine administration. Technologies that bypasses the ability of man to make bad decisions or to behave incorrectly are of tremendous value. The vaccine world is in the middle of a radical re-think about how vaccines might best be administered. The presentation of the vaccine can be altered to fit new technologies such as powder jet guns, or skin patches. Even the conventional needle and syringe have evolved to much safer versions, and are set to continue this evolution. All this means even safer vaccines and their delivery.

  11. Technology for Safer Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Bendix RDR-4B airborne weather radar, developed by Allied Signal Commercial Avionic Systems, is the product of a decade-long Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/NASA/industry/academia research program. Numerous aircraft accidents had occurred because of windshear, a sudden shift in wind direction and velocity. A characteristic of windshear is the microburst, a column of air which cools rapidly in a thunderstorm and generates intense downdrafts. Microbursts can cause an airplane to lose lift and speed and then crash. A Congressional Mandate to the FAA launched the program with NASA to develop the essential technology for detecting and avoiding microbursts. Langley Research Center developed microburst sensors, including Doppler microwave radar, which sends a radio wave ahead of the aircraft to measure windshear velocity. These predictions give pilots time to prepare for the microbursts. After flight tests and the design of certification standards, the FAA required all commercial aircraft to install some type of windshear detector or predictor.

  12. Designing safer flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1996-11-01

    Researchers are developing ways to ensure that power-packed flywheel-battery systems stay safely contained. Packed with power that is available on demand, a practical flywheel battery would go a long way toward making low-pollution, high-mileage hybrid electric cars, trucks, and trains a reality. Few other near-term technologies can foreseeably provide the load-leveling (power-averaging) capabilities necessary for rapid acceleration, speed maintenance on grades, and recovery of braking energy (regenerative braking). But high energy density has its drawbacks. A high-performance composite flywheel rotor spinning anywhere from 30,000 to more than 100,000 revolutions per minute has lots of inertia. That`s going to be tough to control, particularly when moving on rough roads. Another formidable technical challenge is designing a lightweight, cost-effective safety containment system that can resist the impact of burst fragments and transmission of high torque loads just milliseconds after wheel failure.

  13. Simulators for Safer Shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Each year one ship out of every five afloat collides with another vessel, rams a dock, or runs a ground. CAORF (Computer Aided Operations Research Facility), designed and built by Sperry Rand Corporation, incorporates technology developed in a wide variety of aerospace simulation and technical training programs. CAORF can be set up to duplicate the exact handling qualities of any vessel under various conditions of wind, tide and current. Currently a dozen different ships can be "plugged in." Bridge instrumentation is typical of modern shipboard equipment including radar, internal and external c.ommunications and new collision avoidance systems. From repetitive operation of simulated ships, MarAd is building a valuable data base for improving marine safety.

  14. Safer work clothing for fishermen.

    PubMed

    Geving, Ingunn Holmen; Reitan, Jarl; Sandsund, Mariann; Faerevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo; Aasjord, Halvard

    2006-01-01

    The fisherman's work environment consists of many potential risks. A study of occupational accidents in the Norwegian fishing industry in the nine-year period from 1998 to 2006 shows that more than 3/4 of the deaths were caused by loss of fishing vessel or man-overboard accidents. Furthermore, the greatest risk of drowning is found in the smallest fleet. The aim of our project was to develop safer work clothing and through this contribute to a reduction in work accidents and injuries in the fishing fleet. We considered that it is possible to produce protective work clothing that satisfies a specification of requirements covering the fishermen's needs for protection and comfort during work. An end user-centred process including twenty-three personal interviews and a questionnaire was used to clarify the fishermen's needs and wishes before detailed design and product development. We identified an overview of all the fishermen's needs for protection during work, and produced a prioritised list of functional requirements for the clothing. The results show that the clothing previously preferred by fishermen does not satisfy all the users' demands for safety, functionality and comfort. These demands have been taken into consideration when designing improved work clothing for the fishing fleet. A selected number of prototypes were developed on the basis of the established specification of requirements. The prototypes were evaluated according to the users' requirements through tests in SINTEF's Work Physiology Laboratory and on board fishing vessels. The results demonstrate that the new protective clothing satisfies the fishermen's requirements. PMID:17312698

  15. Safer work clothing for fishermen.

    PubMed

    Geving, Ingunn Holmen; Reitan, Jarl; Sandsund, Mariann; Faerevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo; Aasjord, Halvard

    2006-01-01

    The fisherman's work environment consists of many potential risks. A study of occupational accidents in the Norwegian fishing industry in the nine-year period from 1998 to 2006 shows that more than 3/4 of the deaths were caused by loss of fishing vessel or man-overboard accidents. Furthermore, the greatest risk of drowning is found in the smallest fleet. The aim of our project was to develop safer work clothing and through this contribute to a reduction in work accidents and injuries in the fishing fleet. We considered that it is possible to produce protective work clothing that satisfies a specification of requirements covering the fishermen's needs for protection and comfort during work. An end user-centred process including twenty-three personal interviews and a questionnaire was used to clarify the fishermen's needs and wishes before detailed design and product development. We identified an overview of all the fishermen's needs for protection during work, and produced a prioritised list of functional requirements for the clothing. The results show that the clothing previously preferred by fishermen does not satisfy all the users' demands for safety, functionality and comfort. These demands have been taken into consideration when designing improved work clothing for the fishing fleet. A selected number of prototypes were developed on the basis of the established specification of requirements. The prototypes were evaluated according to the users' requirements through tests in SINTEF's Work Physiology Laboratory and on board fishing vessels. The results demonstrate that the new protective clothing satisfies the fishermen's requirements.

  16. Safer sex in tourist resorts.

    PubMed

    Ford, N; Inman, M

    1992-01-01

    A survey in Torbay, England, indicated substantial sexual interaction of an unsafe kind between young residents and tourists. A pilot programme is described which sought to promote safer sexual behaviour: the attention of both tourists and local people who frequented nightclubs was engaged by peer groups who conveyed educational messages. PMID:1637480

  17. Five Steps to Safer Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Safer Health Care Five Steps to Safer Health Care: Patient Fact Sheet This information is for reference ... safety is one of the Nation's most pressing health care challenges. A 1999 report by the Institute of ...

  18. Safer Pleasure Boats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    'Flamarest' coating developed by Avco Corporation for NASA to protect fuel lines and tanks is sprayed on the interior of polyester boat hull in commercial application. About 30 mils of the coating prevented structural damage to hull during test in which a 13 minute interior gasoline fire was started. An unprotected hull would begin to burn in 30 seconds. Same material applied as tape to wrap fuel lines effectively insulates hose when charred while also reducing spread of flame.

  19. A Safer Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Miracle, Ann L.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-08-11

    The successful migration of juvenile salmonids downriver on the Columbia and Snake Rivers to the Pacific Ocean in the United States Pacific Northwest has been challenged due to the multiple hydropower facilities located on these rivers. Because head injury likely results from physical trauma, such as impacting a physical structure or extreme high velocities, the development of a biomarker assay to quickly assess subacute physical injury and recovery is essential to determine the impact of hydropower structures on fish health.

  20. Ensuring safer drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. . Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. )

    1994-09-01

    Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

  1. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  2. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-01-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

  3. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-06-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol.

  4. Safer sex and the polyamorous lesbian.

    PubMed

    Munson, M

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY In recent years, concern about transmission of AIDS and other STDs has prompted people of all sexual orientations to use various safer sex techniques. This article explains why monogamy is not necessarily any safer than polyamory. Research on the low risk of woman-to-woman transmission of HIV and other STDs is described.

  5. Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.

    SciTech Connect

    Heimdahl, Olaf E. R.; LaHoud, Paul; Chapman, Leon Darrel

    2004-08-01

    At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

  6. Building Safer Communities: The Integrated Community Safety Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kerr, Thomas A; Jordan, Steven Albert

    2001-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated community safety approach to creating safer communities. It defines community broadly to include two categories of community members: “industry” and “neighbors.” Potential community members within the “industry” category include facilities, government/regulators, customers, stockholders, and suppliers. Within the “neighbors” category are towns, cities, counties, states; people/commodity flow systems; news media and special interest groups; environment; and families of employees. Each of these potential community members and its characteristics are discussed. The integrated community safety approach consists of three major activities: (1) define the boundaries of the community; (2) facilitate the sense of community; and (3) address the needs of the community. Defining the boundaries of the community includes determining the geographical and social boundaries; this is accomplished through conducting a hazard analysis and community involvement to identify all of the community members. Facilitating the sense of community includes conducting a capability/needs assessment and continuing community involvement to identify the issues and concerns of community members. Addressing the needs of the community involves master planning to consider safety issues in all community development actions and continuing community education and involvement. The integrated community safety approach is a workable approach for existing industries and their neighbors as well as new projects that industries and their neighbors might be considering. By using this socio-technical approach to integrating industry and all of its neighbors into a safer community, the integrated community safety approach will better assure the viability and safety of industry and its neighbors while maintaining or improving the overall quality of life.

  7. Improved and safer nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J J

    1989-04-21

    Recent progress in advanced nuclear power development in the United States is revealing high potential for nuclear reactor systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the present generation. Passive, or intrinsic, characteristics are applied not only to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction but also to ensure continued cooling of the fuel and its containment systems even if a major breakdown of the normal cooling and control functions were to occur. The chance of a severe accident is thereby substantially reduced. The plant designs that are emerging are simpler and more rugged, have a longer life span, and place less burden on equipment and operating personnel. Modular design concepts and design standardization are also used to reduce construction time and engineering costs, giving promise that the cost of generating power from these systems will be competitive with alternative methods. PMID:17738303

  8. SAFER - Services and Applications For the Emergency Response: en route for a safer world with the GMES operational services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, G.; Hello, D.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of GMES, SAFER prepares the implementation of operational versions of the Emergency Response Core Service. SAFER is a large integrated project which has been selected by the European Commission (FP7 call GMES). SAFER will reinforce European capacity to respond to emergency situations: fires, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, humanitarian crisis. The main goal of SAFER is the upgrade of the service and the validation of its performance with 2 priorities: - First priority is the improvement of response when crisis occurs, with the rapid mapping capacity after disastrous events, including the relevant preparatory services. For validation purposes, the project will deliver services at full scale for real events or during exercises. The main performance criterion is the response time. - The second priority is the extension to core service components before and after the crisis. It targets the longer term service evolution, through the provision of thematic products, to be added in the portfolio of services. The main performance criterion is the added-value of products with risk-specific information. Coordinated by Infoterra, the consortium is built around a core team of European service providers. A wide network of scientific partners and service providers will extend the European dimension. The presentation will highlight: - The heritage and foundations. - The expected contribution to the implementation of the operational Emergency Response Core Service. - The key challenges to move from the research and development and project-driven logic to the sustainable operations. - The possible synergies with other services.

  9. Application of an ecological framework to examine barriers to the adoption of safer conception strategies by HIV-affected couples.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Haneefa T; Surkan, Pamela J; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-01-01

    Safer conception interventions can significantly reduce the risk of horizontal HIV transmission between HIV-serodiscordant partners. However, prior to implementing safer conception interventions, it is essential to understand potential barriers to their adoption so that strategies can be developed to overcome these barriers. This paper examines potential barriers to the adoption of safer conception strategies by HIV-affected couples in Iringa, Tanzania using an ecological framework. We interviewed 30 HIV-positive women, 30 HIV-positive men and 30 health providers engaged in delivering HIV-related services. We also conducted direct observations at five health facilities. Findings suggest that there are multiple barriers to safer conception that operate at the individual, relational, environmental, structural, and super-structural levels. The barriers to safer conception identified are complex and interact across these levels. Barriers at the individual level included antiretroviral adherence, knowledge of HIV status, knowledge and acceptability of safer conception strategies, and poor nutrition. At the relational level, unplanned pregnancies, non-disclosure of status, gendered power dynamics within relationships, and patient-provider interactions posed a threat to safer conception. HIV stigma and distance to health facilities were environmental barriers to safer conception. At the structural level there were multiple barriers to safer conception, including limited safer conception policy guidelines for people living with HIV (PLHIV), lack of health provider training in safer conception strategies and preconception counseling for PLHIV, limited resources, and lack of integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services. Poverty and gender norms were super-structural factors that influenced and reinforced barriers to safer conception, which influenced and operated across different levels of the framework. Multi-level interventions are needed to ensure

  10. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  11. Advancing safer alternatives through functional substitution.

    PubMed

    Tickner, Joel A; Schifano, Jessica N; Blake, Ann; Rudisill, Catherine; Mulvihill, Martin J

    2015-01-20

    To achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable chemicals management policy–the transition to safer chemicals, materials, products, and processes–current chemicals management approaches could benefit from a broader perspective. Starting with considerations of function, rather than characterizing and managing risks associated with a particular chemical, may provide a different, solutions-oriented lens to reduce risk associated with the uses of chemicals. It may also offer an efficient means, complementing existing tools, to reorient chemicals management approaches from time-intensive risk assessment and risk management based on single chemicals to comparative evaluation of the best options to fulfill a specific function. This article describes a functional approach to chemicals management we call “functional substitution” that encourages decision-makers to look beyond chemical by chemical substitution to find a range of alternatives to meet product performance. We define functional substitution, outline a rationale for greater use of this concept when considering risks posed by uses of chemicals, and provide examples of how functional approaches have been applied toward the identification of alternatives. We also discuss next steps for implementing functional substitution in chemical assessment and policy development.

  12. Advancing the science of measurement of diagnostic errors in healthcare: the Safer Dx framework

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic errors are major contributors to harmful patient outcomes, yet they remain a relatively understudied and unmeasured area of patient safety. Although they are estimated to affect about 12 million Americans each year in ambulatory care settings alone, both the conceptual and pragmatic scientific foundation for their measurement is under-developed. Health care organizations do not have the tools and strategies to measure diagnostic safety and most have not integrated diagnostic error into their existing patient safety programs. Further progress toward reducing diagnostic errors will hinge on our ability to overcome measurement-related challenges. In order to lay a robust groundwork for measurement and monitoring techniques to ensure diagnostic safety, we recently developed a multifaceted framework to advance the science of measuring diagnostic errors (The Safer Dx framework). In this paper, we describe how the framework serves as a conceptual foundation for system-wide safety measurement, monitoring and improvement of diagnostic error. The framework accounts for the complex adaptive sociotechnical system in which diagnosis takes place (the structure), the distributed process dimensions in which diagnoses evolve beyond the doctor's visit (the process) and the outcomes of a correct and timely “safe diagnosis” as well as patient and health care outcomes (the outcomes). We posit that the Safer Dx framework can be used by a variety of stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, health care organizations and policymakers, to stimulate both retrospective and more proactive measurement of diagnostic errors. The feedback and learning that would result will help develop subsequent interventions that lead to safer diagnosis, improved value of health care delivery and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25589094

  13. Can we select health professionals who provide safer care

    PubMed Central

    Firth-Cozens, J; Cording, H; Ginsburg, R

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve patient safety, health services are looking to other industries' experiences and as a result are adopting a systems approach to learning from error, rather than simply focusing the blame on the individual. However, in health care the individual will remain an important contributor to safety and this paper looks at other literatures besides health to consider a number of individual characteristics and the role they might play in terms of work practices that affect patient safety. It considers the effects of a variety of personality profiles including sensation seeking, Type A, and those with high self esteem; looks at our ability to select for psychological wellbeing; and discusses the ways that psychometrics have been used in medicine to predict performance. It concludes that although rarely used, psychometrics has been shown to be useful in predicting some aspects of performance in medicine and suggests that this is an area well worth further study for the benefit of patient care. Nevertheless, we are a long way away from being able to select safer staff and should instead be developing this knowledge to enable us to recognise and address potential difficulties. PMID:14645743

  14. Assisting gay men to maintain safer sex: an evaluation of an AIDS service organization's safer sex maintenance program.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L

    1995-01-01

    As the second decade of the AIDS crisis unfolds, increasing concern has been raised that the widespread adoption of condom use that occurred among gay men in the 1980s is not being maintained. Most interventions to promote condom use among gay men are delivered by community-based organizations via programs that are virtually undocumented; little is known about their effectiveness, or the processes by which they may work. This study describes safer sex practices among self-identified gay men following their participation in an intervention developed and implemented by a community-based organization. The intervention was designed to enhance men's attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy expectations to maintain safer sex. Among 150 men with complete data at both assessments, self-reported condom use was low. Men reported using condoms more consistently for anal sexual behavior than oral sexual behavior, but there were men who reported consistent unprotected anal sexual intercourse. The intervention had little impact on patterns of behavior over time, although desired changes in attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy expectations were evidenced following the intervention. The results suggest the importance of assisting community-based organizations to document program models. Findings also suggest that community-based organizations can develop interventions to successfully enhance factors that theoretically support maintenance of safer sexual behaviors.

  15. Using Technology to Create Safer Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Arthur J.; Martinez, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Although classes to create student self-esteem and antigang programs are gaining in popularity, most school districts have not used available technology to help create safer campuses. Increased availability of telephones and two-way radios would enhance school security, along with incorporation of newer technologies such as computers, digitized…

  16. Physics for a safer world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Colin

    2008-02-01

    It is almost five years since I started working for the Home Office Scientific Development Branch. If you are anything like me (and the many other people I have met in my time here) your first question will probably be "The Home Office what?". You might also wonder why the Home Office - which is the UK government department responsible for protecting the public from terrorism, crime and antisocial behaviour - needs science. Many people are surprised by the answers.

  17. Severe systolic hypertension and the search for safer motherhood.

    PubMed

    Martin, James N

    2016-03-01

    Timely and appropriate response to severe hypertension during gestation is an important component of quality, safe care for pregnant or puerperal mothers regardless of causation. The reduction of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in the hypertensive mother is clearly enhanced by the addition of standard protocols for provider response to severe hypertension, particularly severe systolic hypertension. The program developed in New York State via the Safe Motherhood Initiative promotes the implementation of unit-specific safety bundles, especially one that is focused upon a standardized approach to handling the obstetric emergency of severe hypertension usually associated with preeclampsia/eclampsia. The comprehensive preeclampsia/eclampsia safety bundle as summarized by Drs. Moroz and colleagues is reviewed especially from the perspective of its focus on the timely and specific responses for health care providers to make when severe hypertension is detected in the pregnant patient. Evidence-based guidance to practice considerations and clinical care of patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia is embedded within the program outlined for New York State by Moroz and her District II ACOG colleagues. There is a central focus on timely and appropriate antepartum/postpartum management of severe hypertension, a core concept to lessen maternal risk for cerebral hemorrhage. Ten considerations for further integration into the New York program are suggested. Beyond blood pressure control, there is a need for systematic review of interventions and outcomes over time, attention to possible future variations of the protocol for racial/ethnic patient groups at highest risk for maternal morbidity and mortality, and the identification of biomarker(s) that further specify and quantify risk to the maternal brain and other organ systems when severe hypertension develops. Safer motherhood will happen when evidence for best practice is integrated into systems of care for all

  18. Under construction: building a safer industry.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, John

    2002-01-01

    A revolution in the building industry over the past decade has spawned a new generation of safer materials and practices, decreasing some health risks for construction workers. Concerned consumers, builders, materials manufacturers, and government regulatory agencies have all contributed to a turn toward "green" building materials and practices, meaning that homeowners and office workers now are better able to live and work in healthier environments, and many construction workers are handling and installing less-toxic materials. PMID:11882489

  19. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  20. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  1. Precision Pointing System Development

    SciTech Connect

    BUGOS, ROBERT M.

    2003-03-01

    The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

  2. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  3. Space Station Live: FLEX in Space for Safer Combustion

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) Principal Investigator Mark Hickman, from Glenn Research Center, discusses why scientists study flames in space. One reason is to create a safer environment t...

  4. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  5. Businesses and advocacy groups create a road map for safer chemicals: the BizNGO Principles for Chemicals Policy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mark S; Thorpe, Beverley; Peele, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    This paper details how businesses and environmental organizations are collaborating to define and implement a visionary agenda for integrating safer chemicals into products, describing the challenges they confront and how they are overcoming those challenges. The framework for this assessment is the Principles for Chemicals Policy developed by the Business-NGO Working Group for Safer Chemicals and Sustainable Materials (BizNGO). The four principles--1) knowing and disclosing chemicals in products, 2) assessing and avoiding hazards, 3) committing to continuous improvement, and 4) supporting public policies and industry standards--while appearing to be straightforward, are, in fact, very complex to implement in practice. Together businesses and environmental organizations are charting a path to safer chemicals by sharing best practices, addressing technical aspects of safer chemicals substitution, and analyzing and supporting public policies that advance the rapid development and diffusion of greener chemicals in the economy.

  6. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  7. Remote systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R.; Schaefer, O.; Hussey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential space missions of the nineties and the next century require that we look at the broad category of remote systems as an important means to achieve cost-effective operations, exploration and colonization objectives. This paper addresses such missions, which can use remote systems technology as the basis for identifying required capabilities which must be provided. The relationship of the space-based tasks to similar tasks required for terrestrial applications is discussed. The development status of the required technology is assessed and major issues which must be addressed to meet future requirements are identified. This includes the proper mix of humans and machines, from pure teleoperation to full autonomy; the degree of worksite compatibility for a robotic system; and the required design parameters, such as degrees-of-freedom. Methods for resolution are discussed including analysis, graphical simulation and the use of laboratory test beds. Grumman experience in the application of these techniques to a variety of design issues are presented utilizing the Telerobotics Development Laboratory which includes a 17-DOF robot system, a variety of sensing elements, Deneb/IRIS graphics workstations and control stations. The use of task/worksite mockups, remote system development test beds and graphical analysis are discussed with examples of typical results such as estimates of task times, task feasibility and resulting recommendations for design changes. The relationship of this experience and lessons-learned to future development of remote systems is also discussed.

  8. Determinants of Safer Sex Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Safer sex behaviors (monogamy, sexual abstinence, correct and consistent condom usage) are important for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS among college students. The purpose of this article was to review studies addressing determinants of safer sex behaviors among college students. In order to collect materials for this…

  9. Liga developer apparatus system

    DOEpatents

    Boehme, Dale R.; Bankert, Michelle A.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2003-01-01

    A system to fabricate precise, high aspect ratio polymeric molds by photolithograpic process is described. The molds for producing micro-scale parts from engineering materials by the LIGA process. The invention is a developer system for developing a PMMA photoresist having exposed patterns comprising features having both very small sizes, and very high aspect ratios. The developer system of the present invention comprises a developer tank, an intermediate rinse tank and a final rinse tank, each tank having a source of high frequency sonic agitation, temperature control, and continuous filtration. It has been found that by moving a patterned wafer, through a specific sequence of developer/rinse solutions, where an intermediate rinse solution completes development of those portions of the exposed resist left undeveloped after the development solution, by agitating the solutions with a source of high frequency sonic vibration, and by adjusting and closely controlling the temperatures and continuously filtering and recirculating these solutions, it is possible to maintain the kinetic dissolution of the exposed PMMA polymer as the rate limiting step.

  10. SAFE(R): A Matlab/Octave Toolbox (and R Package) for Global Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Sarrazin, Fanny; Gollini, Isabella; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is increasingly used in the development and assessment of hydrological models, as well as for dominant control analysis and for scenario discovery to support water resource management under deep uncertainty. Here we present a toolbox for the application of GSA, called SAFE (Sensitivity Analysis For Everybody) that implements several established GSA methods, including method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, variance-based sensitivity Analysis (Sobol') and FAST. It also includes new approaches and visualization tools to complement these established methods. The Toolbox is released in two versions, one running under Matlab/Octave (called SAFE) and one running in R (called SAFER). Thanks to its modular structure, SAFE(R) can be easily integrated with other toolbox and packages, and with models running in a different computing environment. Another interesting feature of SAFE(R) is that all the implemented methods include specific functions for assessing the robustness and convergence of the sensitivity estimates. Furthermore, SAFE(R) includes numerous visualisation tools for the effective investigation and communication of GSA results. The toolbox is designed to make GSA accessible to non-specialist users, and to provide a fully commented code for more experienced users to complement their own tools. The documentation includes a set of workflow scripts with practical guidelines on how to apply GSA and how to use the toolbox. SAFE(R) is open source and freely available from the following website: http://bristol.ac.uk/cabot/resources/safe-toolbox/ Ultimately, SAFE(R) aims at improving the diffusion and quality of GSA practice in the hydrological modelling community.

  11. Heatpipe power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to develop a design approach that could enable the development of near-term, low-cost, space fission-power systems. Sixteen desired attributes were identified for such systems and detailed analyses were performed to verify that they are feasible. Preliminary design work was performed on one concept, the Heatpipe Power system (HPS). As a direct result of this project, funding was obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to build and test an HPS module. The module tests went well, and they now have funding to build a bimodal module.

  12. Teamwork: building healthier workplaces and providing safer patient care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    A changing healthcare landscape requires nurses to care for more patients with higher acuity during their shift than ever before. These more austere working conditions are leading to increased burnout. In addition, patient safety is not of the quality or level that is required. To build healthier workplaces where safe care is provided, formal teamwork training is recommended. Formal teamwork training programs, such as that provided by the MedTeams group, TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety), or participatory action research programs such as the Healthy Workplace Intervention, have decreased errors in the workplace, increased nurse satisfaction and retention rates, and decreased staff turnover. This article includes necessary determinants of teamwork, brief overviews of team-building programs, and examples of research programs that demonstrate how teamwork brings about healthier workplaces that are safer for patients. Teamwork programs can bring about these positive results when implemented and supported by the hospital system.

  13. Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction: Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank Publications, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a framework of guiding principles and general steps addressing the construction of safer and more disaster resilient education facilities. It is aimed to be adapted to the local context and used to develop a context-specific plan to address a critical gap to reaching the Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development…

  14. A Safer Cigarette? A Comparative Study. A Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    This special issue describes the scientific progress and scientific review process to develop a safer cigarette. A peer-review panel, the ECLIPSE Expert Panel, was convened to critically review the potential health hazards of this new cigarette to a reference, conventional cigarette that bums tobacco. This new cigarette is lit and smoked much like other cigarettes, but it burns very little tobacco and paper. Also, unlike other cigarettes, it does not burn down to a butt, nor does it produce loose ash. Such a product would be expected to have less "tar" and other combustion products than cigarettes that burn tobacco and should greatly reduce any sidestream smoke. This panel assessed the chemistry and physical characteristics, as well as the biological activity, of this new cigarette.

  15. A Safer Formulation Concept for Flame-Generated Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Samuel; Cohen, Joel M.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Demokritou, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The likely success or failure of the nanotechnology industry depends on the environmental health and safety of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). While efforts toward engineering safer ENMs are sparse, such efforts are considered crucial to the sustainability of the nanotech industry. A promising approach in this regard is to coat potentially toxic nanomaterials with a biologically inert layer of amorphous SiO2. Core-shell particles exhibit the surface properties of their amorphous SiO2 shell while maintaining specific functional properties of their core material. A major challenge in the development of functional core-shell particles is the design of scalable high-yield processes that can meet large-scale industrial demand. Here, we present a safer formulation concept for flame-generated ENMs based on a one-step, in flight SiO2 encapsulation process, which was recently introduced by the authors as a means for a scalable manufacturing of SiO2 coated ENMs. Firstly, the versatility of the SiO2-coating process is demonstrated by applying it to four ENMs (CeO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Ag) marked by their prevalence in consumer products as well as their range in toxicity. The ENM-dependent coating fundamentals are assessed and process parameters are optimized for each ENM investigated. The effects of the SiO2-coating on core material structure, composition and morphology, as well as the coating efficiency on each nanostructured material, are evaluated using state-of-the-art analytical methods (XRD, N2 adsorption, TEM, XPS, isopropanol chemisorption). Finally, the biological interactions of SiO2-coated vs. uncoated ENMs are evaluated using cellular bioassays, providing valuable evidence for reduced toxicity for the SiO2-coated ENMs. Results indicate that the proposed ‘safer by design’ concept bears great promise for scaled-up application in industry in order to reduce the toxicological profile of ENMs for certain applications. PMID:23961338

  16. Safer conception interventions for HIV-affected couples: implications for resource-constrained settings.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Rachelle J; Mantell, Joanne E; Moodley, Jennifer; Harries, Jane; Zweigenthal, Virginia; Cooper, Diane

    2011-11-01

    Developing and testing safer conception methods that reduce HIV transmission to HIV-seronegative partners in serodiscordant couples and reduce superinfection in HIV-seroconcordant couples is a crucial but often unaddressed component of HIV prevention programs. Most research has focused on developed-world settings, where "high-technology" assisted reproduction techniques are used for HIV-serodiscordant couples in which the male is HIV-infected. There is a dearth of research on safer conception methods for HIV-seropositive women and "low-technology" harm-reduction strategies for HIV-affected couples, including vaginal insemination for HIV-seropositive women and natural conception methods for HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This review summarizes international studies of safer conception interventions for HIV-affected couples, with a focus on feasibility in public-sector health settings where assisted reproductive technology is not readily available. Given that such low-technology options are feasible in most settings, well-designed, prospective interventions offering low-technology safer conception methods need to be developed and tested.

  17. 75 FR 71123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent... ICR, entitled: ``Safer Detergent Stewardship Initiative (SDSI) Program'' and identified by EPA ICR No... surfactants. Title: Safer Detergent Stewardship Initiative (SDSI) Program. ICR numbers: EPA ICR No....

  18. Internal insulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an internal insulation system for cryogenic liquids is described. The insulation system is based on a gas layer concept in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer within a cellular core structure between the tank wall and the contained cryogen. In this work, a 1.8 meter diameter tank was insulated and tested with liquid hydrogen. Ability to withstand cycling of the aluminum tank wall to 450 K was a design and test condition.

  19. Are some "safer alternatives" hazardous as PBTs? The case study of new flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as PBDEs, are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and are restricted/prohibited under various legislations. They are replaced by "safer" flame retardants (FRs), such as new BFRs or organophosphorous compounds. However, informations on the PBT behaviour of these substitutes are often lacking. The PBT assessment is required by the REACH regulation and the PBT chemicals should be subjected to authorization. Several new FRs, proposed and already used as safer alternatives to PBDEs, are here screened by the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-Insubria), new software for the development/validation of QSAR models. The results, obtained directly from the chemical structure for the three studied characteristics altogether, were compared with those from the US-EPA PBT Profiler: the two different approaches are in good agreement, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in these screenings. A priority list of the most harmful FRs, predicted in agreement by the two modelling tools, has been proposed, highlighting that some supposed "safer alternatives" are detected as intrinsically hazardous for their PBT properties. This study also shows that the PBT Index could be a valid tool to evaluate appropriate and safer substitutes, a priori from the chemical design, in a benign by design approach, avoiding unnecessary synthesis and tests.

  20. Are some "safer alternatives" hazardous as PBTs? The case study of new flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as PBDEs, are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and are restricted/prohibited under various legislations. They are replaced by "safer" flame retardants (FRs), such as new BFRs or organophosphorous compounds. However, informations on the PBT behaviour of these substitutes are often lacking. The PBT assessment is required by the REACH regulation and the PBT chemicals should be subjected to authorization. Several new FRs, proposed and already used as safer alternatives to PBDEs, are here screened by the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-Insubria), new software for the development/validation of QSAR models. The results, obtained directly from the chemical structure for the three studied characteristics altogether, were compared with those from the US-EPA PBT Profiler: the two different approaches are in good agreement, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in these screenings. A priority list of the most harmful FRs, predicted in agreement by the two modelling tools, has been proposed, highlighting that some supposed "safer alternatives" are detected as intrinsically hazardous for their PBT properties. This study also shows that the PBT Index could be a valid tool to evaluate appropriate and safer substitutes, a priori from the chemical design, in a benign by design approach, avoiding unnecessary synthesis and tests. PMID:26742016

  1. Piroxicam-β-Cyclodextrin: A GI Safer Piroxicam

    PubMed Central

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    Although NSAIDs are very effective drugs, their use is associated with a broad spectrum of adverse reactions in the liver, kidney, cardiovascular (CV) system, skin and gut. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects are the most common and constitute a wide clinical spectrum ranging from dyspepsia, heartburn and abdominal discomfort to more serious events such as peptic ulcer with life-threatening complications of bleeding and perforation. The appreciation that CV risk is also increased further complicates the choices of physicians prescribing anti-inflammatory therapy. Despite prevention strategies should be implemented in patients at risk, gastroprotection is often underused and adherence to treatment is generally poor. A more appealing approach would be therefore to develop drugs that are devoid of or have reduced GI toxicity. Gastro-duodenal mucosa possesses many defensive mechanisms and NSAIDs have a deleterious effect on most of them. This results in a mucosa less able to cope with even a reduced acid load. NSAIDs cause gastro-duodenal damage, by two main mechanisms: a physiochemical disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier and systemic inhibition of gastric mucosal protection, through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX, PG endoperoxide G/H synthase) activity of the GI mucosa. However, against a background of COX inhibition by anti-inflammatory doses of NSAIDs, their physicochemical properties, in particular their acidity, underlie the topical effect leading to short-term damage. It has been shown that esterification of acidic NSAIDs suppresses their gastrotoxicity without adversely affecting anti-inflammatory activity. Another way to develop NSAIDs with better GI tolerability is to complex these molecules with cyclodextrins (CDs), giving rise to so-called “inclusion complexes” that can have physical, chemical and biological properties very different from either those of the drug or the cyclodextrin. Complexation of NSAIDs with β-cyclodextrin potentially leads

  2. Development of a fusion fuel cycle systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The tritium inventory in a D-T fusion experiment, like ITER, may be the major hazard onsite. This tritium is distributed throughout various systems and components. A major thrust of safety work has been aimed at reducing these tritium inventories, or at least at minimizing the amount of tritium that could be mobilized. I have developed models for a time-dependent fuel cycle systems code, which will aid in directing designers towards safer, lower inventory designs. The code will provide a self-consistent picture of system interactions and system interdependencies, and provide a better understanding of how tritium inventories are influenced. A ``systems`` approach is valuable in that a wide range of parameters can be studied, and more promising regions of parameter space can be identified. Ultimately, designers can use this information to specify a machine with minimum tritium inventory, given various constraints. Here, I discuss the models that describe tritium inventory in various components as a function of system parameters, and the unique capabilities of a code that will implement them. The models are time dependent and reflect a level of detail consistent with a systems type of analysis. The models support both a stand-alone Tritium Systems Code, and a module for the SUPERCODE, a time-dependent tokamak systems code. Through both versions, we should gain a better understanding of the interactions among the various components of the fuel cycle systems.

  3. Development of a fusion fuel cycle systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritium inventory in a D-T fusion experiment, like ITER, may be the major hazard onsite. This tritium is distributed throughout various systems and components. A major thrust of safety work has been aimed at reducing these tritium inventories, or at least at minimizing the amount of tritium that could be mobilized. I have developed models for a time-dependent fuel cycle systems code, which will aid in directing designers towards safer, lower inventory designs. The code will provide a self-consistent picture of system interactions and system interdependencies, and provide a better understanding of how tritium inventories are influenced. A systems'' approach is valuable in that a wide range of parameters can be studied, and more promising regions of parameter space can be identified. Ultimately, designers can use this information to specify a machine with minimum tritium inventory, given various constraints. Here, I discuss the models that describe tritium inventory in various components as a function of system parameters, and the unique capabilities of a code that will implement them. The models are time dependent and reflect a level of detail consistent with a systems type of analysis. The models support both a stand-alone Tritium Systems Code, and a module for the SUPERCODE, a time-dependent tokamak systems code. Through both versions, we should gain a better understanding of the interactions among the various components of the fuel cycle systems.

  4. Newer Epilepsy Drugs May Be Safer During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160751.html Newer Epilepsy Drugs May Be Safer During Pregnancy Small British ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who take the new epilepsy drugs levetiracetam and topiramate during pregnancy don't ...

  5. Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... our food safer to eat focuses on reducing contamination from Salmonella. Don't let Salmonella sneak up ... used to be a common cause of Salmonella contamination. To counter that, stringent procedures for cleaning and ...

  6. SIRU development. Volume 1: System development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. P.; Cooper, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A complete description of the development and initial evaluation of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) system is reported. System development documents the system mechanization with the analytic formulation for fault detection and isolation processing structure; the hardware redundancy design and the individual modularity features; the computational structure and facilities; and the initial subsystem evaluation results.

  7. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  8. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

  9. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  10. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-03-01

    those riding in them is flawed. For starters, all else is never equal; other aspects of vehicle design appear to control what really happens in a crash, as reflected in the safety record of different kinds of vehicles. What's more, the use of high-strength steel, light-weight metals such as aluminum and magnesium, and fiber-reinforced plastics now offers automotive engineers the means to fashion vehicles that are simultaneously safer and less massive than their predecessors, and such designs would, of course, enjoy the better fuel economy that shedding pounds brings.

  11. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-04-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC15 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Power Generation, Inc. (SPG) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC15 began on April 19, 2004, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier startup burner. The Transport Gasifier was shutdown on April 29, 2004, accumulating 200 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. About 91 hours of the test run occurred during oxygen-blown operations. Another 6 hours of the test run was in enriched-air mode. The remainder of the test run, approximately 103 hours, took place during air-blown operations. The highest operating temperature in the gasifier mixing zone mostly varied from 1,800 to 1,850 F. The gasifier exit pressure ran between 200 and 230 psig during air-blown operations and between 110 and 150 psig in oxygen-enhanced air operations.

  12. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  13. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  14. Developing Effective TV Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankins, Ron P.

    This case study of the planning and organization of an on-campus educational television system, designed as both an instructional and a service oriented resource, includes descriptions of the goals of the system, the equipment purchased, and problems encountered. It was found that a versatile and relatively sophisticated system could be…

  15. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-05-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT3 of the Halliburton KBR transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT3. GCT3 was planned as a 250-hour test run to commission the loop seal and continue the characterization of the limits of operational parameter variations using a blend of several Powder River Basin coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: (1) Loop Seal Commissioning--Evaluate the operational stability of the loop seal with sand and limestone as a bed material at different solids circulation rates and establish a maximum solids circulation rate through the loop seal with the inert bed. (2) Loop Seal Operations--Evaluate the loop seal operational stability during coal feed operations and establish maximum solids circulation rate. Secondary objectives included the continuation of reactor characterization, including: (1) Operational Stability--Characterize the reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal feed, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. (2) Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. (3) Effects of Reactor Conditions on Syngas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam

  16. Towards Safer Rocket Fuels: Hypergolic Imidazolylidene-Borane Compounds as Replacements for Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Liu, Tianlin; Wang, Kangcai; Zhang, Wenquan; Li, Jianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-07-11

    Currently, toxic and volatile hydrazine derivatives are still the main fuel choices for liquid bipropellants, especially in some traditional rocket propulsion systems. Therefore, the search for safer hypergolic fuels as replacements for hydrazine derivatives has been one of the most challenging tasks. In this study, six imidazolylidene-borane compounds with zwitterionic structure have been synthesized and characterized, and their hypergolic reactivity has been studied. As expected, these compounds exhibited fast spontaneous combustion upon contact with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). Among them, compound 5 showed excellent integrated properties including wide liquid operating range (-70-160 °C), superior loading density (0.99 g cm(-3) ), ultrafast ignition delay times with WFNA (15 ms), and high specific impulse (303.5 s), suggesting promising application potential as safer hypergolic fuels in liquid bipropellant formulations.

  17. Towards Safer Rocket Fuels: Hypergolic Imidazolylidene-Borane Compounds as Replacements for Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Liu, Tianlin; Wang, Kangcai; Zhang, Wenquan; Li, Jianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-07-11

    Currently, toxic and volatile hydrazine derivatives are still the main fuel choices for liquid bipropellants, especially in some traditional rocket propulsion systems. Therefore, the search for safer hypergolic fuels as replacements for hydrazine derivatives has been one of the most challenging tasks. In this study, six imidazolylidene-borane compounds with zwitterionic structure have been synthesized and characterized, and their hypergolic reactivity has been studied. As expected, these compounds exhibited fast spontaneous combustion upon contact with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). Among them, compound 5 showed excellent integrated properties including wide liquid operating range (-70-160 °C), superior loading density (0.99 g cm(-3) ), ultrafast ignition delay times with WFNA (15 ms), and high specific impulse (303.5 s), suggesting promising application potential as safer hypergolic fuels in liquid bipropellant formulations. PMID:27270594

  18. Precautionary policies in local government: green chemistry and safer alternatives.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Debbie O; Geiger, Chris A

    2011-01-01

    Local governments like the City and County of San Francisco have shouldered the burden of toxic chemicals released into the environment through the substantial costs of health care, environmental cleanup, and infrastructure to purify drinking water, manage wastewater, and manage solid waste. Cities can no longer afford to wait for federal regulation to prevent toxic chemicals from appearing in products used locally. San Francisco's Precautionary Principle Policy calls on the City to act on early warning signs of harm and to use the best available science to identify safer alternatives. Under its umbrella, a wide array of policy tools have been utilized including financial incentives through procurement contracts, certification and promotion of safer business practices, requirements for information disclosure, and bans and restrictions on the sale of products when safer alternatives are readily available. These policies can often become the models for regional, state, and national change. PMID:22001035

  19. The business case for transitioning to safer chemicals.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging domestic and international chemical regulations and a heightened consumer awareness of chemicals of concern in products is challenging American businesses to reevaluate and reconsider their approaches to supply chain management and product design. Some of these companies recognize business opportunities and are responding proactively with innovative strategies and tactics. This article describes steps that Staples Inc., the world's largest office products provider, is taking to meet demand for products that are safer and more sustainable. In trying to meet the demand for safer products, Staples faces significant barriers, including the complexity of supply chains, data gaps, and confidential business information. New collaborations between companies, government, and advocates, and improved tools and criteria for defining safer products enhance the ability of businesses, like Staples, to meet new consumer demands.

  20. The business case for transitioning to safer chemicals.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging domestic and international chemical regulations and a heightened consumer awareness of chemicals of concern in products is challenging American businesses to reevaluate and reconsider their approaches to supply chain management and product design. Some of these companies recognize business opportunities and are responding proactively with innovative strategies and tactics. This article describes steps that Staples Inc., the world's largest office products provider, is taking to meet demand for products that are safer and more sustainable. In trying to meet the demand for safer products, Staples faces significant barriers, including the complexity of supply chains, data gaps, and confidential business information. New collaborations between companies, government, and advocates, and improved tools and criteria for defining safer products enhance the ability of businesses, like Staples, to meet new consumer demands. PMID:22001038

  1. Wear your hat: representational resistance in safer sex discourse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S D

    1994-01-01

    Through an analysis of four posters used by the AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts, this article asks how representation can effectively promote safer sex practices. The images under investigation have different targeted groups--one is aimed at African-American men, one at Latinas, and two at gay men. Using a frame-work that connects definitions of sex in the respective communities with differences surrounding gender, race, and class, the imagery is unpacked in order to expose the effects of safer sex representation. This essay then argues that the degree to which ingrained definitions of sex are challenged constitutes a determining factor in the success or failure of safer sex representations. PMID:7798606

  2. Precautionary policies in local government: green chemistry and safer alternatives.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Debbie O; Geiger, Chris A

    2011-01-01

    Local governments like the City and County of San Francisco have shouldered the burden of toxic chemicals released into the environment through the substantial costs of health care, environmental cleanup, and infrastructure to purify drinking water, manage wastewater, and manage solid waste. Cities can no longer afford to wait for federal regulation to prevent toxic chemicals from appearing in products used locally. San Francisco's Precautionary Principle Policy calls on the City to act on early warning signs of harm and to use the best available science to identify safer alternatives. Under its umbrella, a wide array of policy tools have been utilized including financial incentives through procurement contracts, certification and promotion of safer business practices, requirements for information disclosure, and bans and restrictions on the sale of products when safer alternatives are readily available. These policies can often become the models for regional, state, and national change.

  3. SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOICE, JOHN,; AND OTHERS

    ONE-HUNDRED MANUFACTURERS EXPRESSED INTEREST IN BIDDING FOR A SYSTEM ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION CALLED SCSD OR SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT TO THE FIRST CALIFORNIA COMMISSION ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS. TWENTY-TWO BUILDINGS COMPRISED THE PROJECT. THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DEVELOP AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF STANDARD SCHOOL BUILDING COMPONENTS…

  4. Lighting the Way for Quicker, Safer Healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Who's to say that a little light can t go a long way? Tiny light-emitting diode (LED) chips used to grow plants in space are lighting the way for cancer treatment, wound healing, and chronic pain alleviation on Earth. In 1993, Quantum Devices, Inc. (QDI), of Barneveld, Wisconsin, began developing the HEALS (High Emissivity Aluminiferous Light-emitting Substrate) technology to provide high-intensity, solid-state LED lighting systems for NASA Space Shuttle plant growth experiments. The company evolved out of cooperative efforts with the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison a NASA center for the Commercial Development of Space. Ronald W. Ignatius, QDI s president and chairman, represented one of WCSAR s industrial partners at the time. WCSAR was conducting research on light sources for promoting food growth within closed environments where humans would be present for a long duration, such as the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. With the support of WCSAR, Ignatius experimented with LEDs, which provide high-energy efficiency and virtually no heat, despite releasing waves of light 10 times brighter than the Sun. Ignatius admits that some scientists involved in the project were skeptical at first, thinking that the idea of using LEDs to promote plant growth was far-fetched. The experiments, however, demonstrated that red LED wavelengths could boost the energy metabolism of cells to advance plant growth and photosynthesis. This finding prompted Ignatius to develop a line of LED products that emit the exact wavelength of light that plants use in photosynthesis. Our company gives credit to Dr. Ray Bula, the director of WCSAR, for having the foresight to go against the prevailing dogma of the time and design the first plant experiment using monochromatic light to grow lettuce plants, Ignatius proclaims. In 1989, Ignatius formed QDI to bring the salt grain-sized LEDs to market, and in October 1995

  5. Progressively safer, cheaper demolition of Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Nichols; Norman Pennington

    2000-09-29

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. has been progressively improving Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) at the Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project by applying new technologies and better methodologies to the work. Demolition issues existed in the past that necessitated new or improved solutions to maintain worker safety, protect the environment and accomplish the work in a cost effective manner. Lessons learned from D&D of 80 structures has led to a systematic approach, which can be implemented in various D&D arenas. When facility production was halted, hold-up material and process residues remained in the process piping and components. Over 500,000 pounds of material was removed by workers who completed the tasks two years ahead of schedule, $7 million under budget and with an excellent safety record. This success was the result of detailed planning and irdision of lessons learned as work progressed from facility to facility. Work sequences were developed that reduced airborne contamination. Demolition of structures has been performed at Fernald by carefully selected and qualified subcontractors. Asbestos and lead abatement, equipment, piping and conduit removal, and structural demolition have been completed to progressively higher performance specifications developed by Fluor Fernald based on lessons learned during execution. Safety continues to be the primary consideration in performing potentially hazardous work. Technologies such as hydraulic shears have been developed and used to keep workers away from danger. A new technology, ''Cool Suits,'' has been demonstrated to help prevent heat stress when anti-contamination clothing is required in elevated temperature working conditions. For tall structures, implosion technologies have been employed with progressively improved results, Several other new technologies have been evaluated by Fluor Fernald and applied by subcontractors. The improved technologies included the oxy-gas torch, which uses

  6. Soluble salt removal from MSWI fly ash and its stabilization for safer disposal and recovery as road basement material.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Montagnaro, F; Santoro, L

    2012-06-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is classified as hazardous in the European Waste Catalogue. Proper stabilization processes should be required before any management option is put into practice. Due to the inorganic nature of MSWI fly ash, cementitious stabilization processes are worthy of consideration. However, the effectiveness of such processes can be severely compromised by the high content of soluble chlorides and sulphates. In this paper, a preliminary washing treatment has been optimized to remove as much as possible soluble salts by employing as little as possible water. Two different operating conditions (single-step and two-step) have been developed to this scope. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that stabilized systems containing 20% of binder are suitable for safer disposal as well as for material recovery in the field of road basement (cement bound granular material layer). Three commercially available cements (pozzolanic, limestone and slag) have been employed as binders.

  7. Career Development: A Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavenski, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a comprehensive career development system implemented by Coca-Cola USA. The system's objectives are (1) to promote from within, (2) to develop talent for the future, (3) to make managers responsible for development efforts, and (4) to make individuals ultimately responsible for their development. (CH)

  8. Exploration Medical System Technical Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, K.; Middour, C.; Cerro, J.; Burba, T.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Mindock, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element systems engineering goals include defining the technical system needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars. This past year, scenarios captured in the medical system concept of operations laid the foundation for systems engineering technical development work. The systems engineering team analyzed scenario content to identify interactions between the medical system, crewmembers, the exploration vehicle, and the ground system. This enabled the definition of functions the medical system must provide and interfaces to crewmembers and other systems. These analyses additionally lead to the development of a conceptual medical system architecture. The work supports the ExMC community-wide understanding of the functional exploration needs to be met by the medical system, the subsequent development of medical system requirements, and the system verification and validation approach utilizing terrestrial analogs and precursor exploration missions.

  9. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L.; Brown, W.L.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas

    2013-07-01

    documents, the system saves three-to-four man days each month for the field personnel taking the measurements and the scientists and administrators managing the data and the documentation. After the information has received technical review, FLEDG automatically updates the database for water-level measurements and loads the document management system with the completed sampling report. Due to safety considerations, access to wells is conditional. A spreadsheet with appropriate data not only lists the wells that are cleared for work, but also the safety personnel who must be present before work can start. This spreadsheet is used in planning daily activities. Daily plans are structured to ensure that the wells to be sampled are cleared for work and the appropriate safety personnel have been assigned and are present before the work starts. Historically, the spreadsheets have been prepared manually, and as a result, are potentially subject to human error. However, a companion database application has been developed to work with FLEDG - making the entire sampling process more efficient and safer for personnel. The Well Access List - Electronic, WAL-E, is a database that contains much the same information that was previously manually loaded into the spread sheet. In addition, WAL-E contains a managed work-flow application that shows the access requirements and allows for appropriate reviews of the compiled well. Various CHPRC organizations, including Industrial Hygiene, RADCON, and Well Maintenance and Sample Administration are able to enter and review the wells added or deleted from the WAL-E database. The FLEDG system then accesses this database information to identify appropriate support personnel and provide safety requirements to field personnel. In addition, WAL-E offers the assurance that wells have appropriate locks and are correctly labeled and electrically grounded as required, before well activities begin. This feature is an extremely important aspect of the FLEDG

  10. Series Bosch System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Evans, Christopher; Mansell, Matt; Swickrath, Michael

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SOA) carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology for the International Space Station produces methane as a byproduct. This methane is subsequently vented overboard. The associated loss of hydrogen ultimately reduces the mass of oxygen that can be recovered from CO2 in a closed-loop life support system. As an alternative to SOA CO2 reduction technology, NASA is exploring a Series-Bosch system capable of reducing CO2 with hydrogen to form water and solid carbon. This results in 100% theoretical recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. In the past, Bosch-based technology did not trade favorably against SOA technology due to a high power demand, low reaction efficiencies, concerns with carbon containment, and large resupply requirements necessary to replace expended catalyst cartridges. An alternative approach to Bosch technology, labeled "Series-Bosch," employs a new system design with optimized multi-stage reactors and a membrane-based separation and recycle capability. Multi-physics modeling of the first stage reactor, along with chemical process modeling of the integrated system, has resulted in a design with potential to trade significantly better than previous Bosch technology. The modeling process and resulting system architecture selection are discussed.

  11. Taking ergonomics to the bedside--a multi-disciplinary approach to designing safer healthcare.

    PubMed

    Norris, Beverley; West, Jonathan; Anderson, Oliver; Davey, Grace; Brodie, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A multi-disciplinary approach to designing safer healthcare was utilised to investigate risks in the bed-space in elective surgical wards. The Designing Out Medical Error (DOME) project brought together clinicians, designers, psychologists, human factors and business expertise to develop solutions for the highest risk healthcare processes. System mapping and risk assessment techniques identified nearly 200 potential failure modes in hand hygiene, isolation of infection, vital signs monitoring, medication delivery and handover of information. Solutions addressed issues such as the design of equipment, reminders, monitoring, feedback and standardisation. Some of the solutions, such as the CareCentre™, which brings many of the processes and equipment together into one easy to access workstation at the foot of the bed, have been taken forward to clinical trials and manufacture. The project showed the value of the multi-disciplinary and formal human factors approaches to healthcare design for patient safety. In particular, it demonstrates the application of human factors to a complete design cycle and provides a case study for the activities required to reach a safe, marketable product. PMID:24135560

  12. Platinum-containing compound platinum pyrithione is stronger and safer than cisplatin in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong; Chen, Xin; Zang, Dan; Lan, Xiaoying; Liao, Siyan; Yang, Changshan; Zhang, Peiquan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Liao, Yuning; Huang, Hongbiao; Shi, Xianping; Jiang, Lili; Liu, Xiuhua; He, Zhimin; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2016-09-15

    DNA is the well-known molecular target of current platinum-based anticancer drugs; consequently, their clinical use is severely restricted by their systemic toxicities and drug resistance originating from non-selective DNA damage. Various strategies have been developed to circumvent the shortcomings of platinum-based chemotherapy but the inherent problem remains unsolved. Here we report that platinum pyrithione (PtPT), a chemically well-characterized synthetic complex of platinum, inhibits proteasome function and thereby exhibits greater and more selective cytotoxicity to multiple cancer cells than cisplatin, without showing discernible DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, unlike the classical proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/Velcade which inhibits the proteasome via blocking the peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, PtPT primarily deactivates 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases USP14 and UCHL5. Furthermore, PtPT can selectively induce cytotoxicity and proteasome inhibition in cancer cells from leukemia patients but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy humans. In nude mice, PtPT also remarkably inhibited tumor xenograft growth, without showing the adverse effects that were induced by cisplatin. Hence, we have discovered a new platinum-based anti-tumor agent PtPT which targets 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases rather than DNA in the cell and thereby exerts safer and more potent anti-tumor effects, identifying a highly translatable new platinum-based anti-cancer strategy. PMID:27381943

  13. Arcjet system integration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, Sidney

    1994-01-01

    Compatibility between an arcjet propulsion system and a communications satellite was verified by testing a Government-furnished, 1.4 kW hydrazine arcjet system with the FLTSATCOM qualification model satellite in a 9.1-meter (30-foot) diameter thermal-vacuum test chamber. Background pressure was maintained at 10(exp -5) torr during arcjet operation by cryopumping the thruster exhaust with an array of 5 K liquid helium cooled panels. Power for the arcjet system was obtained from the FLTSATCOM battery simulator. Spacecraft telemetry was monitored during each thruster firing period. No changes in telemetry data attributable to arcjet operation were detected in any of the tests. Electromagnetic compatibility data obtained included radiated emission measurements, conducted emission measurements, and cable coupling measurements. Significant noise was observed at lower frequencies. Above 500 MHz, radiated emissions were generally within limits, indicating that communication links at S-band and higher frequencies will not be affected. Other test data taken with a diagnostic array of calorimeters, radiometers, witness plates, and a residual gas analyzer evidenced compatible operation, and added to the data base for arcjet system integration. Two test series were conducted. The first series only included the arcjet and diagnostic array operating at approximately 0.1 torr background pressure. The second series added the qualification model spacecraft, a solar panel, and the helium cryopanels. Tests were conducted at 0.1 torr and 10(exp-5) torr. The arcjet thruster was canted 20 degrees relative to the solar panel axis, typical of the configuration used for stationkeeping thrusters on geosynchronous communications satellites.

  14. Safer choices: reducing teen pregnancy, HIV, and STDs.

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, K.; Basen-Engquist, K.; Kirby, D.; Parcel, G.; Banspach, S.; Collins, J.; Baumler, E.; Carvajal, S.; Harrist, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of Safer Choices, a theory-based, multi-component educational program designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase protective behaviors in preventing HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among high school students. METHODS: The study used a randomized controlled trial involving 20 high schools in California and Texas. A cohort of 3869 ninth-grade students was tracked for 31 months from fall semester 1993 (baseline) to spring semester 1996 (31-month follow-up). Data were collected using self-report surveys administered by trained data collectors. Response rate at 31-month follow-up was 79%. RESULTS: Safer Choices had its greatest effect on measures involving condom use. The program reduced the frequency of intercourse without a condom during the three months prior to the survey, reduced the number of sexual partners with whom students had intercourse without a condom, and increased use of condoms and other protection against pregnancy at last intercourse. Safer Choices also improved 7 of 13 psychosocial variables, many related to condom use, but did not have a significant effect upon rates of sexual initiation. CONCLUSIONS: The Safer Choices program was effective in reducing important risk behaviors for HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy and in enhancing most psychosocial determinants of such behavior. PMID:11889277

  15. Exercise in the 70s--Implications for Safer Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Chauncey A.

    1981-01-01

    Precautionary measures that should be taken by individuals to provide for safer participation in a vigorous exercise program are outlined, including the need for physical examinations, physical conditioning and warm-up, proper clothing and equipment, and awareness of environmental hazards. (JMF)

  16. Identifying Subtypes of Spousal Assaulters Using the B-SAFER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijssen, Jill; de Ruiter, Corine

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a structured risk assessment instrument for intimate partner violence, the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER), was coded for 146 files of spousal assault cases from the Dutch probation service, dating from 2004 and 2005. The aim of the study was twofold: (a) to validate Holtzworth-Munroe and…

  17. Making Children, Families, and Communities Safer from Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    There is something everyone can do to combat violence. The highest priority is making oneself and one's family safer from violence. Parents should consider carefully about having weapons, especially firearms, in the home, since statistics show that a firearm in the home is more than forty times as likely to injure or kill a family member as to…

  18. Geodyn systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putney, B. H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the GEODYN Orbit Determination and Parameter Estimation, the SOLVE and ERODYN Programs is to recover geodetic and geophysical parameters from satellite and other data in a state-of-the-art manner. Continued solutions for gravity field, pole positions, Earth rotation, GM, and baselines were made as part of the Crustal Dynamics Project. Some tidal parameters were recovered as well. The eight digit station identification number was incorporated in the software and new techniques for constraining monthly station parameters to each other are being developed. This is allowing the analysts even more flexibility in the shaping of solutions from monthly sets of normal equations and right-hand sides.

  19. Making Medical Devices Safer at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... issues like anxiety, necessary training, and the home environment that might have children and pets. This document also addresses the development of user-friendly instructions, including how to handle ...

  20. Safe blood and safer sex. Education and counselling.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Education and counseling services aimed at blood donors have the potential not only to increase the safety of the blood supply, but also to promote safer sexual behavior. Public education campaigns should emphasize the social responsibility aspect of blood donation, including stories about lives saved with blood transfusions, and stress the need for donors to act responsibly by not putting others at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When people first come to the blood collection center or mobile van, it is helpful to give a talk or show a video about the blood collection process. Also recommended are one-to-one sessions with a trained health worker in which potential donors can assess, on the basis of questions about their personal risk factors, whether they should exclude themselves. After the Honduras Red Cross National Blood Program introduced a brochure containing information about HIV risk and the importance of not donating blood if one has engaged in high-risk activities, the HIV prevalence among donors declined from 0.38 in 1990 to 0.19 a year later, despite increases in HIV seroprevalence in the general population. In Zimbabwe, the National Blood Transfusion Service has developed special outreach programs for students 16 years and older, the source of 65% of the country's blood supply. Talks are given at schools, and students are trained to be peer promoters. School leaders are invited to register for regular blood collection services at community centers; many formally pledge to donate blood 25 times in their life-time and to seek to remain HIV-negative.

  1. Oxygen Assessments Ensure Safer Medical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    A team at White Sands Test Facility developed a test method to evaluate fire hazards in oxygen-enriched environments. Wendell Hull and Associates, located in Las Cruces, New Mexico, entered a Space Act Agreement with NASA and now provides services including fire and explosion investigations, oxygen testing and training, and accident reconstruction and forensic engineering.

  2. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  3. Safer environment makes sense for all.

    PubMed

    Frith, Sue

    2011-06-01

    Sue Frith, deputy head of the NHS Security Management Service (NHS SMS), explains the organisation's important role in advising, and supporting, security staff at NHS hospitals in dealing with incidents ranging from verbal abuse to serious violence and aggression. Arguing that security in the NHS is "everyone's business", she explains both a range of processes and initiatives,already in place to safeguard people and assets, and discusses recent developments, such as a new incident reporting website, designed to help keep patients, staff, visitors, and property, at healthcare facilities safe and secure. PMID:21776924

  4. Expert systems development and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Current research in the application of expert systems to problems in the flight research environment is discussed. In what is anticipated to be a broad research area, a real time expert system flight status monitor has been identified as the initial project. This real time expert system flight status monitor is described in terms of concept, application, development, and schedule.

  5. Chicago's Safer Foundation: A Road Back for Ex-Offenders. Program Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    The Safer Foundation in Chicago, Illinois, is the largest community-based provider of employment services for ex-offenders in the United States. Established in 1972, Safer has a professional staff of nearly 200 in 6 locations. Safer runs a private school, called the PACE (Programmed Activities for Correctional Education) Institute, at the Cook…

  6. Has increased body weight made driving safer?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan W

    2014-11-01

    We develop a model of alcohol consumption that incorporates the negative biological relationship between body mass and inebriation conditional on total alcohol consumption. Our model predicts that the elasticity of inebriation with respect to weight is equal to the own-price elasticity of alcohol, consistent with body mass increasing the effective price of inebriation. Given that alcohol is generally considered price inelastic, this result implies that as individuals gain weight, they consume more alcohol but become less inebriated. We test this prediction and find that driver blood alcohol content (BAC) is negatively associated with driver weight. In fatal accidents with driver BAC above 0.10, the driver was 7.8 percentage points less likely to be obese than drivers in fatal accidents that did not involve alcohol. This relationship is not explained by driver attributes (age and sex), driver behaviors (speed and seatbelt use), vehicle attributes (weight class, model year, and number of occupants), or accident context (county of accident, time of day, and day of week).

  7. Perception of HIV and safer sexual behaviors among lesbians.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Seja Joyce; Anderson, Elizabeth H

    2003-01-01

    There is little data on female-to-female transmission of HIV. Some women who have sex with women (WSW) have other high-risk behaviors that could lead to HIV infection. The belief that WSW are at no risk may lead to unsafe sexual practices. In this study, a convenience sample of 78 women was surveyed in order to explore the perception of HIV risk among lesbians, their sexual behaviors, and their sources of information about safer sex. Fifty-three percent reported they were at low risk for contracting HIV. Women reported knowledge of barrier methods (89% to 99%) and no sex during menstruation (92%). However, 35% to 40% reported no knowledge of less common safer sex practices. Women reported their source of knowledge as media (36%), workshops (22%), and friends (12%). Eighty-five percent stated that their health care provider knew they were lesbian, but only 15% reported receiving safer sex education. Nurses and nurse practitioners are aptly poised to provide critical HIV education and health care for this population.

  8. Women's autonomy in negotiating safer sex to prevent HIV: findings from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2014-02-01

    Women with greater autonomy have higher HIV-related knowledge and condom use. Inability to negotiate safer sex in high-risk situations might increase HIV infection. This study examined the relationship between women's autonomy and ability to negotiate safer sex practices among married women. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The data were collected by two-stage stratified cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews. Autonomy was measured in Decision-Making Participation and Assets Ownership, while ability to negotiate safer sex consists of Refusal of Sex and Ask for Condom Use. Among 12,674 women of 15-49 years, married women were analyzed (n = 8,896). Women with greater autonomy in decision-making participation were more likely to negotiate safer sex. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, odds ratios (OR) for refusal of sex was 2.70 (95% CI [2.14, 3.40]) in women with the highest decision-making participation. These women showed higher OR for 'ask for condom use' in high risk situations (2.10, 95% CI [1.81, 2.44]). Assets ownership also demonstrated a positive statistical relationship with asking for a condom use (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.10, 1.56]). The results point to the importance of women's autonomy on sexual health. It emphasizes women's empowerment-based approach to curbing HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

  9. Safer Wards: reducing violence on older people's mental health wards.

    PubMed

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Kwesi, Solomon; Joyce, Maggie; Dusoye, Jenny; Mohamudbucus, Yasin; Shah, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Through the Safer Wards project we aimed to reduce the number of incidents of physical violence on older people's mental health wards. This was done using quality improvement methods and supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Violence can be an indicator of unmet needs in this patient population, with a negative effect on patient care and staff morale. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust. We established a multi-disciplinary group who led on the project on each ward and used a Pareto diagram to establish the focus of our work. We established a dashboard of measures based on our incident reporting system Datix, including number of incidents of violence, days between incidents, days of staff sickness, days between staff injury, use of restraint, and use of rapid tranquilisation (the last two being balancing measures in the reduction of violence). Each team identified factors driving physical violence on the wards, under headings of unmet patient needs, staff needs and staff awareness, which included lack of activity and a safe and therapeutic environment. Using driver diagrams, we identified change ideas that included hourly rounding (proactive checks on patient well-being), the addition of sensory rooms, flexible leave for patients, and a structured activity programme. We also introduced exercise to music, therapeutic groups led by patients, and focused on discharge planning and pet therapy, each of which starting sequentially over the course of a one year period from late 2013 and subject to a cycle of iterative learning using PDSA methods. The specific aim was a 20% decrease in violent incidents on three wards in City and Hackney, and Newham. Following our interventions, days between violent incidents increased from an average of three to an average of six. Days between staff injury due to physical violence rose from an average of

  10. Safer Wards: reducing violence on older people's mental health wards

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Kwesi, Solomon; Joyce, Maggie; Dusoye, Jenny; Mohamudbucus, Yasin; Shah, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Through the Safer Wards project we aimed to reduce the number of incidents of physical violence on older people's mental health wards. This was done using quality improvement methods and supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Violence can be an indicator of unmet needs in this patient population, with a negative effect on patient care and staff morale. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust. We established a multi-disciplinary group who led on the project on each ward and used a Pareto diagram to establish the focus of our work. We established a dashboard of measures based on our incident reporting system Datix, including number of incidents of violence, days between incidents, days of staff sickness, days between staff injury, use of restraint, and use of rapid tranquilisation (the last two being balancing measures in the reduction of violence). Each team identified factors driving physical violence on the wards, under headings of unmet patient needs, staff needs and staff awareness, which included lack of activity and a safe and therapeutic environment. Using driver diagrams, we identified change ideas that included hourly rounding (proactive checks on patient well-being), the addition of sensory rooms, flexible leave for patients, and a structured activity programme. We also introduced exercise to music, therapeutic groups led by patients, and focused on discharge planning and pet therapy, each of which starting sequentially over the course of a one year period from late 2013 and subject to a cycle of iterative learning using PDSA methods. The specific aim was a 20% decrease in violent incidents on three wards in City and Hackney, and Newham. Following our interventions, days between violent incidents increased from an average of three to an average of six. Days between staff injury due to physical violence rose from an average of

  11. Development of a stereofluoroscopy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    A technique of 3-D video imaging, was developed for use on manned missions for observation and control of remote manipulators. An improved medical diagnostic fluoroscope with a stereo, real-time output was also developed. An explanation of how this system works, and recommendations for future work in this area are presented.

  12. TADS: Technical Assistance Development System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epting, Rosemary, Ed.

    Described is the Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), a component of the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill which offers support services to preschool demonstration centers for handicapped children in the First Chance Network. Discussed are the four types of services offered:…

  13. Development of Vocational Training Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    The EUROTECNET program was implemented to develop and improve vocational training policies and systems to meet the challenges of change in the economic and social situation through the development of innovative responses and actions. Each Member State of the European Community was asked to identify one issue of strategic and critical importance to…

  14. Self-rescue strategies for EVA crewmembers equipped with the SAFER backpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    1994-01-01

    An extravehicular astronaut who becomes separated from a space station has three options available: grappling the station immediately by means of a 'shepherd's crook' device; rescue by either a second crewmember flying an MMU or a robotic-controlled MMU; or self-rescue by means of a propulsive system. The first option requires very fast response by a tumbling astronaut; the second requires constant availability of an MMU, as well as a rendezvous procedure thousands of feet from the station. This paper will consider the third option, propulsive self-rescue. In particular, the capability of the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsive backpack, which is to be tested on STS-64 in Sep. 1994, will be studied. This system possesses an attitude hold function that can automatically detumble an astronaut after separation. On-orbit tests of candidate self-rescue systems have demonstrated the need for such a feature. SAFER has a total delta(v) capability of about 10 fps, to cover both rotations and translations, compared with a possible separation rate of 2.5 fps. But the delta(v) required for self-rescue is critically dependent on the delay before return can be initiated, as a consequence of orbital effects. A very important practical question is then whether the total delta(v) of SAFER is adequate to perform self-rescue for worst case values of separation speed, time to detumble, and time for the astronaut to visually acquire the station. This paper shows that SAFER does indeed have sufficient propellant to carry out self-rescue in all realistic separation cases, as well as in cases which are considerably more severe than anything likely to be encountered in practice. The return trajectories and total delta(v)'s discussed are obtained by means of an 'inertial line-of-sight targeting' scheme, derived in the paper, which allows orbital effects to be corrected by making use of the visual information available to the pilot, namely the line-of-sight direction to the

  15. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  16. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  17. ‘It is not expected for married couples’: a qualitative study on challenges to safer sex communication among polygamous and monogamous partners in southeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mtenga, Sally Mmanyi; Geubbels, Eveline; Tanner, Marcel; Merten, Sonja; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    prevention interventions in Tanzania should be carefully adapted to the local context including respective social norms, gender systems, marital context and relationship uncertainties as aspects that facilitate or hinder safer sex dialogue between partners. The WHO-CSDH framework could be strengthened by explicitly integrating relationship quality, marital status, and social norms as additional determinants of health. PMID:27633036

  18. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  19. Building social capital in healthcare organizations: thinking ecologically for safer care.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Anne; Marck, Patricia B

    2008-01-01

    Research on patient safety and health human resources, 2 critical issues for 21st century healthcare, converges on similar findings. Specifically, it is apparent that along with the patients, families, and communities we serve, nurses and other healthcare professionals navigate a volatile health care system where persistent restructuring, market pressures, and workforce instability present ongoing threats to the delivery of safer care. Drawing from the fields of nursing, healthcare ethics, health systems management, and ecological restoration, we outline the role of social capital for organizational integrity, healthy workplace cultures, sustainable resource management, improved nurse retention, effective knowledge translation, and safer patient care. Nursing leaders can use ecological thinking to build the vital resource of social capital by taking concrete steps to commit the necessary human and material resources to: (1) forge relations to foster bonding, bridging and linking social capital; (2) build solidarity and trust; (3) foster collective action and cooperation; (4) strengthen communication and knowledge exchange; and (5) create capacity for social cohesion and inclusion. PMID:18675014

  20. Seismographs, sensors, and satellites: Better technology for safer communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groat, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 25 years, our ability to measure, monitor, and model the processes that lead to natural disasters has increased dramatically. Equally important has been the improvement in our technological capability to communicate information about hazards to those whose lives may be affected. These innovations in tracking and communicating the changes-floods, earthquakes, wildfires, volcanic eruptions-in our dynamic planet, supported by a deeper understanding of earth processes, enable us to expand our predictive capabilities and point the way to a safer future. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Artificial Intelligence For A Safer And More Efficient Car Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorni, Giovanni

    1989-03-01

    In this paper a project, PROMETHEUS, is described in which fourteen of Europe's leading car manufacturers are to join with approximately forty research institutes and governmental agencies to make the traffic of Europe safer, more efficient and more economical. PROMETHEUS project is divided into seven areas. In this paper one of the seven areas, PRO-ART, is described. PRO-ART is aimed at clarifying the need for and the principles of the artificial intelligence to be used in the next generation automobile. After a brief description of the overhall project, the description of the seven years PRO-ART Italian research programme will be given.

  2. Airport baggage scanning technology makes flying safer for Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry

    2013-08-28

    Each time you step on a commercial flight, you can feel safer because of a researcher you've probably never heard of. His name is Harry Martz. He's a veteran scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) who wakes up every day thinking how his research can advance X-ray imaging technology to thwart the next terrorist attack. "My job is to improve national security," Martz said. "That's why my research team exists. We have to outsmart the terrorists. It's a constant battle."

  3. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    PubMed

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  4. Control systems development, research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, L. R.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes design and implementation of several computerized control systems. These implementations include: an ultrasonic weld tester, an automated vacuum oven, a differential pressure gaging system, a die casting control system, a lathe crash prevention and monitoring system, an electric eddy current weld scanner, a bar code scanner, a gage controller, and thermocouple tester.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]). (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk. (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for either clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and where DOE will reach consensus with NDEP before beginning the next phase of work.

  6. Subsea systems developed in Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Cranfield, J.

    1983-05-01

    Work is now underway offshore Norway on an extended development of subsea systems for use on marginal fields in deep water remote from existing surface facilities. Initially, shallow-water trials are being conducted. If these are successful, a full-scale system will be built at Norway's Underwater Technology Center near Bergen. Here, a water depth of over 300 ft. is available within easy reach of the shore. A long-term endurance trial will be run, partly to gain operating experience, and partly to test the reliability of the hardline multiplex remote-control system. Under trial will be the system's hydraulics, sensors and actuators, and the subsea hydraulic and electric control bundle and its connectors.

  7. Mobile munitions assessment system development

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, L.C.; Watts, K.D.; Jorgensen, C.L.

    1996-05-01

    The United States has been involved in the development, testing, storage and disposal of chemical weapons since World War I. As a result, there are numerous sites which contain the presence of chemical warfare materiel. This materiel is in the form of buried surplus munitions, munitions that did not detonate during testing and other forms. These items pose a significant human health and environmental hazard and must be disposed of properly. The US Army was tasked by the Department of Defense with the remediation of all non-stockpile chemical warfare materiel. To help comply with this tasking, the Army Project Manager for Nonstockpile Chemical Materiel is sponsoring the development of a Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS). The system is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Dugway Proving Ground. The purpose of the system is to inspect suspect munitions and containers, identify the fill, evaluate the fuzing and firing train and analyze samples from the surrounding area to determine if chemical warfare materiel is present. The information gained from the application of the MMAS and other systems is intended to be used to establish the best method to handle and dispose of a given munition and its contents.

  8. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  9. Data bus system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two data bus systems were designed fabricated, Data Bus System I and Data Bus System II. The technical features of the delivered hardware include the following: (1) 5 MHz selfclocking data bus; (2) bidirectional communications utilizing Manchester Code at data rates in excess of 20,000 words per second; (3) utilization of MSI COS/MOS technology (4) probability of accepting an erroneous data bit less than 1 in 10 to the 25th power (5) low power consumption (50 to 1 reduction in quiescent current over P/MOS) (6) compatibility with projected high density packaging. Three distinct types of data bus remote terminals were developed: the subsystem interface unit, the combination of an electronic interface unit and a standard interface unit-serial, and an SIU/Preprocessor.

  10. Nanosat Intelligent Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael A.; Beaman, Robert G.; Mica, Joseph A.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rilee, Michael L.; Simm, David E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a class of satellites called nano-satellites. The technologies developed for these satellites will enable a class of constellation missions for the NASA Space Science Sun-Earth Connections theme and will be of great benefit to other NASA enterprises. A major challenge for these missions is meeting significant scientific- objectives with limited onboard and ground-based resources. Total spacecraft power is limited by the small satellite size. Additionally, it is highly desirable to minimize operational costs by limiting the ground support required to manage the constellation. This paper will describe how these challenges are met in the design of the nanosat power system. We will address the factors considered and tradeoffs made in deriving the nanosat power system architecture. We will discuss how incorporating onboard fault detection and correction capability yields a robust spacecraft power bus without the mass and volume penalties incurred from redundant systems and describe how power system efficiency is maximized throughout the mission duration.

  11. [Development of the affect system].

    PubMed

    Moser, U; Von Zeppelin, I

    1996-01-01

    The authors show that the development of the affect system commences with affects of an exclusively communicative nature. These regulate the relationship between subject and object. On a different plane they also provide information on the feeling of self deriving from the interaction. Affect is seen throughout as a special kind of information. One section of the article is given over to intensity regulation and early affect defenses. The development of cognitive processes leads to the integration of affect systems and cognitive structures. In the pre-conceptual concretistic phase, fantasies change the object relation in such a way as to make unpleasant affects disappear. Only at a later stage do fantasies acquire the capacity to deal with affects. Ultimately, the affect system is grounded on an invariant relationship feeling. On a variety of different levels it displays the features typical of situation theory and the theory of the representational world, thus making it possible to entertain complex object relations. In this process the various planes of the affect system are retained and practised. Finally, the authors discuss the consequences of their remarks for the understanding of psychic disturbances and the therapies brought to bear on them. PMID:8584745

  12. Remote Arrhythmia Monitoring System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liszka, Kathy J.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is taking a step forward with the efforts of team members from the NASA Glenn Research Center, the MetroHealth campus of Case Western University, and the University of Akron. The Arrhythmia Monitoring System is a completed, working test bed developed at Glenn that collects real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a mobile or homebound patient, combines these signals with global positioning system (GPS) location data, and transmits them to a remote station for display and monitoring. Approximately 300,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks, which are arrhythmia cases. However, not all patients identified at risk for arrhythmias can be monitored continuously because of technological and economical limitations. Such patients, who are at moderate risk of arrhythmias, would benefit from technology that would permit long-term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment. Embedded Web Technology developed at Glenn to remotely command and collect data from embedded systems using Web technology is the catalyst for this new telemetry system (ref. 1). In the end-to-end system architecture, ECG signals are collected from a patient using an event recorder and are transmitted to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) using Bluetooth, a short-range wireless technology. The PDA concurrently tracks the patient's location via a connection to a GPS receiver. A long distance link is established via a standard Internet connection over a 2.5-generation Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS)1 cellular, wireless infrastructure. Then, the digital signal is transmitted to a call center for monitoring by medical professionals.

  13. ITER Plasma Control System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, Joseph; ITER PCS Design Team

    2015-11-01

    The development of the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) continues with the preliminary design phase for 1st plasma and early plasma operation in H/He up to Ip = 15 MA in L-mode. The design is being developed through a contract between the ITER Organization and a consortium of plasma control experts from EU and US fusion laboratories, which is expected to be completed in time for a design review at the end of 2016. This design phase concentrates on breakdown including early ECH power and magnetic control of the poloidal field null, plasma current, shape, and position. Basic kinetic control of the heating (ECH, ICH, NBI) and fueling systems is also included. Disruption prediction, mitigation, and maintaining stable operation are also included because of the high magnetic and kinetic stored energy present already for early plasma operation. Support functions for error field topology and equilibrium reconstruction are also required. All of the control functions also must be integrated into an architecture that will be capable of the required complexity of all ITER scenarios. A database is also being developed to collect and manage PCS functional requirements from operational scenarios that were defined in the Conceptual Design with links to proposed event handling strategies and control algorithms for initial basic control functions. A brief status of the PCS development will be presented together with a proposed schedule for design phases up to DT operation.

  14. Reciprocating Feed System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trewek, Mary (Technical Monitor); Blackmon, James B.; Eddleman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The reciprocating feed system (RFS) is an alternative means of providing high pressure propellant flow at low cost and system mass, with high fail-operational reliability. The RFS functions by storing the liquid propellants in large, low-pressure tanks and then expelling each propellant through two or three small, high-pressure tanks. Each RFS tank is sequentially filled, pressurized, expelled, vented, and refilled so as to provide a constant, or variable, mass flow rate to the engine. This type of system is much lighter than a conventional pressure fed system in part due to the greatly reduced amount of inert tank weight. The delivered payload for an RFS is superior to that of conventional pressure fed systems for conditions of high total impulse and it is competitive with turbopump systems, up to approximately 2000 psi. An advanced version of the RFS uses autogenous pressurization and thrust augmentation to achieve higher performance. In this version, the pressurization gases are combusted in a small engine, thus making the pressurization system, in effect, part of the propulsion system. The RFS appears to be much less expensive than a turbopump system, due to reduced research and development cost and hardware cost, since it is basically composed of small high- pressure tanks, a pressurization system, and control valves. A major benefit is the high reliability fail-operational mode; in the event of a failure in one of the three tank-systems, it can operate on the two remaining tanks. Other benefits include variable pressure and flow rates, ease of engine restart in micro-gravity, and enhanced propellant acquisition and control under adverse acceleration conditions. We present a system mass analysis tool that accepts user inputs for various design and mission parameters and calculates such output values payload and vehicle weights for the conventional pressure fed system, the RFS, the Autogenous Pressurization Thrust Augmentation (APTA) RFS, and turbopump systems

  15. Development of biotechnology control systems.

    PubMed

    Romeu, F J

    1995-03-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have generated great interest in biotechnology systems. Modern fermentation processes have a more scientific basis and can be optimized more quickly by utilizing instrumentation and control technology that permits increasing yield and product quality. The automation technology, to a large extent, can determine the degree of success of growing microorganisms. The automation system in modern biotechnology facilities includes a number of leading technologies such as sensors, indicators, data acquisition, distributed control, programmable control, communications, data base management, on-line data analysis techniques and application software. Modern computer systems have made fermentation processes easier and more accurate by performing tasks such as on-line analysis, statistical process control and supervisory control, while microprocessor-based distributed process controllers perform direct digital control, batch and sequencing control. This paper addresses technical issues related to the development of instrumentation and control systems that integrate these technologies through methodologies that permit the timely generation of the documentation and drawings that specify the control system for procurement, installation, commissioning, validation and operation.

  16. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  17. Eight principles for safer opioid prescribing and cautions with benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R; Reisfield, Gary M; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2015-01-01

    The provision of long-term opioid analgesic therapy for chronic pain requires a careful risk/benefit analysis followed by clinical safety measures to identify and reduce misuse, abuse, and addiction and their associated morbidity and mortality. Multiple data sources show that benzodiazepines, prescribed for comorbid insomnia, anxiety, and mood disorders, heighten the risk of respiratory depression and other adverse outcomes when combined with opioid therapy. Evidence is presented for hazards associated with coadministration of opioids and benzodiazepines and the need for caution when initiating opioid therapy for chronic pain. Clinical recommendations follow, as drawn from 2 previously published literature reviews, one of which proffers 8 principles for safer opioid prescribing; the other review presents risks associated with benzodiazepines, suggests alternatives for co-prescribing benzodiazepines and opioids, and outlines recommendations regarding co-prescribing if alternative therapies are ineffective.

  18. Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

  19. Recommendations for safer radiotherapy: what’s the message?

    PubMed Central

    Dunscombe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy, with close to a million courses delivered per year in North America, is a very safe and effective intervention for a devastating disease. However, although rare, several deeply regrettable incidents have occurred in radiotherapy and have rightly been the subject of considerable public interest. Partly in response to reports of these incidents a variety of authoritative organizations across the globe has harnessed the expertise amongst their members in attempts to identify the measures that will make radiotherapy safer. While the intentions of all these organizations are clearly good it is challenging for the health care providers in the clinic to know where to start with so much advice coming from so many directions. Through a mapping exercise we have identified commonalities between recommendations made in seven authoritative documents and identified those issues most frequently cited. The documents reviewed contain a total of 117 recommendations. Using the 37 recommendations in “Towards Safer Radiotherapy” as the initial base layer, recommendations in the other documents were mapped, adding to the base layer to accommodate all the recommendations from the additional six documents as necessary. This mapping exercise resulted in the distillation of the original 117 recommendations down to 61 unique recommendations. Twelve topics were identified in three or more of the documents as being pertinent to the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy. They are, in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation, incident learning, communication, check lists, quality control and preventive maintenance, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment, and safety culture. This analysis provides guidance for the selection of those activities most likely to enhance safety and quality in radiotherapy based on the frequency of citation in selected recent authoritative literature. PMID:23061045

  20. Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadid, A.; Lin, W.; Ascoli, E.; Barson, S.; Sindir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial products operate in a dynamic flow environment and the aerodynamically generated noise has become a very important factor in the design of these products. In light of the importance in characterizing this dynamic environment, Rocketdyne has initiated a multiyear effort to develop an advanced general-purpose Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System (CAAS) to address these issues. This system will provide a high fidelity predictive capability for aeroacoustic design and analysis. The numerical platform is able to provide high temporal and spatial accuracy that is required for aeroacoustic calculations through the development of a high order spectral element numerical algorithm. The analysis system is integrated with well-established CAE tools, such as a graphical user interface (GUI) through PATRAN, to provide cost-effective access to all of the necessary tools. These include preprocessing (geometry import, grid generation and boundary condition specification), code set up (problem specification, user parameter definition, etc.), and postprocessing. The purpose of the present paper is to assess the feasibility of such a system and to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm through numerical examples. Computations of vortex shedding noise were carried out in the context of a two-dimensional low Mach number turbulent flow past a square cylinder. The computational aeroacoustic approach that is used in CAAS relies on coupling a base flow solver to the acoustic solver throughout a computational cycle. The unsteady fluid motion, which is responsible for both the generation and propagation of acoustic waves, is calculated using a high order flow solver. The results of the flow field are then passed to the acoustic solver through an interpolator to map the field values into the acoustic grid. The acoustic field, which is governed by the linearized Euler equations, is then calculated using the flow results computed

  1. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Villarreal, José E.; Pedraza, Martha; García, Laura; Tendilla, José I.; Paredes, Lydia

    2001-10-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry.

  2. Toward safer multi-walled carbon nanotube design: Establishing a statistical model that relates surface charge and embryonic zebrafish mortality.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Leanne M; Melnikov, Fjodor; Wehmas, Leah C; Anastas, Paul T; Tanguay, Robert L; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2016-01-01

    Given the increased utility and lack of consensus regarding carbon nanotube (CNT) environmental and human health hazards, there is a growing demand for guidelines that inform safer CNT design. In this study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model is utilized as a stable, sensitive biological system to evaluate the bioactivity of systematically modified and comprehensively characterized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). MWNTs were treated with strong acid to introduce oxygen functional groups, which were then systematically thermally reduced and removed using an inert temperature treatment. While 25 phenotypic endpoints were evaluated at 24 and 120 hours post-fertilization (hpf), high mortality at 24 hpf prevented further resolution of the mode of toxicity leading to mortality. Advanced multivariate statistical methods are employed to establish a model that identifies those MWNT physicochemical properties that best estimate the probability of observing an adverse outcome. The physicochemical properties considered in this study include surface charge, percent surface oxygen, dispersed aggregate size and morphology and electrochemical activity. Of the five physicochemical properties, surface charge, quantified as the point of zero charge (PZC), was determined as the best predictor of mortality at 24 hpf. From a design perspective, the identification of this property-hazard relationship establishes a foundation for the development of design guidelines for MWNTs with reduced hazard.

  3. AGING SYSTEM DESIGN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. Beesley

    2005-02-07

    This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository.

  4. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  5. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  6. Predictors of Safer Sex Intentions and Protected Sex Among Heterosexual HIV-Negative Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for predicting safe sex behavior in a sample of 228 HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users. We hypothesized that, in addition to TPB constructs, participants’ amount of methamphetamine use and desire to stop unsafe sex behaviors would predict intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors. In turn, we predicted that safer sex intentions would be positively correlated with participants’ percentage of protected sex. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that 48% of the total variance in safer sex intentions was predicted by our model, with less negative attitudes toward safer sex, greater normative beliefs, greater control beliefs, less methamphetamine use, less intent to have sex, and greater desire to stop unsafe sex emerging as significant predictors of greater safer sex intentions. Safer sex intentions were positively associated with future percent protected sex (p<.05). These findings suggest that, among heterosexual methamphetamine users, the TPB is an excellent model for predicting safer sex practices in this population, as are some additional factors (e.g., methamphetamine use). Effective interventions for increasing safer sex practices in methamphetamine user will likely include constructs from this model with augmentations to help reduce methamphetamine use. PMID:19085216

  7. Seriously mentally ill women's safer sex behaviors and the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Mary E; Pinkerton, Steven D; Somlai, Anton M; Kelly, Jeffrey A; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Gibson, Richard H; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-10-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were associated with safer sex intentions. Supplementing variables from the theory of reasoned action with safer sex self-efficacy explained additional variance in safer sex intentions. Greater safer sex intentions were related to both greater condom use and less frequent unprotected intercourse. In addition, less frequent sex after drug use and a less fatalistic outlook were associated with less frequent unprotected intercourse. Life circumstances specific to this population are particularly important to examine to improve the effectiveness of risk reduction interventions for seriously mentally ill women.

  8. Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  9. The Basis Code Development System

    1994-03-15

    BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientificmore » programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.« less

  10. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-01

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  11. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation. PMID:18093731

  12. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  13. Development of a Safeguard System Using an Episomal Mammalian Artificial Chromosome for Gene and Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Narumi; Uno, Katsuhiro; Komoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Teruhiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a safeguard system to remove tumorigenic cells would allow safer clinical applications of stem cells for the treatment of patients with an intractable disease including genetic disorders. Such safeguard systems should not disrupt the host genome and should have long-term stability. Here, we attempted to develop a tumor-suppressing mammalian artificial chromosome containing a safeguard system that uses the immune rejection system against allogeneic tissue from the host. For proof-of-concept of the safeguard system, B16F10 mouse melanoma cells expressing the introduced H2-K(d) major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I)-allogenic haplotype were transplanted into recipient C57BL/6J mice expressing MHC H2-K(b). Subcutaneous implantation of B16F10 cells into C57BL/6J mice resulted in high tumorigenicity. The volume of tumors derived from B16F10 cells expressing allogenic MHC H2-K(d) was decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Suppression of MHC H2-K(d)-expressing tumors in C57BL/6J mice was enhanced by immunization with MHC H2-K(d)-expressing splenocytes (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the safeguard system is capable of suppressing tumor formation by the transplanted cells. PMID:26670279

  14. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  15. Recent developments in aircraft protection systems for laser guide star operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Murphy, Thomas W.; Campbell, Randy

    2012-07-01

    The astronomical community's use of high power laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) systems presents a potential hazard to aviation. Historically, the most common and trusted means of protecting aircraft and their occupants has been the use of safety observers (aka spotters) armed with shut-off switches. These safety observers watch for aircraft at risk and terminate laser propagation before the aircraft can be adversely affected by the laser. Efforts to develop safer and more cost-effective automated aircraft protection systems for use by the astronomical community have been inhibited by both technological and regulatory challenges. This paper discusses recent developments in these two areas. Specifically, with regard to regulation and guidance we discuss the 2011 release of AS-6029 by the SAE as well as the potential impact of RTCA DO-278A. With regard to the recent developments in the technology used to protect aircraft from laser illumination, we discuss the novel Transponder Based Aircraft Detection (TBAD) system being installed at W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO). Finally, we discuss our strategy for evaluating TBAD compliance with the regulations and for seeking appropriate approvals for LGS operations at WMKO using a fully automated, flexibly configured, multi-tier aircraft protection system incorporating this new technology.

  16. Technical developments of OTEC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R.; Thomas, A.; Vega, L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology Program seeks to develop the technology of converting the ocean's vast energy resource into usable forms to the point where industry can assess its potential, commercial utility. The current focus in the program is on the utilization of open-cycle OTEC to produce electricity. The open-cycle OTEC process is one of the few alternative energy options which provides the potential for baseload-carrying capability. This paper provides a very brief overview of the program activities and focuses on results recently obtained from the program's experimental facility designed to allow testing of OC-OTEC subsystems under actual operating conditions utilizing seawater. The facility, referred to as the Seacoast Test Facility (STF), is currently composed of a Heat and Mass Transfer Scoping Test Apparatus (HMTSTA) being supplied by up to 1600 gallons per minute of warm seawater and 1000 gallons per minute of cold seawater. Researchers have obtained experimental data on the performance of evaporators and surface condensers. Also, information on mist elimination and deaeration processes have been obtained. Plans call for modification to the HMTSTA to accommodate the addition of direct-contact condensers. Summary results will be discussed addressing recent studies, by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), of corrosion and biofouling of aluminum alloy surface condensers. Also discussed is the production of desalinated seawater using an open-cycle OTEC process. Finally to be discussed will be recent developments in OTEC turbines and an assessment of seawater supply systems required for OTEC. A brief overview of the program's future plans also will be presented. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. 'Safer environment interventions': a qualitative synthesis of the experiences and perceptions of people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will

    2014-04-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that social, structural, and environmental forces produce vulnerability to health harms among people who inject drugs (PWID), and safer environment interventions (SEI) have been identified as critical to mitigating the impacts of these contextual forces on drug-related harm. To date, however, SEIs have been under-theorized in the literature, and how they minimize drug-related risks across intervention types and settings has not been adequately examined. This article presents findings from a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies reporting PWID's experiences with three types of SEIs (syringe exchange programmes, supervised injection facilities and peer-based harm reduction interventions) published between 1997 and 2012. This meta-synthesis sought to develop a comprehensive understanding of SEIs informed by the experiences of PWID. Twenty-nine papers representing twenty-one unique studies that included an aggregate of more than 800 PWID were included in this meta-synthesis. This meta-synthesis found that SEIs fostered social and physical environments that mitigated drug-related harms and increased access to social and material resources. Specifically, SEIs: (1) provided refuge from street-based drug scenes; (2) enabled safer injecting by reshaping the social and environmental contexts of injection drug use; (3) mediated access to resources and health care services; and, (4) were constrained by drug prohibition and law enforcement activities. These findings indicate that it is critical to situate SEIs in relation to the lived experiences of PWID, and in particular provide broader environmental support to PWID. Given that existing drug laws limit the effectiveness of interventions, drug policy reforms are needed to enable public health, and specifically SEIs, to occupy a more prominent role in the response to injection drug use. PMID:24561777

  18. New "safer sex initiative" stresses "it takes two".

    PubMed

    1994-11-01

    Until very recently, no major manufacturer of oral contraceptives was willing to provide concrete education about STDs. Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories recently launched its Nordette Safer Sex Initiative: a pouch containing a pack of Nordette pills, illustrated educational materials about oral contraceptives including health benefits and use instructions, instructions for protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STD), a sample Ramses condom from Schmid Laboratories, and a discount coupon toward future condom purchases. Ortho subsequently released a patient education program/package including a Lifestyles condom. This latter kit includes self-assessment questionnaires designed to help women rate their risk for STDs, and videotapes for both the patient and the provider. The kit is a box containing the sample condom, a pack of pills, a reference card to explain start dates, a question and answer booklet, and an audiocassette describing how the pill works. These collaborative programs between oral contraceptive manufacturers and condom manufacturers is welcomed as a real breakthrough by numerous reproductive health organizations and providers. The Wyeth program is actually a pilot program offered to 16,000 office-based obstetrician/gynecologists, but it is being considered for distribution to federally-funded clinics. For its part, the entire Ortho kit is available only to physicians, but the company is offering some of the material free to federally-funded clinics. PMID:12289956

  19. The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) : are we safer?

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, Nancy E.

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) is designed to make world safer by reducing the role of U.S. nuclear weapons and reducing the salience of nuclear weapons. U.S. also seeks to maintain a credible nuclear deterrent and reinforce regional security architectures with missile defenses and other conventional military capabilities. But recent studies suggest that nuclear proliferation is a direct response to the perceived threat of U.S. conventional capabilities not U.S. nuclear stockpile. If this is true, then the intent of the NPR to reduce the role and numbers of nuclear weapons and strengthen conventional military capabilities may actually make the world less safe. First stated objective of NPR is to reduce the role and numbers of U.S. nuclear weapons, reduce the salience of nuclear weapons and move step by step toward eliminating them. Second stated objective is a reaffirmation of U.S. commitment to maintaining a strong deterrent which forms the basis of U.S. assurances to allies and partners. The pathway - made explicit throughout the NPR - for reducing the role and numbers of nuclear weapons while maintaining a credible nuclear deterrent and reinforcing regional security architectures is to give conventional forces and capabilities and missile defenses (e.g. non-nuclear elements) a greater share of the deterrence burden.

  20. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Ming; Farajzadeh, Matthew; Pan, Chenyuan; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemical, and bisphenol S (BPS) has been considered a safer alternative for BPA-free products. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development and to explore potential mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptor (ER), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and enzyme aromatase (AROM) pathways. Environmentally relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r, gnrh3, lhβ, fshβ, and erα), and a marker for synaptic transmission (sv2). Low levels of BPS exposure led to similar effects: increased numbers of hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons and increased expression of kiss1, gnrh3, and erα. Antagonists of ER, THRs, and AROM blocked many of the effects of BPA and BPS on reproduction-related gene expression, providing evidence that those three pathways mediate the actions of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system. This study demonstrates that alternatives to BPA used in the manufacture of BPA-free products are not necessarily safer. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe the impact of low-level BPA and BPS exposure on the Kiss/Kiss receptor system during development. It is also the first report of multiple cellular pathways (ERα, THRs, and AROM) mediating the effects of BPA and BPS during embryonic development in any species. PMID:26653335

  1. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Ming; Farajzadeh, Matthew; Pan, Chenyuan; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemical, and bisphenol S (BPS) has been considered a safer alternative for BPA-free products. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development and to explore potential mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptor (ER), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and enzyme aromatase (AROM) pathways. Environmentally relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r, gnrh3, lhβ, fshβ, and erα), and a marker for synaptic transmission (sv2). Low levels of BPS exposure led to similar effects: increased numbers of hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons and increased expression of kiss1, gnrh3, and erα. Antagonists of ER, THRs, and AROM blocked many of the effects of BPA and BPS on reproduction-related gene expression, providing evidence that those three pathways mediate the actions of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system. This study demonstrates that alternatives to BPA used in the manufacture of BPA-free products are not necessarily safer. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe the impact of low-level BPA and BPS exposure on the Kiss/Kiss receptor system during development. It is also the first report of multiple cellular pathways (ERα, THRs, and AROM) mediating the effects of BPA and BPS during embryonic development in any species.

  2. Development of laser transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiawu; Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Jiandong; Zhang, Xinming

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses a light transfer system of therapeutic machine using carbon-dioxide laser. This system is based on imitating human being arm motion principle, consists of optical cardans mainly and can move in three-D space freely. Through it carbon-dioxide laser (which wavelength is 10.6 micrometer) is reflected, focused or diverged and transferred to the different therapeutic part of body to realize the purpose of cutting operation, gasification, cauterization and irradiation. This system includes an indicating system using He-Ne laser, by which carbon-dioxide laser can arrive therapeutic part accurately. This system possesses some advantages e.g. an accurate transfer, large moving range, small power consumption, high power density and easy operation. At present the occupancy in home market of this kind laser transfer system products is over 95%. Some products have been exported to other countries.

  3. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  4. Restructure Staff Development for Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach based on the work of W. Edwards Deming to system wide, high impact staff development. Deming has pointed out the significance of structure in systems. By restructuring the process of staff development we can bring about cost effective improvement of the whole system. We can improve student achievement while…

  5. Positive reinforcement to promote safer sex among clients.

    PubMed

    Raman, S

    1992-01-01

    The AIDS Research Foundation of India (ARFI) began an intervention program with sex workers in Madras where the women reported that they were willing to use condoms, whereas the customers were not. Accordingly, ARFI is focusing on clients using a positive reinforcement approach: repetition of the desirability of condom use by communication. First, truck drivers and dock workers have been targeted. Drivers interviewed by ARFI were familiar with the condom as a contraceptive method rather than a disease-preventing method, and used it with their wives. The ARFI program has convinced tobacco shopkeepers to stock condoms for drivers. Truckers receive key chains with a holder for a condom. At transit site tea shops songs are aired about road and roadside safety sponsored by a tire manufacturer with a message about rubber (tires and condoms). Women selling sex at transit sites are also educated about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) while attempting to increase their level of hygiene. The typical Friday night sex-seeking behavior among dock workers consists of drinking in a wine shop and soliciting sex workers. Port management and unions have also been recruited for promoting AIDS-related education after participating in health education sessions with flip charts and flash cards. Rest rooms display posters on condom use, some men have been recruited as condom holders for distribution on Friday nights, and barber shops also feature posters with messages about safer sex. AIDS/STD prevention programs have to deal with prevailing practices, values, and beliefs. Results indicate increased condom use among clients as shown by increased sales at transit site tobacco shops and shops around the port. In the future the program will pay more attention to improving the negotiation skills of sex workers.

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... 62 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Making Health Care Safer Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now ... to otherwise healthy people outside of medical facilities. Health Care Providers can Know if patients in your facility ...

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Think Sepsis. Time Matters.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Making Health Care Safer Think sepsis. Time matters. Language: English Español ( ... the antibiotic type, dose, and duration are correct. Health care facility CEOs/administrators can Make infection control a ...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Antibiotic Rx in Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Making Health Care Safer Antibiotic Rx in Hospitals: Proceed with Caution ... resistance and improving prescribing practices. Work with other health care facilities to prevent infections, transmission, and resistance. Problem ...

  9. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, José; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, we explore the ways in which conceptualizations and definitions of safer sex are discussed and enacted. Placing attention on their safer sex practices, we analyze the conversations that do and do not occur among YGM and their partners, including the strategies (e.g., negotiated safety, condom communication and negotiation) that are commonly perceived as most useful by YGM. We provide recommendations regarding how to craft safer sex messages for YGM by considering their competing demands. PMID:21894239

  10. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, José; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-09-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, we explore the ways in which conceptualizations and definitions of safer sex are discussed and enacted. Placing attention on their safer sex practices, we analyze the conversations that do and do not occur among YGM and their partners, including the strategies (e.g., negotiated safety, condom communication and negotiation) that are commonly perceived as most useful by YGM. We provide recommendations regarding how to craft safer sex messages for YGM by considering their competing demands. PMID:21894239

  11. 3 in 4 Teens Think E-Cigarettes Safer Than Tobacco: Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 4 Teens Think E-Cigarettes Safer Than Tobacco: Survey But devices deliver as much, if not ... notions about the safety of cigars and smokeless tobacco. And the perception of the safety of these ...

  12. Development of thermal-hydraulic analysis capabilities for Oyster creek

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    GPU Nuclear (GPUN) has been involved in developing analytical methodologies for Oyster Creek plant thermal-hydraulic response simulation for approx. 15 yr. Plant-system-related transient analysis is being accomplished via RETRAN02 MOD4 and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) analysis by SAFER-CORECOOL. This paper reviews the developmental process and lessons learned through this process.

  13. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  14. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Safer Conception Among Serodifferent Couples: Findings from Healthcare Providers Serving Patients with HIV in Seven US Cities.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Champassak, Sofie; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Short, William; Chakraborty, Rana; Weber, Shannon; Levison, Judy; Phillips, Joanne; Storm, Deborah; Anderson, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce the risk of HIV transmission among serodifferent couples trying to conceive, yet provider knowledge, attitudes, and experience utilizing PrEP for this purpose are largely unexamined. Trained interviewers conducted phone interviews with healthcare providers treating patients with HIV in seven cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco, N = 85 total). Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to describe experience, concerns, and perceived barriers to prescribing PrEP for safer conception. Providers (67.1% female, 43 mean years of age, 70.4% white, 10 mean years treating HIV+ patients, 56% in academic vs. community facilities, 62.2% MD) discussed both benefits and concerns of PrEP for safer conception among serodifferent couples. Only 18.8% of providers reported experience prescribing PrEP, 74.2% were willing to prescribe it under ideal circumstances, and 7.0% were not comfortable prescribing PrEP. Benefits included added protection and a greater sense of control for the HIV-negative partner. Concerns were categorized as clinical, system-level, cost, or behavioral. Significant differences in provider characteristics existed across sites, but experience with PrEP for safer conception did not, p = 0.14. Despite limited experience, most providers were open to recommending PrEP for safer conception as long as patients understood the range of concerns and could make informed decisions. Strategies to identify and link serodifferent couples to PrEP services and clinical guidance specific to PrEP for safer conception are needed.

  15. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Safer Conception Among Serodifferent Couples: Findings from Healthcare Providers Serving Patients with HIV in Seven US Cities.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Champassak, Sofie; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Short, William; Chakraborty, Rana; Weber, Shannon; Levison, Judy; Phillips, Joanne; Storm, Deborah; Anderson, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce the risk of HIV transmission among serodifferent couples trying to conceive, yet provider knowledge, attitudes, and experience utilizing PrEP for this purpose are largely unexamined. Trained interviewers conducted phone interviews with healthcare providers treating patients with HIV in seven cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco, N = 85 total). Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to describe experience, concerns, and perceived barriers to prescribing PrEP for safer conception. Providers (67.1% female, 43 mean years of age, 70.4% white, 10 mean years treating HIV+ patients, 56% in academic vs. community facilities, 62.2% MD) discussed both benefits and concerns of PrEP for safer conception among serodifferent couples. Only 18.8% of providers reported experience prescribing PrEP, 74.2% were willing to prescribe it under ideal circumstances, and 7.0% were not comfortable prescribing PrEP. Benefits included added protection and a greater sense of control for the HIV-negative partner. Concerns were categorized as clinical, system-level, cost, or behavioral. Significant differences in provider characteristics existed across sites, but experience with PrEP for safer conception did not, p = 0.14. Despite limited experience, most providers were open to recommending PrEP for safer conception as long as patients understood the range of concerns and could make informed decisions. Strategies to identify and link serodifferent couples to PrEP services and clinical guidance specific to PrEP for safer conception are needed. PMID:26824425

  16. Downhole frac monitoring system developed

    SciTech Connect

    Sarda, J.P.; Wittrisch, C.; Perreau, P.; Deflandre, J.P.

    1987-04-06

    A hydraulic fracture monitoring system makes it possible to determine the azimuth, length, and height of hydraulic fractures. Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has designed, patented, and field tested the system, which is designated Simfrac. It consists of a downhole monitoring tool with real-time surface readout and recording of microseismic events generated during the fracture opening or closing that occurs after the injection of fracture fluids. Combining Simfrac Interpretation with mathematical models can provide a better image of downhole stresses improved hydraulic fracture design, and can indicate optimum drill sites.

  17. Safer sexual decision making in adolescent women: perspectives from the conflict theory of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Kathryn B; Rew, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Adolescent women are at risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immune deficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency deficiency syndrome (AIDS), if they do not engage in safer sexual practices. Adolescent women are biologically, behaviorally, and socially more at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV than adolescent men. Although abstinence is the safest sexual health practice for adolescent women, once sexual activity begins, safer sexual practices involve condom and contraceptive use, and communicating with sexual partners to negotiate condom use. A number of implicit and explicit decisions are involved in these activities. A number of researchers have examined safer sexual decisions of adolescent women, some of whom have used theory models such as the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Although these findings have contributed to the knowledge base about safer sexual decision making, many questions remain unanswered about how adolescent women make safer sexual decisions. The Conflict Model of Decision Making is presented and discussed as a framework for enhanced understanding of safer sexual decision making by adolescent women.

  18. X2000 power system electronics development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Franco, Lauro; Jones, Loren; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treichler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John

    2005-01-01

    The X2000 Power System Electronics (PSE) is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) task to develop a new generation of power system building blocks for potential use on future deep space missions. The effort includes the development of electronic components and modules that can be used as building blocks in the design of generic spacecraft power systems.

  19. “WE NEED SOMEWHERE TO SMOKE CRACK”: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF AN UNSANCTIONED SAFER SMOKING ROOM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Lampkin, Hugh; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many cities around the globe have experienced substantial increases in crack cocaine use. Public health programmes have begun to address crack smoking, primarily through the distribution of safer crack use equipment, but their impacts have been limited. More comprehensive safer environmental interventions, specifically safer smoking rooms (SSR), have been implemented only in select European cities. However, none have been subjected to rigorous evaluation. This ethnographic study was undertaken at an ‘unsanctioned’ SSR operated by a drug user-led organization in Vancouver, Canada, to explore how this intervention shaped crack smoking practices, public crack smoking, and related harms. Methods Ethnographic fieldwork was undertaken at this SSR from September to December 2011, and included approximately 50 hours of ethnographic observation and 23 in-depth interviews with people who smoke crack. Data were analyzed by drawing on the ‘Risk Environment’ framework and concepts of ‘symbolic’, ‘everyday’, and ‘structural’ violence. Findings Our findings illustrate how a high demand for SSRs was driven by the need to minimize exposure to policing (structural violence), drug scene violence (everyday violence), and stigma (symbolic violence) that characterized unregulated drug use settings (e.g., public spaces). Although resource scarcity and social norms operating within the local drug scene (e.g., gendered power relations) perpetuated crack pipe-sharing within unregulated drug use settings, the SSR fostered harm reduction practices by reshaping the social-structural context of crack smoking and reduced the potential for health harms. Conclusion Given the significant potential of SSRs in reducing health and social harms, there is an urgent need to scale up these interventions. Integrating SSRs into public health systems, and supplementing these interventions with health and social supports, has potential to improve the health and safety of crack

  20. Leadership in Accountability for Professional Development Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Stockhouse, Judy; Read, Jo Smith; Street, Steve; Murray, Karl

    The Professional Development Leadership Academy supports states in transforming systems of professional development. This paper investigates accountability considerations that are necessary to determine the impact and results of professional development from a state systems perspective. The five areas of focus that comprise the Academy knowledge…

  1. The Development of Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2016-03-01

    Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infectious diseases, the analysis and epidemiologic interpretation of data, and both prompt and widespread dissemination of results. I outline the Communicable Disease Center's first surveillance systems for malaria, poliomyelitis, and influenza. I also discuss the role of surveillance in the global smallpox eradication program, emphasizing that the establishment of systematic reporting systems and prompt action based on results were critical factors of the program. PMID:26928219

  2. ‘On the same level’: facilitators’ experiences running a drug user-led safer injecting education campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practices play a major role in elevated rates of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (IDU). There is growing interest in the direct involvement of IDU in interventions that seek to address unsafe injecting. This study describes a drug user-led safer injecting education campaign, and explores facilitators’ experiences delivering educational workshops. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 8 members of the Injection Support (IS) Team who developed and facilitated a series of safer injecting education workshops. Interviews explored facilitator’s perceptions of the workshops, experiences being a facilitator, and perspectives on the educational campaign. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results IS Team facilitators described how the workshop’s structure and content enabled effective communication of information about safer injecting practices, while targeting the unsafe practices of workshop participants. Facilitators’ identity as IDU enhanced their ability to relate to workshop participants and communicate educational messages in language accessible to workshop participants. Facilitators reported gaining knowledge and skills from their involvement in the campaign, as well as positive feelings about themselves from the realization that they were helping people to protect their health. Overall, facilitators felt that this campaign provided IDU with valuable information, although facilitators also critiqued the campaign and suggested improvements for future efforts. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of involving IDU in educational initiatives targeting unsafe injecting. Findings illustrate how IDU involvement in prevention activities improves relevance and cultural appropriateness of interventions while providing individual, social, and professional benefits to those IDU delivering education. PMID:23497293

  3. New, faster blood test may make blood supply safer.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    Major blood suppliers in the United States are investigating a new HIV test that could move the country closer to a zero percent transmission rate. The Milwaukee Blood Center was the first in the nation to use the test, which identifies HIV infection two weeks earlier than standard tests. The test reduces the time period during which HIV infection is undetectable from 22 days to 10. The new test called nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) was developed by Roche Molecular Systems and Chiron Corp. It identifies HIV genetic material circulating in the blood stream. America's Blood Centers has been testing NAT in 16 facilities. The procedure was initially developed to reduce the risk of transmitting hepatitis C, and a single sample can be used for testing both hepatitis C and HIV. The cost of using the new test would be an additional $5 to $7 per blood donation. NAT has not yet been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration.

  4. Western Europe: The Development of DBS Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandi, Roberto; Richeri, Giuseppe

    1980-01-01

    Discusses plans for development of direct broadcasting satellite systems in several European countries. Presents economic advantages of satellite broadcasting over terrestrial television systems for advertisers as well as equipment producers. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the spillover effect. (JMF)

  5. Microengineered vascular systems for drug development.

    PubMed

    Hovell, Candice M; Sei, Yoshitaka J; Kim, YongTae

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies and advanced biomaterials have allowed for the development of in vitro platforms that recapitulate more physiologically relevant cellular components and function. Microengineered vascular systems are of particular importance for the efficient assessment of drug candidates to physiological barriers lining microvessels. This review highlights advances in the development of microengineered vascular structures with an emphasis on the potential impact on drug delivery studies. Specifically, this article examines the development of models for the study of drug delivery to the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. We also discuss current challenges and future prospects of the development of microengineered vascular systems. PMID:25424383

  6. Developing an Expert System for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.; Schultz, Samuel; Swain, Mary Ann P.; Abraham, Ivo L.; Farchaus-Stein, Karen

    1984-01-01

    The American Nurses' Association has set eight Standards of Nursing Practice related to the nursing process. Computer-aided information systems intended to facilitate the nursing process must be designed to promote adherence to these professional standards. For each of the eight standards, the paper tells how a hypothetical expert system could help nurses to meet the standard. A prototype of such an expert system is being developed. The paper describes issues in conceptualizing clinical decision-making and developing decision strategies for the prototype system. The process of developing the prototype system is described.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-41-03. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for CAS 25-41-03. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of corrective actions will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The CAS will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 25-41-03. The following text summarizes the SAFER

  8. Ceramic regenerator systems development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.; Rahnke, C. J.; Rao, V. D. N.; Vallance, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Ceramic Regenerator Design and Reliability Program aims to develop ceramic regenerator cores that can be used in passenger car and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. The major cause of failure of early gas turbine regenerators was found to be chemical attack of the ceramic material. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines late in 1974. Results of 53,065 hours of turbine engine durability testing are described. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate, show promise. Five aluminum silicate cores attained the durability objective of 10,000 hours at 800 C (1472 F). Another aluminum silicate core shows minimal evidence of chemical attack after 8071 hours at 982 C (1800 F). Results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are included.

  9. Systems Biology Approach to DevelopingSystems Therapeutics”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The standard drug development model uses reductionist approaches to discover small molecules targeting one pathway. Although systems biology analyzes multiple pathways, the approach is often used to develop a small molecule interacting at only one pathway in the system. Similar to that in physics where a departure from the old reductionist “Copenhagen View” of quantum physics to a new and predictive systems based, collective model has emerged yielding new breakthroughs such as the LASER, a new model is emerging in biology where systems biology is used to develop a new technology acting at multiple pathways called “systems therapeutics.” PMID:24900858

  10. Development of a School Leadership Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Nik

    2014-01-01

    This action research study examined the effectiveness of the process implemented by Partnerships to Uplift Communities (PUC) Schools Charter Management Organization to develop their school leader evaluation system in collaboration with current PUC school leaders. The development of the leadership evaluation system included the collective voices of…

  11. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient information and process

  13. Lentivirus pre-packed with Cas9 protein for safer gene editing.

    PubMed

    Choi, J G; Dang, Y; Abraham, S; Ma, H; Zhang, J; Guo, H; Cai, Y; Mikkelsen, J G; Wu, H; Shankar, P; Manjunath, N

    2016-07-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides an easy way to edit specific site/s in the genome and thus offers tremendous opportunity for human gene therapy for a wide range of diseases. However, one major concern is off-target effects, particularly with long-term expression of Cas9 nuclease when traditional expression methods such as via plasmid/viral vectors are used. To overcome this limitation, we pre-packaged Cas9 protein (Cas9P LV) in lentiviral particles for transient exposure and showed its effectiveness for gene disruption in cells, including primary T cells expressing specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). We then constructed an 'all in one virus' to express sgRNAs in association with pre-packaged Cas9 protein (sgRNA/Cas9P LV). We successfully edited CCR5 in TZM-bl cells by this approach. Using an sgRNA-targeting HIV long terminal repeat, we also were able to disrupt HIV provirus in the J-LAT model of viral latency. Moreover, we also found that pre-packaging Cas9 protein in LV particle reduced off-target editing of chromosome 4:-29134166 locus by CCR5 sgRNA, compared with continued expression from the vector. These results show that sgRNA/Cas9P LV can be used as a safer approach for human gene therapy applications. PMID:27052803

  14. Surface interactions with compartmentalized cellular phosphates explain rare earth oxide nanoparticle hazard and provide opportunities for safer design.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dunphy, Darren R; Cai, Xiaoming; Meng, Huan; Zhang, Haiyuan; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Juyao; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Nel, Andre; Xia, Tian

    2014-02-25

    Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β release, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use.

  15. Surface Interactions with Compartmentalized Cellular Phosphates Explain Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticle Hazard and Provide Opportunities for Safer Design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β release, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

  16. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

  17. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  18. Development of a Psychological Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Lushene, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The development and validation of a psychological assessment system is described. The system currently has the capability to administer, score, and in many cases interpret, 62 different psychological tests. In addition, the system collects patient information by automated interviews in 18 areas of relevance. The system also has the capability of assisting the development of psychiatric diagnoses utilizing the new DSM III diagnostic criteria. The present system, programmed in ANS MUMPS, has been used to administer over 8,000 psychological tests and has received excellent acceptance in the institutions where it has been installed.

  19. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Anderson, Kevin; Book, Paul

    1999-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the development of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC) and Beta version. We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models in the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC and Beta system development. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has seven chapters, a bibliography, and two appendices.

  20. NASA develops new digital flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This news release reports on the development and testing of a new integrated flight and propulsion automated control system that aerospace engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center have been working on. The system is being tested in the V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA).

  1. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  2. Vehicle Systems Integration Laboratory Accelerates Powertrain Development

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-15

    ORNL's Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Laboratory accelerates the pace of powertrain development by performing prototype research and characterization of advanced systems and hardware components. The VSI Lab is capable of accommodating a range of platforms from advanced light-duty vehicles to hybridized Class 8 powertrains with the goals of improving overall system efficiency and reducing emissions.

  3. Multiple IMU system development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landey, M.; Mckern, R.

    1974-01-01

    A redundant gimballed inertial system is described. System requirements and mechanization methods are defined and hardware and software development is described. Failure detection and isolation algorithms are presented and technology achievements described. Application of the system as a test tool for shuttle avionics concepts is outlined.

  4. Curriculum Development System for Navy Technical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Lucius

    Documentation for the U.S. Navy's curriculum development system is brought together in this paper, beginning with a description of the Naval Technical Training System. This description includes the Navy Training Plan (NTP) process, which is the current mechanism for introducing new courses; the organization and administration of the system; the…

  5. Impact of counselling on safer sex and STD occurrence among STD patients in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Wynendaele, B; Bomba, W; M'Manga, W; Bhart, S; Fransen, L

    1995-01-01

    In developing countries where professional manpower and basic supplies are lacking for STD control, low-cost prevention strategies must be explored. This study assesses the impact of counselling on STD treatment and prevention in Malawi. Increases in safer sex practices are used as indicators of prevention behaviour. A pre-test post-test control group design over a 4-month interval was conducted in 1991 in 2 comparable hospitals approximately 100 km apart. STD was diagnosed symptomatically and Knowledge Attitude Practice and Behaviour (KAPB) data collected using a structured questionnaire. In one group, trained counsellors discussed modes of transmission and prevention of STD/AIDS including a condom demonstration; symptoms and treatment of STDs; partner notification; risk taking and reasons for doing so; and motivations for behaviour change. The results show that counselling reduces the occurrence of STDs; increases concern for sexual partners; increases knowledge about and use of condoms; reduces mean number of partners; and reduces health costs due to fewer hospital visits. Although the observed behaviour change was short term, these outcomes argue in favour of counselling as a low-cost effective strategy for STD control.

  6. Advanced Mating System Development for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of space flight sealing and the work required for the further development of a dynamic interface seal for the use on space mating systems to support a fully androgynous mating interface. This effort has resulted in the advocacy of developing a standard multipurpose interface for use with all modern modular space architecture. This fully androgynous design means a seal-on-seal (SOS) system.

  7. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  8. A Pilot Model for the NASA Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) (Single-Axis Pitch Task)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Patrick Mark

    This thesis defines, tests, and validates a descriptive pilot model for a single-axis pitch control task of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). SAFER is a small propulsive jetpack used by astronauts for self-rescue. Pilot model research supports development of improved self-rescue strategies and technologies through insights into pilot behavior.This thesis defines a multi-loop pilot model. The innermost loop controls the hand controller, the middle loop controls pitch rate, and the outer loop controls pitch angle. A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to gather data from a human pilot. Quantitative and qualitative metrics both indicate that the model is an acceptable fit to the human data. Fuel consumption was nearly identical; time to task completion matched very well. There is some evidence that the model responds faster to initial pitch rates than the human, artificially decreasing the model's time to task completion. This pilot model is descriptive, not predictive, of the human pilot. Insights are made into pilot behavior from this research. Symmetry implies that the human responds to positive and negative initial conditions with the same strategy. The human pilot appears indifferent to pitch angles within 0.5 deg, coasts at a constant pitch rate 1.09 deg/s, and has a reaction delay of 0.1 s.

  9. Nascom System Development Plan: System Description, Capabilities and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) System Development Plan (NSDP), reissued annually, describes the organization of Nascom, how it obtains communication services, its current systems, its relationship with other NASA centers and International Partner Agencies, some major spaceflight projects which generate significant operational communication support requirements, and major Nascom projects in various stages of development or implementation.

  10. MSFC Lunar Environments Test System (LETS) System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Norwood, Joey; Abbas, Mian; Alexander, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    A review of the NASA MSFC Lunar Environment Test System (LETS) System Development is presented. The contents include: 1) MSFC LETS Chamber Status; 2) LETS Simulant Containment Box Development; 3) Tests Conducted in LETS To date: Simulant Dust Migration; 4) Summary; and 5) Forward Work.

  11. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  12. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  13. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Hannan, N.A.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-10-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented.

  14. Software systems development in petroleum engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, D. J.; Cain, G. M.; Carmichael, N. P.; Gouldstone, F. G.; Wadsley, A. W.; Webb, S. J.; Winder, P.

    1985-10-01

    Many approaches to designing software systems have been developed for use in commercial or business environments. These development methods and procedures have improved dramatically over the last ten years although it is only recently that these have been employed in scientific and technological applications. Many of these implementations have been unsuccessful because the design methodology has been divorced from the practical requirements of the industry in which the software system is to operate. This paper discusses a modern approach to software development which directly relates to an engineering environment and which is designed to satisfy practical criteria of acceptability of the software when delivered to the petroleum engineer. Since all field developments nowadays rely heavily on associated software systems, the approach presented here can lead to improved mechanical systems reliability and shorter development/design cycles.

  15. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is part of the Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical (MEMS) acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical-sensor-based systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used in characterizing both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data has cross-disciplinary utility to the microgravity life and physical sciences and the structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, while providing enhanced stability.

  16. Graphene Based Ultra-Capacitors for Safer, More Efficient Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Mackey, Paul J.; Zide, Carson J.

    2016-01-01

    Current power storage methods must be continuously improved in order to keep up with the increasingly competitive electronics industry. This technological advancement is also essential for the continuation of deep space exploration. Today's energy storage industry relies heavily on the use of dangerous and corrosive chemicals such as lithium and phosphoric acid. These chemicals can prove hazardous to the user if the device is ruptured. Similarly they can damage the environment if they are disposed of improperly. A safer, more efficient alternative is needed across a wide range of NASA missions. One solution would a solid-state carbon based energy storage device. Carbon is a safer, less environmentally hazardous alternative to current energy storage materials. Using the amorphous carbon nanostructure, graphene, this idea of a safer portable energy is possible. Graphene was electrochemically produced in the lab and several coin cell devices were built this summer to create a working prototype of a solid-state graphene battery.

  17. Examining the Principles of Influence on Safer Sex Communication During Casual and Committed Sexual Encounters.

    PubMed

    Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Rinaldi-Miles, Anna; Quick, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Teens and young people are at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. Understanding how relationship context may moderate the effectiveness of safer sex communication strategies among this demographic is important information for practitioners striving to promote safer sex behaviors. In this study, focus groups (N = 9) with college students were conducted and analyzed to examine the relation between 6 principles of influence (authority, consistency, liking, reciprocity, scarcity, and social proof) and safer sex communication during committed and casual sexual encounters. Results revealed that with the exceptions of social proof and consistency, the principles of influence were endorsed more frequently for casual than committed sexual encounters. For casual sexual encounters, the principles of authority, reciprocity, and scarcity arose as influential principles. For committed sexual encounters, the principles of consistency, liking, and reciprocity arose as influential principles. These results are discussed with an emphasis on the theoretical and practical implications.

  18. Money boys, HIV risks, and the associations between norms and safer sex: a respondent-driven sampling study in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Rhodes, Anne G; Hong, Fuchang

    2009-08-01

    Money boys (MBs) are male sex workers who sell sex to men who have sex with men (MSM). This study estimates the proportion of MBs in the Chinese MSM, compares HIV risks between MBs and non-MB MSM, and examines the associations between practicing safer sex and peer norms of condom use. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to sample 351 MSM in the city of Shenzhen in 2007. The RDS-adjusted proportion of MBs among MSM was 9%. Compared to non-MB MSM, more MBs reported having had multiple male and female sexual partners. Half of MBs and non-MB MSM had consistently used condoms. Both descriptive and subjective norms were positively associated with condom use. The MB proportion of 9% in MSM implies a relatively large population of MBs in China. The association between peer norms and consistent condom use can assist with the development of culturally competent HIV interventions that promote safer sex.

  19. Development of Bio-GAS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayanagi, M.; Kitamura, S.; Nemoto, H.; Kimura, T.; Zaiki, Y.; Kitakohji, T.; Fujita, S.; Kameda, M.; Noda, M.; Kawasaki, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Four experiment systems which have fundamental significance in the field of biotechnology are developed for the Get Away Special (GAS). Unique considerations were necessary to develop the systems which carry out biotechnological experiments under GAS's restricted conditions: delicate thermal control, fluid handling and protection from contamination. All experimental processes are controlled by internal sequencers and results of the experiments are recorded as images and numerical data within the systems. The systems are standardized in order to enable repeated use with a variety of experiments by replacement of the experiment modules and modification of experiment sequencing programs.

  20. Multiple memory systems, development and conditioning.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M E

    2000-06-01

    A century of behavioral and neurobiological research suggests that Pavlovian conditioning involves three component memory systems: sensorimotor, affective and cognitive. In classical eyeblink conditioning, there is evidence that these three memory systems involve, respectively, the cerebellum, amygdala and hippocampus. This article reviews developmental research on eyeblink conditioning in rodents that is beginning to characterize ontogenetic dissociations and interactions among these memory systems. This research shows that the functional development of the affective system (conditioned fear response) precedes that of the sensorimotor system (conditioned eyeblink reflex). Modulation of these two systems by cognitive processes also seems to emerge at different points in ontogeny. Implications for cognitive development and research on multiple memory systems are discussed.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS) - 12187

    SciTech Connect

    BURKE CA; LANDON MR; HANSON CE

    2012-01-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are being/have been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012.

  2. Development and Deployment of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) - 12187

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Christopher A.; Landon, Matthew R.; Hanson, Carl E.

    2012-07-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are being/have been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan [1]. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012. (authors)

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS) - 12187

    SciTech Connect

    BURKE CA; LANDON MR; HANSON CE

    2011-11-08

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are beinglhave been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan [1]. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012.

  4. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  5. Progress in the Development of Nanotheranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Honggang; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This thematic issue includes both review and research articles and is intended to provide an overview on the recent progress in the development of nanostructure-based therapeutic, diagnostic, and theranostic systems. PMID:27217827

  6. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ON THE DUPIC SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    H. KIM; H. CHA; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A safeguards system has been developed since 1993 in the course of supporting a fuel cycle process to fabricate CANDU fuel with spent PWR fuel (known as Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU, DUPIC). The major safeguards technology involved here was to design and fabricate a neutron coincidence counting system for process accountability, and also an unattended continuous monitoring system in association with independent verification by the IAEA. This combined technology was to produce information of nuclear material content and to maintain knowledge of the continuity of nuclear material flow. In addition to hardware development, diagnosis software is being developed to assist data acquisition, data review, and data evaluation based on a neural network system on the IAEA C/S system.

  7. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  8. System Administrator for LCS Development Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System Project is creating a Checkout and Control System that will eventually launch the next generation of vehicles from Kennedy Space Center. KSC has a large set of Development and Operational equipment already deployed in several facilities, including the Launch Control Center, which requires support. The position of System Administrator will complete tasks across multiple platforms (Linux/Windows), many of them virtual. The Hardware Branch of the Control and Data Systems Division at the Kennedy Space Center uses system administrators for a variety of tasks. The position of system administrator comes with many responsibilities which include maintaining computer systems, repair or set up hardware, install software, create backups and recover drive images are a sample of jobs which one must complete. Other duties may include working with clients in person or over the phone and resolving their computer system needs. Training is a major part of learning how an organization functions and operates. Taking that into consideration, NASA is no exception. Training on how to better protect the NASA computer infrastructure will be a topic to learn, followed by NASA work polices. Attending meetings and discussing progress will be expected. A system administrator will have an account with root access. Root access gives a user full access to a computer system and or network. System admins can remove critical system files and recover files using a tape backup. Problem solving will be an important skill to develop in order to complete the many tasks.

  9. Systems Biology Approaches to New Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, Ann L.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Li, Peter; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The current “isolate, inactivate, inject” vaccine development strategy has served the field of vaccinology well, and such empirical vaccine candidate development has even led to the eradication of smallpox. However, such an approach suffers from limitations, and as an empirical approach, does not fully utilize our knowledge of immunology and genetics. A more complete understanding of the biological processes culminating in disease resistance is needed. The advent of high-dimensional assay technology and “systems biology” along with a vaccinomics approach [1;2] is spawning a new era in the science of vaccine development. Here we review recent developments in systems biology and strategies for applying this approach and its resulting data to expand our knowledge base and drive directed development of new vaccines. We also provide applied examples and point out new directions for the field in order to illustrate the power of systems biology. PMID:21570272

  10. Rapid Development of Orion Structural Test Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dave

    2012-07-01

    NASA is currently validating the Orion spacecraft design for human space flight. Three systems developed by G Systems using hardware and software from National Instruments play an important role in the testing of the new Multi- purpose crew vehicle (MPCV). A custom pressurization and venting system enables engineers to apply pressure inside the test article for measuring strain. A custom data acquisition system synchronizes over 1,800 channels of analog data. This data, along with multiple video and audio streams and calculated data, can be viewed, saved, and replayed in real-time on multiple client stations. This paper presents design features and how the system works together in a distributed fashion.

  11. Developing operating principles for systems change.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Teresa R; Foster-Fishman, Pennie G

    2007-06-01

    Based on an analysis of the articles in this special issue, the authors propose five operating principles for systems change work. These principles are: clarifying the purpose of the systems change; identifying whether the change is one to an existing system or the change is to create a new system; conceptualize the work as systems change from the beginning; use an eclectic approach; and be open to opportunities that emerge while also undertaking forma analysis to identify leverage points. The authors argue that the time is now ripe to develop such principles and encourage community change agents to engage in a dialogue to explore, revise, eliminate or expand on these principles. PMID:17431758

  12. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  13. System analysis: Developing tools for the future

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, K.; clever, J.; Draper, J.V.; Davies, B.; Lonks, A.

    1996-02-01

    This report introduces and evaluates system analysis tools that were developed, or are under development, for the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). Additionally, it discusses system analysis work completed using these tools aimed at completing a system analysis of the retrieval of waste from underground storage tanks on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. The tools developed and evaluated include a mixture of commercially available tools adapted to RTDP requirements, and some tools developed in house. The tools that are included in this report include: a Process Diagramming Tool, a Cost Modeling Tool, an Amortization Modeling Tool, a graphical simulation linked to the Cost Modeling Tool, a decision assistance tool, and a system thinking tool. Additionally, the importance of performance testing to the RTDP and the results of such testing executed is discussed. Further, the results of the Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR) System Diagram, the TWR Operations Cost Model, and the TWR Amortization Model are presented, and the implication of the results are discussed. Finally, the RTDP system analysis tools are assessed and some recommendations are made regarding continuing development of the tools and process.

  14. Work Values System Development during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2007-01-01

    Work values stability, change, and development can be appreciably reduced to a living system model [Ford, D. H. (1994). "Humans as self-constructing living systems: A developmental perspective on behavior and personality" (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. This theoretical model includes discrepancy-reducing and…

  15. Development of advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.L.; Little, D.A.; Wiant, B.C.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems study is to investigate innovative natural gas fired cycle developments to determine the feasibility of achieving 60% efficiency within a 8-year time frame. The potential system was to be environmentally superior, cost competitive and adaptable to coal-derived fuels. Progress is described.

  16. CD-ROM Development Systems: A Tutorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses topics related to systems for in-house CD-ROM development: functions, including data capture, data conversion, data editing, indexing, database construction, simulation/testing, and formatting; components, including hardware, the processor, peripherals, and selection considerations; software, including the operating system, system…

  17. Curriculum Development in History Using Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acun, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    This work provides a conceptual framework for developing coherent history curricula at university level. It can also be used for evaluating existing curricula in terms of coherence. For this purpose, two models that are closely inter-connected called History Education System (Tarih Egitim Sistemi or TES) and History Research System (Tarih…

  18. Epigenetic Systems View of Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the hierarchical epigenetic systems view as applied to human development and offers examples of its implementation. Notes the agreement by many authors that the multilevel systems view is the right model for developmental psychology in both human and animal studies. (BC)

  19. Air Force Training for Instructional Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Ronald R.

    Detailed information is provided about the Air Force Instructional System Development (ISD) Model to supplement the 1979 AECT presentation made in New Orleans. Information of interest to instructional systems designers includes (1) a short overview of the Air Force ISD model, (2) an extended example which demonstrates the Air Training Command…

  20. Systems Development at the Grom Hayes Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yother, Larry W.

    1987-01-01

    Details the "painful" history, development, and progress of a "home-grown" library automation system at the Hartford State Technical College; describes several of the most common activities generated from menus; and looks at future prospects of the system. (Author/CLB)

  1. Development of the Choctaw Health Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Binh N.

    The Choctaw Tribe is the first and only tribe to develop a health delivery system to take over an existing Indian Health Service inpatient facility. The takeover was accomplished in January 1984 under the Indian Self-Determination Act through a contract with the Indian Health Service. The Choctaw Health Delivery System includes a 35-bed general…

  2. Developing WWW Information Systems on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianqun; Reid, Edna O. F.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses basic concepts and technologies related to World Wide Web information system development. Describes the design and implementation of Virtual Travel Mart, a Web-based end- user oriented information system. Emphasizes design considerations, which focus on user needs; creativity; integration of in-house databases on the Internet; currency;…

  3. Develop Education Systems that Integrate All Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, Jason

    2007-01-01

    During the last few years, the development of seamless education systems to promote students' postsecondary success has been discussed by policymakers at the local, state and federal levels as well as reform-minded individuals. Florida, Washington, Iowa, Georgia and California either have statewide integrated systems or are moving quickly toward…

  4. Development of artificial bionic baroreflex system.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    The baroreflex system is the fastest mechanism in the body to regulate arterial pressure. Because the neural system (i.e., autonomic nervous system) mediates the baroreflex and the system operates under the closed-loop condition, the quantitative dynamic characteristics of the baroreflex system remained unknown until recently despite the fact that a countless number of observational and qualitative studies had been conducted. In order to develop the artificial baroreflex system, i.e., the bionic baroreflex system, we first anatomically isolated the carotid sinuses to open the baroreflex loop and identified the open-loop transfer function of the baroreflex system using white noise pressure perturbations. We found that the baroreflex system is basically a lowpass filter and remarkably linear. As an actuator to implement the bionic baroreflex system, we then stimulated the sympathetic efferent nerves at various parts of the baroreflex loop and identified the transfer functions from the stimulation sites to systemic arterial pressure. We found that the actuator responses can be described remarkably well with linear transfer functions. Since transfer functions of the native baroreflex and of the actuator were identified, the controller that is required to reproduce the native baroreflex transfer function can be easily derived from those transfer functions. To examine the performance of bionic baroreflex system, we implemented it animal models of baroreflex failure. The bionic baroreflex system restored normal arterial pressure regulation against orthostatic stresses that is indistinguishable from the native baroreflex system.

  5. Customer Service in a Youth Development System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetro, Charles G.

    The Training and Development Corporation (TDC) began the redesign of its youth development system with the belief that the center of effort would be local and success would ultimately turn on the capacity of individuals and organizations to transform themselves. TDC's first generation Career Advancement Center (CAC) prototype was in place by 1986.…

  6. Developing the E-Scape Software System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Most innovations have contextual pre-cursors that prompt new ways of thinking and in their turn help to give form to the new reality. This was the case with the e-scape software development process. The origins of the system existed in software components and ideas that we had developed through previous projects, but the ultimate direction we took…

  7. Development and Integration of Control System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young K.

    1998-01-01

    The computer simulation tool, TREETOPS, has been upgraded and used at NASA/MSFC to model various complicated mechanical systems and to perform their dynamics and control analysis with pointing control systems. A TREETOPS model of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-1) dynamics and control system was developed to evaluate the AXAF-I pointing performance for Normal Pointing Mode. An optical model of Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) was also developed and its optical performance analysis was done using the MACOS software.

  8. The message processing and distribution system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, K. L.

    1981-06-01

    A historical approach is used in presenting the life cycle development of the Navy's message processing and distribution system beginning with the planning phase and ending with the integrated logistic support phase. Several maintenance problems which occurred after the system was accepted for fleet use were examined to determine if they resulted from errors in the acquisition process. The critical decision points of the acquisition process are examined and constructive recommendations are made for avoiding the problems which hindered the successful development of this system.

  9. Parallel reactor systems for bioprocess development.

    PubMed

    Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Controlled parallel bioreactor systems allow fed-batch operation at early stages of process development. The characteristics of shaken bioreactors operated in parallel (shake flask, microtiter plate), sparged bioreactors (small-scale bubble column) and stirred bioreactors (stirred-tank, stirred column) are briefly summarized. Parallel fed-batch operation is achieved with an intermittent feeding and pH-control system for up to 16 bioreactors operated in parallel on a scale of 100 ml. Examples of the scale-up and scale-down of pH-controlled microbial fed-batch processes demonstrate that controlled parallel reactor systems can result in more effective bioprocess development. Future developments are also outlined, including units of 48 parallel stirred-tank reactors with individual pH- and pO2-controls and automation as well as liquid handling system, operated on a scale of ml.

  10. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Hannan, N.A.; Worley, B.A.; Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-11-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since October 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling.

  11. SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology was demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

  12. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  13. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.; Hannan, Nelson A.; Perkins, Ken R.; Buksa, John H.; Worley, Brian A.; Dobranich, Dean

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown, and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, and cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since Oct. 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. The first level will provide rapid, parameterized calculations of overall system performance. Succeeding computer programs will provide analysis of each component in sufficient detail to guide the design teams and experimental efforts. The computer programs will allow simulation of the entire system to allow prediction of the integrated performance. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review.

  14. Implementing safer alternatives to lithographic cleanup solvents to protect the health of workers and the environment.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrice; Wolf, Katy; Quint, Julia

    2009-03-01

    The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lithographic printing cleanup is an environmental and occupational hazard. Regulations to reduce ambient ozone levels limited VOC emissions from lithographic cleanup operations and spurred the development of low-VOC alternatives. The purpose of this project was to promote the substitution of hazardous cleanup solvents with less toxic chemicals to protect the health of workers and the environment. A convenience sample of printers, employers, union, industry, and government representatives was constructed. Data regarding the lithographic printing work force and the use of cleanup solvents and alternatives were collected through: (1) work site walk-throughs, (2) a focus group, (3) key informant interviews, (4) a half-day workshop, and (5) demonstration projects. Overall, 66 individuals from 15 different print shops, 10 government agencies, the lithographic printing industry, and one printer's union participated in one or more aspects of the project. Printer inhalation exposure to hazardous cleanup solvents was prevalent and printers were not aware of safer alternatives. Employers should implement low-VOC, low-toxicity cleanup products in a timely manner to protect the health of printers and the environment. Use of low-VOC lithographic cleanup products does not mitigate the potential for printer dermal exposure and may carry safety and ergonomic implications. Lithographic cleanup solvent manufacturers should seek low-VOC ingredients that do not pose a dermal exposure hazard. Linking environmental and occupational health prevented the development of substitutes that would have introduced worker hazards and provided an opportunity to circumvent some of the inadequacies of the current occupational health regulatory apparatus. Governmental organizations should establish and maintain institutional interdisciplinary mechanisms to support these linkages. PMID:19142792

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  16. Personnel launch system autoland development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossi, J. A.; Langehough, M. A.; Tollefson, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) Autoland Development Study focused on development of the guidance and control system for the approach and landing (A/L) phase and the terminal area energy management (TAEM) phase. In the A/L phase, a straight-in trajectory profile was developed with an initial high glide slope, a pull-up and flare to lower glide slope, and the final flare touchdown. The TAEM system consisted of using a heading alignment cone spiral profile. The PLS autopilot was developed using integral LQG design techniques. The guidance and control design was verified using a nonlinear 6 DOF simulation. Simulation results demonstrated accurate steering during the TAEM phase and adequate autoland performance in the presence of wind turbulence and wind shear.

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-08-21

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  18. Development of a change management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Cathy Bonifas

    1993-01-01

    The complexity and interdependence of software on a computer system can create a situation where a solution to one problem causes failures in dependent software. In the computer industry, software problems arise and are often solved with 'quick and dirty' solutions. But in implementing these solutions, documentation about the solution or user notification of changes is often overlooked, and new problems are frequently introduced because of insufficient review or testing. These problems increase when numerous heterogeneous systems are involved. Because of this situation, a change management system plays an integral part in the maintenance of any multisystem computing environment. At the NASA Ames Advanced Computational Facility (ACF), the Online Change Management System (OCMS) was designed and developed to manage the changes being applied to its multivendor computing environment. This paper documents the research, design, and modifications that went into the development of this change management system (CMS).

  19. NASA Redox system development project status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nice, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    NASA-Redox energy storage systems developed for solar power applications and utility load leveling applications are discussed. The major objective of the project is to establish the technology readiness of Redox energy storage for transfer to industry for product development and commercialization by industry. The approach is to competitively contract to design, build, and test Redox systems progressively from preprototype to prototype multi-kW and megawatt systems and conduct supporting technology advancement tasks. The Redox electrode and membrane are fully adequate for multi-kW solar related applications and the viability of the Redox system technology as demonstrated for multi-kW solar related applications. The status of the NASA Redox Storage System Project is described along with the goals and objectives of the project elements.

  20. HAMMER COURSEWARE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, P.R.

    2006-04-28

    HAMMER Courseware Management System (HAMMERCMS) is the official name of the system Fluor Hanford, Inc., uses to facilitate development of, deliver, and track training presented in some electronic form (mainly, web-based training) to Hanford Site employees, subcontractors, and vendors.

  1. Predictors of safer sex on the college campus: a social cognitive theory analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, A; Goodhart, F; Jemmott, L S; Boccher-Lattimore, D

    1992-05-01

    In April and May 1989, the authors surveyed a sample of students enrolled on four college campuses in New Jersey (N = 923) concerning their HIV transmission-related behavior, knowledge, and a variety of conceptual variables taken primarily from social cognitive theory that were thought to be potentially predictive of safer sexual behavior. Analyses of sexually active, unmarried students' responses indicated that men expected more negative outcomes of condom use and were more likely to have sexual intercourse while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, whereas women reported higher perceived self-efficacy to practice safer sex. Regression analyses indicated that, among the factors assessed, stronger perceptions of self-efficacy to engage in safer behavior, expecting fewer negative outcomes of condom use, and less frequency of sex in conjunction with alcohol or other drug use significantly predicted safer sexual behavior. Enhanced self-efficacy to discuss personal history with a new partner was associated with a greater number of risky encounters. Implications of these findings for intervention efforts with students are discussed. PMID:1602092

  2. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  3. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  4. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  5. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Safer Sex Behaviors in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2009-01-01

    Safer sex is important for protection against STDs and HIV/AIDS. Most of the HIV-related research is targeted towards high-risk groups such as prostitutes, gays and substance abusers there is evidence that HIV/AIDS is increasing in college students particularly among African-American college students. The purpose of this study was to study…

  6. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  7. HIV-Positive Mothers' Communication about Safer Sex and Std Prevention with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers play an important role in promoting the sexual health of their adolescent children. Fifty-seven HIV-positive mothers with adolescent children participated in an in-depth, qualitative interview regarding whether they have talked to their children about safer sex and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, including at what age they…

  8. Federal Policy Mandating Safer Cigarettes: A Hypothetical Simulation of the Anticipated Population Health Gains or Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengs, Tammy O.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Moore, Rebecca; Gage, Eric

    2004-01-01

    If manufacturing a safer cigarette is technically possible--an open question--then mandating that tobacco manufacturers improve the safety of cigarettes would likely have both positive and negative implications for the nation's health. On the one hand, removing toxins may reduce the incidence of smoking-related diseases and premature mortality in…

  9. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  10. Social Support and Maintenance of Safer Sex Practices among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Thom; Woo, Grace

    2004-01-01

    The study discussed in this article addressed the relationship of social support to the maintenance of long-term safer sex practices of 360 HIV-positive adults recruited from outpatient medical facilities. Medical professionals, friends, and siblings were reported the most frequent sources for assistance, whereas regular sexual partners, medical…

  11. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  12. Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaghan, Diane

    A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

  13. System development of the Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arp, G.; Forsberg, F.; Giddings, L.; Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed data is reported in the eradication of the screwworm and in the study of the role of the weather in the activity and development of the screwworm fly. As a result, the Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) algorithm was developed.

  14. Developing Intelligent Transportation Systems in an Integrated Systems Analysis Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Paddack, E

    2002-01-15

    We are working on developing an Integrated Systems Analysis Environment (ISAE) for application to analysis and optimization of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). ISAE is based on the concept of Co-simulation, which allows the modeling of complex systems with extreme flexibility. Co-simulation allows the development of virtual ITS systems that can be analyzed and optimized as an overall integrated system. The virtual ITS system is defined by selecting different components from a component library. System component models can be written in multiple programming languages running on different computer platforms. At the same time, ISAE provides full protection for proprietary models. Co-simulation is a cost-effective alternative to competing methodologies, such as developing a translator or selecting a single programming language for all system components. Co-simulation has been recently demonstrated using an example of an automotive system. The demonstration was successfully performed. The paper describes plans on how to implement ISAE and Co-simulation to ITS, and the great advantages that this implementation would represent.

  15. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkerim, A. I.; Sami Eusuf, M. M. R.; Salami, M. J. E.; Aibinu, A.; Eusuf, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors.

  16. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    SciTech Connect

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  17. NASA Redox Storage System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Redox Storage System Technology Project was jointly supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and NASA. The objectives of the project were to develop the Redox flow battery concept and to probe its technical and economic viability. The iron and chromium redox couples were selected as the reactants. Membranes and electrodes were developed for the original mode of operating at 25 C with the reactants separated by an ion-exchange membrane. Analytical capabilities and system-level operating concepts were developed and verified in a 1-kW, 13-kWh preprototype system. A subsequent change was made in operating mode, going to 65 C and using mixed reactants. New membranes and a new electrode catalyst were developed, resulting in single cell operation as high as 80 mA/sq cm with energy efficiencies greater than 80 percent. Studies indicate a likely system cost of about $75/kWh. Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) has undertaken further development of the Redox system. An exclusive patent license was obtained from NASA by Sohio. Transfer of Redox technology to Sohio is supported by the NASA Technology Utilization Office.

  18. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  19. Clover development during spaceflight: A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, James A.; Debell, Lynnette; Paulsen, Avelina; Spooner, Brian S.; Wong, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed.

  20. Clover development during spaceflight: a model system.

    PubMed

    Guikema, J A; DeBell, L; Paulsen, A; Spooner, B S; Wong, P P

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed. PMID:11537915

  1. The highway and railroad operating environments for hazardous shipments in the U.S.-safer in the '90s?

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Tompkins, M. M.

    2000-04-01

    This paper seeks to illuminate the status of transportation safety and risk for large-quantity shipments of spent commercial reactor fuel and mixed and hazardous wastes by examining road and rail accident and vehicular travel data from the mid-1990s. Of special interest are the effect of speed limit changes on controlled-access expressways (chiefly the Interstate Highway System) and the possible effect of season-to-season climatic variation on road transport. We found that improvements in railroad technology and infrastructure have created a safer overall operating environment for railroad freight shipments. We also found recent evidence of an increase in accident rates of heavy combination trucks in states that have raised highway speed limits. Finally, cold weather increases road transport risk, while conditions associated with higher ambient temperatures do not. This last finding is in contrast to rail transport, for which the literature associates both hot and cold temperature extremes with higher accident rates.

  2. Multipurpose simulation systems for regional development forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Kostina, N.I.

    1995-09-01

    We examine the development of automaton-modeling multipurpose simulation systems as an efficient form of simulation software for MIS. Such systems constitute a single problem-oriented package of applications based on a general simulation model, which is equipped with a task source language, interaction tools, file management tools, and an output document editor. The simulation models are described by the method of probabilistic-automaton modeling, which ensures standard representation of models and standardization of the modeling algorithm. Examples of such systems include the demographic forecasting system DEPROG, the VOKON system for assessing the quality of consumer services in terms of free time, and the SONET system for servicing partially accessible customers. The development of computer-aided systems for production and economic control is now moving to the second state, namely operationalization of optimization and forecasting problems, whose solution may account for the main economic effect of MIS. Computation and information problems, which were the main focus of the first stage of MIS development, are thus acquiring the role of a source of information for optimization and forecasting problems in addition to their direct contribution to preparation and analysis of current production and economic information.

  3. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  4. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  5. Groundwork for Universal Canister System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Laura L.; Gross, Mike; Prouty, Jeralyn L.; Rigali, Mark J.; Craig, Brian; Han, Zenghu; Lee, John Hok; Liu, Yung; Pope, Ron; Connolly, Kevin; Feldman, Matt; Jarrell, Josh; Radulescu, Georgeta; Scaglione, John; Wells, Alan

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and go vernment - sponsored nuclear energy re search. S ome of the waste s that that must be managed have be en identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock (SNL 2014 a). In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. A canister - based system that can be used for handling these wastes during the disposition process (i.e., storage, transfers, transportation, and disposal) could facilitate the eventual disposal of these wastes. This report provides information for a program plan for developing specifications regarding a canister - based system that facilitates small waste form packaging and disposal and that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy Used Fuel Dis position Camp aign's Deep Borehole Field Test . Groundwork for Universal Ca nister System Development September 2015 ii W astes to be considered as candidates for the universal canister system include capsules containing cesium and strontium currently stored in pools at the Hanford Site, cesium to be processed using elutable or nonelutable resins at the Hanford Site, and calcine waste from Idaho National Laboratory. The initial emphasis will be on disposal of the cesium and strontium capsules in a deep borehole that has been drilled into crystalline rock. Specifications for a universal canister system are derived from operational, performance, and regulatory requirements for storage, transfers, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. Agreements between the Department of Energy and the States of Washington and Idaho, as well as the Deep Borehole Field Test plan provide schedule requirements for development of the universal canister system

  6. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  7. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  8. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  9. Notch signaling in the developing cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Kyle; Karsan, Aly

    2007-07-01

    The Notch proteins encompass a family of transmembrane receptors that have been highly conserved through evolution as mediators of cell fate. Recent findings have demonstrated a critical role of Notch in the developing cardiovascular system. Notch signaling has been implicated in the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition during development of the heart valves, in arterial-venous differentiation, and in remodeling of the primitive vascular plexus. Mutations of Notch pathway components in humans are associated with congenital defects of the cardiovascular system such as Alagille syndrome, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and bicuspid aortic valves. This article focuses on the role of the Notch pathway in the developing cardiovascular system and congenital human cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Development of Constellation's Launch Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lougheed, Kirk D.; Peaden, Cary J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program's Launch Control System (LCS) development effort at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It provides a brief history of some preceding efforts to provide launch control and ground processing systems for other NASA programs, and some lessons learned from those experiences. It then provides high level descriptions of the LCS mission, objectives, organization, architecture, and progress. It discusses some of our development tenets, including our use of standards based design and use of off-the-shelf products whenever possible, incremental development cycles, and highly reliable, available, and supportable enterprise class system servers. It concludes with some new lessons learned and our plans for the future.

  11. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Rice Is Safer to Aquatic Ecosystems than Its Non-Transgenic Counterpart

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems. PMID:25105299

  12. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  13. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems. PMID:25105299

  14. Software development methodology for high consequence systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, L.S.; Bouchard, J.F.; Collins, E.W.; Eisenhour, M.; Neidigk, D.D.; Shortencarier, M.J.; Trellue, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes a Software Development Methodology for High Consequence Systems. A High Consequence System is a system whose failure could lead to serious injury, loss of life, destruction of valuable resources, unauthorized use, damaged reputation or loss of credibility or compromise of protected information. This methodology can be scaled for use in projects of any size and complexity and does not prescribe any specific software engineering technology. Tasks are described that ensure software is developed in a controlled environment. The effort needed to complete the tasks will vary according to the size, complexity, and risks of the project. The emphasis of this methodology is on obtaining the desired attributes for each individual High Consequence System.

  15. Constellation Space Suit System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Daniel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program has initiated the first new flight suit development project since the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed for the Space Shuttle Program in the 1970s. The Constellation suit system represents a significant challenge to designers in that the system is required to address all space suit functions needed through all missions and mission phases. This is in marked contrast to the EMU, which was designed specifically for micro-gravity space walks. The Constellation suit system must serve in all of the following scenarios: launch, entry and abort crew survival; micro-gravity extravehicular activity (EVA); and lunar (1/6th-gravity) surface EVA. This paper discusses technical efforts performed from May 2006 through February 2007 for the Constellation space suit system pressure garment.

  16. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the spring of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I developed a system health and status display for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of the servers, gateways, network switches, and firewalls used in the firing room.

  17. Developing Automatic Controllers for sprinkler irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playán, E.; Salvador, R.; Cavero, J.; López, C.; Lecina, S.; Zapata, N.

    2012-04-01

    The application of new technologies to the control and automation of irrigation processes is quickly gaining attention. The automation of irrigation execution (through irrigation controllers) is now widespread. However, the automatic generation and execution of irrigation schedules is receiving growing attention due to the possibilities offered by the telemetry/remote control systems currently being installed in collective pressurized networks. These developments can greatly benefit from the combination of irrigation system and crop models, and from the interaction with agrometeorological databases, hydraulic models of pressurized collective distribution networks, weather forecasts and management databases for water users associations. Prospects for the development of such systems in collective sprinkler irrigation systems are analyzed in this presentation. Additionally, experimental results are presented on the application of these concepts to a hydrant irrigating a solid-set irrigated maize field.

  18. Young People’s Views and Experiences of a Mobile Phone Texting Intervention to Promote Safer Sex Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ona; Baraitser, Paula; Wellings, Kaye; Bailey, Julia V; Free, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of poor sexual health, including unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is greatest amongst young people. Innovative and acceptable interventions to improve sexual health are required. Mobile phone text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions have the potential to reach large numbers of people at relatively low cost, but greater understanding is needed on how these interventions should be developed and how they work. Objectives The aim of this paper is to explore young people’s views of and experiences with a mobile phone text messaging intervention to promote safer sex behavior. Methods We undertook qualitative interviews with young people aged 16 to 24 years as part of a pilot trial of a sexual health intervention delivered by text message in the United Kingdom. Study participants received sexual health promotion text messages based on behavior-change techniques. The message content, tailored by gender and STI status, included support for correct STI treatment and promotion of safer sex behaviors. Young people were eligible if they had received a positive chlamydia test or had more than one partner and at least one episode of unprotected sex in the last year. Telephone interviews were conducted 2 to 3 weeks after initiation of the intervention. A semi-structured topic guide was followed to explore participant experiences and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results We conducted 16 telephone interviews with participants who had received the text intervention and an additional four interviews with those in the control group (13 women and 7 men). Intervention participants found text messages easy to understand and appearing to come from a friendly and trustworthy source. They considered the frequency and timing of messages to be appropriate, and delivery via mobile phones convenient. Receipt of support by text message allowed recipients to assimilate information at their own pace, and prompted reflection

  19. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Handrock, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  20. Headgear system development for the dismounted soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, Frank J.

    1996-06-01

    Headgear systems for the dismounted soldier are being developed that will provide an extensive set of new capabilites on the battlefield. These systems provide dramatically enhanced audio and visual information flow to and from the soldier. Integrated/modular headgear components include a miniature helmet mounted high resolution display, an advanced intensified night sensor, a head orientation sensor, advanced signal processing electronics, a helmet mounted radio antenna, in addition to new ballistic protection and helmet suspension and communication components.

  1. Managing Medical System Development Through Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Hanmer, Jean

    1980-01-01

    Health Care administrators managing a computer system development project need tools to control the project. This paper describes the concept of management control, its purpose and techniques for exercising it. Preparation of system documentation provides a vehicle for management control which can guide the behavior of the contractor, the institution's managers and staff. Techniques for managing and reviewing documentation in a management control framework are presented.

  2. Water system microbial check valve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    A residual iodine microbial check valve (RIMCV) assembly was developed and tested. The assembly is designed to be used in the space shuttle potable water system. The RIMCV is based on an anion exchange resin that is supersaturated with an iodine solution. This system causes a residual to be present in the effluent water which provides continuing bactericidal action. A flight prototype design was finalized and five units were manufactured and delivered.

  3. The SLC control system - status and development

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, N.; Shoaee, H.

    1987-03-01

    The SLC control system is installed and operational in the full SLC through the Linac, Damping Rings, Positron Source, Arcs and Final Focus. The system now includes a host VAX 11/785, a development VAX 11/780, 4 VAX workstations, a distributed network of 70 microprocessors, and about 270 Camac crates with more than 4000 modules. The micros are used for control and monitoring of the hardware, for pulse-to-pulse feedback, and for consoles (COWs). High level model-driven host software provides a variety of tools for beam setup, optimization, diagnosis, and stabilization. This paper will summarize the current status and projects under development.

  4. Development of a nursing automated documentation system.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S B; Fuhrmann, M; Ivancin, L

    1992-01-01

    As hospital length of stay has decreased and patient acuity has increased, the nurse is confronted daily with the challenge of managing time between patient care and documentation. Documentation of care has consistently been a time-consuming and frustrating part of nursing practice. The nursing shortage has only compounded this problem. St. Joseph's Hospital has creatively begun to facilitate documentation by developing a Nursing Automated Documentation System (NADS) in collaboration with CliniCom, Inc. of Boulder, Colorado. This article documents the development and implementation of the system.

  5. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  6. Development of an incident reporting system.

    PubMed

    Puetz, K

    1988-08-01

    Incident reports document occurrences that are not consistent with routine hospital procedures or routine patient care; they are one measure of the quality of patient care. Waukesha (Wisconsin) Memorial Hospital has developed an incident reporting system that allows analysis of incidents by type and location of occurrence so trends can be identified. The hospital has also developed an "incident rate," which is useful for analyzing incident occurrences in relation to patient census.

  7. Making Our Buildings Safer: Security Management and Equipment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses three major components of library security: physical security of the environment; operating procedures for library staff, the public, and security personnel; and a contract security force (or campus security in academic institutions.) Topics include risk management; maintenance; appropriate technology, including security systems and…

  8. [Development of local health systems in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Noceti, M C; Gherardi, A; Ríos, A M; Ríos, F

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes Uruguay's experience in local health systems development and the elements that have contributed to awareness and dissemination of this concept. In 1988 the Ministry of Public Health assumed responsibility as one of the entities charged with strengthening the country's local health systems. A technical group was created to act at the central level. It has proposed and promoted changes directed toward the deconcentration of resource utilization in accordance with a set of general guidelines and, at the local level, has acted as a catalyst in the understanding of health services delivery management as a systemic concept.

  9. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    SciTech Connect

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W.

    2015-04-16

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  10. Telerobotic work system: Concept development and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The basic concept of a telerobotic work system (TWS) consists of two dexterous manipulator arms controlled from a remote station. The term telerobotic describes a system that is a combination of teleoperator control and robotic operation. Work represents the function of producing physical changes. System describes the integration of components and subsystems to effectively accomplish the needed mission. Telerobotics reduces exposure to hazards for flight crewmembers and increases their productivity. The requirements for the TWS are derived from both the mission needs and the functional capabilities of existing hardware and software to meet those needs. The development of the TWS is discussed.

  11. System safety in Stirling engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Project Office has required that contractors make safety considerations an integral part of all phases of the Stirling engine development program. As an integral part of each engine design subtask, analyses are evolved to determine possible modes of failure. The accepted system safety analysis techniques (Fault Tree, FMEA, Hazards Analysis, etc.) are applied in various degrees of extent at the system, subsystem and component levels. The primary objectives are to identify critical failure areas, to enable removal of susceptibility to such failures or their effects from the system and to minimize risk.

  12. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  13. NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

  14. Pyrolaser development for aircrew escape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Ben E.; Cobbett, John A.

    A Laser Ordnance Initiation System (LOIS) has been developed for use in military aircraft emergency escape/egress systems. Applying LOIS to a single-seat and a two-seat F-16 aircraft escape system has proven both cost and weight effective. In both cases, system redundancy is supplied. The large weight reduction is attributed to the elimination of certain initiators, the small size of the logic components and the low weight of the fiber-optic lines (0.037 lb/ft). The required components for a laser operated escape systems are described, with emphasis on the mechanically actuated pyrolaser, which supplies the required energy to activate the various seat devices; the optical AND gate, which provides the logic to ensure proper event sequencing; and the optical mode selector, which establishes aircrew control of the ejection sequence in multiseat aircraft only.

  15. Water system microbial check valve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    Development work on a device for the Space Shuttle that will prevent the transfer of viable microorganisms within water systems is described. The device serves as a check valve in that it prevents the transfer or cross-contamination of microorganisms from a nonpotable system into a potable water system when these systems are interconnected. In this regard, the function of the device is similar to that of the air gap found in conventional one gravity systems. The device is essentially a bed of resin material impregnated with iodine. Basic design data for a variety of flow and temperature conditions are presented, together with results of challenging the beds with suspensions of seven microorganisms including aerobes, anaerobes, and spore formers.

  16. Data Mining Tools Make Flights Safer, More Efficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    A small data mining team at Ames Research Center developed a set of algorithms ideal for combing through flight data to find anomalies. Dallas-based Southwest Airlines Co. signed a Space Act Agreement with Ames in 2011 to access the tools, helping the company refine its safety practices, improve its safety reviews, and increase flight efficiencies.

  17. Development of a Sunspot Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jaime R.

    1998-01-01

    Large solar flares produce a significant amount of energetic particles which pose a hazard for human activity in space. In the hope of understanding flare mechanisms and thus better predicting solar flares, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed an experimental vector magnetograph (EXVM) polarimeter to measure the Sun's magnetic field. The EXVM will be used to perform ground-based solar observations and will provide a proof of concept for the design of a similar instrument for the Japanese Solar-B space mission. The EXVM typically operates for a period of several minutes. During this time there is image motion due to atmospheric fluctuation and telescope wind loading. To optimize the EXVM performance an image motion compensation device (sunspot tracker) is needed. The sunspot tracker consists of two parts, an image motion determination system and an image deflection system. For image motion determination a CCD or CID camera is used to digitize an image, than an algorithm is applied to determine the motion. This motion or error signal is sent to the image deflection system which moves the image back to its original location. Both of these systems are under development. Two algorithms are available for sunspot tracking which require the use of only one row and one column of image data. To implement these algorithms, two identical independent systems are being developed, one system for each axis of motion. Two CID cameras have been purchased; the data from each camera will be used to determine image motion for each direction. The error signal generated by the tracking algorithm will be sent to an image deflection system consisting of an actuator and a mirror constrained to move about one axis. Magnetostrictive actuators were chosen to move the mirror over piezoelectrics due to their larger driving force and larger range of motion. The actuator and mirror mounts are currently under development.

  18. Development of a multiplane multispeed balancing system for turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype high speed balancing system was developed for assembled gas turbine engine modules. The system permits fully assembled gas turbine modules to be operated and balanced at selected speeds up to full turbine speed. The balancing system is a complete stand-alone system providing all necesary lubrication and support hardware for full speed operation. A variable speed motor provides the drive power. A drive belt and gearbox provide rotational speeds up to 21,000 rpm inside a vacuum chamber. The heart of the system is a dedicated minicomputer with attendant data acquisition, storage and I/O devices. The computer is programmed to be completely interactive with the operator. The system was installed at CCAD and evaluated by testing 20 T55 power turbines and 20 T53 power turbines. Engine test results verified the performance of the high speed balanced turbines.

  19. AMCOM RDEC ladar HWIL simulation system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hajin J.; Mobley, Scottie B.; Buford, James A., Jr.

    2003-09-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing has, for many years, been an integral part of the modeling and simulation efforts at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command"s (AMCOM) Aviation and Missile Research, Engineering, and Development Center (AMRDEC). AMCOM"s history includes the development, characterization, and implementation of several unique technologies for the creation of synthetic environments in the visible, infrared, and radio frequency spectral regions and AMCOM has continued significant efforts in these areas. This paper describes recent advancements at AMCOM"s Advanced Simulation Center (ASC) and concentrates on Ladar HWIL simulation system development.

  20. Reusable thermal protection system development: A prospective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Howard

    1992-01-01

    The state of the art in passive reusable thermal protection system materials is described. Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, which was the first reusable vehicle, is discussed. The thermal protection materials and given concepts and some of the shuttle development and manufacturing problems are described. Evolution of a family of grid and flexible ceramic external insulation materials from the initial shuttle concept in the early 1970's to the present time is described. The important properties and their evolution are documented. Application of these materials to vehicles currently being developed and plans for research to meet the space programs future needs are summarized.

  1. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-07-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  2. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-01-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  3. Development of Human System Integration at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McGuire, Kerry; Thompson, Shelby; Vos, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Human Systems Integration seeks to design systems around the capabilities and limitations of the humans which use and interact with the system, ensuring greater efficiency of use, reduced error rates, and less rework in the design, manufacturing and operational deployment of hardware and software. One of the primary goals of HSI is to get the human factors practitioner involved early in the design process. In doing so, the aim is to reduce future budget costs and resources in redesign and training. By the preliminary design phase of a project nearly 80% of the total cost of the project is locked in. Potential design changes recommended by evaluations past this point will have little effect due to lack of funding or a huge cost in terms of resources to make changes. Three key concepts define an effective HSI program. First, systems are comprised of hardware, software, and the human, all of which operate within an environment. Too often, engineers and developers fail to consider the human capacity or requirements as part of the system. This leads to poor task allocation within the system. To promote ideal task allocation, it is critical that the human element be considered early in system development. Poor design, or designs that do not adequately consider the human component, could negatively affect physical or mental performance, as well as, social behavior. Second, successful HSI depends upon integration and collaboration of all the domains that represent acquisition efforts. Too often, these domains exist as independent disciplines due to the location of expertise within the service structure. Proper implementation of HSI through participation would help to integrate these domains and disciplines to leverage and apply their interdependencies to attain an optimal design. Via this process domain interests can be integrated to perform effective HSI through trade-offs and collaboration. This provides a common basis upon which to make knowledgeable decisions. Finally

  4. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    EPA Science Inventory

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  5. Teaching Information Systems Development via Process Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…

  6. Building a Workforce Development System in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Sally

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Human Resources Investment Council developed a blueprint to guide a system that is needs-driven, accessible, interconnected, accountable, sustainable, and has collaborative governance. Vocational Technical Education Providers (VTEP) representing secondary education, technical schools, proprietary institutions, the University of Alaska,…

  7. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossa, Jose

    2011-01-01

    In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966), Machel (1975-1986), and Chissano (1986-2005) administrations. The…

  8. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  9. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  10. The Systems Theory Framework of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The Systems Theory Framework (STF; McMahon & Patton, 1995; Patton & McMahon, 2006) of career development was proposed as a metatheoretical framework that accommodates the contribution of all theories and offers an integrative and coherent framework of career influences. In this article, the author provides an overview of the STF, outlines its…

  11. Wind Farm Power System Model Development: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.

    2004-07-01

    In some areas, wind power has reached a level where it begins to impact grid operation and the stability of local utilities. In this paper, the model development for a large wind farm will be presented. Wind farm dynamic behavior and contribution to stability during transmission system faults will be examined.

  12. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  13. Development of Arduino based wireless control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuoxiong; Dyke, Shirley J.; Pena, Francisco; Wilbee, Alana

    2015-03-01

    Over the past few decades, considerable attention has been given to structural control systems to mitigate structural vibration under natural hazards such as earthquakes and extreme weather conditions. Traditional wired structural control systems often employ a large amount of cables for communication among sensors, controllers and actuators. In such systems, implementation of wired sensors is usually quite complicated and expensive, especially on large scale structures such as bridges and buildings. To reduce the laborious installation and maintenance cost, wireless control systems (WCSs) are considered as a novel approach for structural vibration control. In this work, a WCS is developed based on the open source Arduino platform. Low cost, low power wireless sensing and communication components are built on the Arduino platform. Structural control algorithms are embedded within the wireless sensor board for feedback control. The developed WCS is first validated through a series of tests. Next, numerical simulations are performed simulating wireless control of a 3-story shear structure equipped with a semi-active control device (MR damper). Finally, experimental studies are carried out implementing the WCS on the 3-story shear structure in the Intelligent Infrastructure Systems Lab (IISL). A hydraulic shake table is used to generate seismic ground motions. The control performance is evaluated with the impact of modeling uncertainties, measurement noises as well as time delay and data loss induced by the wireless network. The developed WCS is shown to be effective in controlling structural vibrations under several historical earthquake ground motions.

  14. Making it safer: a health centre's strategy for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Nora; Perry, Lynda

    2007-12-01

    Developing and implementing consistent methodology for suicide assessment and intervention is challenging, particularly in a large community hospital which provides both inpatient care and a wide range of ambulatory and community based mental health programs. Patients, families, staff, and ongoing evaluation contributed to the development of an initiative to determine what is best practice and in effecting changes in clinical and organizational practices. The Suicide Assessment project resulted in improved clinical outcomes for patients and clients. Staff report that they feel more supported in probing for suicidal ideation and have the skills required to effectively intervene with the 'suicidal' patient/client. This project advanced our knowledge of suicide assessment and risk management and provided new insights to assist professionals in the aftermath of a client's suicide when, as Valente describes, clinicians report 'feeling overwhelmed with feelings of guilt, self-blame, and responsibility (Valente S: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing 40:7 22-23, 2002).

  15. Chlor-alkali producers evaluate safer alternatives to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Stadig, W.

    1993-03-01

    Until recently, 75% of all US capacity for producing chlor-alkali - more than 40% of the world's capacity - has used asbestos diaphragm-cell technology. Although the Environmental Protection Agency continues to exempt asbestos use in diaphragms from restrictions, producers are considering alternatives. In Germany, stringent regulations will ban asbestos in chlor-alkali production after 1994. Heavy fines were levied recently against some chlor-alkali producers in the United States when EPA inspectors found asbestos fibers in cell renewal areas. Restrictions on the mining of asbestos raise the cost of obtaining adequate amounts of high-quality asbestos and gradually raise the cost of transporting and discarding spent diaphragms. Two alternatives are to use newly developed, non-asbestos diaphragms or to convert to existing ion-exchange membrane-cell technology. Only the former seems economical in the United States. The non-asbestos diaphragm is based on an inorganic polymer composite developed in 1988 as an asbestos substitute. The composite received Du Pont's Plunkett Award for Innovation with Teflon[trademark], landed on the National Development Association's 1991 Honor Roll and became a 1991 R D 100 Award winner. 6 figs.

  16. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  17. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, Rick; Wall, Mark; Sullivan, Neal

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  19. Development of advanced lightweight containment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric type data were obtained on advanced lightweight containment systems. These data were used to generate design methods and procedures necessary for the successful development of such systems. The methods were then demonstrated through the design of a lightweight containment system for a CF6 size engine. The containment concept evaluated consisted basically of a lightweight structural sandwich shell wrapped with dry Kevlar cloth. The initial testing was directed towards the determination of the amount of Kevlar required to result in threshold containment for a specific set of test conditions. A relationship was then developed between the thickness required and the energy of the released blade so that the data could be used to design for conditions other than those tested.

  20. Development, primacy, and systems of cities.

    PubMed

    El-shakhs, S

    1972-10-01

    The relationship between the evolutionary changes in the city size distribution of nationally defined urban systems and the process of socioeconomic development is examined. Attention is directed to the problems of defining and measuring changes in city size distributions, using the results to test empirically the relationship of such changes to the development process. Existing theoretical structures and empirical generalizations which have tried to explain or to describe, respectively, the hierarchical relationships of cities are represented by central place theory and rank size relationships. The problem is not that deviations exist but that an adequate definition is lacking of urban systems on the 1 hand, and a universal measure of city size distribution, which could be applied to any system irrespective of its level of development, on the other. The problem of measuring changes in city size distributions is further compounded by the lack of sufficient reliable information about different systems of cities for the purposes of empirical comparative analysis. Changes in city size distributions have thus far been viewed largely within the framework of classic equilibrium theory. A more differentiated continuum of the development process should replace the bioplar continuum of underdeveloped developed countries in relating changes in city size distribution with development. Implicit in this distinction is the view that processes which influence spatial organization during the early formative stages of development are inherently different from those operating during the more advanced stages. 2 approaches were used to examine the relationship between national levels of development and primacy: a comparative analysis of a large number of countries at a given point in time; and a historical analysis of a limited sample of 2 advanced countries, the US and Great Britain. The 75 countries included in this study cover a wide range of characteristics. The study found a

  1. Controls system developments for the ERL facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jamilkowski, J.; Altinbas, Z.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Kankiya, P.; Kayran, D.; Miller, T.; Olsen, R.; Sheehy, B.; Xu, W.

    2011-10-07

    The BNL Energy Recovery LINAC (ERL) is a high beam current, superconducting RF electron accelerator that is being commissioned to serve as a research and development prototype for a RHIC facility upgrade for electron-ion collision (eRHIC). Key components of the machine include a laser, photocathode, and 5-cell superconducting RF cavity operating at a frequency of 703 MHz. Starting with a foundation based on existing ADO software running on Linux servers and on the VME/VxWorks platforms developed for RHIC, we are developing a controls system that incorporates a wide range of hardware I/O interfaces that are needed for machine R&D. Details of the system layout, specifications, and user interfaces are provided.

  2. Development of an Integrated Distribution Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2010-10-20

    This final report details the components, functionality, costs, schedule and benefits of developing an Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) for power distribution system operation. The Distribution Automation (DA) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used by electric power companies to manage the distribution of electric power to retail energy consumers are vital components of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. Providing electricity is an essential public service and a disruption in that service, if not quickly restored, could threaten the public safety and the Nation’s economic security. Our Nation’s economic prosperity and quality of life have long depended on the essential services that utilities provide; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that electric utilities are able to conduct their operations safely and efficiently. A fully integrated technology of applications is needed to link various remote sensing, communications and control devices with other information tools that help guide Power Distribution Operations personnel. A fully implemented IDMS will provide this, a seamlessly integrated set of applications to raise electric system operating intelligence. IDMS will enhance DA and SCADA through integration of applications such as Geographic Information Systems, Outage Management Systems, Switching Management and Analysis, Operator Training Simulator, and other Advanced Applications, including unbalanced load flow and fault isolation/service restoration. These apps are capable of utilizing and obtaining information from appropriately installed DER, and by integrating disparate systems, the Distribution Operators will benefit from advanced capabilities when analyzing, controlling and operating the electric system.

  3. Development Of A Digital Mammography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaffe, M. J.; Nishikawa, R. M.; Maidment, A. D. A.; Fenster, A.

    1988-06-01

    A digital breast imaging system is under development to provide improved detectability of breast cancer. In previous work, the limitations of screen-film mammography were studied using both theoretical and experimental techniques. Important limitations were found in both the acquisition and the display components of imaging. These have been addressed in the design of a scanned-projection digital mammography system. A high resolution x-ray image intensifier (XRII), optically coupled to a self-scanned linear photodiode array, is used to record the image. Pre- and post-patient collimation virtually eliminates scattered radiation and veiling glare of the XRII with only a 20% increase in dose due to penumbra. Geometric magnification of 1.6 times is employed to achieve limiting spatial resolution of 7 1p/mm. For low-contrast objects as small as 0.1 mm in diameter, the digital system is capable of producing images with higher contrast and signal-to-noise ratio than optimally-exposed conventional film-screen mammography systems. Greater latitude is obtainable on the digital system because of its wide dynamic range and linearity. The slit system is limited due to long image acquisition times, and poor quantum efficiency. This motivated our current work on a slot beam digital mammography system which is based on a fiber-optic x-ray detector. Preliminary results of this system will be presented.

  4. Development of a Universal Waste Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J.; Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    NASA is working with a number of commercial companies to develop the next low Earth orbit spacecraft. The hardware volume and weight constraints are similar to or greater than those of the Apollo era. This, coupled with the equally demanding cost challenge of the proposed commercial vehicles, causes much of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designs to be reconsidered. The Waste Collection System (WCS) is within this group of ECLSS hardware. The development to support this new initiative is discussed within. A WCS concept - intended to be common for all the vehicle platforms currently on the drawing board - is being developed. The new concept, referred to as the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), includes favorable features from previous designs while improving on other areas on previous Space Shuttle and the existing International Space Station (ISS) WCS hardware, as needed. The intent is to build a commode that requires less crew time, improved cleanliness, and a 75% reduction in volume and weight compared to the previous US ISS/Extended Duration Orbitor WCS developed in the 1990s. The UWMS is most similar to the ISS Development Test Objective (DTO) WCS design. It is understood that the most dramatic cost reduction opportunity occurs at the beginning of the design process. To realize this opportunity, the cost of each similar component between the UWMS and the DTO WCS was determined. The comparison outlined were the design changes that would result with the greatest impact. The changes resulted in simplifying the approach or eliminating components completely. This initial UWMS paper will describe the system layout approach and a few key features of major components. Future papers will describe the UWMS functionality, test results, and components as they are developed.

  5. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  6. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Correlates of Self-Efficacy for the Provision of Safer Conception Counseling Among Ugandan HIV Providers.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Kathy; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Staggs, Vincent; Woldetsadik, Mahlet Atakilt; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Mindry, Deborah; Khanakwa, Sarah; Wagner, Glenn J

    2015-12-01

    High rates of childbearing desires (59%) and serodiscordant partnerships (50%) among people living with HIV (PHLA) in Uganda highlight the need for safer conception counseling (SCC). Provider attitudes about counseling PLHA on the use of safer conception methods (SCM) have been explored in qualitative studies, but published quantitative investigations are scarce. Data from 57 Ugandan providers were collected to examine providers' attitudes about childbearing among PLHA and engagement in discussions about childbearing, as well as their knowledge, interest, self-efficacy, and intentions to provide SCC. Correlates of self-efficacy for the provision of SCC were explored to inform the development of training programs. Providers reported a general awareness of most SCM, especially timed unprotected intercourse (TUI); but just over half felt they knew enough to counsel clients in the future and all wanted more training. Childbearing was discussed with less than a third of reproductive aged patients and was mostly initiated by patients. Most providers saw value in providing SCC and believed that most aspects of SCM would be acceptable to their clients, but numerous barriers were endorsed. Self-efficacy was greatest among providers who had had more childbearing conversations, greater SCM awareness, perceived fewer barriers and greater intentions to counsel on TUI. Providers evidence fewer stigmatizing attitudes than in the past. However, those who endorsed more stigmatizing attitudes evidenced a trend for reporting lower self-efficacy for providing SCC. Training will need to simultaneously focus on increasing providers' SCC knowledge and skills while instilling a more realistic appraisal of the risks of assisting couples to employ SCM versus doing nothing.

  7. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Correlates of Self-Efficacy for the Provision of Safer Conception Counseling Among Ugandan HIV Providers.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Kathy; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Staggs, Vincent; Woldetsadik, Mahlet Atakilt; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Mindry, Deborah; Khanakwa, Sarah; Wagner, Glenn J

    2015-12-01

    High rates of childbearing desires (59%) and serodiscordant partnerships (50%) among people living with HIV (PHLA) in Uganda highlight the need for safer conception counseling (SCC). Provider attitudes about counseling PLHA on the use of safer conception methods (SCM) have been explored in qualitative studies, but published quantitative investigations are scarce. Data from 57 Ugandan providers were collected to examine providers' attitudes about childbearing among PLHA and engagement in discussions about childbearing, as well as their knowledge, interest, self-efficacy, and intentions to provide SCC. Correlates of self-efficacy for the provision of SCC were explored to inform the development of training programs. Providers reported a general awareness of most SCM, especially timed unprotected intercourse (TUI); but just over half felt they knew enough to counsel clients in the future and all wanted more training. Childbearing was discussed with less than a third of reproductive aged patients and was mostly initiated by patients. Most providers saw value in providing SCC and believed that most aspects of SCM would be acceptable to their clients, but numerous barriers were endorsed. Self-efficacy was greatest among providers who had had more childbearing conversations, greater SCM awareness, perceived fewer barriers and greater intentions to counsel on TUI. Providers evidence fewer stigmatizing attitudes than in the past. However, those who endorsed more stigmatizing attitudes evidenced a trend for reporting lower self-efficacy for providing SCC. Training will need to simultaneously focus on increasing providers' SCC knowledge and skills while instilling a more realistic appraisal of the risks of assisting couples to employ SCM versus doing nothing. PMID:26588429

  8. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Haberlen, Sabina; Amin, Avni; Baggaley, Rachel; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence. Articles, conference abstracts and programme reports were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published before 1 April 2015. Searching was conducted through electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and conference abstracts, reviewing websites of relevant organizations for grey literature, hand searching reference lists of included studies and contacting experts. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor) was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Two interventions met the inclusion criteria: the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone cluster-randomized trial of combination HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) services in Rakai, Uganda, and the South Africa HIV/AIDS Antenatal Post-Test Support study individual randomized trial of an enhanced counselling intervention for pregnant women undergoing HIV testing and counselling. Both programmes integrated screening for IPV into HIV testing services and trained counsellors to facilitate discussions about disclosure based on a woman's risk of violence. However, both were implemented as part of multiple-component interventions, making it impossible to isolate the impact of the safer disclosure components. Conclusions The existing evidence base for interventions to facilitate safe HIV serostatus disclosure for women who experience or fear violence is limited. Development and implementation of new

  9. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Correlates of Self-Efficacy for the Provision of Safer Conception Counseling Among Ugandan HIV Providers

    PubMed Central

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Staggs, Vincent; Woldetsadik, Mahlet Atakilt; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Mindry, Deborah; Khanakwa, Sarah; Wagner, Glenn J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High rates of childbearing desires (59%) and serodiscordant partnerships (50%) among people living with HIV (PHLA) in Uganda highlight the need for safer conception counseling (SCC). Provider attitudes about counseling PLHA on the use of safer conception methods (SCM) have been explored in qualitative studies, but published quantitative investigations are scarce. Data from 57 Ugandan providers were collected to examine providers' attitudes about childbearing among PLHA and engagement in discussions about childbearing, as well as their knowledge, interest, self-efficacy, and intentions to provide SCC. Correlates of self-efficacy for the provision of SCC were explored to inform the development of training programs. Providers reported a general awareness of most SCM, especially timed unprotected intercourse (TUI); but just over half felt they knew enough to counsel clients in the future and all wanted more training. Childbearing was discussed with less than a third of reproductive aged patients and was mostly initiated by patients. Most providers saw value in providing SCC and believed that most aspects of SCM would be acceptable to their clients, but numerous barriers were endorsed. Self-efficacy was greatest among providers who had had more childbearing conversations, greater SCM awareness, perceived fewer barriers and greater intentions to counsel on TUI. Providers evidence fewer stigmatizing attitudes than in the past. However, those who endorsed more stigmatizing attitudes evidenced a trend for reporting lower self-efficacy for providing SCC. Training will need to simultaneously focus on increasing providers' SCC knowledge and skills while instilling a more realistic appraisal of the risks of assisting couples to employ SCM versus doing nothing. PMID:26588429

  10. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  11. How to make foods safer--genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Moseley, B E

    2001-01-01

    It is the responsibility of companies developing genetically modified foods, and of regulatory authorities that approve their marketing, to ensure that they are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are intended to replace in the diet. This requires that any novel material introduced into the food material should not be allergenic. If the novel gene has come from an allergenic source, e.g. nuts, it is necessary to demonstrate using immunological procedures applied to the IgE fractions of pooled sera from individuals with confirmed allergies that the novel protein is non-allergenic. When the novel gene is from a non-allergenic source then it is necessary to demonstrate lack of significant amino acid sequence homology to known allergens together with sensitivity to food manufacturing and digestive processes. Consumer confidence in genetically modified foods would be significantly improved if hypoallergenic varieties of crops and food products that are currently allergenic could be developed. Techniques such as antisense technology and single site amino acid substitution have been shown to have such potential. PMID:11298012

  12. How to make foods safer--genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Moseley, B E

    2001-01-01

    It is the responsibility of companies developing genetically modified foods, and of regulatory authorities that approve their marketing, to ensure that they are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are intended to replace in the diet. This requires that any novel material introduced into the food material should not be allergenic. If the novel gene has come from an allergenic source, e.g. nuts, it is necessary to demonstrate using immunological procedures applied to the IgE fractions of pooled sera from individuals with confirmed allergies that the novel protein is non-allergenic. When the novel gene is from a non-allergenic source then it is necessary to demonstrate lack of significant amino acid sequence homology to known allergens together with sensitivity to food manufacturing and digestive processes. Consumer confidence in genetically modified foods would be significantly improved if hypoallergenic varieties of crops and food products that are currently allergenic could be developed. Techniques such as antisense technology and single site amino acid substitution have been shown to have such potential.

  13. Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strategy with succeeding rounds of development, testing and down selections. The Project raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of 8 different TPS materials from 5 different commercial vendors, eventual down selecting to a single material system for the Orion heat shield. In addition to providing a heat shield material and design for Orion on time and on budget, the Project accomplished the following: 1) Re-invigorated TPS industry & re-established a NASA competency to respond to future TPS needs; 2) Identified a potentially catastrophic problem with the planned MSL heat shield, and provided a viable, high TRL alternate heat shield design option; and 3) Transferred mature heat shield material and design options to the commercial space industry, including TPS technology information for the SpaceX Dragon capsule.

  14. Color film preservation system: Breadboard development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an economically feasible system to prevent and/or substantially reduce the degradation of the color dyes of the retinal reflex images recorded on color slide films is discussed. Three different types of film storage systems were designed, fabricated, and tested. An extruded plastic cylindrical container was pressurized and no observable leakage occurred, indicating that long term storage is possible. An operational breadboard was fabricated. The system offers the capability to determine purging requirements to achieve various levels of oxygen concentration and precise leakage of various container configurations. The system has digitial display of oxygen content of the container, automatic control of the oxygen content as well as of the container to atmosphere pressure differential, and flow rate readout during purging.

  15. Development of a quadrupole resonance confirmation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Derby, Kevin A.; Drew, Adam J.; Ermolaev, Konstantine V.; Huo, Shouqin; Lathrop, Daniel K.; Petrov, Todor R.; Steiger, Matthew J.; Stewart, Stanley H.; Turner, Peter J.

    2004-09-01

    Quantum Magnetics has developed a Quadrupole Resonance (QR) system for the detection of anti-tank and anti-vehicle landmines. The QR confirmation sensor (QRCS) is a part of the Army GSTAMIDS Block 1 program and is designed to confirm the presence of landmines initially flagged by a primary sensor system. The ultimate goal is to significantly reduce the number of sites that require neutralization or other time consuming investigation into the presence of a landmine. Government tests in 2002 and 2003 demonstrated the performance of the system in a wide variety of conditions including high radio frequency interference (RFI) and piezo electric ringing (PER) environments. Field test results are presented along with an overall description of the system design and methods used to solve prior issues with RFI and PER.

  16. IDEAL: A methology for developing information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of improved capabilities obtained through current computer technologies, application programs and expert systems, Enterprises are being designed or upgraded to be highly integrated and automated information systems. To design or modify Enterprises, it is necessary to first define what functions are to be performed within the Enterprise, identify which functions are potential candidates for automation, and what automated or expert systems are available, or must be developed, to accomplish the selected function. Second, it is necessary to define and analyze the informational requirements for each function along with the informational relationships among the functions so that a database structure can be established to support the Enterprise. To perform this type of system design, an integrated set of analysis tools is required to support the information analysis process. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) methodology provides this integrated set of tools and is discussed.

  17. Airborne water vapor DIAL system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1990-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric H2O and aerosols from an aircraft is briefly discussed. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. A 1-m monochromator and a multipass absorption cell are used to position the on-line laser to the center of the H2O line. The receiver system has a 14-in. diameter, f/7 Celestron telescope to collect the backscattered laser light and focus in into the detector optics. Return signals are converted to electrical signals by the optical detector and are digitalized and stored on magnetic tape. The results of fligh tests of the system are shown.

  18. Emerging technologies and challenges for better and safer drugs.

    PubMed

    Theodosiou, Maria; Amir-Aslani, Arsia; Mégarbane, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Regardless of stringent safety regulations and increased compound selectivity by pharmaceutical companies, prediction of toxicity in humans is still far from perfect and adverse drug reactions are still detected after drug marketing. High costs of failures due to toxicity has led pharmaceutical companies to search for screening methods that would allow detection of toxicity issues at an early stage and improve their preclinical and clinical toxicology. Thanks to the last decade's biotechnology revolution, new technologies like toxicogenomics have demonstrated the capacity to improve toxicity assessment. However, our understanding of toxicological mechanisms is still incomplete and a wide range of approaches must be used to gain insight into toxicity issues. Consequently, an array of in silico, in vitro and in vivo methods is utilized to predict toxicity and its causative mechanisms, improving drug development processes and minimizing costs of failure. PMID:24243233

  19. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J; Baehni, Pierre C; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-10-01

    Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some developed countries where the periodontal profile is also less than satisfactory. Despite the fact that in several developed countries there are advanced programmes oriented to periodontal disease treatments, the concern is related to the lack of preventive oriented treatments. According to data available on periodontal status of populations from developed countries, despite the number of dentists and trained specialists, dental health professionals do not presently meet adequately the need for prevention, focusing mainly on curative care. The need for strengthening disease prevention and health promotion programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many

  20. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

  1. Streamlined Approach for (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 566: E-MAD Compound, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 566, EMAD Compound, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 566 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-20, EMAD Compound This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-99-20. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 566 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of a corrective action of clean closure will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The data quality objective (DQO) strategy for CAU 566 was developed at a meeting on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAU 566. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will

  2. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  3. Requirements development for a patient computing system.

    PubMed

    Wald, J S; Pedraza, L A; Reilly, C A; Murphy, M E; Kuperman, G J

    2001-01-01

    Critical parts of the software development life cycle are concerned with eliciting, understanding, and managing requirements. Though the literature on this subject dates back for several decades, practicing effective requirements development remains a current and challenging area. Some projects flourish with a requirements development process (RDP) that is implicit and informal, but this approach may be overly risky, particularly for large projects that involve multiple individuals, groups, and systems over time. At Partners HealthCare System in Boston, Massachusetts, we have applied a more formal approach for requirements development to the Patient Computing Project. The goal of the project is to create web-based software that connects patients electronically with their physician's offices and has the potential to improve care efficiency and quality. It is a large project, with over 500 function points. Like most technological innovation, the successful introduction of this system requires as much attention to understanding the business needs and workflow details as it does to technical design and implementation. This paper describes our RDP approach, and key business requirements discovered through this process. We believe that a formal RDP is essential, and that informatics as a field must include proficiencies in this area. PMID:11825282

  4. Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

    2005-07-12

    This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

  5. Safer Batteries through Coupled Multiscale Modeling (ICCS 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Berrill, Mark A; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T; Pannala, Dr. Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    Batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems, with performance and safety governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. We describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulation known as VIBE - the Virtual Integrated Battery Environment. VIBE includes homogenized and pseudo-2D electrochemistry models such as those by Newman-Tiedemann-Gu (NTG) and Doyle- Fuller-Newman (DFN, a.k.a. DualFoil) as well as a new advanced capability known as AMPERES (Advanced MultiPhysics for Electrochemical and Renewable Energy Storage). AMPERES provides a 3D model for electrochemistry and full coupling with 3D electrical and thermal models on the same grid. VIBE/AMPERES has been used to create three-dimensional battery cell and pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical response under adverse conditions.

  6. Safer approaches and landings: A multivariate analysis of critical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Durwood J.

    The approach-and-landing phases of flight represent 27% of mission time while resulting in 61 of the accidents and 39% of the fatalities. The landing phase itself represents only 1% of flight time but claims 45% of the accidents. Inadequate crew situation awareness (SA), crew resource management (CRM), and crew decision-making (DM) have been implicated in 51%, 63%, and 73% respectively of these accidents. The human factors constructs of SA, CRM, and DM were explored; a comprehensive definition of SA was proposed; and a "proactive defense" safety strategy was recommended. Data from a 1997 analysis of worldwide fatal accidents by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force was used to isolate crew- and weather-related causal factors that lead to approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs). Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used on samplings of NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident records ("near misses") and the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) accident reports to examine hypotheses regarding factors and factor combinations that can dramatically increase the opportunity for accidents. An effective scale of risk factors was introduced for use by crews to proactively counter safety-related error-chain situations.

  7. BEMS systems give developer sixth sense.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    Duty-bound under contracts with partner NHS PCTs, independent primary care contractors, and other community stakeholders who lease healthcare premises from it, to ensure that the buildings' energy systems and plant run efficiently and cost-effectively, Community Solutions, a leading investor in, and developer of, UK community-based health, social, and local authority services, is now standardising on Trend Controls' building energy management systems to ensure that such vital equipment runs within defined parameters, and that facilities without FM personnel on site day-to-day are kept both comfortable to work in, and fit-for-purpose.

  8. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  9. [Development of Hospital Equipment Maintenance Information System].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixin

    2015-11-01

    Hospital equipment maintenance information system plays an important role in improving medical treatment quality and efficiency. By requirement analysis of hospital equipment maintenance, the system function diagram is drawed. According to analysis of input and output data, tables and reports in connection with equipment maintenance process, relationships between entity and attribute is found out, and E-R diagram is drawed and relational database table is established. Software development should meet actual process requirement of maintenance and have a friendly user interface and flexible operation. The software can analyze failure cause by statistical analysis.

  10. [Development of Hospital Equipment Maintenance Information System].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixin

    2015-11-01

    Hospital equipment maintenance information system plays an important role in improving medical treatment quality and efficiency. By requirement analysis of hospital equipment maintenance, the system function diagram is drawed. According to analysis of input and output data, tables and reports in connection with equipment maintenance process, relationships between entity and attribute is found out, and E-R diagram is drawed and relational database table is established. Software development should meet actual process requirement of maintenance and have a friendly user interface and flexible operation. The software can analyze failure cause by statistical analysis. PMID:27066680

  11. Ontogenetic development of the mammalian circadian system.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ontogenetic development of the circadian system in mammals. The developmental changes of overt rhythms are discussed, although the main focus of the review is the underlying neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In addition, the review describes ontogenetic development, not only as a process of morpho-functional maturation. The need of repeated adaptations and readaptations due to changing developmental stage and environmental conditions is also considered. The review analyzes mainly rodent data, obtained from the literature and from the author's own studies. Results from other species, including humans, are presented to demonstrate common features and species-dependent differences. The review first describes the development of the suprachiasmatic nuclei as the central pacemaker system and shows that intrinsic circadian rhythms are already generated in the mammalian fetus. As in adult organisms, the period length is different from 24 h and needs continuous correction by environmental periodicities, or zeitgebers. The investigation of the ontogenetic development of the mechanisms of entrainment reveals that, at prenatal and early postnatal stages, non-photic cues deriving from the mother are effective. Light-dark entrainment develops later. At a certain age, both photic and non-photic zeitgebers may act in parallel, even though the respective time information is 12 h out of phase. That leads to a temporary internal desynchronization. Because rhythmic information needs to be transferred to effector organs, the corresponding neural and humoral signalling pathways are also briefly described. Finally, to be able to transform a rhythmic signal into an overt rhythm, the corresponding effector organs must be functionally mature. As many of these organs are able to generate their own intrinsic rhythms, another aspect of the review is dedicated to the development of peripheral oscillators and mechanisms of their entrainment

  12. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  13. Parameters for safer gambling behavior: examining the empirical research.

    PubMed

    Peller, Allyson J; LaPlante, Debi A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-12-01

    There have been claims that new gambling technology is hazardous to player health, and that technological interventions can alleviate gambling-related harm. In this paper, we systematically review the empirical research about the nexus between gambling and technology to evaluate the veracity of these claims. We use a public health perspective (i.e., the Epidemiologic Triangle) to organize and present study results (i.e., agent, host, and environment). This review intends to offer insight about emerging technology and identify areas that indicate a need for additional research. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria; a review of this body of work shows that attempts to develop and implement safety features for new gambling technology are promising, but methodologically are rudimentary and limited in scope. Increased attention to the dynamic interaction among host, agent, and environment factors hold potential to advance the field. In addition, improved study methods (e.g., longitudinal analyses of actual betting behavior), and collaboration among policymakers, manufacturers, and researchers can increase understanding of how new gambling technology affects the public health and stimulate new strategies for implementing effective public health interventions.

  14. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V.

    2012-07-01

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  15. Year of Safe Motherhood: making pregnancy and childbirth safer.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    On World Health Day 1998, an Inter-Agency group, including the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Population Council, and Family Care International, launched a year-long campaign to promote awareness of what must be done to reduce maternal mortality and to gain commitments for implementing the affordable measures needed to prevent most of the 600,000 annual maternal deaths. To launch the campaign, health officials highlighted what must be done to improve maternal health worldwide, and the US First Lady pointed out the shocking facts that every minute a woman dies, 110 women experience a pregnancy-related injury, and 190 women face an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy because the political will does not exist to remedy this situation. Preparation for the "Year of Safe Motherhood" began with an October 1997 conference that reviewed the results of 10 years of research on safe motherhood. This research revealed that maternal deaths could be reduced drastically by provision of 1) routine perinatal care; 2) emergency care for life-threatening obstetric complications; 3) services to prevent and manage the complications of unsafe abortion; 4) family planning to prevent unwanted pregnancies; 5) health education and services for adolescents; and 6) community education for women, their families, and decision-makers. Maternal and newborn health services would cost as little as US$3/person/year in developing countries. PMID:12348557

  16. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells (URFC) have recently been developed by several fuel cell manufacturers. These manufacturers have concentrated their efforts on the development of the cell stack technology itself, and have not up to this point devoted much effort to the design and development of the balance of plant. A fuel cell technology program at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) that has as its goal the definition and feasibility testing of the URFC system balance of plant. Besides testing the feasibility, the program also intends to minimize the system weight, volume, and parasitic power as its goal. The design concept currently being developed uses no pumps to circulate coolant or reactants, and minimizes the ancillary components to only the oxygen and hydrogen gas storage tanks, a water storage tank, a loop heat pipe to control the temperature and two pressure control devices to control the cell stack pressures during operation. The information contained in this paper describes the design and operational concepts employed in this concept. The paper also describes the NASA Glenn research program to develop this concept and test its feasibility.

  17. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1993-01-01

    The System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failures as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient conditions. This task assignment originally specified developing a platform for executing the algorithm during hot fire tests at Technology Test Bed (TTB) and installing the SAFD algorithm on that platform. Two units were built and installed in the Hardware Simulation Lab and at the TTB in December 1991. Since that time, the task primarily entailed improvement and maintenance of the systems, additional testing to prove the feasibility of the algorithm, and support of hot fire testing. This document addresses the work done since the last report of June 1992. The work on the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection during this period included improving the platform and the algorithm, testing the algorithm against previous test data and in the Hardware Simulation Lab, installing other algorithms on the system, providing support for operations at the Technology Test Bed, and providing routine maintenance.

  18. Launch system development in the Pacific Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Several Western Pacific Rim nations are beginning to challenge the domination of the United States, Europe, and the former Soviet Union in the international market for commercial launch sevices. This paper examines the current development of launch systems in China, Japan, and Australia. China began commercial launch services with their Long March-3 in April 1990, and is making enhancements to vehicles in this family. Japan is developing the H-2 rocket which will be marketed on a commercial basis. In Australia, British Aerospace Ltd. is leading a team conducting a project definition study for an Australian Launch Vehicle, aimed at launching the new generation of satellites into low Earth orbit.

  19. [Development of a new position-recognition system for robotic radiosurgery systems using machine vision].

    PubMed

    Mohri, Issai; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fukunaga, Junnichi; Tane, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hironori; Hirashima, Hideaki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    CyberKnife(®) provides continuous guidance through radiography, allowing instantaneous X-ray images to be obtained; it is also equipped with 6D adjustment for patient setup. Its disadvantage is that registration is carried out just before irradiation, making it impossible to perform stereo-radiography during irradiation. In addition, patient movement cannot be detected during irradiation. In this study, we describe a new registration system that we term "Machine Vision," which subjects the patient to no additional radiation exposure for registration purposes, can be set up promptly, and allows real-time registration during irradiation. Our technique offers distinct advantages over CyberKnife by enabling a safer and more precise mode of treatment. "Machine Vision," which we have designed and fabricated, is an automatic registration system that employs three charge coupled device cameras oriented in different directions that allow us to obtain a characteristic depiction of the shape of both sides of the fetal fissure and external ears in a human head phantom. We examined the degree of precision of this registration system and concluded it to be suitable as an alternative method of registration without radiation exposure when displacement is less than 1.0 mm in radiotherapy. It has potential for application to CyberKnife in clinical treatment. PMID:25142385

  20. [Development of a new position-recognition system for robotic radiosurgery systems using machine vision].

    PubMed

    Mohri, Issai; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fukunaga, Junnichi; Tane, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hironori; Hirashima, Hideaki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    CyberKnife(®) provides continuous guidance through radiography, allowing instantaneous X-ray images to be obtained; it is also equipped with 6D adjustment for patient setup. Its disadvantage is that registration is carried out just before irradiation, making it impossible to perform stereo-radiography during irradiation. In addition, patient movement cannot be detected during irradiation. In this study, we describe a new registration system that we term "Machine Vision," which subjects the patient to no additional radiation exposure for registration purposes, can be set up promptly, and allows real-time registration during irradiation. Our technique offers distinct advantages over CyberKnife by enabling a safer and more precise mode of treatment. "Machine Vision," which we have designed and fabricated, is an automatic registration system that employs three charge coupled device cameras oriented in different directions that allow us to obtain a characteristic depiction of the shape of both sides of the fetal fissure and external ears in a human head phantom. We examined the degree of precision of this registration system and concluded it to be suitable as an alternative method of registration without radiation exposure when displacement is less than 1.0 mm in radiotherapy. It has potential for application to CyberKnife in clinical treatment.

  1. The SAFER Latinos project: Addressing a community ecology underlying Latino youth violence.

    PubMed

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of Central American immigrants. Specific circumstances targeted in this intervention are decreased family cohesion as a result of sequential immigration (i.e., parents arriving first and bringing their children years later or youth arriving without parents); multiple school barriers; community disorganization and low community efficacy; limited access to services; and a social context (including gang presence) that is linked to youth norms supporting violence. In its implementation, the initial intervention model was adapted to address barriers and challenges. These are described, along with lessons learned and the ongoing evaluation.

  2. Summary of findings from the evaluation of a pilot medically supervised safer injecting facility.

    PubMed

    Wood, Evan; Tyndall, Mark W; Montaner, Julio S; Kerr, Thomas

    2006-11-21

    In many cities, infectious disease and overdose epidemics are occurring among illicit injection drug users (IDUs). To reduce these concerns, Vancouver opened a supervised safer injecting facility in September 2003. Within the facility, people inject pre-obtained illicit drugs under the supervision of medical staff. The program was granted a legal exemption by the Canadian government on the condition that a 3-year scientific evaluation of its impacts be conducted. In this review, we summarize the findings from evaluations in those 3 years, including characteristics of IDUs at the facility, public injection drug use and publicly discarded syringes, HIV risk behaviour, use of addiction treatment services and other community resources, and drug-related crime rates. Vancouver's safer injecting facility has been associated with an array of community and public health benefits without evidence of adverse impacts. These findings should be useful to other cities considering supervised injecting facilities and to governments considering regulating their use.

  3. Materials at 200 mph: Making NASCAR Faster and Safer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-03-01

    You cannot win a NASCAR race without understanding science.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Materials play important roles in improving performance, as well as ensuring safety. On the performance side, NASCAR limits the materials race car scientists and engineers can use to limit ownership costs. `Exotic metals' are not allowed, so controlling microstructure and nanostructure are important tools. Compacted Graphite Iron, a cast iron in which magnesium additions produce interlocking microscale graphite reinforcements, makes engine blocks stronger and lighter. NASCAR's new car design employs a composite called Tegris^TM that has 70 percent of the strength of carbon fiber composites at about 10 percent of the cost. The most important role of materials in racing is safety. Drivers wear firesuits made of polymers that carbonize (providing thermal protection) and expand (reducing oxygen access) when heated. Catalytic materials originally developed for space-based CO2 lasers filter air for drivers during races. Although materials help cars go fast, they also help cars slow down safely---important because the kinetic energy of a race car going 180 mph is nine times greater than that of a passenger car going 60 mph. Energy-absorbing foams in the cars and on the tracks control energy dissipation during accidents. To say that most NASCAR fans (and there are estimated to be 75 million of them) are passionate about their sport is an understatement. NASCAR fans understand that science and engineering are integral to keeping their drivers safe and helping their teams win. Their passion for racing gives us a great opportunity to share our passion for science with them. NASCAR^ is a registered trademark of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. Tegris^TM is a trademark of Milliken & Company.

  4. Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Regan, Timothy F.

    2005-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling convertors are being developed for potential use on NASA exploration missions. In support of this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed the Stirling convertor System Dynamic Model (SDM). The SDM models the Stirling cycle thermodynamics; heat flow; gas, mechanical, and mounting dynamics; the linear alternator; and the controller. The SDM s scope extends from the thermal energy input to thermal, mechanical, and electrical energy output, allowing one to study complex system interactions among subsystems. Thermal, mechanical, fluid, magnetic, and electrical subsystems can be studied in one model. The SDM is a nonlinear time-domain model containing sub-cycle dynamics, which simulates transient and dynamic phenomena that other models cannot. The entire range of convertor operation is modeled, from startup to full-power conditions.

  5. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  6. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  7. Engrailed homeoproteins in visual system development.

    PubMed

    Wizenmann, Andrea; Stettler, Olivier; Moya, Kenneth L

    2015-04-01

    Engrailed is a homeoprotein transcription factor. This family of transcription factors is characterized by their DNA-binding homeodomain and some members, including Engrailed, can transfer between cells and regulate protein translation in addition to gene transcription. Engrailed is intimately involved in the development of the vertebrate visual system. Early expression of Engrailed in dorsal mesencephalon contributes to the development and organization of a visual structure, the optic tectum/superior colliculus. This structure is an important target for retinal ganglion cell axons that carry visual information from the retina. Engrailed regulates the expression of Ephrin axon guidance cues in the tectum/superior colliculus. More recently it has been reported that Engrailed itself acts as an axon guidance cue in synergy with the Ephrin system and is proposed to enhance retinal topographic precision.

  8. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  10. Evolutionary drift in systems of care development.

    PubMed

    Rotto, Knute; McIntyre, Janet

    2010-02-01

    While we agree that it is necessary to articulate a "clearly specified population" for the definition of systems of care, we believe that limiting systems of care to "children and youth with serious emotional disturbance and their families" is not in the best interest of most communities. Using this narrow population definition excludes the other 80-90% of the youth who have mental health challenges but have not risen to the highest level of need. If all children and their families receive the right amount of support from the system of care at the right time, they will avoid the need for more intensive and expensive services and supports later. This public health approach helps to build more stable communities and redirects scarce resources to interventions that are less costly than those needed for youth who already have developed serious emotional disturbances. The key to successfully supplying the "right amount at the right time" is to ensure that the system of care is truly needs driven, rather than agency or service system driven. A system of care for children, youth and their families should reflect community preferences and embrace a public health approach where all levels of need are served.

  11. SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; LOCKEY,R.; MI,J.; NEHRING,T.; PAI,C.; TSOUPAS,N.; TUOZZOLO,J.; WARBURTON,D.; WEI,J.; RUST,K.; CUTLER,R.

    2003-06-15

    The SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System is a very high power, high repetition rate pulsed power system. It was design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system will consist of fourteen identical high voltage, high current modulators, and their auxiliary control and charging systems. The modulators will drive fourteen extraction magnet sections located inside of the SNS accumulator ring. The required kicker field rise time is 200 ns, a pulse flattop of 700 ns, a pulse repetition rate of 60 pulse-per-second. A 2500 Ampere per modulator output is required to reach the extraction kicker magnetic field strength. This design features a Blumlein Pulse-Forming-Network based topology, a low beam impedance termination, a fast current switching thyratron, and low inductance capacitor banks. It has a maximum charging voltage of 50kV, an open circuit output of 100kV, and a designed maximum pulsed current output of 4kA per modulator. The overall system output will be multiple GVA with 60 Pulse-per-second repetition rate. A prototype modulator has been successfully built and tested well above the SNS requirement. The modulator system production is in progress.

  12. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  13. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialke, William; Selby, Vaughn

    1991-01-01

    In order to satisfy a growing demand for low cost attitude control systems for small spacecraft, development of low cost scanning horizon sensor coupled to a low cost/low power consumption Reaction Wheel Assembly was initiated. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.

  14. Development of Alabama Resources Information System (ARIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, B. E.; Vachon, R. I.

    1976-01-01

    A formal, organized set of information concerning the development status of the Alabama Resources Information System (ARIS) as of September 1976 is provided. A series of computer source language programs, and flow charts related to each of the computer programs to provide greater ease in performing future change are presented. Listings of the variable names, and their meanings, used in the various source code programs, and copies of the various user manuals which were prepared through this time are given.

  15. Emergence of order in visual system development.

    PubMed

    Shatz, C J

    1996-01-01

    Neural connections in the adult central nervous system are highly precise. In the visual system, retinal ganglion cells send their axons to target neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in such a way that axons originating from the two eyes terminate in adjacent but non-overlapping eye-specific layers. During development, however, inputs from the two eyes are intermixed, and the adult pattern emerges gradually as axons from the two eyes sort out to form the layers. Experiments indicate that the sorting out process, even though it occurs in utero in higher mammals and always before vision, requires retinal ganglion cell signaling: blocking retinal ganglion cell action potentials with tetrodotoxin prevents the formation of the layers. These action potentials are endogenously generated by the ganglion cells, which fire spontaneously and synchronously with each other, generating 'waves' of activity that travel across the retina. Calcium imaging of the retina shows that the ganglion cells undergo correlated calcium bursting to generate the waves, and that amacrine cells also participate in the correlated activity patterns. Physiological recordings from LGN neurons in vitro indicate that the quasi-periodic activity generated by the retinal ganglion cells is transmitted across the synapse between ganglion cells to drive target LGN neurons. These observations suggest that: 1) a neural circuit within the immature retina is responsible for generating specific spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity: 2) spontaneous activity generated in the retina is propagated across central synapses; and 3) even before the photoreceptors are present, nerve cell function is essential for correct wiring of the visual system during early development. Since spontaneously generated activity is known to be present elsewhere in the developing central nervous system (CNS), this process of activity-dependent wiring could be used throughout the nervous system to help refine early sets of

  16. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noar, Seth M.; Pierce, Larson B.; Black, Hulda G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of computer-mediated interventions (CMIs) aimed at changing theoretical mediators of safer sex. Meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes from k = 20 studies indicated that CMIs significantly improved HIV/AIDS knowledge, d = 0.276, p less than 0.001, k = 15, N = 6,625; sexual/condom…

  17. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  18. Systems Medicine in Pharmaceutical Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Kuepfer, Lars; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies requires substantial and ever increasing investments from the pharmaceutical company. Ten years ago, the average time from early target identification and optimization until initial market authorization of a new drug compound took more than 10 years and involved costs in the order of one billion US dollars. Recent studies indicate even a significant growth of costs in the meanwhile, mainly driven by the increasing complexity of diseases addressed by pharmaceutical research.Modeling and simulation are proven approaches to handle highly complex systems; hence, systems medicine is expected to control the spiral of complexity of diseases and increasing costs. Today, the main focus of systems medicine applications in industry is on mechanistic modeling. Biological mechanisms are represented by explicit equations enabling insight into the cooperation of all relevant mechanisms. Mechanistic modeling is widely accepted in pharmacokinetics, but prediction from cell behavior to patients is rarely possible due to lacks in our understanding of the controlling mechanisms. Data-driven modeling aims to compensate these lacks by the use of advanced statistical and machine learning methods. Future progress in pharmaceutical research and development will require integrated hybrid modeling technologies allowing realization of the benefits of both mechanistic and data-driven modeling. In this chapter, we sketch typical industrial application areas for both modeling techniques and derive the requirements for future technology development.

  19. Resonant Kicker System Development at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Beukers, Tony; Krzaszczak, John; Larrus, Marc; Lira, Antonio de; /SLAC

    2009-04-27

    The design and installation of the Linear Coherent Light Source [1] at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has included the development of a kicker system for selective beam bunch dumping. The kicker is based on an LC resonant topology formed by the 50 uF energy storage capacitor and the 64 uH air core magnet load which has a sinusoidal pulse period of 400us. The maximum magnet current is 500 A. The circuit is weakly damped, allowing most of the magnet energy to be recovered in the energy storage capacitor. The kicker runs at a repetition rate of 120Hz. A PLC-based control system provides remote control and monitoring of the kicker via EPICS protocol. Fast timing and interlock signals are converted by discrete peak-detect and sample-hold circuits into DC signals that can be processed by the PLC. The design and experimental characterization of the system are presented.

  20. Development of a portable precision landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Macdonald, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    A portable, tactical approach guidance (PTAG) system, based on a novel, X-band, precision approach concept, was developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-the-art X-band technology and digital processing techniques. The PTAG airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small microprocessor installed in conjunction with the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, PTAG pulses and outputs ILS compatible localizer and glide slope signals. The ground stations are inexpensive, portable units, each weighing less than 85 lb, including battery, that can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that PTAG has a significant potential for providing tactical aircraft with low cost, portable, precision instrument approach capability.

  1. The Monterey Ocean Observing System Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffey, M.; Graybeal, J. B.; O'Reilly, T.; Ryan, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) has a major development program underway to design, build, test and apply technology suitable to deep ocean observatories. The Monterey Ocean Observing System (MOOS) program is designed to form a large-scale instrument network that provides generic interfaces, intelligent instrument support, data archiving and near-real-time interaction for observatory experiments. The MOOS mooring system is designed as a portable surface mooring based seafloor observatory that provides data and power connections to both seafloor and ocean surface instruments through a specialty anchor cable. The surface mooring collects solar and wind energy for powering instruments and transmits data to shore-side researchers using a satellite communications modem. The use of a high modulus anchor cable to reach seafloor instrument networks is a high-risk development effort that is critical for the overall success of the portable observatory concept. An aggressive field test program off the California coast is underway to improve anchor cable constructions as well as end-to-end test overall system design. The overall MOOS observatory systems view is presented and the results of our field tests completed to date are summarized.

  2. Autonomous power expert system advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Todd M.; Walters, Jerry L.

    1991-01-01

    The autonomous power expert (APEX) system is being developed at Lewis Research Center to function as a fault diagnosis advisor for a space power distribution test bed. APEX is a rule-based system capable of detecting faults and isolating the probable causes. APEX also has a justification facility to provide natural language explanations about conclusions reached during fault isolation. To help maintain the health of the power distribution system, additional capabilities were added to APEX. These capabilities allow detection and isolation of incipient faults and enable the expert system to recommend actions/procedure to correct the suspected fault conditions. New capabilities for incipient fault detection consist of storage and analysis of historical data and new user interface displays. After the cause of a fault is determined, appropriate recommended actions are selected by rule-based inferencing which provides corrective/extended test procedures. Color graphics displays and improved mouse-selectable menus were also added to provide a friendlier user interface. A discussion of APEX in general and a more detailed description of the incipient detection, recommended actions, and user interface developments during the last year are presented.

  3. Development of Sic Gas Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Okojie, R. S.; Beheim, G. M.; Thomas, V.; Chen, L.; Lukco, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have significant potential to address the gas sensing needs of aerospace applications such as emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, and fire detection. However, in order to reach that potential, a range of technical challenges must be overcome. These challenges go beyond the development of the basic sensor itself and include the need for viable enabling technologies to make a complete gas sensor system: electrical contacts, packaging, and transfer of information from the sensor to the outside world. This paper reviews the status at NASA Glenn Research Center of SiC Schottky diode gas sensor development as well as that of enabling technologies supporting SiC gas sensor system implementation. A vision of a complete high temperature microfabricated SiC gas sensor system is proposed. In the long-term, it is believed that improvements in the SiC semiconductor material itself could have a dramatic effect on the performance of SiC gas sensor systems.

  4. Developing sustainable systems for nematode management.

    PubMed

    Barker, K R; Koenning, S R

    1998-01-01

    Early researchers identified key concepts and developed tactics for multiple-option management of nematodes. Although the emphasis on integrated pest management over the past three decades has promoted strategies and tactics for nematode management, comprehensive studies on the related soil biology-ecology are relatively recent. Traditional management tactics include host resistance (where available), cultural tactics such as rotation with nonhosts, sanitation and avoidance, and destruction of residual crop roots, and the judicious use of nematicides. There have been advances in biological control of nematodes, but field-scale exploitation of this tactic remains to be realized. New technologies and resources are currently becoming central to the development of sustainable systems for nematode-pest-crop management: molecular diagnostics for nematode identification, genetic engineering for host resistance, and the elucidation and application of soil biology for general integrated cropping systems. The latter strategy includes the use of nematode-pest antagonistic cover crops, animal wastes, and limited tillage practices that favor growth-promoting rhizobacteria, earthworms, predatory mites, and other beneficial organisms while suppressing parasitic nematodes and other plant pathogens. Certain rhizobacteria may induce systemic host resistance to nematodes and, in some instances, to foliage pathogens. The systems focusing on soil biology hold great promise for sustainable crop-nematode management, but only a few research programs are currently involved in this labor-intensive endeavor.

  5. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior.

  6. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  7. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  8. Reusable Metallic Thermal Protection Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.; Martin, Carl J.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Poteet, Carl C.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) are being developed to help meet the ambitious goals of future reusable launch vehicles. Recent metallic TPS development efforts at NASA Langley Research Center are described. Foil-gage metallic honeycomb coupons, representative of the outer surface of metallic TPS were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, rain erosion, and subsequent arcjet exposure. TPS panels were subjected to thermal vacuum, acoustic, and hot gas flow testing. Results of the coupon and panel tests are presented. Experimental and analytical tools are being developed to characterize and improve internal insulations. Masses of metallic TPS and advanced ceramic tile and blanket TPS concepts are compared for a wide range of parameters.

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    A progress report on the Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project being performed under contract from NASA Lewis is presented. The goals and objectives of the project are described noting that funds from the DOE, Office of Transportation Programs are used to sponsor the project. Among the demonstration objectives are attaining a fuel economy of 42.5 miles per gallon in a 1985 Pontiac Phoenix, multifuel capability, and emission levels within the federal standards. Design objectives examined include competitive reliability and life as well as competitive initial and life cycle costs. Finally, it is stressed that high risk and key elements in this advanced powertrain project are the development of ceramic turbine engine components and the aerodynamic development of small size turbine components.

  10. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  11. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the summer of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays and support applications at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I created control scripts using the Application Control Language (ACL) to analyze the health and status of Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This application provides a system health and status display I created with summarized data for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of KGCS subsystems.

  12. Emergence of order in visual system development.

    PubMed

    Shatz, C J

    1996-01-23

    Neural connections in the adult central nervous system are highly precise. In the visual system, retinal ganglion cells send their axons to target neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in such a way that axons originating from the two eyes terminate in adjacent but nonoverlapping eye-specific layers. During development, however, inputs from the two eyes are intermixed, and the adult pattern emerges gradually as axons from the two eyes sort out to form the layers. Experiments indicate that the sorting-out process, even though it occurs in utero in higher mammals and always before vision, requires retinal ganglion cell signaling; blocking retinal ganglion cell action potentials with tetrodotoxin prevents the formation of the layers. These action potentials are endogenously generated by the ganglion cells, which fire spontaneously and synchronously with each other, generating "waves" of activity that travel across the retina. Calcium imaging of the retina shows that the ganglion cells undergo correlated calcium bursting to generate the waves and that amacrine cells also participate in the correlated activity patterns. Physiological recordings from LGN neurons in vitro indicate that the quasiperiodic activity generated by the retinal ganglion cells is transmitted across the synapse between ganglion cells to drive target LGN neurons. These observations suggest that (i) a neural circuit within the immature retina is responsible for generating specific spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity; (ii) spontaneous activity generated in the retina is propagated across central synapses; and (iii) even before the photoreceptors are present, nerve cell function is essential for correct wiring of the visual system during early development. Since spontaneously generated activity is known to be present elsewhere in the developing CNS, this process of activity-dependent wiring could be used throughout the nervous system to help refine early sets of neural connections into

  13. Emergence of order in visual system development.

    PubMed Central

    Shatz, C J

    1996-01-01

    Neural connections in the adult central nervous system are highly precise. In the visual system, retinal ganglion cells send their axons to target neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in such a way that axons originating from the two eyes terminate in adjacent but nonoverlapping eye-specific layers. During development, however, inputs from the two eyes are intermixed, and the adult pattern emerges gradually as axons from the two eyes sort out to form the layers. Experiments indicate that the sorting-out process, even though it occurs in utero in higher mammals and always before vision, requires retinal ganglion cell signaling; blocking retinal ganglion cell action potentials with tetrodotoxin prevents the formation of the layers. These action potentials are endogenously generated by the ganglion cells, which fire spontaneously and synchronously with each other, generating "waves" of activity that travel across the retina. Calcium imaging of the retina shows that the ganglion cells undergo correlated calcium bursting to generate the waves and that amacrine cells also participate in the correlated activity patterns. Physiological recordings from LGN neurons in vitro indicate that the quasiperiodic activity generated by the retinal ganglion cells is transmitted across the synapse between ganglion cells to drive target LGN neurons. These observations suggest that (i) a neural circuit within the immature retina is responsible for generating specific spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity; (ii) spontaneous activity generated in the retina is propagated across central synapses; and (iii) even before the photoreceptors are present, nerve cell function is essential for correct wiring of the visual system during early development. Since spontaneously generated activity is known to be present elsewhere in the developing CNS, this process of activity-dependent wiring could be used throughout the nervous system to help refine early sets of neural connections into

  14. The Mediterranean Forecasting System: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonani, Marina; Oddo, Paolo; Korres, Gerasimos; Clementi, Emanuela; Dobricic, Srdjan; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Jenny; Guarnieri, Antonio; Romaniello, Vito; Girardi, Giacomo; Grandi, Alessandro; Bonaduce, Antonio; Pinardi, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments of the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre of the EU-Copernicus marine service, the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS), are presented. MFS provides forecast, analysis and reanalysis for the physical and biogeochemical parameters of the Mediterranean Sea. The different components of the system are continuously updated in order to provide to the users the best available product. This work is focus on the physical component of the system. The physical core of MFS is composed by an ocean general circulation model (NEMO) coupled with a spectral wave model (Wave Watch-III). The NEMO model provides to WW-III surface currents and SST fields, while WW-III returns back to NEMO the neutral component of the surface drag coefficient. Satellite Sea Level Anomaly observations and in-situ T & S vertical profiles are assimilated into this system using a variational assimilation scheme based on 3DVAR (Dobricic, 2008) . Sensitive experiments have been performed in order to assess the impact of the assimilation of the latest available SLA missions, Altika and Cryosat together with the long term available mission of Jason2. The results show a significant improvement of the MFS skill due to the multi-mission along track assimilation. The primitive equations module has been recently upgraded with the introduction of the atmospheric pressure term and a new, explicit, numerical scheme has been adopted to solve the barotropic component of the equations of motion. The SLA satellite observations for data assimilation have been consequently modified in order to account for the new atmospheric pressure term introduced in the equations. This new system has been evaluated using tide gauge coastal buoys and the satellite along track data. The quality of the SSH has improved significantly while a minor impact has been observed on the other state variables (temperature, salinity and currents). Experiments with a higher resolution NWP (numerical weather prediction

  15. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  16. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  17. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  18. Flammability test for sunglasses: developing a system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Renan; Ventura, Liliane

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations show the need for certificating sunglasses to ensure the safety and health to population. The Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR 15111 regulates features to sunglasses, however, there is not a sunglasses certification office in Brazil, therefore, our lab has been developing several equipment for sunglasses testing. This work refers to one of them: the flammability test system for sunglasses in compliance with the NBR 15111. The standard provides requirements for the flammability test procedure which requires that the equipment must operate at a temperature of 650 °C +/- 20 °C the end of a steel rod of 300 mm length and 6 mm diameter should be heated and pressed over the surface of the lenses for five seconds; the flammability is checked by visual inspection. The furnace is made of ceramic. We used a power electronic circuit to control the power in the furnace using ON/OFF mode and for measuring the temperature, we used a K-type thermocouple. A stepper motor with pulley lifts the steel rod. The system reaches the working temperature in 15 minutes for a step input of 61 V in open loop system. The electronics control are under development in order to shorten the time necessary to reach the working temperature and maintain the temperature variation in the furnace within the limits imposed by the standard as next steps.

  19. Safer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

  20. Nematode model systems in evolution and development.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ralf J; Bumbarger, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in all areas of modern biology. Using the knowledge about C. elegans as a baseline, nematodes are now intensively studied in evolution and development. Evolutionary developmental biology or for short, 'evo-devo' has been developed as a new research discipline during the last two decades to investigate how changes in developmental processes and mechanisms result in the modification of morphological structures and phenotypic novelty. In this article, we review the concepts that make nematode evo-devo a successful approach to evolutionary biology. We introduce selected model systems for nematode evo-devo and provide a detailed discussion of four selected case studies. The most striking finding of nematode evo-devo is the magnitude of developmental variation in the context of a conserved body plan. Detailed investigation of early embryogenesis, gonad formation, vulva development, and sex determination revealed that molecular mechanisms evolve rapidly, often in the context of a conserved body plan. These studies highlight the importance of developmental systems drift and neutrality in evolution. PMID:23801489

  1. Information systems for engineering sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.S.

    1992-02-27

    The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity or capabilities of its people and its institutions. Specifically, capacity-building in the UNCED terminology encompasses the country`s human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional, and resource capabilities. A fundamental goal of capacity-building is to enhance the ability to pose, evaluate and address crucial questions related to policy choices and methods of implementation among development options. As a result the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Agenda 21 planning process has identified the need for better methods by which information can be transferred between industrialized nations and developing nations. The reasons for better methods of information transfer include facilitating decisions related to sustainable development and building the capacity of developing nations to better plan their future in both an economical and environmentally sound manner. This paper is a discussion on mechanisms for providing information and technologies available for presenting the information to a variety of cultures and levels of technical literacy. Consideration is given to access to information technology as well as to the cost to the user. One concept discussed includes an ``Engineering Partnership`` which brings together the talents and resources of private consulting engineers, corporations, non-profit professional organizations, government agencies and funding institution which work in partnership with each other and associates in developing countries. Concepts which are related to information technologies include a hypertext based, user configurable cultural translator and information navigator and the use of multi-media technologies to educate engineers about the concepts of sustainability, and the adaptation of the concept of metabolism to creating industrial systems.

  2. Information systems for engineering sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.S.

    1992-02-27

    The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity or capabilities of its people and its institutions. Specifically, capacity-building in the UNCED terminology encompasses the country's human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional, and resource capabilities. A fundamental goal of capacity-building is to enhance the ability to pose, evaluate and address crucial questions related to policy choices and methods of implementation among development options. As a result the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Agenda 21 planning process has identified the need for better methods by which information can be transferred between industrialized nations and developing nations. The reasons for better methods of information transfer include facilitating decisions related to sustainable development and building the capacity of developing nations to better plan their future in both an economical and environmentally sound manner. This paper is a discussion on mechanisms for providing information and technologies available for presenting the information to a variety of cultures and levels of technical literacy. Consideration is given to access to information technology as well as to the cost to the user. One concept discussed includes an Engineering Partnership'' which brings together the talents and resources of private consulting engineers, corporations, non-profit professional organizations, government agencies and funding institution which work in partnership with each other and associates in developing countries. Concepts which are related to information technologies include a hypertext based, user configurable cultural translator and information navigator and the use of multi-media technologies to educate engineers about the concepts of sustainability, and the adaptation of the concept of metabolism to creating industrial systems.

  3. METHODS OF PROMOTING SAFER SEX BEHAVIORS UTILIZED BY MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MALE CASUAL SEX PARTNERS

    PubMed Central

    Serovich, Julianne M.; Craft, Shonda M.; McDowell, Tiffany L.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Andrist, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report results of a qualitative investigation into the methods that HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) use to initiate safer sex with casual sexual partners. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 57 HIV-positive adult MSM living in a large midwestern city. Using an inductive approach to data analysis, participants revealed a typology of safer sex strategies that can be placed into four primary categorizations: having a nonnegotiable sexual behavior policy, behaviorally controlling the interaction, being verbally direct, and being verbally indirect. Strategies varied by degree of explicitness and partner involvement. Men in this study often employed multiple strategies if their partner was not initially receptive to engaging in safer sex behaviors. The strategies described can be especially beneficial to those working in the area of HIV prevention. Providing MSM a variety of options to initiate safer sex may enhance current prevention efforts. PMID:19243227

  4. Overview of Intelligent Systems and Operations Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallix, Joan; Dorais, Greg; Penix, John

    2004-01-01

    To achieve NASA's ambitious mission objectives for the future, aircraft and spacecraft will need intelligence to take the correct action in a variety of circumstances. Vehicle intelligence can be defined as the ability to "do the right thing" when faced with a complex decision-making situation. It will be necessary to implement integrated autonomous operations and low-level adaptive flight control technologies to direct actions that enhance the safety and success of complex missions despite component failures, degraded performance, operator errors, and environment uncertainty. This paper will describe the array of technologies required to meet these complex objectives. This includes the integration of high-level reasoning and autonomous capabilities with multiple subsystem controllers for robust performance. Future intelligent systems will use models of the system, its environment, and other intelligent agents with which it interacts. They will also require planners, reasoning engines, and adaptive controllers that can recommend or execute commands enabling the system to respond intelligently. The presentation will also address the development of highly dependable software, which is a key component to ensure the reliability of intelligent systems.

  5. Servicer system demonstration plan and capability development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    An orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) front end kit is defined which is capable of performing in-situ fluid resupply and modular maintenance of free flying spacecraft based on the integrated orbital servicing system (IOSS) concept. The compatibility of the IOSS to perform gas and fluid umbilical connect and disconnect functions utilizing connect systems currently available or in development is addressed. A series of tasks involving on-orbit servicing and the engineering test unit (ETU) of the on-orbit service were studied. The objective is the advancement of orbital servicing by expanding the Spacecraft Servicing Demonstration Plan (SSDP) to include detail demonstration planning using the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) and upgrading the ETU control.

  6. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

  7. OTEC power system development and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sather, N.F.

    1980-02-20

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a proven solar energy technology with enormous potential as a supplier of electric power. However, before this potential can be realized there must be significant reductions in OTEC plant investment costs estimated for state-of-the-art designs. A comprehensive survey of the opportunities for reducing costs of the heat exchangers and other components of the power system of closed-cycle OTEC plants is given. These cost-reducing inventives are strongly dependent on the extent to which the environmental impacts of OTEC plants will have to be controlled. The environmental concerns associated with the deployment of OTEC plants are reviewed, and approaches to alleviating these concerns are described. Finally, the key roles of the OTEC-1 component test facility and the OTEC pilot plant planned for a 1984 start up in providing information about the critical power system development and environmental impact problems are summarized.

  8. Development of an automated microbial sensor system.

    PubMed

    Heim, S; Schnieder, I; Binz, D; Vogel, A; Bilitewski, U

    1999-02-01

    An automated whole cell biosensor system was developed by integration of immobilized microbial cells in a flow-through system with screen-printed flow-through electrodes as detectors. The detectors used were thick-film Pt-electrodes in a 3-electrode configuration constructed as sandwich flow-through cells with a volume of about 36 microliters polarized at -900 mV. The measuring principle was the determination of oxygen consumption due to the microbial metabolism. Fructose was used as model analyte. The microorganisms were immobilized on cellulose-acetate membranes and integrated into a newly created reaction chamber (membrane reactor). The microbial cells used were Rhodococcus erythropolis and Issatchenkia orientalis known to be suitable for the determination of biological oxygen demand.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developedSafer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developedSafer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  10. Sexual communication, safer sex self-efficacy, and condom use among young Chinese migrants in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Jiang, Shulin; Liu, Yingjie; Li, Shuming

    2013-12-01

    Mediation effect of sexual communication on the relationship between safer sex self-efficacy and condom use was tested among 307 homosexually active migrant men, 376 heterosexually active migrant men, and 265 heterosexually active migrant women. The study found certain aspects of sexual communication mediated the effect of self-efficacy on condom use among the three samples. The findings underscored the importance of including components that promote safer sex self-efficacy and sexual communication in HIV prevention interventions for Chinese migrants.

  11. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  12. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  13. Microglia: Architects of the Developing Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jeffrey L; Schafer, Dorothy P

    2016-08-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), representing 5-10% of total CNS cells. Recent findings reveal that microglia enter the embryonic brain, take up residence before the differentiation of other CNS cell types, and become critical regulators of CNS development. Here, we discuss exciting new work implicating microglia in a range of developmental processes, including regulation of cell number and spatial patterning of CNS cells, myelination, and formation and refinement of neural circuits. Furthermore, we review studies suggesting that these cellular functions result in the modulation of behavior, which has important implications for a variety of neurological disorders.

  14. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

  15. Development of a multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kuno, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Norihiro; Matoba, Narihiro; Hayashi, Junichiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2000-05-01

    A highly accurate multispectral camera and the application software have been developed as a practical system to capture digital images of the artworks stored in galleries and museums. Instead of recording color data in the conventional three RGB primary colors, the newly developed camera and the software carry out a pixel-wise estimation of spectral reflectance, the color data specific to the object, to enable the practical multispectral imaging. In order to realize the accurate multispectral imaging, the dynamic range of the camera is set to 14 bits or over and the output bits to 14 bits so as to allow capturing even when the difference in light quantity between the each channel is large. Further, a small-size rotary color filter was simultaneously developed to keep the camera to a practical size. We have developed software capable of selecting the optimum combination of color filters available in the market. Using this software, n types of color filter can be selected from m types of color filter giving a minimum Euclidean distance or minimum color difference in CIELAB color space between actual and estimated spectral reflectance as to 147 types of oil paint samples.

  16. Development of a new airborne humidigraph system.

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Schmid, Beat; Chand, Duli; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Nelson, Danny A.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2012-12-06

    Modeling and measurements of aerosol properties is complicated by the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosols adding significant uncertainty to our best estimates of the direct effect aerosols exert on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Airborne measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity are particularly challenging but critically needed. This motivated the development of a newly designed system which can measure the dependence of the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σsp) on relative humidity (RH), known as f(RH), in real-time at a rapid rate (<10 s) on an aerial platform. The new system has several advantages over existing systems. It consists of three integrating nephelometers and humidity conditioners for simultaneous measurement of the σsp at three different RHs. The humidity is directly controlled in exchanger cells without significant temperature disturbances and without particle dilution, heating or loss of volatile compounds. The single-wavelength nephelometers are illuminated by LED-based light sources thereby minimizing heating of the sample stream. The flexible design of the RH conditioners, consisting of a number of specially designed exchanger cells (driers or humidifiers), enables us to measure f(RH) under hydration or dehydration conditions (always starting with the aerosol in a known state) with a simple system re-configuration. These exchanger cells have been characterized for losses of particles using latex spheres and laboratory generated ammonium sulfate aerosols. Residence times of 6 - 9 s in the exchangers and subsequent lines is sufficient for most aerosols to attain equilibrium with the new water vapor content. The performance of this system has been assessed aboard DOE’s G-1 research aircraft during test flights over California, Oregon, and Washington.

  17. Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

  18. Active Thermal Control System Development for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westheimer, David

    2007-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has been actively developing technologies that will enable future missions or will provide significant improvements over the state of the art technologies. These technologies have are targeted for application on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), or Orion, and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  19. Direct Drive Hall Thruster System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoskins, W. Andrew; Homiak, Daniel; Cassady, R. Joseph; Kerslake, Tom; Peterson, Todd; Ferguson, Dale; Snyder, Dave; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Schneider, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The sta:us of development of a Direct Drive Ha!! Thruster System is presented. 13 the first part. a s:udy of the impacts to spacecraft systems and mass benefits of a direct-drive architecture is reviewed. The study initially examines four cases of SPT-100 and BPT-4000 Hall thrusters used for north-south station keeping on an EXPRESS-like geosynchronous spacecraft and for primary propulsion for a Deep Space- 1 based science spacecraft. The study is also extended the impact of direct drive on orbit raising for higher power geosynchronous spacecraft and on other deep space missions as a function of power and delta velocity. The major system considerations for accommodating a direct drive Hall thruster are discussed, including array regulation, system grounding, distribution of power to the spacecraft bus, and interactions between current-voltage characteristics for the arrays and thrusters. The mass benefit analysis shows that, for the initial cases, up to 42 kg of dry mass savings is attributable directly to changes in the propulsion hardware. When projected mass impacts of operating the arrays and the electric power system at 300V are included, up to 63 kg is saved for the four initial cases. Adoption of high voltage lithium ion battery technology is projected to further improve these savings. Orbit raising of higher powered geosynchronous spacecraft, is the mission for which direct drive provides the most benefit, allowing higher efficiency electric orbit raising to be accomplished in a limited period of time, as well as nearly eliminating significant power processing heat rejection mass. The total increase in useful payload to orbit ranges up to 278 kg for a 25 kW spacecraft, launched from an Atlas IIA. For deep space missions, direct drive is found to be most applicable to higher power missions with delta velocities up to several km/s , typical of several Discovery-class missions. In the second part, the status of development of direct drive propulsion power

  20. Development of multichannel MEG system at IGCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariyappa, N.; Parasakthi, C.; Gireesan, K.; Sengottuvel, S.; Patel, Rajesh; Janawadkar, M. P.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.; Sundar, C. S.

    2013-02-01

    We describe some of the challenging aspects in the indigenous development of the whole head multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system at IGCAR, Kalpakkam. These are: i) fabrication and testing of a helmet shaped sensor array holder of a polymeric material experimentally tested to be compatible with liquid helium temperatures, ii) the design and fabrication of the PCB adapter modules, keeping in mind the inter-track cross talk considerations between the electrical leads used to provide connections from SQUID at liquid helium temperature (4.2K) to the electronics at room temperature (300K) and iii) use of high resistance manganin wires for the 86 channels (86×8 leads) essential to reduce the total heat leak which, however, inevitably causes an attenuation of the SQUID output signal due to voltage drop in the leads. We have presently populated 22 of the 86 channels, which include 6 reference channels to reject the common mode noise. The whole head MEG system to cover all the lobes of the brain will be progressively assembled when other three PCB adapter modules, presently under fabrication, become available. The MEG system will be used for a variety of basic and clinical studies including localization of epileptic foci during pre-surgical mapping in collaboration with neurologists.

  1. Power Systems Development Facility. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell.

  2. Development of a Universal Waste Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A concept for a Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) has been developed based on the knowledge gained from over 50 years of space travel. It is being designed for Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Multi ]Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and is based upon the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) commode. The UMWS was modified to enhance crew interface and reduce volume and cost. The UWMS will stow waste in fecal canisters, similar to the EDO, and urine will be stowed in bags for in orbit change out. This allows the pretreated urine to be subsequently processed and recovered as drinking water. The new design combines two fans and a rotary phase separator on a common shaft to allow operation by a single motor. This change enhances packaging by reducing the volume associated with an extra motor, associated controller, harness, and supporting structure. The separator pumps urine to either a dual bag design for COTS vehicles or directly into a water reclamation system. The commode is supported by a concentric frame, enhancing its structural integrity while further reducing the volume from the previous design. The UWMS flight concept development effort is underway and an early output of the development will be a ground based UMWS prototype for manned testing. Referred to as the Gen 3 unit, this prototype will emulate the crew interface included in the UWMS and will offer a great deal of knowledge regarding the usability of the new design, allowing the design team the opportunity to modify the UWMS flight concept based on the manned testing.

  3. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  4. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada With Errata Sheets, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Matthews

    2007-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117, Pluto Disassembly Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 117 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 26-41-01, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 26-41-01. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 117 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before finalizing the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary following SAFER activities. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated to meet the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 27, 2007, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 26-41-01 in CAU 117.

  6. Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Gregory; Beaudry, Charles; Ketchum, Andrew; McArthur, J. Craig (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on NASA's attempts to develop an air-breathing propulsion in an effort to make future space transportation safer, more reliable and significantly less expensive than today's missions. Spacecraft powered by air-breathing rocket engines would be completely reusable, able to take off and land at airport runways and ready to fly again within days. A radical new engine project is called the Integrated System Tests of an Air-breathing Rocket, or ISTAR.

  7. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet

  8. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  9. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management

  10. Systems vaccinology for cancer vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Tagliamonte, Maria; Tornesello, Marialina; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Results of therapeutic vaccines for established chronic infections or cancers are still unsatisfactory. The only therapeutic cancer vaccine approved for clinical use is the sipuleucel-T, for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, which induces a limited 4-month improvement in the overall survival of vaccinated patients compared to controls. This represents a remarkable advancement in the cancer immunotherapy field, although the clinical outcome of cancer vaccines needs to be substantially improved. To this aim, a multipronged strategy is required, including the evaluation of mechanisms underlying the effective elicitation of immune responses by cancer vaccines. The recent development of new technologies and computational tools allows the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the interactions between all of the components of innate and adaptive immunity over time. Here we review the potentiality of systems biology in providing novel insights in the mechanisms of action of vaccines to improve their design and effectiveness.

  11. Multi-well hydrocarbon development system

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, W.T.

    1986-12-23

    An offshore structure is described for development of a multi-well system by drilling through at least one pile securing a base structure for a center well to the seabed, comprising a buoyant body connected to the base structure through at least one universal joint means such that vertical motion of the buoyant body is substantially attenuated. The buoyant body includes a containment means adapted to store and separate produced fluids. A compartmentalized external shell surrounds the containment means for ballasting and deballasting. A turntable is above the containment means, skid beams are affixed onto the turntable and a drilling rig mast means is slidably mounted on the skid beams. A jack means is included for moving the drilling rig means with respect to the skid beams, and turntable and the jack means being adapted to function cooperatively to position the drilling rig means over one of the piles. A method is described for development of a multi-well system comprising the steps of providing a base structure secured to the seabed by piles, a buoyant body connected to the base structure and including a containment means adapted for storage and or processing. A production riser assembly passes through the containment means, a turntable with skid beams affixed thereonto, and a drilling rig movably disposed on the skid beams, positioning the rig over of the piles by rotating the turntable and moving the rig with respect to the skid beams, drilling a cluster well through the one pile, and transporting produced fluids from the cluster well through the riser assembly into the containment means.

  12. BAE systems' SMART chip camera FPA development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Louise; Auroux, Pierre-Alain; McManus, Don; Harris, D. Ahmasi; Blackwell, Richard J.; Bryant, Jeffrey; Boal, Mihir; Binkerd, Evan

    2015-06-01

    BAE Systems' SMART (Stacked Modular Architecture High-Resolution Thermal) Chip Camera provides very compact long-wave infrared (LWIR) solutions by combining a 12 μm wafer-level packaged focal plane array (FPA) with multichip-stack, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and wafer-level optics. The key innovations that enabled this include a single-layer 12 μm pixel bolometer design and robust fabrication process, as well as wafer-level lid packaging. We used advanced packaging techniques to achieve an extremely small-form-factor camera, with a complete volume of 2.9 cm3 and a thermal core weight of 5.1g. The SMART Chip Camera supports up to 60 Hz frame rates, and requires less than 500 mW of power. This work has been supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Low Cost Thermal Imager - Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program, and BAE Systems' internal research and development investment.

  13. Systems approach to nuclear waste glass development

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1986-01-01

    Development of a host solid for the immobilization of nuclear waste has focused on various vitreous wasteforms. The systems approach requires that parameters affecting product performance and processing be considered simultaneously. Application of the systems approach indicates that borosilicate glasses are, overall, the most suitable glasses for the immobilization of nuclear waste. Phosphate glasses are highly durable; but the glass melts are highly corrosive and the glasses have poor thermal stability and low solubility for many waste components. High-silica glasses have good chemical durability, thermal stability, and mechanical stability, but the associated high melting temperatures increase volatilization of hazardous species in the waste. Borosilicate glasses are chemically durable and are stable both thermally and mechanically. The borosilicate melts are generally less corrosive than commercial glasses, and the melt temperature miimizes excessive volatility of hazardous species. Optimization of borosilicate waste glass formulations has led to their acceptance as the reference nuclear wasteform in the United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan.

  14. Cask systems development program seal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Edwards, K.R.; Humphreys, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (10 CFR 71). Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize the performance of several seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fuorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Results show that the seal materials tested, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. This paper documents the initial series of experiments developed to characterize the performance of several static seals under conditions representative of RAM transport container environments. Helium leak rates of face seals were measured at low and ambient temperatures to compare seal materials. As scaling laws have not been developed for seals, the leakage rates measured in this program are intended to be used in a qualitative rather than quantitative manner. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Developing Higher-Order Materials Knowledge Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Anthony Nathan

    2011-12-01

    Advances in computational materials science and novel characterization techniques have allowed scientists to probe deeply into a diverse range of materials phenomena. These activities are producing enormous amounts of information regarding the roles of various hierarchical material features in the overall performance characteristics displayed by the material. Connecting the hierarchical information over disparate domains is at the crux of multiscale modeling. The inherent challenge of performing multiscale simulations is developing scale bridging relationships to couple material information between well separated length scales. Much progress has been made in the development of homogenization relationships which replace heterogeneous material features with effective homogenous descriptions. These relationships facilitate the flow of information from lower length scales to higher length scales. Meanwhile, most localization relationships that link the information from a from a higher length scale to a lower length scale are plagued by computationally intensive techniques which are not readily integrated into multiscale simulations. The challenge of executing fully coupled multiscale simulations is augmented by the need to incorporate the evolution of the material structure that may occur under conditions such as material processing. To address these challenges with multiscale simulation, a novel framework called the Materials Knowledge System (MKS) has been developed. This methodology efficiently extracts, stores, and recalls microstructure-property-processing localization relationships. This approach is built on the statistical continuum theories developed by Kroner that express the localization of the response field at the microscale using a series of highly complex convolution integrals, which have historically been evaluated analytically. The MKS approach dramatically improves the accuracy of these expressions by calibrating the convolution kernels in these

  16. Systemic endopolyploidy in Spathoglottis plicata (Orchidaceae) development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Maocheng; Loh, Chiang Shiong

    2004-01-01

    Background Endopolyploidy is developmentally regulated. Presence of endopolyploidy as a result of endoreduplication has been characterized in insects, mammals and plants. The family Orchidaceae is the largest among the flowering plants. Many of the members of the orchid family are commercially micropropagated. Very little has been done to characterize the ploidy variation in different tissues of the orchid plants during development. Results The DNA contents and ploidy level of nuclei extracted from various tissues of a tropical terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata were examined by flow cytometry. Sepals, petals and ovary tissues were found to have only a 2C (C, DNA content of the unreplicated haploid chromosome complement) peak. Columns, floral pedicels of newly open flowers and growing flower stems were observed to have an endopolyploid 8C peak in addition to 2C and 4C peaks. In developing floral pedicels, four peaks were observed for 2C, 4C, 8C and 16C. In root tips, there were 2C, 4C and 8C peaks. But in the root tissues at the region with root hairs, only a 2C peak was observed. Nuclei extracted from young leaves shown three peaks for 2C, 4C and 8C. A similar pattern was found in the vegetative tissues of both greenhouse-grown plants and tissue-cultured plantlets. In mature leaves, a different pattern of ploidy level was found at different parts of the leaves. In the leaf tips and middle parts, there were 2C and 4C peaks. Only at the basal part of the leaves, there were three peaks for 2C, 4C and 8C. Conclusions Systemic variation of cellular endopolyploidy in different tissues during growth and development of Spathoglottis plicata from field-grown plants and in vitro cultures was identified. The implication of the findings was discussed. PMID:15341672

  17. Development of the excretory system in a polyplacophoran mollusc: stages in metanephridial system development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two types of excretory systems, protonephridia and metanephridial systems are common among bilaterians. The homology of protonephridia of lophotrochozoan taxa has been widely accepted. In contrast, the homology of metanephridial systems – including coelomic cavities as functional units – among taxa as well as the homology between the two excretory systems is a matter of ongoing discussion. This particularly concerns the molluscan kidneys, which are mostly regarded as being derived convergently to the metanephridia of e.g. annelids because of different ontogenetic origin. A reinvestigation of nephrogenesis in polyplacophorans, which carry many primitive traits within molluscs, could shed light on these questions. Results The metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata develops rapidly in the early juvenile phase. It is formed from a coelomic anlage that soon achieves endothelial organization. The pericardium and heart are formed from the central portion of the anlage. The nephridial components are formed by outgrowth from lateral differentiations of the anlage. Simultaneously with formation of the heart, podocytes appear in the atrial wall of the pericardium. In addition, renopericardial ducts, kidneys and efferent nephroducts, all showing downstream ciliation towards the internal lumen, become differentiated (specimen length: 0.62 mm). Further development consists of elongation of the kidney and reinforcement of filtration and reabsorptive structures. Conclusions During development and in fully formed condition the metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata shares many detailed traits (cellular and overall organization) with the protonephridia of the same species. Accordingly, we suggest a serial homology of various cell types and between the two excretory systems and the organs as a whole. The formation of the metanephridial system varies significantly within Mollusca, thus the mode of formation cannot be used as a homology criterion

  18. Thermal Protection System Development, Testing and Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.

    The science community currently has interest in planetary entry probe missions to improve our understanding of the atmospheres of Saturn and Venus [1,2]. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such data are critical to the understanding of not only the individual planets but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the solar system. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient [1] to provide the desired scientific data. The heating rates for the "shallow" Saturn probes and Venus are in the range of 2 - 5KW/cm2 . It is clear that new, mid-density Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission-enabling for mass efficiency [3] and also make the use of smaller vehicles possible from advancements in scientific instrumentation [4]. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet Arcjet Facility that was used to qualify Carbon Phenolic for the Galileo Probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technology and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arc jet that can be used for TPS development in test gases appropriate for the aforementioned, new planetary probe applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include a mid-density, chopped molded carbon phenolic (CMCP) material around 0.8g/cc and a densified variant of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) around 0.5g/cc. The small 5 MW arc jet facility, called the Development Arcjet Facility (DAF) and the methodology of testing TPS, both based on previous work, are discussed. Finally, the applications to Earth entry appropriate to speeds greater than lunar return (11km/s) are discussed as will facility-to-facility validation using air as a test gas. The use of other facilities for development, qualification and certification of TPS for Saturn and Venus is also discussed. [1] Atreya, S. K., et. al. Formation of Giant Planets and Their Atmospheres: Entry Probes for

  19. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Broadband Light Source Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature, low-power broadband light source has been developed for aerospace applications, including calibrating spectrometers and powering miniature optical sensors. The initial motivation for this research was based on flight tests of a Fabry-Perot fiberoptic temperature sensor system used to detect aircraft engine exhaust gas temperature. Although the feasibility of the sensor system was proven, the commercial light source optically powering the device was identified as a critical component requiring improvement. Problems with the light source included a long stabilization time (approximately 1 hr), a large amount of heat generation, and a large input electrical power (6.5 W). Thus, we developed a new light source to enable the use of broadband optical sensors in aerospace applications. Semiconductor chip-based light sources, such as lasers and light-emitting diodes, have a relatively narrow range of emission wavelengths in comparison to incandescent sources. Incandescent light sources emit broadband radiation from visible to infrared wavelengths; the intensity at each wavelength is determined by the filament temperature and the materials chosen for the filament and the lamp window. However, present commercial incandescent light sources are large in size and inefficient, requiring several watts of electrical power to obtain the desired optical power, and they emit a large percentage of the input power as heat that must be dissipated. The miniature light source, developed jointly by the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Lighting Innovations Institute, requires one-fifth the electrical input power of some commercial light sources, while providing similar output light power that is easily coupled to an optical fiber. Furthermore, it is small, rugged, and lightweight. Microfabrication technology was used to reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and potential cost-parameters critical to future aerospace applications. This chip

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130, Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 130 consists of the seven following corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 130 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) finalized on April 3, 2008, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 130. The DQO process developed for this CAU

  1. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  2. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  3. Appendix C: Rapid development approaches for system engineering and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Conventional system architectures, development processes, and tool environments often produce systems which exceed cost expectations and are obsolete before they are fielded. This paper explores some of the reasons for this and provides recommendations for how we can do better. These recommendations are based on DoD and NASA system developments and on our exploration and development of system/software engineering tools.

  4. Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.

  5. Subsea approach to work systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M. L.; Frisbie, F. R.; Brown, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Self-contained undersea working environments with applications to space station EVA environments are discussed. Physiological limitations include decompression, inert gas narcosis, high-pressure nervous system, gas toxicity, and thermal limitations. Work task requirements include drilling support, construction, inspection, and repair. Work systems include hyperbaric diving, atmospheric work systems, tele-operated work systems, and hybrid systems. Each type of work system is outlined in terms of work capabilities, special interface requirements, and limitations. Various operational philosophies are discussed. The evolution of work systems in the subsea industry has been the result of direct operational experience in a competitive market.

  6. Designing safer chemicals: Predicting the rates of metabolism of halogenated alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, H.; Anders, M.W.; Higgins, L.

    1995-11-21

    A computational model is presented that can be used as a tool in the design of safer chemicals. This model predicts that rate of hydrogen-atom abstraction by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Excellent correlations between biotransformation rates and the calculated activation energies ({Delta}H{sub act}) of the cytochrome P450-mediated hydrogen-atom abstractions were obtained for the in vitro biotransformation of six halogenated alkanes (1-fluoro-1,1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-2-chloroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, and 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) with both rat and human enzyme preparations: (rate, human CYP2E1) = 44.99 - 1.79 ({Delta}H{sub act}), r{sup 2} = 0.86; In (rate, human Cyp2E1)= 46399 -1.77 ({Delta}H{sub act}), r{sup 2} = 0.97 (rates are in nmol of product per min per nmol of cytochrome P450 and energies are in kcal/mol). Correlations were also obtained for five inhalation anesthetics (enflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, methoxyflurane, and isoflurane) for both in vivo and in vitro data have been shown to agree in any species. The model presented herein provides an archetype for the methodology that may be used in the future design of safer chemicals, particularly hydrochlorofluorocarbons and inhalation anesthetics. 41 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. A Safer Sodium‐Ion Battery Based on Nonflammable Organic Phosphate Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ziqi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Ran; Yuan, Dingding; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi

    2016-01-01

    Sodium‐ion batteries are now considered as a low‐cost alternative to lithium‐ion technologies for large‐scale energy storage applications; however, their safety is still a matter of great concern for practical applications. In this paper, a safer sodium‐ion battery is proposed by introducing a nonflammable phosphate electrolyte (trimethyl phosphate, TMP) coupled with NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode and Sb‐based alloy anode. The physical and electrochemical compatibilities of the TMP electrolyte are investigated by igniting, ionic conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge measurements. The results exhibit that the TMP electrolyte with FEC additive is completely nonflammable and has wide electrochemical window (0–4.5 V vs. Na/Na+), in which both the Sb‐based anode and NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode show high reversible capacity and cycling stability, similarly as in carbonate electrolyte. Based on these results, a nonflammable sodium‐ion battery is constructed by use of Sb anode, NaNi0.35Mn0.35Fe0.3O2 cathode, and TMP + 10 vol% FEC electrolyte, which works very well with considerable capacity and cyclability, demonstrating a promising prospect to build safer sodium‐ion batteries for large‐scale energy storage applications.

  8. Microstructure development in viscoelastic fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaping

    This thesis deals with the mechanisms of microstructure development in polymer blends. Much work has been performed on the breakup process of immiscible systems where the dispersed phase is suspended inside another matrix. The fluids used were polymer melts or model viscoelastic fluids, and the processing flows were model shear flow or processing flows seen in industry. It is found that in industrial extruders or batch mixers, the morphology of the dispersed polymer evolves from pellets to films, and subsequently to fibers and particles. In this thesis, it is demonstrated based on force analysis that the in-situ graft reactive compatibilization facilitates breakup of the dispersed phase by suppressing slip at the interface of the dispersed phase and matrix phase. The morphology development of polymer blends in industrial mixers was simulated by performing experiments of model viscoelastic drop deformation and breakup under shear flow. Two distinct modes of drop deformation and breakup were observed. Namely, viscoelastic drops can elongate and breakup either in (1) the flow direction or (2) the vorticity direction. The first normal stress difference N1 plays a decisive role in the conditions and modes of drop breakup. Drop size is an important factor which determines to a great extent the mode of drop breakup and the critical point when the drop breakup mechanism changes. Small drops break along the vorticity direction, whereas large drops break in the flow direction. A dramatic change in the critical shear rate was found when going from one breakup mode to another. Polymer melts processed under shear flow present different morphology development mechanisms: films, fibers, vorticity elongation and surface instability. The mechanisms depend greatly on the rheological properties of both the dispersed and matrix phases, namely the viscosity ratio and elasticity ratio. High viscosity ratio and high elasticity ratio result elongation of the dispersed phase in the

  9. NASA's SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM: Development and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS) and robotic probes are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) (Figure 1), that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (mT) (154,324 pounds) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 mT (286,601 pounds) through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any existing rocket, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward launch readiness in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. Engineers fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015 to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. More than 70 major components of test article and flight hardware for the Core Stage have been manufactured. Seven test firings have been completed with an RS-25 engine under SLS operating conditions. The test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) has also been completed

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: Development and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS), supported by NASA's commercial partners, and robotic probes, are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions that will eventually lead to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 t through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any rocket in history, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward first launch readiness of the Block 1 vehicle in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. The Boosters element fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015, to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. The Stages element marked the completion of more than 70 major components of test article and flight core stage tanks. The Liquid Engines element conducted seven test firings of an RS-25 engine under SLS conditions. The Spacecraft

  11. An event-level analysis of condom use as a function of mood, alcohol use, and safer sex negotiations.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Johnson, Christopher J; Wiebe, John S

    2009-04-01

    Daily self-reports of condom-protected intercourse were analyzed as a function of emotional states, alcohol consumption, and safer sex negotiations in a sample of single, low-income Hispanic students. The sample included 15 women and 17 men who reported a minimum of four sexual episodes as well as inconsistent condom use over a 3-month self-reporting period. The analyses focused on 829 days out of 2,586 daily self-reports on which sexual intercourse was reported. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict condom-protected intercourse as a function of mood states, substance use, and safer sex negotiations. Safer sex negotiation was the strongest positive predictor of condom use. Contrary to expectation, unprotected intercourse was less likely to occur in episodes characterized by greater negative affect and more likely in episodes in which greater positive mood was reported. No main effect of alcohol consumption on safer sex was observed; however, an interaction between alcohol consumption and positive mood emerged, indicating that unprotected intercourse was most likely to occur when positive mood was combined with alcohol consumption. The results contradict the assumption that emotional distress predicts engagement in more risky sexual behavior and indicate that safer sex negotiations are likely to outweigh any effects of mood or alcohol consumption on subsequent condom use.

  12. Present and future of the artificial heart driving system.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Itkin, G P; Sumin, A V; Mordashov, V M; Kiselev, U M; Zimin, N K; Drobyshev, A A

    1991-10-01

    The totally artificial heart (TAH) is now in development in two trends. First, there is the development of a bridge system for temporary support of cardiac function. The TAH with the extracorporeal pneumatic driving system Sinus-IS is more efficient and safer. Parallel with this, a portable pneumatic driving system has been developed. That can be considered a stage in the development of the second trend: a totally implantable TAH. This article reviews problems of building of the Micron energy system to be used in implantable TAH designs.

  13. Development of superconducting magnet systems for HIFExperiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbi, Gian Luca; Faltens, A.; Leitzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Martovets ky, N.; Chiesa, L.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Hwang, P.; Hinson, W.; Meinke, R.

    2004-07-27

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing superconducting focusing quadrupoles for near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. Following the fabrication and testing of several models, a baseline quadrupole design was selected and further optimized. The first prototype of the optimized design achieved a conductor-limited gradient of 132 T/m in a 70 mm bore, with measured field harmonics within 10 parts in 10{sup 4}. In parallel, a compact focusing doublet was fabricated and tested using two of the first-generation quadrupoles. After assembly in the cryostat, both magnets reached their conductor-limited quench current. Further optimization steps are currently underway to improve the performance of the magnet system and reduce its cost. They include the fabrication and testing of a new prototype quadrupole with reduced field errors as well as improvements of the cryostat design for the focusing doublet. The prototype units will be installed in the HCX beamline at LBNL, to perform accelerator physics experiments and gain operational experience. Successful results in the present phase will make superconducting magnets a viable option for the next generation of integrated beam experiments.

  14. Development of oxide fibrous monolith systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.

    1999-03-02

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics generally have a cellular structure that consists of a strong cell surrounded by a weaker boundary phase [1-5]. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are produced from powders by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques, such as extrusion [1,2]. When properly engineered, they exhibit fail gracefully [3-5]. Several compositions of ceramics and cermets have been processed successfully in fibrous monolithic form [4]. The most thoroughly investigated fibrous monolith consists of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells and a BN cell-boundary phase [3-5]. Through appropriate selection of initial powders and extrusion and hot-pressing parameters, very tough final products have been produced. The resultant high toughness is due primarily to delamination during fracture along textured platelike BN grains. The primary objectives of our program are to develop: (1) Oxide-based FMs, including new systems with improved properties; (2) FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot-pressed; (3) Techniques for continuous extrusion of FM filaments, including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for net-shape fabrication of FMs; (4) Predictive micromechanical models for FM design and performance; and (5) Ties with industrial producers and users of FMs.

  15. Beam developments for the Harwell microprobe system

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Cookson, J.A.; Alton, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    A consequence of the rapid development of micron and submicron size electronic devices is the diminished applicability of high energy ion microprobes with their present resolution limitations to the study of such components. Although submicron beams have been reported the available beam current is barely sufficiently for PIXE and is not adequate for RBS. This lack of lateral resolution is due to low beam brightness at the microprobe object and aberrations in the focusing elements. As part of a program to address these problems the Harwell microprobe lens has been relocated on a new 5 MV Laddertron accelerator. The increased brightness and improved stability of this facility has so far led to a reduction in beam size from 3 x 3 mS to about 2 x 2 mS. The feasibility of using a liquid metal ion source has been examined with a view to achieving more substantial increases in brightness. While such sources have brightness approximately 10V times greater than conventional gaseous sources the highly divergent nature of the beam presents problems for the beam transport system. The use of a liquid metal source on the accelerator has been successfully demonstrated but it indicates the need for a special low aberration injection lens if brightness is to be maintained.

  16. Safer Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Technology Research and Development Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Gordon, Bart [D-TN-6

    2010-07-13

    08/05/2010 Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 517. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Extended professional development for systemic curriculum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubitskey, Mary Elizabeth

    Education standards call for adopting inquiry science instruction. Successful adoption requires professional development (PD) to support teachers, increasing the need for research on PD. This dissertation examines the question: What is the influence of high quality, curriculum aligned, long-term group workshops and related practice on teacher learning? I focus on the following subquestions: (1) What is the influence of high quality, curriculum aligned, long-term, group workshops on teacher knowledge and beliefs? (2) What is the impact of the workshops on teacher practice? (3) What is the influence of practice on student response? (4) What is the impact of practice and student response on teacher knowledge and beliefs? I focus on an instance of PD nested within a long-term systemic change initiative, tracing eleven science teachers' learning from workshops and associated enactments. The data included pre and post-unit interviews (n=22), two post-workshop interviews (n=17), workshop observations (n=2), classroom observations (n=24) and student work (n=351). I used mixed-methods analysis. Quantitative analysis measured teacher learning by comparing pre and post-unit interview ratings. Qualitative components included two case study approaches: logic model technique and cross-case synthesis, examining teacher learning within and across teachers. The findings suggested a teacher-learning model incorporating PD, teacher knowledge, beliefs, practice and student response. PD impacts teachers' knowledge by providing teachers with new knowledge, adapting previous knowledge, or convincing them to value existing knowledge they chose not to use. The workshops can influence beliefs, providing teachers with confidence and motivation to adopt the practice. Beliefs can mediate how knowledge manifested itself in practice that, in turn, impacts students' response. Student response influences the teachers' beliefs, either reinforcing or motivating change. This teacher-learning model

  18. Development of a biowaste resistojet propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The equipment, exclusive of thrustors, required to demonstrate the feasibility of a resistojet propulsion system for space station attitude control application using representative simulated crew biowaste propellants and available resistojet thrustors in the ground simulation tests is discussed. The overall objective of the program was to provide a biowaste resistojet prototype propellant management and control system sufficiently similar to the flight article to permit concept feasibility and system demonstration testing of interface compatibility, operational characteristics, and system flexibility.

  19. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  20. Two systems developed for purifying inert atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Johnson, C. E.; Kyle, M. L.

    1969-01-01

    Two systems, one for helium and one for argon, are used for purifying inert atmospheres. The helium system uses an activated charcoal bed at liquid nitrogen temperature to remove oxygen and nitrogen. The argon system uses heated titanium sponge to remove nitrogen and copper wool beds to remove oxygen. Both use molecular sieves to remove water vapor.