Science.gov

Sample records for developing samarium ams

  1. The Basis for Developing Samarium AMS for Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Tumey, S J; Weaver, C J

    2008-10-13

    Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of {sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 151}Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

  2. Sparkle/AM1 Parameters for the Modeling of Samarium(III) and Promethium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2006-01-01

    The Sparkle/AM1 model is extended to samarium(III) and promethium(III) complexes. A set of 15 structures of high crystallographic quality (R factor < 0.05 Å), with ligands chosen to be representative of all samarium complexes in the Cambridge Crystallographic Database 2004, CSD, with nitrogen or oxygen directly bonded to the samarium ion, was used as a training set. In the validation procedure, we used a set of 42 other complexes, also of high crystallographic quality. The results show that this parametrization for the Sm(III) ion is similar in accuracy to the previous parametrizations for Eu(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III). On the other hand, promethium is an artificial radioactive element with no stable isotope. So far, there are no promethium complex crystallographic structures in CSD. To circumvent this, we confirmed our previous result that RHF/STO-3G/ECP, with the MWB effective core potential (ECP), appears to be the most efficient ab initio model chemistry in terms of coordination polyhedron crystallographic geometry predictions from isolated lanthanide complex ion calculations. We thus generated a set of 15 RHF/STO-3G/ECP promethium complex structures with ligands chosen to be representative of complexes available in the CSD for all other trivalent lanthanide cations, with nitrogen or oxygen directly bonded to the lanthanide ion. For the 42 samarium(III) complexes and 15 promethium(III) complexes considered, the Sparkle/AM1 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the Ln(III) ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.07 and 0.06 Å, respectively, a level of accuracy comparable to present day ab initio/ECP geometries, while being hundreds of times faster.

  3. Development and evaluation of copper-67 and samarium-153 labeled conjugates for tumor radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Mease, R.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Joshi, V.; Kolsky, K.; Sweet, M.; Steplewski, Z.

    1995-02-01

    The potential of utilizing receptor-specific agents such as monoclonal antibodies (MAb), and MAb-derived smaller molecules, as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors has stimulated much research activity. The success of such applications depends on many factors, especially the tumor binding properties of the antibody reagent, the efficiency of labeling and in-vivo stability of the radioconjugate and, on the careful choice of the radionuclide best suited to treat the tumor under consideration. The radiolabeled antibody technique for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), however, has experienced many limitations, and its success has not matched the expectations that were raised more than a decade ago. The problems that have been identified include: (i) degradation of antibody immunoreactivity resulting from chemical manipulations required for labeling; (ii) lack of suitable radioisotopes and methods for stable attachment of the radiolabel; (iii) in-vivo instability of the radioimmunoconjugates; (iv) excessive accumulation of activity in non-target locations; and (v) lack of radioimmunoconjugate accessibility to cells internal to a tumor mass. A careful choice of the radionuclide(s) best suited to treat the tumor under consideration is one of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunotherapy. This study evaluates copper 67 and samarium 153 for tumor radioimmunotherapy.

  4. X-ray radiometric determination of lanthanides (praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savichev, A. T.; Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

    2011-04-01

    A procedure of the modified energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (X-ray radiometric analysis using a 241Am radionuclide source) was developed for the identification of praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium. The procedure is based on the exclusion of the disturbing effect of barium and lanthanum on the lines of praseodymium and neodymium, as well as the effect of lanthanum and cerium on the lines of samarium. On the basis of the new method, data were obtained on the geochemistry of three lanthanides in soils of the northern taiga. Praseodymium and neodymium were detected by the X-ray radiometric method even in podzols depleted of heavy metals. The method can detect samarium at the levels of the soil clarke and higher. Positive samarium (or, wider, rare-earth) anomalies can be expected in the soils located not far from the deposits of apatite-nephelines, loparites, and phosphorites and in the soils developed on alkaline granites and carbonate weathering crusts.

  5. Separation of samarium and neodymium: a prerequisite for getting signals from nuclear synthesis.

    PubMed

    Maji, Samir; Lahiri, Susanta; Wierczinski, Birgit; Korschinek, Gunther

    2006-12-01

    (146)Sm (T(1/2) = 10(8) y) is a long-lived radionuclide which has been produced in significant amounts during burning in a supernova (SN). Detection of this SN produced long-lived radionuclide on Earth may be helpful for getting information on nuclear synthesis at the time of our solar system's formation. Only accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can determine such minute traces of (146)Sm still expected in the Earth's crust. However, the villain of (146)Sm measurement through AMS is its naturally occurring stable isobar (146)Nd which is a million times more abundant than the trace amount of (146)Sm. Therefore an efficient method for the separation of samarium and neodymium is required to measure (146)Sm through AMS. A simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) based method for separation of samarium and neodymium has been developed using radiometric simulation. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) has been used as the organic reagent. A very high separation factor ( approximately 10(6)) can be achieved when a solution containing samarium and neodymium is reduced by hydroxylamine hydrochloride followed by extraction with 0.1% HDEHP diluted in cyclohexane from 0.025 M HCl solution.

  6. Samarium/Cobalt Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R.; Chang, C.

    1985-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic coercivities of samarium cobalt magnets made to approach theoretical limit of 350 kA/m by carefully eliminating oxygen from finished magnet by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP process viable alternative to currently used sintering process.

  7. Samarium/Cobalt Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R.; Chang, C.

    1985-01-01

    Intrinsic magnetic coercivities of samarium cobalt magnets made to approach theoretical limit of 350 kA/m by carefully eliminating oxygen from finished magnet by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). HIP process viable alternative to currently used sintering process.

  8. Intercalation of graphene on iridium with samarium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'eva, E. Yu.; Rut'kov, E. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    Intercalation of graphene on Ir (111) with Sm atoms is studied by methods of thermal desorption spectroscopy and thermionic emission. It is shown that adsorption of samarium at T = 300 K on graphene to concentrations of N ≤ 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 followed by heating of the substrate leads to practically complete escape of adsorbate underneath the graphene layer. At N > 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 and increasing temperature, a fraction of adsorbate remains on graphene in the form of two-dimensional "gas" and samarium islands and are desorbed in the range of temperatures of 1000-1200 K. Samarium remaining under the graphene is desorbed from the surface in the temperature range 1200-2150 K. Model conceptions for the samarium-graphene-iridium system in a wide temperature range are developed.

  9. Resource for the Development of Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, K. W.; Bench, G.; Buchholz, B. A.; Enright, H.; Kulp, K.; McCartt, A. D.; Malfatti, M.; Ognibene, T.; Loots, G.; Stewart, B. J.

    2016-04-08

    The NIH Research Resource for Biomedical AMS was originally funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1999 to develop and apply the technology of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in broad- based biomedical research. The Resource’s niche is to fill needs for ultra high sensitivity quantitation when isotope-labeled agents are used. The Research Resource’s Technology Research and Development (TR&D) efforts will focus on the needs of the biomedical research community in the context of seven Driving Biomedical Projects (DBPs) that will drive the Center’s technical capabilities through three core TR&Ds. We will expand our present capabilities by developing a fully integrated HPLC AMS to increase our capabilities for metabolic measurements, we will develop methods to understand cellular processes and we will develop and validate methods for the application of AMS in human studies, which is a growing area of demand by collaborators and service users. In addition, we will continue to support new and ongoing collaborative and service projects that require the capabilities of the Resource. The Center will continue to train researchers in the use of the AMS capabilities being developed, and the results of all efforts will be widely disseminated to advance progress in biomedical research. Towards these goals, our specific aims are to:1.) Increase the value and information content of AMS measurements by combining molecular speciation with quantitation of defined macromolecular isolates. Specifically, develop and validate methods for macromolecule labeling, characterization and quantitation.2.) Develop and validate methods and strategies to enable AMS to become more broadly used in human studies. Specifically, demonstrate robust methods for conducting pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies in humans and model systems.3.) Increase the accessibility of AMS to the Biomedical research community and the throughput of AMS through direct coupling to separatory

  10. Synthesis of nano-pore samarium (III)-imprinted polymer for preconcentrative separation of samarium ions from other lanthanide ions via solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad

    2008-08-08

    A batch process was developed to separate samarium ions from some lanthanide ions by a novel solid phase which was prepared via the ion-imprinting technique. The samarium (III) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles were synthesized by preparing the ternary complex of samarium ions with 5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol (DCQ) and 4-vinylpyridine (VP). Then, thermally copolymerization with styrene (functional monomer, STY) and divinylbenzene (cross-linking monomer, DVB) followed in the presence of 2-methoxy ethanol (porogen) and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator, AIBN). The imprinted ion was removed by stirring the above particles with 50% (v/v) HCl to obtain the leached IIP particles. Moreover, control polymer (CP) particles were similarly prepared without the samarium ions. The unleached and leached IIP particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, preconcentration and selectivity studies for samarium and the other lanthanide ions were carried out. The preconcentration of the samarium (III) traces was studied during rebinding with the leached IIP particles as a function of pH, the weight of the polymer material, the preconcentration and the elution times, the eluent volume and the aqueous phase volume. These studies indicated that the samarium (III) amount as low as 1 microg, present in 200 mL, could be preconcentrated into 25 mL of 1.0 M HCl.

  11. Identification of genes controlling development of arbuscules in AM symbiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most vascular flowering plants have the capacity to form mutualistic symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These associations develop in the roots where the fungus delivers phosphate to the root cortical cells and receives carbon from its plant host. During the symbiosis, the fungus prol...

  12. AM/FM development for a small electric utility or form partnerships to minimize AM/FM development costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, R.

    1996-08-01

    Chelan County Public Utility District is a 32,000 customer electric utility in central Washington State. Being a small utility presents unique problems in developing a complex AM/FM system. With only a small staff assigned part-time to this project, partnering and outsourcing became essential for developing an AM/FM system. An incremental approach was also necessary. Our project started in 1992 in partnership with Chelan County and the City of Wenatchee for the development of a common landbase in ARC/INFO. For our AM/FM system, a purchased solution was much more feasible than in-house development. We decided against a big requirements definition phase or a formal RFP, and instead looked at available AM/FM systems to decide what was feasible for us. This paper shares the basics of our partnering strategy and outlines how our approach will allow the project to be completed in a fast-track of 40 months at a minimal cost to the Chelan P.U.D. ratepayers.

  13. Stereospecific and highly stereoselective cyclopropanation reactions promoted by samarium.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Concellón, Carmen; del Amo, Vicente

    2010-11-01

    Samarium metal and samarium diiodide have become important tools as selective cyclopropanating agents in organic synthesis due to their high chemo- and stereoselectivity. Therefore, Sm and SmI(2) are the ideal reagents to prepare cyclopropane derivatives. This tutorial review highlights C-C multiple bond cyclopropanation processes promoted by samarium or samarium diiodide.

  14. A physics-based model for the ionization of samarium by the MOSC chemical releases in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Briczinski, Stanley J.; Viggiano, Albert; Caton, Ronald G.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Ard, Shaun; Shuman, Nicholas; Groves, Keith M.

    2017-05-01

    Atomic samarium has been injected into the neutral atmosphere for production of electron clouds that modify the ionosphere. These electron clouds may be used as high-frequency radio wave reflectors or for control of the electrodynamics of the F region. A self-consistent model for the photochemical reactions of Samarium vapor cloud released into the upper atmosphere has been developed and compared with the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experimental observations. The release initially produces a dense plasma cloud that that is rapidly reduced by dissociative recombination and diffusive expansion. The spectral emissions from the release cover the ultraviolet to the near infrared band with contributions from solar fluorescence of the atomic, molecular, and ionized components of the artificial density cloud. Barium releases in sunlight are more efficient than Samarium releases in sunlight for production of dense ionization clouds. Samarium may be of interest for nighttime releases but the artificial electron cloud is limited by recombination with the samarium oxide ion.

  15. Technological developments for strontium-90 determination using AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shibayama, Nao; Izumi, Daiki; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one of method used for 90Sr determination. It would enable rapid 90Sr measurements from environmental samples such as water, soil, and milk. However, routine analysis of 90Sr using AMS has not yet been achieved because of difficulties associated with isobaric separation and production of intense negative ion beams characterized by currents from hundreds of nanoamperes to several microamperes. We have developed a rapid procedure for preparing samples with optimum compositions for use with AMS, which enables production of intense Sr beam currents from an ion source. Samples of SrF2 were prepared from a standard Sr solution and agricultural soil. The time required to prepare a SrF2 sample from a soil sample was 10 h. Negative 88SrF3- ions were successfully extracted at 500 nA from mixed samples of SrF2 and PbF2. In the present work, negative ions of 90Zr, included as an impurity, were accelerated with a tandem accelerator operated at a terminal voltage of 5 MV. Ions characterized by a charge state of 6+ were channeled into a gas counter. An atomic ratio of 90Zr/88Sr of 3 × 10-8 was estimated for the soil sample. No signal was detected from the assay of PbF2, which was pressed in an aluminum cathode, for a mass number of 90. PbF2 revealed good performance in the production of negative SrF3- molecular ion beams and detection of 90Sr with a gas counter.

  16. Beta-elimination reactions by using samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, Jose M; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto

    2004-11-30

    The development of methodologies for the formation of carbon-carbon double bonds could be considered one of the most important challenges in organic synthesis. To this end, beta-elimination reactions in 1,2-difunctionalised substrates have been one of the most important means of generating C=C bonds. This review is intended to highlight the use of SmI2 in beta-elimination procedures, such that the organization of this revision highlights conventional beta-elimination processes which are promoted by samarium diiodide. The synthetic applications of SmI2 will be covered, and 1,2-elimination reactions which are involved in sequential reactions promoted by samarium diiodide, will also be illustrated. These methodologies along with the more recent developments in the area are discussed in this tutorial review.

  17. Dielectric investigations of polycrystalline samarium bismuth ferrite ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaimiene, E.; Macutkevic, J.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Kholkin, A. L.; Banys, J.

    2015-01-01

    Results of broadband dielectric investigations of samarium doped bismuth ferrite ceramics are presented in wide temperature range (20-800 K). At temperatures higher than 400 K, the dielectric properties of samarium bismuth ferrite ceramics are governed by Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and electrical conductivity. The DC conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with samarium concentration. In samarium doped bismuth ferrite, the ferroelectric phase transition temperature decreases with samarium concentration and finally no ferroelectric order is observed at x = 0.2. At lower temperatures, the dielectric properties of ferroelectric samarium doped bismuth ferrite are governed by ferroelectric domains dynamics. Ceramics with x = 0.2 exhibit the relaxor-like behaviour.

  18. A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Zhou, Xinlin; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-02-01

    A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3).

  19. A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Zhou, Xinlin; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-02-15

    A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3 ~ 5 μm and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10 ~ 80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M (based on the S/N = 3).

  20. Removal of the samarium isobaric interference from promethium mass analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Young, J.P.; Smith, D.H.

    1988-02-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) is used to eliminate isobaric interference when determining the isotopic abundances of an element. In this application, RIMS is applied to the determination of promethium with the removal of samarium interference. In particular, promethium-147 is separated form samarium-147 and samarium-152.

  1. Towards the core structure of Strychnos alkaloids using samarium diiodide-induced reactions of indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Gross, Steffen; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-12-23

    This report describes the development of a first and second generation approach towards the synthesis of the ABCEG pentacyclic core structure of Strychnos alkaloids. First, we discuss a sequential approach applying a series of functional group transformations to prepare suitable precursors for cyclization reactions. These include attempts of samarium diiodide-induced cyclizations or a Barbier-type reaction of a transient lithium organyl, which successfully led to a tetracyclic key building block earlier used for the synthesis of strychnine. Secondly, we account our first steps towards the development of an atom-economical samarium diiodide-induced cascade reaction using "dimeric" indolyl ketones as cyclization precursors. In this context, we discuss plausible mechanisms for the samarium diiodide-induced cascade reaction as well as transformations of the obtained tetracyclic dihydroindoline derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis of Samarium Cobalt Nanoblades

    SciTech Connect

    Darren M. Steele

    2010-08-25

    As new portable particle acceleration technologies become feasible the need for small high performance permanent magnets becomes critical. With particle accelerating cavities of a few microns, the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) candidate demands magnets of comparable size. To address this need, samarium cobalt (SmCo) nanoblades were attempted to be synthesized using the polyol process. Since it is preferable to have blades of 1-2 {micro}m in length, key parameters affecting size and morphology including method of stirring, reaction temperature, reaction time and addition of hydroxide were examined. Nanoparticles consisting of 70-200 nm spherical clusters with a 3-5 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating were synthesized at 285 C and found to be ferromagnetic. Nanoblades of 25nm in length were observed at the surface of the nanoclusters and appeared to suggest agglomeration was occurring even with PVP employed. Morphology and size were characterized using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to determine composition but no supportive evidence for any particular SmCo phase has yet been observed.

  3. Samarium(II)-mediated linker cleavage-cyclization in fluorous synthesis: reactions of samarium enolates.

    PubMed

    James, Karen M; Willetts, Nigel; Procter, David J

    2008-03-20

    SmI2 has been used to cleave a sulfur linker and trigger cyclizations in strategies for the traceless fluorous synthesis of N-heterocycles. The studies give further insights into the reactivity of samarium enolates.

  4. Increasing Scientific Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide through AMS Professional Development Diversity Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Moses, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing students' earth science literacy, especially those at Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs), is a primary goal of the American Meteorological Society (AMS). Through the NSF-supported AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies Diversity workshops for Historically Black College and Universities, Hispanic Serving Institutions, Tribal Colleges and Universities, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions, AMS has brought meteorology and oceanography courses to more students. These workshops trained and mentored faculty implementing AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies. Of the 145 institutions that have participated in the AMS Weather Studies Diversity Project, reaching over 13,000 students, it was the first meteorology course offered for more than two-thirds of the institutions. As a result of the AMS Ocean Studies Diversity Project, 75 institutions have offered the course to more than 3000 students. About 50 MSIs implemented both the Weather and Ocean courses, improving the Earth Science curriculum on their campuses. With the support of NSF and NASA, and a partnership with Second Nature, the organizing entity behind the American College and University President's Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), the newest professional development workshop, AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project will recruit MSI faculty members through the vast network of Second Nature's more than 670 signatories. These workshops will begin in early summer 2012. An innovative approach to studying climate science, AMS Climate Studies explores the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addresses the societal impacts relevant to today's students and teachers. The course utilizes resources from respected organizations, such as the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. In addition, faculty and students learn about basic climate modeling through the AMS Conceptual Energy Model. Following the flow of energy in a clear, simplified model from space to

  5. Sequential elimination-cyclopropanation reactions promoted by samarium: highly diastereoselective synthesis of cyclopropylamides.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Llavona, Ricardo

    2003-02-07

    trans-Cyclopropanamides were obtained, in high yield, from 2-chloro-3-hydroxyamides by a sequenced elimination-cyclopropanation process promoted by Samarium/diiodomethane or Samarium diiodide and Samarium/diiodomethane.

  6. Dielectric investigations of polycrystalline samarium bismuth ferrite ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Palaimiene, E.; Macutkevic, J.; Banys, J.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-01-05

    Results of broadband dielectric investigations of samarium doped bismuth ferrite ceramics are presented in wide temperature range (20–800 K). At temperatures higher than 400 K, the dielectric properties of samarium bismuth ferrite ceramics are governed by Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and electrical conductivity. The DC conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with samarium concentration. In samarium doped bismuth ferrite, the ferroelectric phase transition temperature decreases with samarium concentration and finally no ferroelectric order is observed at x = 0.2. At lower temperatures, the dielectric properties of ferroelectric samarium doped bismuth ferrite are governed by ferroelectric domains dynamics. Ceramics with x = 0.2 exhibit the relaxor-like behaviour.

  7. Photoluminescence and visible diffuse-reflection spectroscopic evidence of samarium reduction in air-fired samples of mixed samarium: strontium tetraborate precipitates.

    PubMed

    Brown, Telvin M; Jeffreys, Mareo C; Pehaire, Mario; Stump, Nathan A

    2013-03-01

    Photoluminescence and visible diffuse-reflection spectroscopies have provided evidence of the reduction of samarium to the divalent state in samarium-doped strontium borate and pure samarium borate samples. The samples were prepared by the air firing of homogeneous precipitates of divalent strontium and trivalent samarium ions from aqueous solutions with saturated sodium tetraborate. The use of this method in the preparation of divalent lanthanide ions has not been reported previously. Reduced samarium was observed in fired tetraborate precipitates prepared with solutions containing 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 mole percent samarium versus strontium. Divalent samarium also was identified in fired precipitates of trivalent samarium solutions precipitated with tetraborate. Sm(2+) was identified as the primary emitting species in each of the eight compositions. However, diffuse-reflection spectroscopy indicated the presence of trivalent samarium in the studied samples, ranging from minimal for samples prepared with low samarium concentrations to nearly exclusive when pure samarium was studied. Quenching of the characteristic emission associated with the trivalent species is believed to result in the absence of the emission features arising from residual samarium(III) in the products. Although the absence of trivalent samarium emission enhanced the ability of emission spectroscopy to identify small amounts of divalent samarium, indicating that reduction had occurred, it limited the ability of this method to determine the extent of the reduction. Diffuse-reflection spectroscopy's ability to look at both species provided a much better analysis of the extent of samarium reduction.

  8. Samarium for osteoblastic bone metastases and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Pete

    2006-08-01

    Samarium-153 lexidronam (153Sm-EDTMP) is FDA approved for painful osteoblastic bone metastases that image on bone scan. 153Sm-EDTMP decay has a therapeutic beta-emission and a gamma-photon for bone scan imaging. Monitoring of osteosarcoma radiation treatment effectiveness was performed with bone, CT, MRI and PET/CT fusion imaging. Bone scan and PET/CT improved in 5 out of 9 and 16 out of 18 osteosarcoma sites, respectively. 153Sm-EDTMP targets multiple sites of disease, with a single administration. Side effects of 153Sm-EDTMP (0.5-2.5 mCi/kg) have been minimal and include transient thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. 153Sm-EDTMP can be combined with radiation therapy, bisphosphonates and/or chemotherapy to synergistically improve palliation. This article reviews the rationale, indications and monitoring of standard-dose samarium and investigational high-dose 153Sm-EDTMP treatment of cancer involving bone.

  9. Insulin-like peptides (AmILP1 and AmILP2) differentially affect female caste development in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Azevedo, Sergio V.; Hartfelder, Klaus; Amdam, Gro V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The food a honey bee female larva receives determines whether she develops into a large long-lived fertile queen or a short-lived sterile worker. Through well-established nutrient-sensing and growth-promoting functions in metazoans, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (IIS) pathway has become a focal topic in investigations on how differences in food environment can be translated into internal signals responsible for queen–worker determination. However, low expression levels of two insulin receptors (AmInRs) in honey bee larvae and the failure of one AmInR to influence caste differentiation are in potential conflict with such a classical growth-promoting role of IIS in queen–worker development. In view of such an apparent contradiction, and the fact that binding partners and affinities of these two AmInRs have not been worked out, we performed a functional study on insulin-like peptide genes (AmILP1 and AmILP2) in honey bee larvae by using a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene knockdown approach. We found that juvenile hormone (JH) levels were diminished by AmILP1 dsRNA treatment, while the AmILP2 knockdown caused a reduction in ovary size. Blood sugar titers were not significantly affected by the treatments. From these results we conclude that AmILP2 transcript levels may influence specific organ development, such as the ovary and body mass, while more general traits of caste differentiation, such as mandibles, may require additional regulators. In addition, JH production may be regulated by AmILP1 expressed locally in the brain, similar to the function of certain ILPs in Drosophila. PMID:23997199

  10. Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM tm) Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, Phillip R.

    2012-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) has completed the sponsored project entitled, Development of a Total Energy, Environment and Asset Management (TE2AM) Curriculum. The project involved the development of a structured professional development program to improve the knowledge, skills, capabilities, and competencies of engineers and operators of commercial buildings. TE2AM advances a radically different approach to commercial building design, operation, maintenance, and end of life disposition. By employing asset management principles to the lifecycle of a commercial building, owners and occupants will realize improved building performance, reduced energy consumption and positive environmental impacts. Through our commercialization plan, we intend to offer TE2AM courses and certificates to the professional community and continuously improve TE2AM course materials. The TE2AM project supports the DOE Strategic Theme 1 Energy Security; and will further advance the DOE Strategic Goal 1.4 Energy Productivity. Through participation in the TE2AM curriculum, engineers and operators of commercial buildings will be eligible for a professional certificate; denoting the completion of a prescribed series of learning activities. The project involved a comprehensive, rigorous approach to curriculum development, and accomplished the following goals: 1. Identify, analyze and prioritize key learning needs of engineers, architects and technical professionals as operators of commercial buildings. 2. Design and develop TE2AM curricula and instructional strategies to meet learning needs of the target learning community. 3. Establish partnerships with the sponsor and key stakeholders to enhance the development and delivery of learning programs. 4. Successfully commercialize and sustain the training and certificate programs for a substantial time following the term of the award. The project team was successful in achieving the goals and

  11. Am(m)ines make the difference: organoruthenium am(m)ine complexes and their chemistry in anticancer drug development.

    PubMed

    Babak, Maria V; Meier, Samuel M; Legin, Anton A; Adib Razavi, Mahsa S; Roller, Alexander; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-03-25

    With the aim of systematically studying fundamental structure-activity relationships as a basis for the development of Ru(II) arene complexes (arene = p-cymene or biphenyl) bearing mono-, bi-, or tridentate am(m)ine ligands as anticancer agents, a series of ammine, ethylenediamine, and diethylenetriamine complexes were prepared by different synthetic routes. Especially the synthesis of mono-, di-, and triammine complexes was found to be highly dependent on the reaction conditions, such as stoichiometry, temperature, and time. Hydrolysis and protein-binding studies were performed to determine the reactivity of the compounds, and only those containing chlorido ligands undergo aquation or form protein adducts. These properties correlate well with in vitro tumor-inhibiting potency of the compounds. The complexes were found to be active in anticancer assays when meeting the following criteria: stability in aqueous solution and low rates of hydrolysis and binding to proteins. Therefore, the complexes least reactive to proteins were found to be the most cytotoxic in cancer cells. In general, complexes with biphenyl as arene ligand inhibited the growth of tumor cells more effectively than the cymene analogues, consistent with the increase in lipophilicity. This study highlights the importance of finding a proper balance between reactivity and stability in the development of organometallic anticancer agents. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. FunBlocks. A modular framework for AmI system development.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Rafael; Rodríguez, José; Mendoza, Sonia; Decouchant, Dominique; Papis, Alfredo Piero Mateos

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has seen explosive growth in the technologies required to implement Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. Technologies such as facial and speech recognition, home networks, household cleaning robots, to name a few, have become commonplace. However, due to the multidisciplinary nature of AmI systems and the distinct requirements of different user groups, integrating these developments into full-scale systems is not an easy task. In this paper we propose FunBlocks, a minimalist modular framework for the development of AmI systems based on the function module abstraction used in the IEC 61499 standard for distributed control systems. FunBlocks provides a framework for the development of AmI systems through the integration of modules loosely joined by means of an event-driven middleware and a module and sensor/actuator catalog. The modular design of the FunBlocks framework allows the development of AmI systems which can be customized to a wide variety of usage scenarios.

  13. FunBlocks. A Modular Framework for AmI System Development

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Rafael; Rodríguez, José; Mendoza, Sonia; Decouchant, Dominique; Papis, Alfredo Piero Mateos

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has seen explosive growth in the technologies required to implement Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. Technologies such as facial and speech recognition, home networks, household cleaning robots, to name a few, have become commonplace. However, due to the multidisciplinary nature of AmI systems and the distinct requirements of different user groups, integrating these developments into full-scale systems is not an easy task. In this paper we propose FunBlocks, a minimalist modular framework for the development of AmI systems based on the function module abstraction used in the IEC 61499 standard for distributed control systems. FunBlocks provides a framework for the development of AmI systems through the integration of modules loosely joined by means of an event-driven middleware and a module and sensor/actuator catalog. The modular design of the FunBlocks framework allows the development of AmI systems which can be customized to a wide variety of usage scenarios. PMID:23112599

  14. Evaluation of a new linker system cleaved using samarium(II) iodide. Application in the solid phase synthesis of carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    McKerlie, Fiona; Rudkin, Iain M; Wynne, Graham; Procter, David J

    2005-08-07

    A new linker design for solid phase synthesis has been developed that is cleaved under mild, neutral conditions using samarium(II) iodide. The feasibility of the linker approach has been illustrated in the solid phase synthesis of ketones and amides using an oxygen linker. Insights into the mechanism of the samarium(II) iodide cleavage reaction are described and the potential of a sequential cleavage carbon-carbon bond forming process is assessed.

  15. Samarium diiodide mediated reactions in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Ellery, Shelby P; Chen, Jason S

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by Henri Kagan more than three decades ago, samarium diiodide (SmI(2)) has found increasing application in chemical synthesis. This single-electron reducing agent has been particularly useful in C-C bond formations, including those found in total synthesis endeavors. This Review highlights selected applications of SmI(2) in total synthesis, with special emphasis on novel transformations and mechanistic considerations. The examples discussed are both illustrative of the power of this reagent in the construction of complex molecules and inspirational for the design of synthetic strategies toward such targets, both natural and designed.

  16. Selective reductive transformations using samarium diiodide-water.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Michal; Spain, Malcolm; Parmar, Dixit; Procter, David J

    2012-01-11

    Samarium diiodide (SmI(2)) is one of the most important reductive electron transfer reagents available in the laboratory. Key to the popularity of SmI(2) is the ability of additives and co-solvents to tune the properties of the reagent. Over the last decade water has emerged as a particularly valuable additive, opening up new chemical space and leading to the discovery of unprecedented selectivity and new reactions promoted by SmI(2). In this Feature Article we review recent progress in the application of SmI(2)-H(2)O systems, with an emphasis on mechanistic considerations and the development of new transformations. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  17. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients near the K edge in some samarium compounds.

    PubMed

    Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R

    2015-07-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142 keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the Kα2, Kα1, Kβ1 and Kβ2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54 keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Samarium, Europium, and Gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of samarium, europium and gadolinium (62 {le} Z {le} 64, 82 {le} N {le} 96).

  19. Electronic structure and improper electric polarization of samarium orthoferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triguk, V. V.; Makoed, I. I.; Ravinski, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    The band structure and distributions of the electron and spin densities of samarium orthoferrite have been calculated within the framework of the first-principles density functional theory in the LSDA + U approximation taking into account the collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of the magnetic moments of iron and samarium cations. The possibility of inducing a ferroelectric state at temperatures below the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of the magnetic sublattice formed by samarium cations has been considered using the results of the group-theoretical analysis. In the high-temperature range, the formation of regions with a spontaneous electric polarization is possible in the presence of additional factors that reduce the symmetry of the crystal.

  20. Samarium and europium beta”-alumina derivatives characterized by XPS

    DOE PAGES

    Myhre, Kristian; Meyer, Harry; Du, Miting

    2017-01-04

    Characterization of sodium, samarium and europium beta -alumina derivatives has been carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Beta -alumina has been widely studied as a material capable of incorporating many different cations into its lattice structure, such as sodium and many of the lanthanide elements. The X-ray photoelectron spectra of samarium and europium in the beta -alumina structure are reported here. Additionally, the spectra of the precursor sodium beta -alumina as well as the europium and samarium trichloride starting materials are presented.

  1. Development of a fraction collector for coupling gas chromatography with an AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenbach, Andreas; Uhl, T.; Hain, A.; Scharf, A.; Kritzler, K.; Kretschmer, W.

    2008-05-01

    It has been shown that microscale 14C measurements are possible by using a gas handling system and a gas ion source [T. Uhl, W. Kretschmer, W. Luppold, A. Scharf, AMS measurements from microgram to milligram, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. (2005) 474 (240th ed.), T. Uhl, W. Luppold, A. Rottenbach, A. Scharf, K. Kritzler, W. Kretschmer, Development of an automatic gas handling system for microscale AMS (14C) measurements, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. (2007) 303 (259th ed.)]. In Erlangen a gas handling system was especially developed for environmental and biomedical investigations. For the separation of the compound of interest a standard gas chromatograph (GC) is used. To minimize the sample contamination and sample loss we have designed a fraction collector that connects a GC and an elemental analyzer (EA) directly. The selected compound is combusted in the EA and the resulting CO2 is then transferred into the gas handling system for AMS measurements. From the beginning of GC preparation up to the AMS measurement the sample is in a closed line. All operations are fully automated, so no manual operations are necessary. This guarantees high cleanness and maximum sample yield. Preliminary measurements are done using modern and old ethyl alcohol (from fermentation and of petrochemical origin, respectively). The results are consistent with their expected values although cross contamination and background signal increased as the sample mass was decreased.

  2. Luminescence Study of the Samarium(II) Sites in Samarium: Barium Octaborate as Differentiated by Excitation Wavelength and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Drozdowski, Christopher H; Gharavi-Naeini, Jafar; Stump, Nathan A

    2017-07-01

    Divalent samarium incorporated in a barium octaborate matrix prepared by firing homogeneous precipitates has been studied with emission spectroscopy. One of the samarium sites associated with this product exhibits an extremely strong temperature dependence upon using an excitation wavelength of 532 nm. This effect allows for specific differentiation between the two major Sm(II) sites associated with this compound. Based on the assignment of the emission features to specific sites, the symmetry of the first samarium environment is thought to be C3 or C3v while that associated with the second site appears to be C2v.

  3. Indole synthesis from N-allenyl-2-iodoanilines under mild conditions mediated by samarium(II) diiodide.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroki; Suzuki, Kenji; Yamane, Mitsunari; Yoshida, Shohei; Kojima, Naoto; Ozeki, Minoru; Yamashita, Masayuki

    2014-09-21

    A novel method for indole skeleton synthesis under mild conditions mediated by samarium(ii) diiodide has been developed. The reaction of N-allenyl-2-iodoaniline derivatives with SmI2 in the presence of HMPA and i-PrOH at 0 °C afforded indole derivatives in high yields.

  4. Development of an AMS method to study oceanic circulation characteristics using cosmogenic 39Ar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collon, P.H.; Bichler, M.; Caggiano, J.; Cecil, L.D.; El, Masri Y.; Golser, R.; Jiang, C.L.; Heinz, A.; Henderson, D.; Kutschera, W.; Lehmann, B.E.; Leleux, P.; Loosli, H.H.; Pardo, R.C.; Paul, M.; Rehm, K.E.; Schlosser, P.; Scott, R.H.; Smethie, W.M.; Vondrasek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Initial experiments at the ATLAS facility [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 92 (1994) 241] resulted in a clear detection of cosmogenic 39Ar signal at the natural level. The present paper summarizes the recent developments of 39Ar AMS measurements at ATLAS: the use of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) positive ion source equipped with a special quartz liner to reduce 39K background, the development of a gas handling system for small volume argon samples, the acceleration of 39Ar8+ ions to 232 MeV, and the final separation of 39Ar from 39K in a gas-filled spectrograph. The first successful AMS measurements of 39Ar in ocean water samples from the Southern Atlantic ventilation experiment (SAVE) are reported. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Properties of samarium nitride: First principle calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Aynyas, Mahendra; Panwar, Y. S.; Pataiya, J.; Makode, C.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-06

    The tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA has been used to calculate structural and electronic properties of samarium nitride at ambient and high pressure. As a function of volume, the total energy is evaluated. The phase transition pressure for this compound was found to be 6.0 GPa and it is transform from NaCl to CsCl-type structure. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed metallic behaviour in SmN compound. The values of equilibrium lattice constants and bulk modulus are agreed well with the available data.

  6. Crystallization of Yttrium and Samarium Aluminosilicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, Diana C.; Prado, Miguel O.

    Aluminosilicate glasses containing samarium and yttrium (SmAS and YAS glasses) exhibit high glass transition temperatures, corrosion resistance, and glass stability on heating which make them useful for technological applications. Yttrium aluminosilicate glass microspheres are currently being used for internal selective radiotherapy of liver cancer. During the preparation process, crystallization needs to be totally or partially avoided depending on the final application. Thus knowing the crystallization kinetics can help to prevent or avoid it, by designing a proper thermal pathway. In this work we studied the crystallization kinetics of YAS and SmAS glasses. It was found that both, YAS and SmAS glasses crystallize from the surface. SmAS glass presented lower densities of nucleation sites. The results also showed that the crystal growth apparent enthalpy is larger for SmAS glasses.

  7. Magnetic phase transitions in samarium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, S.; Balestrino, G.

    1980-05-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown that there are at least three magnetic phases of samarium iron garnet and possibly five, if spin reorientations that are not abrupt are assumed to occur between these phases. The easy magnetic axes are: [111], 560>T>~60 K; [110], ~45>T>~18 K; [100], ~10>T>=5 K. The spin reorientations are estimated to occur between ~60 and ~45 K and between ~18 and ~10 K. While the phases with the [111] and [110] easy magnetic axis have been reported before, this is the first report of the lowest-temperature phase with [100] easy magnetic axis, and of the possible spin reorientations. If the latter exist, the lowest-temperature phase cannot be tetragonal; it is most likely orthorhomic. The sequence of magnetic space groups is: R3¯c',[111]-->F2'd'-->Fdd'd', [110]-->I2'c'-->Ibc'a', [100].

  8. Magnetic phase transitions in samarium iron garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, S.; Balestrino, G.

    1980-05-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has shown that there are at least three magnetic phases of samarium iron garnet and possibly five, if spin reorientations that are not abrupt are assumed to occur between these phases. The easy magnetic axes are: (111), 560>T> or approx. =60 K; (110), approx. 45>T> or approx. =18 K; (100), approx. 10>T > or = 5 K. The spin reorientations are estimated to occur between approx. 60 and approx. 45 K and between approx. 18 and approx. 10 K. While the phases with the (111) and (110) easy magnetic axis have been reported before, this is the first report of the lowest-temperature phase with (100) easy magnetic axis, and of the possible spin reorientations. If the latter exist, the lowest-temperature phase can not be tetragonal; it is most likely orthorhombic. The sequence of magnetic space groups is: R3c', (111) ..-->.. F2'/d' ..-->.. Fdd'd', (110) ..-->.. I2'/c' ..-->.. Ibc'a', (100).

  9. Development of algorithm for retrieving aerosols over land surfaces from NEMO-AM polarized measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Mehul R.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a large effect on the Earth radiation budget through its direct and indirect effects. A systematic assessment of aerosol effects on Earth's climate requires global mapping of tropospheric aerosols through satellite remote sensing. However aerosol retrieval over land surface remains a challenging task due to bright background of the land surfaces. Polarized measurements can provide an improved aerosol sensing by providing a means of decoupling the surface and atmospheric contribution. The Indian Space Research Organisation has planned a Multi- Angle Dual-Polarization Instrument (MADPI) onboard a Nano satellite for Earth Monitoring & Observations for Aerosol Monitoring (NEMO-AM). MADPI has three spectral bands in blue, red and near infrared spectral regions with a nominal spatial resolution of 30 m from an altitude of 500 km polar orbit. A study has been taken up with the aim of development of an algorithm for retrieving aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over land surfaces from NEMO-AM polarized measurements. The study has three major components: (1) detailed theoretical modelling exercise for computing the atmospheric and surface polarized contributions, (2) modelling of total satellite-level polarized contribution, and (3) retrieval of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) by comparing the modelled and measured polarized signals. The algorithm has been developed for MADPI/NEMO-AM spectral bands and tested successfully on similar spectral bands of POLDER/PARASOL measurements to retrieve AOT over Indian landmass having diverse atmospheric conditions. POLDER-derived AOT fields were compared with MODIS-AOT products. Results showed a very good match (R2 0.69, RMSE 0.07). Initial results have provided encouraging results, however, comprehensive analysis and testing has to be carried out for establishing the proposed algorithm for retrieving AOT from NEMO-AM measurements.

  10. Big physics, small doses: the use of AMS and PET in human microdosing of development drugs.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Graham; Garner, R Colin

    2003-03-01

    The process of early clinical drug development has changed little over the past 20 years despite an up to 40% failure rate associated with inappropriate drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics of candidate molecules. A new method of obtaining human metabolism data known as microdosing has been developed which will permit smarter candidate selection by taking investigational drugs into humans earlier. Microdosing depends on the availability of two ultrasensitive 'big-physics' techniques: positron emission tomography (PET) can provide pharmacodynamic information, whereas accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides pharmacokinetic information. Microdosing allows safer human studies as well as reducing the use of animals in preclinical toxicology.

  11. Electromagnetic containerless reaction of samarium with cobalt for the formation of samarium-cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. W.; Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic levitation technique has been used to obtain nearly stoichiometric SmCo5, with the reaction temperature controlled by a gas jet. The results of several experiments carried out at a 450 kHz, 25 kw RF power levitation facility using different reaction times and cooling rates are presented. It is shown that reaction rates achieved with the levitation technique are larger than the expected diffusion rate in the system liquid samarium-solid cobalt. It is also shown that substantial mixing occurs in the RF-levitated melt.

  12. Electromagnetic containerless reaction of samarium with cobalt for the formation of samarium-cobalt alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. W.; Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The electromagnetic levitation technique has been used to obtain nearly stoichiometric SmCo5, with the reaction temperature controlled by a gas jet. The results of several experiments carried out at a 450 kHz, 25 kw RF power levitation facility using different reaction times and cooling rates are presented. It is shown that reaction rates achieved with the levitation technique are larger than the expected diffusion rate in the system liquid samarium-solid cobalt. It is also shown that substantial mixing occurs in the RF-levitated melt.

  13. Biphasic regulation of the transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) is essential for tapetum and pollen development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Alison C; Pearce, Simon; Band, Leah R; Yang, Caiyun; Ferjentsikova, Ivana; King, John; Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing; Wilson, Zoe A

    2017-01-01

    Viable pollen is essential for plant reproduction and crop yield. Its production requires coordinated expression at specific stages during anther development, involving early meiosis-associated events and late pollen wall formation. The ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) transcription factor is a master regulator of sporopollenin biosynthesis, secretion and pollen wall formation in Arabidopsis. Here we show that it has complex regulation and additional essential roles earlier in pollen formation. An inducible-AMS reporter was created for functional rescue, protein expression pattern analysis, and to distinguish between direct and indirect targets. Mathematical modelling was used to create regulatory networks based on wild-type RNA and protein expression. Dual activity of AMS was defined by biphasic protein expression in anther tapetal cells, with an initial peak around pollen meiosis and then later during pollen wall development. Direct AMS-regulated targets exhibit temporal regulation, indicating that additional factors are associated with their regulation. We demonstrate that AMS biphasic expression is essential for pollen development, and defines distinct functional activities during early and late pollen development. Mathematical modelling suggests that AMS may competitively form a protein complex with other tapetum-expressed transcription factors, and that biphasic regulation is due to repression of upstream regulators and promotion of AMS protein degradation.

  14. Antibody-membrane switch (AMS) technology for facile cell line development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Wages, John M; Larrick, James W

    2014-10-01

    Generation of high-productivity cell lines remains a major bottleneck in therapeutic antibody development. Conventional cell line development often depends on gene amplification methodologies using dihydrofolate reductase or glutamine synthetase. Higher productivity is associated with an increased gene copy number. However, lack of selection pressure under the conditions of large-scale manufacturing leads to clonal instability. We have developed a novel method for cell line development, antibody-membrane switch (AMS) technology, that does not rely on gene amplification. This fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based, high-throughput method is facilitated by cell-surface antibody expression to rapidly and efficiently isolate high-producing cells. The switch between membrane expression and secretion is achieved by alternative splicing and specific DNA recombination. The antibody of interest is initially displayed on the cell surface to facilitate FACS. Isolated high-producing cells are then seamlessly transformed into production cells after removing the membrane-anchoring domain sequence with a DNA recombinase. AMS technology has been applied in a number of antibody cell line development projects, which typically last 2-3 months. The top production cell lines exhibit very high specific productivity of 40-60 pg/cell/day resulting in production titers of 2-4 g/l in 10-day batch culture.

  15. Superconductivity in the ferromagnetic semiconductor samarium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, E.-M.; Granville, S.; Engel, A.; Chong, S. V.; Governale, M.; Zülicke, U.; Moghaddam, A. G.; Trodahl, H. J.; Natali, F.; Vézian, S.; Ruck, B. J.

    2016-07-01

    Conventional wisdom expects that making semiconductors ferromagnetic requires doping with magnetic ions and that superconductivity cannot coexist with magnetism. However, recent concerted efforts exploring new classes of materials have established that intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductors exist and that certain types of strongly correlated metals can be ferromagnetic and superconducting at the same time. Here we show that the trifecta of semiconducting behavior, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity can be achieved in a single material. Samarium nitride (SmN) is a well-characterized intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor, hosting strongly spin-ordered 4 f electrons below a Curie temperature of 27 K. We have now observed that it also hosts a superconducting phase below 4 K when doped to electron concentrations above 1021cm-3 . The large exchange splitting of the conduction band in SmN favors equal-spin triplet pairing with p -wave symmetry. Significantly, superconductivity is enhanced in superlattices of gadolinium nitride (GdN) and SmN. An analysis of the robustness of such a superconducting phase against disorder leads to the conclusion that the 4 f bands are crucial for superconductivity, making SmN a heavy-fermion-type superconductor.

  16. Samarium-neodymium direct dating of fluorite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Chesley, J T; Halliday, A N; Scrivener, R C

    1991-05-17

    The direct dating of many styles of hydrothermal mineralization has proved difficult, limiting understanding of the geological processes that lead to crustal fluid flow and the formation of major ore deposits. The hydrothermal mineral fluorite (CaF(2)) displays large variations in rare earth element (REE) abundance and samarium/neodymium ratios within a single vein. Samarium-neodymium dating of fluorite from the classic granite-hosted tin deposits of southwest England demonstrates its use as a precise chronometer of mineralization. The concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREEs) in the fluorites are highly variable and suggest the coeval precipitation of an LREE-rich phase as the most likely cause of the extreme variation in samarium/neodymium ratios.

  17. Samarium Ion Exchanged Montmorillonite for High Temperature Cumene Cracking Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binitha, N. N.; Silija, P. P.; Suraj, V.; Yaakob, Z.; Sugunan, S.

    2011-02-01

    Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Brønsted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene.

  18. Manganese-53: Development of the AMS technique for exposure-age dating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkis, L. G.; Fifield, L. K.; Morton, C. R.; Barrows, T. T.; Tims, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    The cosmogenic isotope 53Mn is produced by spallation of iron in surface rocks. The long half life of this isotope makes it attractive for use in erosion rate studies in slowly eroding landscapes such as Australia. We describe the development of AMS methods for detection of 53Mn using the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University. The first step of this development involved the production of 53Mn using a heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction to make test standards. Then, the chemistry protocol for isolating 53Mn and reducing the Cr levels, of which 53Cr is a serious interfering isobar, was developed. Lastly we employed a gas-filled magnet which was used to discriminate 53Mn from the intense 53Cr background.

  19. Samarium-145 and its use as a radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, Ralph G.; Laster, Brenda H.; Packer, Samuel

    1989-09-05

    The present invention covers a new radiation source, samarium-145, with radiation energies slightly above those of I-125 and a half-life of 340 days. The samarium-145 source is produced by neutron irradiation of SM-144. This new source is useful as the implanted radiation source in photon activation therapy of malignant tumors to activate the stable I-127 contained in the IdUrd accumulated in the tumor, causing radiation sensitization and Auger cascades that irreperably damage the tumor cells. This new source is also useful as a brachytherapy source.

  20. Samarium-145 and its use as a radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Fairchild, Ralph G.; Laster, Brenda H.; Packer, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    The present invention covers a new radiation source, samarium-145, with radiation energies slightly above those of I-125 and a half-life of 340 days. The samarium-145 source is produced by neutron irradiation of SM-144. This new source is useful as the implanted radiation source in photon activation therapy of malignant tumors to activate the stable I-127 contained in the IdUrd accumulated in the tumor, causing radiation sensitization and Auger cascades that irreperably damage the tumor cells. This new source is also useful as a brachytherapy source.

  1. Who Am I? What Am I Doing Here? Professional Identity and the Epistemic Development of Organic Chemists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the epistemic development of organic chemists from student to practitioner. Key features of this model suggest that individuals first learn the language of organic chemistry, followed by the heuristics. Deep conceptual understanding of the concepts and models of organic chemistry does not occur until individuals…

  2. Who Am I? What Am I Doing Here? Professional Identity and the Epistemic Development of Organic Chemists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the epistemic development of organic chemists from student to practitioner. Key features of this model suggest that individuals first learn the language of organic chemistry, followed by the heuristics. Deep conceptual understanding of the concepts and models of organic chemistry does not occur until individuals…

  3. Chelating ligand-mediated hydrothermal synthesis of samarium orthovanadate with decavanadate as vanadium source.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanguo; Zuo, Wenli; Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A new ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid- (EDTA-) mediated hydrothermal route to prepare chrysanthemum-shaped samarium orthovanadate (SmVO₄) nanocrystals with decavanadate (K₆V₁₀O₂₈·9H₂O) as vanadium source has been developed. The present hydrothermal approach is simple and reproducible and employs a relatively mild reaction temperature. The EDTA, pH value, and temperature of the reaction systems play important roles in determining the morphologies and growth process of the SmVO₄ products. The products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence spectra (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  4. Samarium(II) promoted stereoselective synthesis of antiproliferative cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones.

    PubMed

    Donadel, Osvaldo J; Martín, Tomás; Martín, Víctor S; Padrón, José M

    2007-01-01

    Samarium(II) iodide promotes the stereoselective synthesis of cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones under mild conditions starting from linear precursors. The in vitro antiproliferative activities were examined in the human solid tumor cell lines from diverse origin A2780, SW1573, and WiDr. From the growth inhibition data a structure-activity relationship was obtained. Overall the results point to the relevant role of cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones as novel scaffolds for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  5. Discovery of samarium, europium, gadolinium, and terbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    May, E.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-four samarium, thirty-four europium, thirty-one gadolinium, and thirty-one terbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Lowest-temperature magnetic phase transition of samarium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrino, G.; Geller, S.; Antonini, B.; Paroli, P.; Tucciarone, A.

    1984-10-01

    New Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis confirms the spin reorientation below 18 K of samarium iron garnet first reported by Geller and Balestrino. However, both the Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis and measurements with an easy-axis monitor indicate that the axis of easy magnetization at the end of the spin reorientation region is along a <740> direction.

  7. Development of a Vertical Recirculation Well System for the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G. Jr.; Looney, B.B.

    1996-09-13

    The objective of this work is to examine and develop a remediation scenario to provide long term hydraulic control and remediation of the dissolved chlorinated solvent plume within the Western and Southern Sectors of the A/M Area. This scope includes the development and siting of a remediation system that will contain the 500 part per billion trichloroethylene isoconcentration contour within each sector.

  8. Progress in Development of Dense Plasma Focus Pinch for AmBe Radiological Source Replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falabella, Steve; Povilus, Alex; Schmidt, Andrea; Ellsworth, Jennifer; Link, Anthony; Sears, Jason; Higginson, Drew; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact plasma gun accelerator that can produce intense, high energy ion beams (multiple MeV). These ion beams could be used to replace radiological sources for a variety of applications. Using a 2kJ DPF with a helium gas fill, alpha particles are accelerated into a beryllium target in order to generate a neutron spectrum similar to an AmBe source. We report on initial observations of neutron yields for this system and efforts to optimize and improve repeatability of pinch performance. In particular, incorporating results from newly-developed kinetic LSP simulations, we demonstrated higher neutron yields by adjusting the geometry of the anode electrode. In addition, we present preliminary measurements for energy distributions of ions accelerated by the pinch. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work supported by US DOE/NA-22 Office of Non-proliferation Research and Development.

  9. Development of the dichlorvos-ammonia (DV-AM) method for the visual detection of aflatoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Kimiko; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Ikehata, Akifumi; Zheng, Yazhi; Kushiro, Masayo

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are carcinogenic and toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. To monitor and regulate the AF contamination of crops, a sensitive and precise detection method for these toxigenic fungi in environments is necessary. We herein developed a novel visual detection method, the dichlorvos-ammonia (DV-AM) method, for identifying AF-producing fungi using DV and AM vapor on agar culture plates, in which DV inhibits the esterase in AF biosynthesis, causing the accumulation of anthraquinone precursors (versiconal hemiacetal acetate and versiconol acetate) of AFs in mycelia on the agar plate, followed by a change in the color of the colonies from light yellow to brilliant purple-red by the AM vapor treatment. We also investigated the appropriate culture conditions to increase the color intensity. It should be noted that other species producing the same precursors of AFs such as Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus versicolor could be discriminated from the Aspergillus section Flavi based on the differences of their phenotypes. The DV-AM method was also useful for the isolation of nonaflatoxigenic fungi showing no color change, for screening microorganisms that inhibit the AF production by fungi, and for the characterization of the fungi infecting corn kernels. Thus, the DV-AM method can provide a highly sensitive and visible indicator for the detection of aflatoxigenic fungi.

  10. Low toxicity and efficacy of (153)samarium-EDTMP and melphalan as a conditioning regimen for secondary acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Erlandson, Linda; Arndt, Carola A S; Wiseman, Gregory A; Anderson, Peter M

    2005-02-01

    We report the case of a 15-yr-old girl who developed secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) 4 yr after completion of therapy for metastatic Ewing sarcoma (primary right acetabulum with metastatic disease to the lungs). Peripheral blood stem cells were collected after the second cycle of chemotherapy with the plan for future consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue; however, because of the patient's excellent response to chemotherapy and surgery, therapy was completed without the need for high-dose chemotherapy. No human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor was available for a bone marrow transplant. Because of previous lung radiation, high-dose samarium [30 mCi/kg of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate ((153)Sm-EDTMP) day -14] and melphalan (140 mg/m(2) day -2) were chosen as the conditioning regimen to avoid potential lung complications. The patient received an infusion of 6.1 x 10(8)/kg mononuclear autologous cells on day 0. She achieved engraftment on day +23. Three years after transplantation, she continues to have complete remission. Samarium and melphalan constitute a well-tolerated regimen with potential antileukemic activity.

  11. Atomic structure and domain wall pinning in samarium-cobalt-based permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Duerrschnabel, M; Yi, M; Uestuener, K; Liesegang, M; Katter, M; Kleebe, H-J; Xu, B; Gutfleisch, O; Molina-Luna, L

    2017-07-04

    A higher saturation magnetization obtained by an increased iron content is essential for yielding larger energy products in rare-earth Sm2Co17-type pinning-controlled permanent magnets. These are of importance for high-temperature industrial applications due to their intrinsic corrosion resistance and temperature stability. Here we present model magnets with an increased iron content based on a unique nanostructure and -chemical modification route using Fe, Cu, and Zr as dopants. The iron content controls the formation of a diamond-shaped cellular structure that dominates the density and strength of the domain wall pinning sites and thus the coercivity. Using ultra-high-resolution experimental and theoretical methods, we revealed the atomic structure of the single phases present and established a direct correlation to the macroscopic magnetic properties. With further development, this knowledge can be applied to produce samarium cobalt permanent magnets with improved magnetic performance.Understanding the factors that determine the properties of permanent magnets, which play a central role in many industrial applications, can help in improving their performance. Here, the authors study how changes in the iron content affect the microstructure of samarium cobalt magnets.

  12. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic investigations of nanostructured samarium oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Vimal, G; Mani, Kamal P; Biju, P R; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N V; Ittyachen, M A

    2014-03-25

    Nanostructured samarium oxalate crystals were prepared via microwave assisted co-precipitation method. The crystal structure and morphology of the sample were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy. The presence of functional groups is ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Samarium oxalate nanocrystals of average size 20 nm were aggregated together to form nano-plate structure in sub-microrange. Detailed spectroscopic investigation of the prepared phosphor material was carried out by Judd-Ofelt analysis based on the UV-Visible-NIR absorption spectra and photoluminescence emission spectra. The analysis reveals that the transition from energy level (4)G5/2 to (6)H7/2 of Sm(3+) ion has maximum branching ratio and the corresponding orange emission can be used for display applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent developments in the theory of AM Her and DQ Her stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory of accreting magnetic white dwarf stars are described and several of the unresolved issues concerning them are discussed. Recently reported Einstein satellite observations are examined and the possibility is considered that the 'soft X-ray puzzle' in the AM Her stars may have disappeared. Based on these observations, the evidence is considered that the region emitting the polarized optical light is separate from the X-ray emission region. Among the theoretical advances described are extensive new calculations of the X-ray emission from accreting magnetic white dwarfs, including soft and hard X-ray pulse profiles and time-dependent behavior; improvements in the treatment of cyclotron emission and the transfer of radiation in magnetoactive plasmas, with application to the polarized optical light from the AM Her stars; new ideas about the stream-magnetosphere interaction region that produces the forest of strong emission lines in the AM Her stars; explanation of the synchronization of the white dwarf in the AM Her stars in terms of an MHD torque; and determination of the magnetic fields in the AM Her and DQ Her stars through analysis of their spin-up behavior.

  14. Recent developments in the theory of AM Her and DQ Her stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory of accreting magnetic white dwarf stars are described and several of the unresolved issues concerning them are discussed. Recently reported Einstein satellite observations are examined and the possibility is considered that the 'soft X-ray puzzle' in the AM Her stars may have disappeared. Based on these observations, the evidence is considered that the region emitting the polarized optical light is separate from the X-ray emission region. Among the theoretical advances described are extensive new calculations of the X-ray emission from accreting magnetic white dwarfs, including soft and hard X-ray pulse profiles and time-dependent behavior; improvements in the treatment of cyclotron emission and the transfer of radiation in magnetoactive plasmas, with application to the polarized optical light from the AM Her stars; new ideas about the stream-magnetosphere interaction region that produces the forest of strong emission lines in the AM Her stars; explanation of the synchronization of the white dwarf in the AM Her stars in terms of an MHD torque; and determination of the magnetic fields in the AM Her and DQ Her stars through analysis of their spin-up behavior.

  15. Imaging AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.P.H.T. |; Ramsey, C.B.; Hedges, R.E.M.

    1993-12-01

    The benefits of simultaneous high effective mass resolution and large spectrometer acceptance that accelerator mass spectrometry has afforded the bulk analysis of material samples by secondary ion mass spectrometry may also be applied to imaging SIMS. The authors are exploring imaging AMS with the addition to the Oxford {sup 14}C-AMS system of a scanning secondary ion source. It employs a sub micron probe and a separate Cs flood to further increase the useful ion yield. The source has been accommodated on the system by directly injecting sputtered ions into the accelerator without mass analysis. They are detected with a range of devices including new high-bandwidth detectors. Qualitative mass spectra may be easily generated by varying only the post-accelerator analysis magnet. Selected ion signals may be used for imaging. In developing the instrument for bioscience research the authors are establishing its capability for measuring the lighter elements prevalent in biological tissue. Importantly, the machine can map the distributions of radiocarbon labeled compounds with an efficiency of about 1{per_thousand}. A background due to misidentification of non-{sup 14}C ions as a result of the reduced ion mass filtering is too small to hinder high magnification microscopy.

  16. AmI in good care? Developing design principles for ambient intelligent domotics for elderly.

    PubMed

    Meulendijk, Michiel; Van De Wijngaert, Lidwien; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Leenstra, Herbert

    2011-03-01

    The combination of ambient intelligence (AmI) and domotics has the potential to respond to elderly people's desire to live independent from extensive forms of care. Their slow adoption of technological aids shows reluctance, though. This article investigates their motivations to adopt ambient intelligent domotics, and proposes design principles specifically based on their preferences and experiences. Respondents appeared to be more acceptive of tangible problems they expected with AmI domotics than intangible ones. In addition, their opinions seemed to be profoundly influenced by the way they perceived their psychological quality of life, while their physical conditions did not seem to have noticeable impacts.

  17. Development of an 241Am applicator for intracavitary irradiation of gynecologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Nath, R; Peschel, R E; Park, C H; Fischer, J J

    1988-05-01

    Sealed sources of 241Am that emit primarily 60 keV photons produce relative dose distributions in water comparable to those from 137Cs or 226Ra sources and can produce dose rates of up to 100 cGy/hr at 1 cm in water. Also, 241Am gamma rays can be effectively shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials (HVL is 1/8th mm of lead) placed on the applicator or inside some body cavities (for example, hypaque in bladder, barium sulphate in rectum). These properties of 241Am sources open a new approach to optimizing intracavitary irradiation of various cancers by allowing a reduction in dose and volume of irradiated critical organs or by increasing tumor doses. The relative ease with which highly effective shielding is achievable with 241Am sources would allow the design and fabrication of partially shielded applicators which can produce asymmetric dose distributions to allow unidirectional irradiation of localized lesions. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a gynecological applicator containing 241Am sources are presented. The applicator consists of a 2, 3, or 4 segment vaginal plaque (loaded with 2 and 5 Ci 241Am sources) and a tandem made up of a single 8 Ci 241Am source. Dose rates at 2 cm from the plaques are 42.0, 47.4, 58.3 and 56.7 cGy/hr for 5-5, 5-4-5, 5-5-5, and 5-4-4-5 Ci plaques, respectively. The 5-4-5 Ci plaque in combination with the 8 Ci tandem produces dose rates of 60.0 and 22.8 cGy/hr to points A and B, respectively. Surface dose rates on the plaque applicators are 143, 124, 142 and 132 cGy/hr for 5-5, 5-4-5, 5-5-5 and 5-4-4-5 Ci applicators, respectively. The shielding effect of a 0.5 mm thick lead foil on one side of the 5-4-5 Ci applicator is found to be a factor of 16.8; for example, the dose rate at 2 cm from the unshielded side is 42.0 cGy/hr compared to a dose rate of 2.5 cGy/hr at 2 cm from the shielded side. Initial clinical experience with this applicator in the treatment of recurrent gynecological lesions is also presented.

  18. Highly diastereoselective samarium diiodide induced cyclizations of new 3-substituted indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-11-07

    Herein, we describe the synthesis of new functionalized tricyclic and tetracyclic indole derivatives via samarium diiodide induced ketyl cyclizations. The intermediate samarium organyls were either protonated using different proton sources or alkylated with various electrophiles in a highly diastereoselective manner. The obtained products were subjected to further transformations leading to synthetically interesting building blocks.

  19. Magnetic interaction intensity in cobalt samarium thin films fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic interaction intensity between magnetic grains was studied for as deposited cobalt samarium alloys in the form of thin films. The films were deposited onto silicon substrates using dc magnetron sputtering technique. The results showed that the magnitude of interaction intensity between magnetic grains in the films was reduced as samarium content increased until 20 at.% Sm. However, the coercivity of the films decreases with further increase in samarium concentration above 20 at. % Sm.. Thus the increase of coercivity in this range of composition (up to 20 at % of samarium) is due to the initial increase in size magnetic grains as well increase in grain separation, which reduces interaction intensity between grains. The effect of samarium content on interaction intensity between magnetic grains in the films is studied.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of samarium(III) with chrome azurol S in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Soylak, M; Türkoğlu, O

    2000-10-02

    A sensitive, simple method for the determination of trace amounts of samarium by spectrophotometry is described based on the formation of the samarium-chrome azurol S (CAS) complex in micellar medium. The molar absorptivities of the complexes at pH 7.5 at 505 nm were 3.6x10(4) and 1.4x10(5) l mol(-1) cm(-1) for water media and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), respectively. Beer's law is obeyed from 0.05-2 mg l(-1) of samarium at 505 nm as Sm-CAS-CPC complex. Optimal conditions such as reagent amounts, and pH for the samarium determination were reported. The effects of foreign ions were also investigated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of samarium contents in synthetic samples.

  1. Development of historical exposure estimates of cosmic radiation and circadian rhythm disruption for cohort studies of Pan Am flight attendants.

    PubMed

    Waters, Martha A; Grajewski, Barbara; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Hein, Misty J; Zivkovich, Zachary

    2009-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is conducting cohort studies of flight crew employed by the former Pan American World Airways company (Pan Am) as part of an effort to examine flight crew workplace exposures and health effects. Flight crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation and to disruption of circadian rhythm when flying across multiple time zones. Methods exist to calculate cosmic radiation effective doses on individual flights; however, only work histories which provided an employee's domicile (home base) history rather than a record of every flight flown were available. We developed a method for estimating individual cumulative domicile-based cosmic radiation effective doses and two metrics for circadian rhythm disruption for each flight attendant: cumulative times zones crossed and cumulative travel time during the standard sleep interval. The domicile-exposure matrix developed was used to calculate exposure estimates for a cohort mortality study of former Pan Am flight attendants. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Sparkle/PM3 Parameters for the Modeling of Neodymium(III), Promethium(III), and Samarium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2007-07-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to neodymium(III), promethium(III), and samarium(III) complexes. The unsigned mean error, for all Sparkle/PM3 interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.074 Å for Nd(III); 0.057 Å for Pm(III); and 0.075 Å for Sm(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.076 Å, 0.059 Å, and 0.075 Å, respectively, indicating they are all comparable models. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective potential calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Hence, the choice of which model to utilize will depend on the assessment of the effect of either AM1 or PM3 on the quantum chemical description of the organic ligands. Finally, we present a preliminary attempt to verify the geometry prediction consistency of Sparkle/PM3. Since lanthanide complexes are usually flexible, we randomly generated 200 different input geometries for the samarium complex QIPQOV which were then fully optimized by Sparkle/PM3. A trend appeared in that, on average, the lower the total energy of the local minima found, the lower the unsigned mean errors, and the higher the accuracy of the model. These preliminary results do indicate that attempting to find, with Sparkle/PM3, a global minimum for the geometry of a given complex, with the understanding that it will tend to be closer to the experimental geometry, appears to be warranted. Therefore, the sparkle model is seemingly a trustworthy semiempirical quantum chemical model for the prediction of lanthanide complexes geometries.

  3. [Study on the spectroscopy and electrochemistry of the combination between samarium (III) ion probe and bovine serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Li, Xun; Qi, Xun; Luo, Guo-tian

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of solid compound of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with samarium (III) ion was studied. The FTIR spectrum shows that samarium (III) ion forms high sensitivity compound with BSA's oxygen in hydroxyl and nitrogen in amidocyanogen or amide groups. The ultraviolet spectrum shows that samarium (III) ion binds directly with residue of tyrosine. The character of the combination between samarium (III) ion and BSA was studied under simulated physiology conditions. The fluorescence spectrum shows that the molar ratio of samarium (III) ion to BSA is 2.5:1, with apparent complex constant lgK = 11.00. By cyclic voltammetry, the paper reports the stability of compound of BSA with samarium (III) ion and the effect pH on the of combination between samarium (III) ion and BSA.

  4. Ionization of Samarium by Chemical Releases in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Caton, R.; Miller, D.; Groves, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The release of Samarium vapor into the upper atmosphere was studied using during the Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) rocket launches in May 2009. The Naval Research Laboratory supported these experiments with 3-D photochemical modeling of the artificial plasma cloud including (1) reactions with atomic oxygen, (2) photo excitation, (3) photoionization, (4) dissociative recombination, and (5) ion and neutral diffusion. NRL provided the experimental diagnostic instrument on the rocket which was a dual frequency radio beacon on the rocket to measure changes in total electron content. The AFRL provided ground based diagnostics of incoherent scatter radar and optical spectroscopy and imagery. The NRL Chemical Release Model (CRM) has over 600 excited states of atomic Samarium neutrals, atomic ions, along with Samarium Oxide Ions and electrons. Diffusive transport of neutrals in cylindrical geometry and ions along magnetic field lines is computed along with the reactive flow to predict the concentrations of Sm, Sm-Ion, Sm0, and SmO Ion. Comparison of the CRM with observations demonstrates that Sm release into the upper atmosphere initially produces enhanced electron densities and SmO-Ions. The diatomic ions recombine with electrons to yield neutral Sm and O. Only the photo ionization of Sm yields a stable atomic ion that does not substantially recombine. The MOSC releases in sunlight yielded long duration ion clouds that can be replicated with the CRM. The CRM predicts that Sm releases in darkness would not produce long duration plasma clouds because of the lack of photo excitation and photoionization.

  5. Samarium Diiodide-Mediated Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Ellery, Shelby P.; Chen, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by Henri Kagan more than three decades ago, samarium diiodide (SmI2) has found increasing applications in chemical synthesis. This single-electron reducing agent has been particularly useful in C–C bond formations, including those found in total synthesis endeavors. This Review highlights selected applications of SmI2 in total synthesis, with special emphasis on novel transformations and mechanistic considerations. The examples discussed are both illustrative of the power of this reagent in complex molecule construction and inspirational for the design of synthetic strategies toward such targets, both natural and designed. PMID:19714695

  6. Toxicological and pharmacological effects of gadolinium and samarium chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Haley, T. J.; Raymond, K.; Komesu, N.; Upham, H. C.

    1961-01-01

    A study has been made of the toxicology and pharmacology of gadolinium and samarium chlorides. The symptoms of acute toxicity following intraperitoneal injection are described. The chronic oral ingestion of both chemicals for 12 weeks produced no effects on growth or the blood picture, and only the male rats receiving gadolinium chloride showed liver damage. The pharmacological responses to both chemicals were mainly depressant on all systems studied, and death was associated with cardiovascular collapse coupled with respiratory paralysis. The greatest damage seen was on abraded skin, where non-healing ulcers were produced by both chemicals, whereas irritation of intact skin and ocular tissues was only transient in nature. PMID:13903826

  7. Chelating Ligand-Mediated Hydrothermal Synthesis of Samarium Orthovanadate with Decavanadate as Vanadium Source

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Wenli

    2013-01-01

    A new ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid- (EDTA-) mediated hydrothermal route to prepare chrysanthemum-shaped samarium orthovanadate (SmVO4) nanocrystals with decavanadate (K6V10O28 ·9H2O) as vanadium source has been developed. The present hydrothermal approach is simple and reproducible and employs a relatively mild reaction temperature. The EDTA, pH value, and temperature of the reaction systems play important roles in determining the morphologies and growth process of the SmVO4 products. The products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence spectra (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. PMID:24068882

  8. Recent developments of the 1 MV AMS facility at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scognamiglio, G.; Chamizo, E.; López-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Müller, A. M.; Padilla, S.; Santos, F. J.; López-Lora, M.; Vivo-Vilches, C.; García-León, M.

    2016-05-01

    The Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) hosts a 1 MV accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) apparatus since September 2005. In order to improve its overall performance, several updates have been made on the existing facility during the last 10 years of operation. In this paper, two modifications conducted in 2015 will be described. To increase the transmission of the ions through the accelerator, the stripping gas on the 1 MV CNA machine was changed from Ar to He. The measured maximum transmission for almost every isotope results to be higher, especially for heavy masses: for instance, in the case of uranium in the 3+ charge state, the transmission increased from 11% with Ar gas to about 38% with He gas. The second advance consisted of the substitution of the existing gas ionization chamber with a new one provided by ETH Zurich. The ETH detector features with its miniaturized design and is optimized for low energy AMS (i.e. very low electronic noise and efficient charge collection). As the electronic noise is the most important contribution to the resolution for light ions, the total energy resolution has been reduced by 15% in the case of 10Be, allowing a better discrimination against its isobar, 10B. For the heaviest radionuclides where the quality of the spectra is determined by the charge carrier production in the gas, the resolution for 2.7 MeV uranium ions was improved by 30%, probably due to a more efficient charge collection.

  9. [6-endo-trig mode cyclization to a hydrindanone using samarium (II) iodide].

    PubMed

    Sono, Masakazu

    2003-08-01

    Samarium (II) iodide has been employed to promote the vinylogous pinacol coupling reaction of aldehyde to alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones. The diastereoselectivity of 6-endo-trig mode products was changed by the addition of a proton source and/or HMPA and by the reaction temperature. The stereochemistry of the hydrindanone was controlled by the coordinated samarium species, resulting in the cis-orientation in respect of the hydroxyl group at C-4 and the juncture proton at C-3a under mild reaction conditions. Coronafacic acid has been synthesized from a hydrindanone prepared by the cyclization reaction of the enone-aldehyde with samarium (II) iodide.

  10. Development of forging and heat treating practices for AMS 5737 for use at liquid helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Greenlee, M.

    1981-08-10

    To achieve a combination of high yield-strength (sigma y), plane-strain fracture-toughness (K/sub IC/) and resistance to galling when turned against austenitic stainless steels in highly-loaded threaded turnbuckles in the M.F.T.F.-B (Mirror Fusion Test Facility), AMS 5737 (Fe-15Cr-25Ni-1Mo-V-Ti-Al-B), a heat-treatable Fe-base superalloy that is slightly-ferromagnetic under high magnetic fields at 4K, was chosen for large (approx. 340 kg) forged turn buckles. This report describes the forging and heat-treatment optimization program that resulted in good sigma y and K/sub IC/ over the 4 to 300K range of service-temperatures and the verification tests run on a pre-production forging and actual production parts.

  11. Deciphering relative timing of fabric development in granitoids with similar absolute ages based on AMS study (Dharwar Craton, South India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) data are presented from the Koppal Granitoid (Dharwar Craton, South India) that has U-Pb zircon age of 2528 ± 9 Ma. The magnetic fabric is oriented in NNE-SSW direction. This is parallel to the planar structures that developed during regional D3 deformation, but oblique to the NNW-SSE oriented magnetic foliation as well as field foliation (D1/D2 deformation) recorded in the country rock Peninsular Gneiss. Variation in the intensity of fabric within the granitoid is mapped. It is inferred that the emplacement of Koppal Granitoid took place by ballooning and fabric development within the pluton was syntectonic with regional D3. These results are compared with the time-relationship between emplacement/fabric development and regional deformation reported from the Mulgund Granite (2555 ± 6 Ma; U-Pb zircon), which is also located in the Dharwar Craton and is equivalent to the Koppal Granitoid in age. This granite is known to have emplaced syntectonically with regional D1/D2 deformation, and is thus not related to the same deformation event as the Koppal Granitoid, despite their similar absolute ages. It is argued that in the study area, D3 is ≤2537 Ma, while D1/D2 is ≥2549 Ma in age. Thus, this study highlights the use of AMS in (a) deciphering the relative timing of regional deformation and emplacement of granitoids of equivalent age and (b) constraining the timing of regional superposed deformation events.

  12. Samarium-146 in the early solar system - Evidence from neodymiun in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Shimamura, T.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1983-01-01

    A carbon-chromite fraction from the Allende C3V chondrite shows strikingly large isotopic enrichments of neodymium-142 (0.47 percent) and neodymium-143 (36 percent). Both apparently formed by alpha decay of samarium-146 and samarium-147 (half-lives 1.03 x 10 to the 8th and 1.06 x 10 to the 11th years), but the isotopic enrichment was greatly magnified by recoil of residual nuclei into a carbon film surounding the samarium-bearing grains. These data provide an improved estimate of the original abundance of extinct samarium-146 in the early solar system, Sm-146/Sm-144 = (4.5 + or - 0.5) x 10 to the -3rd, higher than predicted by some models of p-process nucleosynthesis. It may be possible to use this isotopic pair as a chronometer of the early solar system.

  13. Samarium diiodide induced ketyl-(het)arene cyclisations towards novel N-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    In this tutorial review we discuss recent advances in the field of ketyl-(het)arene cyclisations promoted by samarium diiodide and related processes. Couplings of samarium ketyls with carbon-carbon multiple bonds are perhaps the most useful reactions to create carbocycles and heterocycles of various ring sizes. They have also successfully been exploited for the synthesis of biologically active compounds or natural products. In this article we intend to summarise our diversity orientated approaches towards nitrogen heterocycles and emphasize other approaches with SmI(2) as well as electrochemical cyclisation methods providing similar N-heterocycles. We also briefly discuss our recently published formal total synthesis of strychnine employing a new samarium diiodide induced cascade reaction as key step. All these examples demonstrate the high synthetic potential of samarium ketyl-(het)arene cyclisations for the preparation of various types of important heterocyclic compounds.

  14. Samarium-146 in the early solar system - Evidence from neodymiun in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Shimamura, T.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1983-01-01

    A carbon-chromite fraction from the Allende C3V chondrite shows strikingly large isotopic enrichments of neodymium-142 (0.47 percent) and neodymium-143 (36 percent). Both apparently formed by alpha decay of samarium-146 and samarium-147 (half-lives 1.03 x 10 to the 8th and 1.06 x 10 to the 11th years), but the isotopic enrichment was greatly magnified by recoil of residual nuclei into a carbon film surounding the samarium-bearing grains. These data provide an improved estimate of the original abundance of extinct samarium-146 in the early solar system, Sm-146/Sm-144 = (4.5 + or - 0.5) x 10 to the -3rd, higher than predicted by some models of p-process nucleosynthesis. It may be possible to use this isotopic pair as a chronometer of the early solar system.

  15. Efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for visceral leishmaniasis in endemic developing countries.

    PubMed

    Berman, J D; Badaro, R; Thakur, C P; Wasunna, K M; Behbehani, K; Davidson, R; Kuzoe, F; Pang, L; Weerasuriya, K; Bryceson, A D

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study to determine the efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for treating visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in several developing countries where the disease is endemic (Brazil, India, and Kenya). At each study site, sequential cohorts of 10 patients each were treated with AmBisome at a dose of 2 mg.kg-1.day-1 (2 MKD). The first cohort received regimen 1:2 MKD on days 1-6 and day 10 (total dose: 14 mg/kg). If the efficacy with this regimen was satisfactory, a second cohort received regimen 2:2 MKD on days 1-4 and 10 (total dose: 10 mg/kg); and a third cohort received regimen 3:2 MKD on days 1, 5, and 10 (total dose: 6 mg/kg). In India, regimens 1, 2, and 3 (which were studied concurrently) each cured 100% of 10 patients. In Kenya, regimen 1 cured all 10 patients, regimen 2 cured 90% of 10 patients, but regimen 3 cured only 20% of 5 patients. In Brazil, regimen 1 was only partially curative: 5 of 13 patients (62%). Therefore, 15 patients were administered regimen 4 (2 MKD for 10 consecutive days; total dose, 20 mg/kg) and 13 patients were cured (83%). These results suggest that for the treatment of kala-azar the following doses of AmBisome should be administered: in India and Kenya, 2 mg/kg on days 1-4 and day 10; and in Brazil, 2 mg/kg on days 1-10.

  16. Medium-sized carbocycles by samarium diiodide-induced carbonyl-alkene cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Jakub; Lentz, Dieter; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-08-06

    Intramolecular samarium diiodide-induced carbonyl-alkene or carbonyl-alkyne coupling reactions afforded without high dilution conditions 9- and 10-membered benzannulated carbocycles of type II and III in surprisingly good yields and stereoselectivities. A novel samarium diiodide-mediated cascade process leading to tricyclic compounds of type IV was also observed. Bisbenzannulated 10- and 11-membered carbocycles were prepared in very good yields.

  17. Anisotropic magnetic properties of samarium iron garnet in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, M.; Marchand, A.; Nekvasil, Y.; Tchéou, F.

    1983-02-01

    The magnetization of samarium iron garnet was measured up to 150 kOe. [100] is not an easy axis at 4.2 K. The M( H) curves for [100] and the free sphere are linear at all temperatures and coincide above 25 K. A crossover temperature T0 characterized by a zero samarium sublattice magnetization was determined (195 K). The M( H) curves for [100] and [111] are nonlinear up to T0.

  18. Resonance ionization mass spectrometric study of the promethium/samarium isobaric pair

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Young, J.P.; Smith, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Samarium daughters are problematic in isotope ratio measurements of promethium because they are isobaric. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry was utilized to circumvent this problem. An ionization selectivity factor of at least 1000:1 has been measured for promethium over samarium at 584.6 nm. Resonance ionization spectra have been recorded for both elements over the 528-560 and 580-614 nm wavelength ranges.

  19. Luminescent solutions and powders of new samarium complexes with N,N',O,O'-chelating ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Nikolskiy, Kirill S.; Borisova, Nataliya E.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Reshetova, Marina D.; Yuzhakov, Viktor I.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques in biology and medicine are crucial tools to obtain information on structural and functional properties of living cells and organisms. To fulfill the requirements associated with application of these techniques it appears necessary to design markers with specific characteristics. Luminescent complexes of trivalent lanthanide ions with chelating ligands are of increasing importance in biomedical applications because of their millisecond luminescence lifetime, narrow emission band, high signal-to-noise ratio and minimal photodamage to biological samples. In order to extend the available emission wavelength range the luminescent samarium chelates are highly desirable. In this study the ligands with diamides of 2,2'-bipyridin-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid were used to improve photophysical characteristics of samarium complexes. We report the luminescence characteristics of samarium complexes with novel ligands. All complexes exhibited the characteristic emission of Sm (III) ion with the lines at 565, 597, 605, 645 and 654 nm, the intensity strongly depended on the ligand. Absorption and luminescence excitation spectra of Sm (III) complexes showed main peaks in the UV range demonstrating lanthanide coordination to the ligand. The absolute lumenescence quantum yield was measured for solutions in acetonitrile with excitation at 350 nm. The largest luminescence quantum yield was found for the samarium complex Bipy 6MePy Sm (3%) being much higher that for samarium complexes reported in the literature earlier. These results prove as well that samarium chelates are potential markers for multiparametric imaging techniques.

  20. Deconvolution and Quantification of Primary and Oxygenated Organic Aerosols: Technique Development and Applications to the Pittsburgh AMS Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Jimenez, J.; Alfarra, R.; Allan, J.; Coe, H.; Worsnop, D.; Canagaratna, M.

    2004-12-01

    A new technique has been developed to deconvolve and quantify the mass concentrations of primary and oxygenated organic aerosol (POA and OOA) using highly time-resolved organic mass spectral data obtained with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). OOA may comprise secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as well as oxidized POA. This technique involves a series of multivariate linear regressions that use mass-to-charge ratios (m/z's) 57 (mostly C4H9+) and 44 (mostly CO2+), the identified AMS mass spectral tracers for POA and OOA, respectively, as the initial principal components followed by an iterative algorithm to evaluate and "purify" POA and OOA mass spectral tracers. We have applied this technique to the AMS organic aerosol data acquired at the EPA Pittsburgh Supersite during September 2002 and have observed excellent agreement between the reconstructed organic concentrations (= POA + OOA) and the measured values (r2 = 0.997, slope = 0.998). The reconstructed organic data matrix (size = 3199 time steps x 300 m/z's) explains 99% of the variance in the measured time series. The extracted mass spectrum of POA shows high similarity to those of diesel exhaust sampled during a chase study, lab-measured lubricating oil, and freshly emitted traffic aerosols measured in urban environments. The spectrum of OOA closely resembles those of aged organic aerosols sampled in remote areas and also shows similarity with the spectrum of fulvic acid-a humic-like substance that is ubiquitous in the environment and has previously been used as an analogue to represent polyacid compounds found in highly processed and oxidized atmospheric organic aerosols. Organic aerosols in Pittsburgh during Sept. 2002 are mainly oxygenated, on average consisting of ~ 70% OOA (likely mainly secondary in nature). Pronounced diurnal variations in the POA/OOA contributions to organic mass have been observed, with the contribution of POA peaking in the morning rush hours while that of OOA is largest in

  1. Diffusion kinetics of samarium and neodymium in garnet, and a method for determining cooling rates of rocks

    PubMed

    Ganguly; Tirone; Hervig

    1998-08-07

    Experimental determinations of the diffusion coefficients of samarium and neodymium in almandine garnet and theoretical considerations show that one cannot assign a sufficiently restricted range of closure temperature, TC, to the samarium-neodymium decay system in garnet for the purpose of constraining the cooling rate. However, it is shown that the samarium-neodymium cooling age of garnet can be used to calculate both cooling rate and TC if the temperature and age at the peak metamorphic conditions are known.

  2. Gemcitabine radiosensitization after high-dose samarium for osteoblastic osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M; Wiseman, Gregory A; Erlandson, Linda; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Trotz, Barbara; Dubansky, Stephen A; Albritton, Karen

    2005-10-01

    Osteoblastic metastases and osteosarcoma can avidly concentrate bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. We sought to increase effectiveness of high-dose (153)Samarium ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP, Quadramet) on osteosarcomas using a radiosensitizer, gemcitabine. Fourteen patients with osteoblastic lesions were treated with 30 mCi/kg 153Sm-EDTMP. Gemcitabine was administered 1 day after samarium infusion. Residual total body radioactivity was within the safe range of <3.6 mCi on day +14 (1.1 +/- 0.4 mCi; range, 0.67-1.8 mCi). All patients received autologous stem cell reinfusion 2 weeks after 153Sm to correct expected grade 4 hematopoietic toxicity. Peripheral blood progenitor cells were infused in 11 patients; three patients had marrow infused. Blood count recovery was uneventful after peripheral blood progenitor cells in 11 of 11 patients. Toxicity from a single infusion of gemcitabine (1,500 mg/m2) in combination with 153Sm-EDTMP was minimal (pancytopenia). However, toxicity from a daily gemcitabine regimen (250 mg/m2/d x 4-5 days) was excessive (grade 3 mucositis) in one of two patients. There were no reported episodes of hemorrhagic cystitis (hematuria) or nephrotoxicity. At the 6- to 8-week follow-up, there were six partial remissions, two mixed responses, and six patients with progressive disease. In the 12 patients followed >1 year, there have been no durable responses. Thus, although high-dose 153Sm-EDTMP + gemcitabine has moderate palliative activity (improved pain; radiologic responses) in this poor-risk population, additional measures of local and systemic control are required for durable control of relapsed osteosarcoma with osteoblastic lesions. The strategy of radioactive drug binding to a target followed by a radiosensitizer may provide synergy and improved response rate.

  3. Development and Design of Next-Generation Head-Mounted Ambulatory Microdose Positron-Emission Tomography (AM-PET) System.

    PubMed

    Melroy, Samantha; Bauer, Christopher; McHugh, Matthew; Carden, Garret; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Wuest, Thorsten

    2017-05-19

    Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient's head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different environments and during behavioral tasks. Such a wearable system that allows the subjects to move their heads and walk-the Ambulatory Microdose PET (AM-PET)-is currently under development. This imager will be helpful for testing subjects performing selected activities such as gestures, virtual reality activities and walking. The need for this type of lightweight mobile device has led to the construction of a proof of concept portable head-worn unit that uses twelve silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) PET module sensors built into a small ring which fits around the head. This paper is focused on the engineering design of mechanical support aspects of the AM-PET project, both of the current device as well as of the coming next-generation devices. The goal of this work is to optimize design of the scanner and its mechanics to improve comfort for the subject by reducing the effect of weight, and to enable diversification of its applications amongst different research activities.

  4. Development and Design of Next-Generation Head-Mounted Ambulatory Microdose Positron-Emission Tomography (AM-PET) System

    PubMed Central

    Melroy, Samantha; Bauer, Christopher; McHugh, Matthew; Carden, Garret; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Wuest, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient’s head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different environments and during behavioral tasks. Such a wearable system that allows the subjects to move their heads and walk—the Ambulatory Microdose PET (AM-PET)—is currently under development. This imager will be helpful for testing subjects performing selected activities such as gestures, virtual reality activities and walking. The need for this type of lightweight mobile device has led to the construction of a proof of concept portable head-worn unit that uses twelve silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) PET module sensors built into a small ring which fits around the head. This paper is focused on the engineering design of mechanical support aspects of the AM-PET project, both of the current device as well as of the coming next-generation devices. The goal of this work is to optimize design of the scanner and its mechanics to improve comfort for the subject by reducing the effect of weight, and to enable diversification of its applications amongst different research activities. PMID:28534848

  5. AMS Professional Development Courses: Arming K-12 Teachers with the Tools Needed to Increase Students' Scientific Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Moran, J. M.; Nugnes, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    To better prepare tomorrow's leaders, it is of utmost importance that today's teachers are science literate. To meet that need, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Program offers content-rich, professional development courses and training workshops for precollege teachers in the geosciences. During the fall and spring semesters, the AMS in partnership with NOAA, NASA, and SUNY Brockport, offers a suite of pre-college teacher development courses, DataStreme Atmosphere, DataStreme Ocean and DataStreme Earth's Climate System (ECS). These courses are delivered to small groups of K-12 teachers through Local Implementation Teams (LITs) positioned throughout the U.S. The courses use current, real-world environmental data to investigate the atmosphere, ocean, and climate system and consist of weekly online study materials, weekly mentoring, and several face-to-face meetings, all supplemented by a provided textbook and investigations manual. DataStreme ECS takes an innovative approach to studying climate science, by exploring the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addressing the societal impacts relevant to today's students and teachers. The course investigates natural and human forcings and feedbacks to examine mitigation and adaptation strategies for the future. Information and data from respected organizations, such as the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA are used throughout the course, including in the online and printed investigations. In addition, participants differentiate between climate, climate variability, and climate change through the AMS Conceptual Energy Model, a basic climate model that follows the flow of energy from space to Earth and back. Participants also have access to NASA's EdGCM, a research-grade Global Climate Model where they can explore various future climate scenarios in the same way that actual research scientists do. Throughout all of the courses, teachers have the opportunity to expand

  6. Novel samarium/erbium and samarium/terbium codoped glass phosphor for application in warm white light-emitting-diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Cosmo M.; Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2014-02-01

    Tunable polychromatic light emission within the low color correlated temperature range was produced using terbiumand/ or erbium-samarium co-doped PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor. The phosphors were synthesized, and their luminescence characteristics were examined under UV-blue light-emitting-diode laser excitation. Luminescence emission around 490, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Tb3+/Sm3+ and 525, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Er3+/Sm3+ co-doped phosphor was obtained and analyzed as a function of the active ions concentration, and excitation wavelength. Color tunability in the red-orange-yellow-green region was achieved combining of Tb3+, Er3+, and Sm3+ ions contents. Results suggest that the color-tunable polychromatic light emitter phosphor herein reported is a promising novel candidate for application in cold white-light LED-based illumination technology

  7. Preparation and Quality Control of the [153Sm]-Samarium Maltolate Complex as a Lanthanide Mobilization Product in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Zohreh; Hakimi, Amir; Jalilian, Amir R.; Nemati Kharat, Ali; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Development of lanthanide detoxification agents and protocols is of great importance in management of overdoses. Due to safety of maltol as a detoxifying agent in metal overloads, it can be used as a lanthanide detoxifying agent. In order to demonstrate the biodistribution of final complex, [153Sm]-samarium maltolate was prepared using Sm-153 chloride (radiochemical purity >99.9%; ITLC and specific activity). The stability of the labeled compound was determined in the final solution up to 24h as well as the partition coefficient. Biodistribution studies of Sm-153 chloride, [153Sm]-samarium maltolate were carried out in wild-type rats comparing the critical organ uptakes. Comparative study for Sm3+ cation and the labeled compound was conducted up to 48 h, demonstrating a more rapid wash out for the labeled compound. The effective and biological half lives of 2.3 h and 2.46h were calculated for the complex. The data suggest the detoxification property of maltol formulation for lanthanide overdoses. PMID:21773065

  8. Preparation and quality control of the [sm]-samarium maltolate complex as a lanthanide mobilization product in rats.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Zohreh; Hakimi, Amir; Jalilian, Amir R; Nemati Kharat, Ali; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Development of lanthanide detoxification agents and protocols is of great importance in management of overdoses. Due to safety of maltol as a detoxifying agent in metal overloads, it can be used as a lanthanide detoxifying agent. In order to demonstrate the biodistribution of final complex, [(153)Sm]-samarium maltolate was prepared using Sm-153 chloride (radiochemical purity >99.9%; ITLC and specific activity). The stability of the labeled compound was determined in the final solution up to 24h as well as the partition coefficient. Biodistribution studies of Sm-153 chloride, [(153)Sm]-samarium maltolate were carried out in wild-type rats comparing the critical organ uptakes. Comparative study for Sm(3+) cation and the labeled compound was conducted up to 48 h, demonstrating a more rapid wash out for the labeled compound. The effective and biological half lives of 2.3 h and 2.46h were calculated for the complex. The data suggest the detoxification property of maltol formulation for lanthanide overdoses.

  9. Development of a physically-based planar inductors VHDL-AMS model for integrated power converter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammouri, Aymen; Ben Salah, Walid; Khachroumi, Sofiane; Ben Salah, Tarek; Kourda, Ferid; Morel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Design of integrated power converters needs prototype-less approaches. Specific simulations are required for investigation and validation process. Simulation relies on active and passive device models. Models of planar devices, for instance, are still not available in power simulator tools. There is, thus, a specific limitation during the simulation process of integrated power systems. The paper focuses on the development of a physically-based planar inductor model and its validation inside a power converter during transient switching. The planar inductor model remains a complex device to model, particularly when the skin, the proximity and the parasitic capacitances effects are taken into account. Heterogeneous simulation scheme, including circuit and device models, is successfully implemented in VHDL-AMS language and simulated in Simplorer platform. The mixed simulation results has been favorably tested and compared with practical measurements. It is found that the multi-domain simulation results and measurements data are in close agreement.

  10. "I Am Coach": A Model for Developing Students as Their Own Best Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowling, Claire M.; Martin, Ellen H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a hybrid model designed to assist in developing students as their own best individual and peer coaches. As students interact with the content through a hands-on approach, they are able to develop higher-order thinking skills by analyzing and evaluating skill performance using a games-centered approach.…

  11. Developing Who I Am: A Self-Determination Theory Approach to the Establishment of Healthy Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Guardia, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    According to traditional theories of identity development, exploration of one's potentials and commitment to a coherent set of values, goals, and behaviors are important to healthy identity development. In this article, I examine how the Self-determination Theory framework provides an understanding of motivational processes that influence these…

  12. Developing Who I Am: A Self-Determination Theory Approach to the Establishment of Healthy Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Guardia, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    According to traditional theories of identity development, exploration of one's potentials and commitment to a coherent set of values, goals, and behaviors are important to healthy identity development. In this article, I examine how the Self-determination Theory framework provides an understanding of motivational processes that influence these…

  13. "I Am Coach": A Model for Developing Students as Their Own Best Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowling, Claire M.; Martin, Ellen H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a hybrid model designed to assist in developing students as their own best individual and peer coaches. As students interact with the content through a hands-on approach, they are able to develop higher-order thinking skills by analyzing and evaluating skill performance using a games-centered approach.…

  14. Am I a STEM Professional? Documenting STEM Student Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; McGuire, Sharon Paterson; Davis, Kirsten A.; Farid, Arvin; Hardy, Kimberly K.; Hsu, Yu-Chang; Kaiser, Uwe; Nagarajan, Rajesh; Wang, Sasha

    2017-01-01

    Post-secondary education is expected to substantially contribute to the cognitive growth and professional achievement of students studying science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Yet, there is limited understanding of how students studying STEM develop a professional identity. We used the lens of self-authorship to develop a…

  15. AM-OER: An Agile Method for the Development of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Maurício M.; Barroca, Leonor; Barbosa, Ellen F.

    2016-01-01

    Open Educational Resources have emerged as important elements of education in the contemporary society, promoting life-long and personalized learning that transcends social, economic and geographical barriers. To achieve the potential of OERs and bring impact on education, it is necessary to increase their development and supply. However, one of…

  16. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  17. Intracellular localization of samarium in the lactating mammary gland cells: ultrastructural and microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Ahlem, Ayadi; Samira, Maghraoui; Jean-Nicolas, Audinot; Mohamed-Habib, Jaafoura; Henri-Noël, Migeon; Ali, El Hili; Leila, Tekaya

    2012-04-01

    The frequent use of some rare earths in the medical and industrial domains make us worry about their intracellular behavior into the body. Reason for which we have investigated the subcellular localization of one of these elements, the samarium, in the mammary gland of lactating female wistar rats using two very sensitive methods of observation and microanalysis, the transmission electron microscopy and the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ultrastructural study showed the presence of electron dense deposits in the lactating mammary glandular epithelial cell lysosomes of the samarium-treated rats, but no loaded lysosomes were observed in those of control rats. The microanalytical study allowed both the identification of the chemical species present in those deposits as samarium isotopes ((152) Sm(+)) and the cartography of its distribution. Our results confirm the previous ones showing that lysosomes of the glandular epithelial cells are the site of the intracellular concentration of foreign elements such as gallium. The intralysosomal deposits observed in the mammary glandular cells of the samarium-treated rats are similar in their form and density to those observed with the same element in other varieties of cells, such as liver, bone marrow, and spleen cells. Our ultrastructural and microanalytical results and those obtained in previous studies allow deducing that the intralysosomal deposits are very probably composed of an insoluble samarium phosphate salt. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in AmBisome treated visceral leishmaniasis: a possible challenge to elimination program in India.

    PubMed

    Das, V N R; Pandey, K; Singh, D; Forwood, C; Lal, C S; Das, P

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases, one male (33 years) and a female (14 years), that developed Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) after successful treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar with AmBisome, the lipid complex of Amphotericin B. Both cases presented with hypo-pigmented macular lesions all over the body. The patients responded well to AmBisome after treatment with three courses. This first ever case report from India indicates that possibly there is no effective drug for VL until date, which can prevent post-treatment development of PKDL.

  19. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  20. Optical analysis of samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, V.; Sofin, R. G. S.; Allen, M.; Thomas, H.; Biju, P. R.; Jose, G.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    Samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass was synthesized using the melt quenching method. Detailed optical spectroscopic studies of the glassy material were carried out in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range. Using the optical absorption spectra Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are derived. The calculated values of the JO parameters are utilized in evaluating the various radiative parameters such as electric dipole line strengths (Sed), radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τrad), fluorescence branching ratios (β) and the integrated absorption cross- sections (σa) for stimulated emission from various excited states of Sm3 +‡ ion. The principal fluorescence transitions are identified by recording the fluorescence spectrum. Our analysis revealed that the novel glassy system has the optimum values for the key parameters viz. spectroscopic quality factor, optical gain, stimulated emission cross section and quantum efficiency, which are required for a high performance optical amplifier. Calculated chromaticity co-ordinates (0.61, 0.38) also confirm its application potential in display devices.

  1. Structural phase transition and electronic properties in samarium chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Y. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Pataiya, J.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-06

    The electronic structure and high pressure properties of samarium monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe have been reported by using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The total energy as a function of volume is evaluated. It is found that these monochalcogenides are stable in NaCl-type structure under ambient pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-type) structure for these compounds. Phase transition pressures were found to be 1.7, 4.4 and 6.6 GPa, for SmS, SmSe and SmTe respectively. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed that these compounds exhibit metallic character. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and phase transition pressure are in general good agreement with available data.

  2. Samarium Monosulfide (SmS): Reviewing Properties and Applications.

    PubMed

    Sousanis, Andreas; Smet, Philippe F; Poelman, Dirk

    2017-08-16

    In this review, we give an overview of the properties and applications of samarium monosulfide, SmS, which has gained considerable interest as a switchable material. It shows a pressure-induced phase transition from the semiconducting to the metallic state by polishing, and it switches back to the semiconducting state by heating. The material also shows a magnetic transition, from the paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetically ordered state. The switching behavior between the semiconducting and metallic states could be exploited in several applications, such as high density optical storage and memory materials, thermovoltaic devices, infrared sensors and more. We discuss the electronic, optical and magnetic properties of SmS, its switching behavior, as well as the thin film deposition techniques which have been used, such as e-beam evaporation and sputtering. Moreover, applications and possible ideas for future work on this material are presented. Our scope is to present the properties of SmS, which were mainly measured in bulk crystals, while at the same time we describe the possible deposition methods that will push the study of SmS to nanoscale dimensions, opening an intriguing range of applications for low-dimensional, pressure-induced semiconductor-metal transition compounds.

  3. Samarium Monosulfide (SmS): Reviewing Properties and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sousanis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give an overview of the properties and applications of samarium monosulfide, SmS, which has gained considerable interest as a switchable material. It shows a pressure-induced phase transition from the semiconducting to the metallic state by polishing, and it switches back to the semiconducting state by heating. The material also shows a magnetic transition, from the paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetically ordered state. The switching behavior between the semiconducting and metallic states could be exploited in several applications, such as high density optical storage and memory materials, thermovoltaic devices, infrared sensors and more. We discuss the electronic, optical and magnetic properties of SmS, its switching behavior, as well as the thin film deposition techniques which have been used, such as e-beam evaporation and sputtering. Moreover, applications and possible ideas for future work on this material are presented. Our scope is to present the properties of SmS, which were mainly measured in bulk crystals, while at the same time we describe the possible deposition methods that will push the study of SmS to nanoscale dimensions, opening an intriguing range of applications for low-dimensional, pressure-induced semiconductor–metal transition compounds. PMID:28813006

  4. The first four years of the AMS-facility DREAMS: Status and developments for more accurate radionuclide data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugel, Georg; Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Enamorado Baez, Santiago Miguel; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenrücker, René; Merchel, Silke

    2016-03-01

    DREAMS, the DREsden AMS-facility, is performing routine accelerator mass spectrometry of 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I for a wide range of applications. All DREAMS-data is normalised directly to primary standards or traceable to those via cross-calibration of secondary standards. Recent technical developments such as a low-memory ion source for 36Cl and 129I and sophisticated tuning strategies for 129I led to improved-accuracy data. Tests of ion source output have been performed with different metal binders, sample-to-binder mixing ratios, and compaction pressures in order to find optimal parameters. The highest and most stable outputs have been obtained for 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca for the following binders and mixing ratios (by weight): BeO:Nb, 1:4; Al2O3:Ag, 1:1; CaF2:Ag, 1:4. Higher beam currents generally result in reduced statistical uncertainty. Cross-contamination and long-term memory seem to be underestimated problems asking for further tests and improvements such as the development of low-level in-house-standards.

  5. Development of a nanofiltration method for bone collagen 14C AMS dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudin, Mathieu; Boeckx, Pascal; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Vandenabeele, Peter; Van Strydonck, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of bones is usually performed on the collagen fraction. However, this collagen can contain exogenous molecules, including humic substances (HSs) and/or other soil components that may have a different age than the bone. Incomplete removal can result in biased 14C dates. Ultrafiltration of collagen, dissolved as gelatin (molecular weight (MW) ∼100,000 Dalton), has received considerable attention to obtain more reliable dates. Ultrafiltration is an effective method of removal of low-molecular weight contaminants from bone collagen but it does not remove high-molecular weight contaminants, such as cross-linked humic collagen complexes. However, comparative dating studies have raised the question whether this cleaning step itself may introduce contamination with carbon from the filters used. In this study, a nanofiltration method was developed using a ceramic filter to avoid a possible extraneous carbon contamination introduced by the filter. This method should be applicable to various protein materials e.g. collagen, silk, wool, leather and should be able to remove low-molecular and high molecular weight HSs. In this study bone collagen was hot acid hydrolyzed to amino acids and nanofiltrated. A filter with a molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 450 Dalton was chosen in order to collect the amino acids in the permeate and the HSs in the retentate. Two pilot studies were set up. Two nanofiltration types were tested in pilot study 1: dead end and cross flow filtration. Humic substance (HS)-solutions with fossil carbon and modern hydrolyzed collagen contaminated with HSs were filtrated and analyzed with spectrofluorescence to determine the HS removal. Cross flow nanofiltration showed the most efficient HS removal. A second pilot study based upon these results was set up wherein only cross flow filtration was performed. 14C measurements of the permeates of hydrolyzed modern collagen contaminated with fossil HSs demonstrate a significant but incomplete

  6. In vitro evaluation of samarium (III) oxide as a bone substituting material.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M T U; Di Silvio, L; Evans, J R G

    2010-07-01

    The biocompatibility of natural samarium (III) oxide, which has previously been used for treatment in bone-related diseases was determined as a first step in its evaluation as a bone implant material. Assessment for 28 days using osteoblast-like cells revealed no indications of cytotoxicity. The cells adhered and proliferated on the surface. Furthermore, the differentiation and mineralization were observed, indicating a normal biological response of the cells on the samarium (III) oxide surface. The in vitro, short term biocompatibility assessment of this oxide has indicated its biosafety with no damaging toxic effects on the cells and biofunctionality; with an appropriate cell response for a bone-contacting material. Hence, samarium (III) oxide deserves recognition in the field of biomaterials for its excellent in vitro performance and demonstrates that the class of potential bioceramics may be larger than previously thought. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  7. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, Gurinder Pal; Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, D. P.

    2016-08-01

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λexc.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO4 units thus supporting the density results. The UV- Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  8. Effects of subchronic samarium exposure on the histopathological structure and apoptosis regulation in mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Yong; Shen, Xiu-Ying; Ruan, Qin; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Yang, San-Ping; Lu, Yin; Xu, Hui-Ying; Hao, Fei-Lin

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reproductive toxicity of samarium, a widely used rare earth element, male ICR mice were orally exposed to samarium nitrate for 90 days for lesion evaluation in the testis. Decreased organ coefficients, disorganized seminiferous tubules, and decreased spermatogenic cells and sperm of the testis were observed extensively in the treated groups, indicating that the testis is a target organ of samarium. Electron microscopy confirmed that the lesions inside the spermatogenic cells and sperm mainly included mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial vacuolization, fuzzy nuclear membranes, and marginated chromatin. Increased spermatogenic cell apoptosis rate in the testis was confirmed with a TUNEL assay. And expression up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were observed (p<0.05), indicating the apoptosis is related to p53 mediated pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Raman spectral analysis of TiO2 thin films doped with rare-earth samarium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Hu; Ma, Zhong-Quan

    2012-08-01

    TiO(2) thin films doped with rare-earth samarium were prepared on a quartz plate by the sol-gel/spin-coating technique. The samples were annealed at 700 °C to 1100 °C, and the Raman spectra of the samples were obtained. Analyses of Raman spectra show that samarium doping can inhibit the anatase-rutile phase transition. Samarium doping can refine grains of TiO(2) thin films and increase the internal stress, thereby preventing lattice vibration. Nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin films obviously show the phonon confinement effect, i.e., the blueshift of characteristic Raman peak and full width at half-height increase, and the peak shapes asymmetrically broaden with a decrease in the grain sizes of the samples.

  10. Development of a Fully Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model for the A/M Area Using Data Fusion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1996-11-18

    SRS was established in the 1950s to produce plutonium, tritium, and other nuclear materials. The purpose of this work was to obtain the distribution of the parameters that effect groundwater flow and to calibrate a model for subsequent use in the development of corrective action programs in the A/M area.

  11. Samarium electrodeposited acetate and oxide thin films on stainless steel substrate characterized by XPS

    DOE PAGES

    Myhre, Kristian; Burns, Jonathan; Meyer, Harry; ...

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of a samarium thin film deposited on a stainless steel substrate using molecular electrodeposition was carried out using a Thermo Scientific K-Alpha X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. We studied two types of samarium electrodeposition samples, one as-deposited and one heated to 700 °C in an air flow. Survey scans include peaks coming from the stainless steel substrate, such as Fe and Cr. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey spectrum, Sm 3d, C 1s, and O 1s narrow scans are shown. It was determined that the heating process decomposed the deposited Sm acetate to Sm2O3 using XPS.

  12. Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Badapanda, T.; Sarangi, S.; Behera, B.; Anwar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2014-04-24

    Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba{sub 1−x}Sm{sub 2x/3}Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x≤0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

  13. Evolution of a short route to strychnine by using the samarium-diiodide-induced cascade cyclization as a key step.

    PubMed

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    This comprehensive report accounts the development of a highly diastereoselective samarium diiodide-induced cascade reaction of substituted indolyl ketones. The complexity-generating transformation with SmI2 allows the diastereoselective generation of three stereogenic centers including one quaternary center in one step. The obtained tetra- or pentacyclic dihydroindole derivatives are structural motifs of many monoterpene indole alkaloids, and their subsequent transformations gave way to one of the shortest approaches towards strychnine (14 % overall yield in ten steps, or 10 % overall yield in eight steps). During the course of this report we discuss the influence of substituents on the cyclization step, plausible mechanistic scenarios for the SmI2 -induced cascade reaction, diastereoselective reductive amination, and regioselective dehydratization protocols towards the pentacyclic core structure of strychnos alkaloids. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Samarium Hexaboride - First True 3D Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgast, Steven; Kurdak, Çağliyan; Sun, Kai; Allen, James; Fisk, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Although many important breakthroughs in the study of topological states of matter have been achieved within the last few years, a very important link still remains missing-the experimental discovery of a true 3D topological insulator. Materials currently known to have topological surface states (e.g. Bi1-xSbx, Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3) are also bulk conductors, and thus do not have a well-defined topological index. Recent calculations of the heavy-fermion Kondo insulator Samarium Hexaboride (SmB6) have predicted the possibility of in-gap topological surface states in this material. Meanwhile, the conjectured existence of a topologically-protected surface state in SmB6 could resolve many of the long-standing puzzles surrounding its low-temperature transport properties. Here we study the transport properties of SmB6 with a novel configuration designed to distinguish bulk-dominated conduction from surface-dominated conduction. We find that SmB6 is a true topological insulator with an insulating bulk and a metallic surface. This discovery resolves the standing puzzles about the strange transport behavior of this material, and it provides the first material in which transport properties of a 3D topological state can be studied. Funded by NSF #DMR-1006500. Performed in part in the Electron Microbeam Analysis Laboratory under NSF #DMR-0320740, and in the Lurie Nanofabrication Facility, a member of NNIN, supported by NSF. We thank Richard Field III for photography services.

  15. FTIR and VSM properties of samarium-doped nickel ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şabikoğlu, Israfil; Paralı, Levent

    2014-05-01

    Nickel Ferrite (NiFe2O4) doped with Samarium (Sm) (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 mol.%) was prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure, surface morphology, infrared spectrum of absorption, and magnetic properties of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD patterns were indexed with inverse spinel cubic phase with the space group of Fd-3m of nickel ferrite. The average grain size was about 5-10 μm. FTIR spectral study on the NiFe2O4 ferrite phase was recorded between 350 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. Two fundamental absorption bands of the ferrites were appeared at 450 cm-1 and 1000 cm-1 characteristic of metal vibrations. VSM measurements show that the NiFe2O4 doped with Sm 0.3% has the highest value of saturation magnetization. It is also easily demagnetized due to the low value of coercivity field it has. Both NiFe2O4 doped with Sm 0.2 mol.% and 0.4 mol.% materials have same values of coercivity field. However, NiFe2O4 doped with Sm 0.4 mol.% material has the comparatively high value of saturation magnetization than NiFe2O4 doped with Sm 0.2%, also this material was hardly demagnetized, and has highest coercivity field.

  16. Paleotempestological chronology developed from gas ion source AMS analysis of carbonates determined through real-time Bayesian statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D. J.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roberts, M. L.; Burton, J. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Woodruff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Is a small quantity of high-precision ages more robust than a higher quantity of lower-precision ages for sediment core chronologies? AMS Radiocarbon ages have been available to researchers for several decades now, and precision of the technique has continued to improve. Analysis and time cost is high, though, and projects are often limited in terms of the number of dates that can be used to develop a chronology. The Gas Ion Source at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (NOSAMS), while providing lower-precision (uncertainty of order 100 14C y for a sample), is significantly less expensive and far less time consuming than conventional age dating and offers the unique opportunity for large amounts of ages. Here we couple two approaches, one analytical and one statistical, to investigate the utility of an age model comprised of these lower-precision ages for paleotempestology. We use a gas ion source interfaced to a gas-bench type device to generate radiocarbon dates approximately every 5 minutes while determining the order of sample analysis using the published Bayesian accumulation histories for deposits (Bacon). During two day-long sessions, several dates were obtained from carbonate shells in living position in a sediment core comprised of sapropel gel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda. Samples were prepared where large shells were available, and the order of analysis was determined by the depth with the highest uncertainty according to Bacon. We present the results of these analyses as well as a prognosis for a future where such age models can be constructed from many dates that are quickly obtained relative to conventional radiocarbon dates. This technique currently is limited to carbonates, but development of a system for organic material dating is underway. We will demonstrate the extent to which sacrificing some analytical precision in favor of more dates improves age models.

  17. Development Status of the Mechanically Pumped Two-Phase CO2 Cooling Loop for the AMS-2 TTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delil, A. A. M.; Woering, A. A.; Verlaat, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS is an international experiment, led by Nobel Prize laureate Samuel Ting (MIT), searching for anti-matter, dark matter and lost matter. It is a particle detector for high-energy cosmic rays, consisting the sub-detectors: (Silicon) Tracker, Time of Flight (ToF) system, Veto Counters, Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter (RICH), Anti-Coincidence Counter, and Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The demonstration experiment AMS-1 has successfully flown in June '98 on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS91). The paper focuses on TTCS issues.

  18. Preparation of samarium(II) iodide: quantitative evaluation of the effect of water, oxygen, and peroxide content, preparative methods, and the activation of samarium metal.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Michal; Spain, Malcolm; Procter, David J

    2012-04-06

    Samarium(II) iodide (SmI(2)) is one of the most important reducing agents in organic synthesis. Synthetic chemistry promoted by SmI(2) depends on the efficient and reliable preparation of the reagent. Unfortunately, users can experience difficulties preparing the reagent, and this has prevented realization of the full synthetic potential of SmI(2). To provide synthetic chemists with general and reliable methods for the preparation of SmI(2), a systematic evaluation of the factors involved in its synthesis has been carried out. Our studies confirm that SmI(2) is a user-friendly reagent. Factors such as water, oxygen, and peroxide content in THF have little influence on the synthesis of SmI(2). In addition, the use of specialized glovebox equipment or Schlenk techniques is not required for the preparation of SmI(2). However, our studies suggest that the quality of samarium metal is an important factor and that the use of low quality metal is the main cause of failed preparations of the reagent. Accordingly, we report a straightforward method for activation of "inactive" samarium metal and demonstrate the broad utility of this protocol through the electron transfer reductions of a range of substrates using SmI(2) prepared from otherwise "inactive" metal. An investigation into the stability of SmI(2) solutions and an evaluation of commercially available solutions of the reagent is also reported.

  19. Mechanisms of magma generation beneath hawaii and mid-ocean ridges: uranium/thorium and samarium/neodymium isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Sims, K W; Depaolo, D J; Murrell, M T; Baldridge, W S; Goldstein, S J; Clague, D A

    1995-01-27

    Measurements of uranium/thorium and samarium/neodymium isotopes and concentrations in a suite of Hawaiian basalts show that uranium/thorium fractionation varies systematically with samarium/neodymium fractionation and major-element composition; these correlations can be understood in terms of simple batch melting models with a garnet-bearing peridotite magma source and melt fractions of 0.25 to 6.5 percent. Midocean ridge basalts shows a systematic but much different relation between uranium/thorium fractionation and samarium/neodymium fractionation, which, although broadly consistent with melting of a garnet-bearing peridotite source, requires a more complex melting model.

  20. Synthesis of Sm{sup 3+}-doped strontium barium niobate crystals in glass by samarium atom heat processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chayapiwut, Nakorn; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Benino, Yasuhiko; Fujiwara, Takumi; Komatsu, Takayuki . E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2005-11-15

    New glasses giving the crystallization of Sm{sup 3+}-doped Sr {sub x} Ba{sub 1-} {sub x} Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) ferroelectrics have been developed in the Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SrO-BaO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system, and the formation of SBN crystal dots and lines by continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (wavelength:1064 nm, power: 1 W) irradiations, i.e., samarium atom heat processing, has been examined. The formation of Sm{sup 3+}-doped SBN non-linear optical crystals is confirmed from X-ray diffraction analyses, micro-Raman scattering spectra, second harmonic generations, and photoluminescence spectra. Sm{sup 3+}-doped SBN crystal dots with the diameters of 20-70 {mu}m and lines with the widths of 20-40 {mu}m are written at the surface of some glasses such as 10Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.10SrO.10BaO.20Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) by Nd:YAG laser irradiations with the irradiation times of 20-70 s for the dots and with the scanning speeds of 1-5 {mu}m/s for the lines. The present study suggests that the samarium atom heat processing has a potential for the patterning of optical waveguides consisting of ferroelectric SBN crystals in glass substrates.

  1. ppt level detection of samarium(III) with a coated graphite sensor based on an antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Rezapour, Morteza; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Haghgoo, Soheila

    2004-07-01

    N-[2-[4-[[[(Cyclohexylamino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-5-methyl pyrazine carboxamide (glipizid) was explored as an electro-active material for preparing a polymeric membrane-based sensor selective to samarium ions. The membrane incorporated 30% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), 53% benzyl acetate (BA), 11% glipizid and 6% sodium tetraphenyl borate. When coated on the surface of a graphite electrode, it exhibits Nernstian responses in the concentration range of 1.0 x 10(-5) to 1.0 x 10(-10) M, with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-11)M samarium. The electrode shows high selectivity towards samarium over several cations (alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions), and specially lanthanide ions. The proposed sensor has a very short response time (< 15 s), and can be used in a wide pH range for at least ten weeks. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Sm(III) ions with an EDTA solution, and for determination of samarium in binary and ternary mixtures.

  2. Effect of samarium on the temperature induction coefficient of Nd-Dy-Fe-Co-B materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablov, E. N.; Piskorskii, V. P.; Valeev, R. A.

    2014-03-01

    Sintered (Nd1 - x - z Dy x Sm2)-(Fe1 - y Co y )-B (atomic fractions x = 0.27, 0.32, 0.39; y = 0.17, 0.23, 0.28; and z = 0.04-0.18) materials have been studied. It is shown that the magnetic moments of samarium ions and the iron-cobalt sublattice are ordered antiferromagnetically and, as the samarium content increases, the content of dysprosium and samarium in the basic A magnetic phase decreases and increases, respectively. As the samarium content ( z) in sintered magnets (Nd0.61 - z Dy0.39Sm z )17.5(Fe0.72Co0.28)76.3B6.2 increases, the thermal induction coefficient is found to decrease monotonically from 0.021 to 0.006%/°C, i.e., by 3.5 times. In this case, residual inductance B r is unchanged (0.8 T).

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Chemistry-Specific Version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS-Chemistry)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yujuan; Ferrell, Brent; Barbera, Jack; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentally concerned with motivation, self-determination theory (SDT) represents a framework of several mini-theories to explore how social context interacts with people's motivational types categorized by degree of regulation internalization. This paper aims to modify an existing theory-based instrument (Academic Motivation Scale, or AMS) and…

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Chemistry-Specific Version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS-Chemistry)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yujuan; Ferrell, Brent; Barbera, Jack; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentally concerned with motivation, self-determination theory (SDT) represents a framework of several mini-theories to explore how social context interacts with people's motivational types categorized by degree of regulation internalization. This paper aims to modify an existing theory-based instrument (Academic Motivation Scale, or AMS) and…

  5. Selection of Additive Manufacturing (AM) Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    Recent advancements in technology have enabled Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as Three-Dimensional (3-D) printing, to become a powerful ...Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been tracking AM over recent years and is considering investing in...9 1 I. INTRODUCTION Additive Manufacturing (AM) has become a very powerful

  6. Optimal treatment of painful bone metastases with Samarium EDTMP in a haemodialysis patient: effectiveness and safety of internal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Saadia; Desruet, Marie-Dominique; Bourre, Jean-Cyril; Caravel, Jean-Pierre; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe

    2009-08-01

    One of the current therapeutic approaches in the treatment of osteoblastic bone metastases uses the affinity of Samarium ((153)Sm) ethylene-diamine-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) for bone areas of bone turnover. As Samarium EDTMP is a beta-emitter, the radiotherapy contributes to osteoblastic bone lesion control over time. To date, the safety and effectiveness of Samarium therapy have not been established in patients with renal impairment. In this first report, we describe our experience of use of Samarium EDTMP in conjunction with biphosphonates in a haemodialysis patient for treatment of painful bone metastasis. Encouraging results were obtained in achieving pain control. The use of this radioisotope could be more widely applied to treat haemodialysis patients.

  7. Double blind glucocorticoid controlled trial of samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy for chronic knee synovitis

    PubMed Central

    O'Duffy, E; Clunie, G; Lui, D; Edwards, J; Ell, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm-153 PHYP) is a relatively new radiation synovectomy agent developed for the treatment of chronic synovitis. Although it has been shown that the levels of unwanted extra-articular radiation are lower after intra-articular injection of Sm-153 PHYP than yttrium-90 colloid, its clinical efficacy has not been rigorously studied.
OBJECTIVES—To establish whether Sm-153 PHYP radiation synovectomy results in a clinically useful benefit sustained at one year.
METHODS—In a randomised double blind study, patients received either intra-articular 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide combined with Sm-153 PHYP in an outpatient clinic.
RESULTS—Sixty patients (28 male, 32 female), median age 51 (18-75) with chronic knee synovitis were studied. Diagnoses included: rheumatoid arthritis (n=29); psoriatic arthritis (n=9); ankylosing spondylitis (n=3); reactive arthritis (n=2); undifferentiated seronegative oligoarthritis (n=13) and miscellaneous inflammatory conditions (n=4). More patients who received Sm-153 PHYP/triamcinolone hexacetonide sustained clinical benefit a year after treatment compared with patients who received corticosteroid alone (12 of 31 (39%) v 6 of 29 (21%), a difference of 18% more patients (95% CI −5% to 41%)) though the difference was not significant (χ2=2.31, 0.2>p>0.1, n=60). Despite the variation in injected activity (median 563 MBq, range 218-840 MBq), there was no obvious relation between low levels of injected activity (<555 MBq) and relapse within 12 months of treatment (χ2 =2.61, 0.2>p>0.1, n=31).
CONCLUSIONS—There was no clear beneficial clinical effect of combined Sm-153 PHYP/triamcinolone hexacetonide injection over triamcinolone hexacetonide alone a year after treatment for chronic knee synovitis.

 PMID:10460188

  8. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandiwana, Vusani; Kalombo, Lonji; Venter, Kobus; Sathekge, Mike; Grobler, Anne; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2015-09-01

    Developing nanoparticulate delivery systems that will allow easy movement and localization of a drug to the target tissue and provide more controlled release of the drug in vivo is a challenge in nanomedicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of poly( d, l-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([153Sm]Sm2O3) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear reactor to produce radioactive 153Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and morphology. The nanoparticles were orally and intravenously (IV) administered to rats in order to trace their uptake through imaging and biodistribution studies. The 153Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles had an average size of 281 ± 6.3 nm and a PDI average of 0.22. The zeta potential ranged between 5 and 20 mV. The [153Sm]Sm2O3 loaded PLGA nanoparticles, orally administered were distributed to most organs at low levels, indicating that there was absorption of nanoparticles. While the IV injected [153Sm]Sm2O3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles exhibited the highest localization of nanoparticles in the spleen (8.63 %ID/g) and liver (3.07 %ID/g), confirming that nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood by the RES, leading to rapid uptake in the liver and spleen. From the biodistribution data obtained, it is clear that polymeric nanoscale delivery systems would be suitable for improving permeability and thus the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds.

  9. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing {sup 3}H-AMS to measure {sup 3}H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied {sup 14}C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of {sup 3}H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform {sup 3}H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for {sup 14}C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in {sup 14}C-tagged form. A {sup 3}H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds.

  10. Samarium electrodeposited acetate and oxide thin films on stainless steel substrate characterized by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, Kristian; Burns, Jonathan; Meyer, Harry; Sims, Nathan; Boll, Rose

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of a samarium thin film deposited on a stainless steel substrate using molecular electrodeposition was carried out using a Thermo Scientific K-Alpha X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. We studied two types of samarium electrodeposition samples, one as-deposited and one heated to 700 °C in an air flow. Survey scans include peaks coming from the stainless steel substrate, such as Fe and Cr. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey spectrum, Sm 3d, C 1s, and O 1s narrow scans are shown. It was determined that the heating process decomposed the deposited Sm acetate to Sm2O3 using XPS.

  11. Solar nebula heterogeneity in p-process samarium and neodymium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Rasmus; Sharma, Mukul

    2006-11-03

    Bulk carbonaceous chondrites display a deficit of approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) in 144Sm with respect to other meteorites and terrestrial standards, leading to a decrease in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios by approximately 11 ppm. The data require that samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by the p process associated with photodisintegration reactions in supernovae were heterogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. Other samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by rapid neutron capture (r process) in supernovae and by slow neutron capture (s process) in red giants were homogeneously distributed. The supernovae sources supplying the p- and r-process nuclides to the solar nebula were thus disconnected or only weakly connected.

  12. Samarium electrodeposited acetate and oxide thin films on stainless steel substrate characterized by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, Kristian; Burns, Jonathan; Meyer, Harry; Sims, Nathan; Boll, Rose

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of a samarium thin film deposited on a stainless steel substrate using molecular electrodeposition was carried out using a Thermo Scientific K-Alpha X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. We studied two types of samarium electrodeposition samples, one as-deposited and one heated to 700 °C in an air flow. Survey scans include peaks coming from the stainless steel substrate, such as Fe and Cr. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey spectrum, Sm 3d, C 1s, and O 1s narrow scans are shown. It was determined that the heating process decomposed the deposited Sm acetate to Sm2O3 using XPS.

  13. Facile deoxygenation of dicarbonyl compounds using a samarium diiodide-additive system.

    PubMed

    Kamochi, Yasuko; Kudo, Tadahiro; Masuda, Toshinobu; Takadate, Akira

    2005-08-01

    The reduction of alpha- and beta-dicarbonyl compounds was investigated with samarium diiodide in the presence of additive. Diketones and ketocarboxylic acids were easily reduced at room temperature to give the mono-alcohols in good to excellent yield, and ketoester afforded the saturated ester as the major product in moderate yield. These reductions containing the reductive deoxygenation can be rapidly performed under the facile and mild conditions by this method.

  14. Magnetic properties of thin films of samarium-cobalt alloy prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Gyanendra; Gupta, Mukul; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the magnetic properties of samarium-cobalt thin films on quartz and Si(111) substrates grown by dc magnetron sputtering. Both films are deposited on Cr buffer layer and subsequently a capping layer of Cr was also deposited. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results reveal that Cr diffused in to Sm-Co layer.This lead to local change in magnetocrystalline anisotropy. As the result of this we observed the two coercive behaviors in magnetization of thin film.

  15. Samarium(II)-mediated spirocyclization by intramolecular aryl radical addition onto an aromatic ring.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroki; Eguchi, Toru; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Ohno, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tetsuaki

    2008-09-19

    Samarium(II)-mediated spirocyclization by intramolecular addition of aryl radicals onto an aromatic ring was achieved by the reaction of N-(2-iodophenyl)-N-alkylbenzamides with SmI2 in the presence of HMPA, yielding spirocyclic indolin-2-one derivatives. The ether congeners afford spirocyclic benzofuran derivatives in moderate yields by aryl radical addition onto a benzene ring without having an electron-withdrawing group. The reaction with other aryl groups such as naphthalene and indole rings is also described.

  16. First direct evidence of radical intermediates in samarium diiodide induced cyclization by ESR spectra.

    PubMed

    Sono, Masakazu; Hanamura, Shin-ichi; Furumaki, Midori; Murai, Hisao; Tori, Motoo

    2011-11-04

    The mechanism of samarium diiodide (SmI(2))-induced cyclization of α,β-unsaturated esters and ketones to bicyclic compounds was examined using ESR spectroscopy. This is the first report of direct evidence of the radical intermediates in the SmI(2) reaction. The preferential reduction of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl part in some substrates should be recognized as a main route. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Transformation of alpha,beta-epoxyesters into 2,3-dideuterioesters promoted by samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bardales, Eva; Llavona, Ricardo

    2003-02-21

    An easy and general sequenced elimination/reduction process by means of samarium diiodide, in the presence of D(2)O, provides an efficient method for synthesizing 2,3-dideuterioesters 2. The reaction can be also carried out in the presence of H(2)O instead of D(2)O, yielding the corresponding saturated esters 4. Other deuterated esters have been also obtained. A mechanism to explain this synthesis has been proposed.

  18. A temporal three-dimensional simulation of samarium release in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hai-Sheng; Feng, Jie; Xu, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Xu, Bin; Xue, Kun; Xu, Tong; Hu, Yan-Li

    2016-10-01

    For understanding plasma processes of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, the alkali and alkaline-earth metals are usually released in space for artificially increasing the electron density. However, it is a limitation that these releases must be in sunlight where the photoionization can take place. In recent years, the lanthanide metals, such as samarium, have been released to produce electrons in reaction with atomic oxygen in the upper space. The reaction could proceed without sunlight so that the restriction on experimental periods is broken. Unfortunately, any sophisticated models even preliminary ones are unavailable yet in the literature. A temporal three-dimensional model is presented for the samarium release in detail with respect to various altitudes and mass. Especially, the plasma diffusion equation is remarkably extended from 2-D to 3-D by importing the influence of geomagnetic declination, which could be also useful for other chemical releases. The field-aligned terms are brought so as to the presented model can describe the diffusion along the geomagnetic field subtly. On the basis of the presented model, behaviors of radio waves propagating through the release area are simulated by using ray tracing. This model could be as the theoretical support for samarium releases, and it also helpful for the research on the generation and evolution of the ionosphere irregularities.

  19. Adverse Events in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Treated With Samarium Sm 153 Lexidronam for Osseous Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Paravati, Anthony J.; Russo, Andrea L.; Aitken, Candice

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and the effect of pre- and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and/or chemotherapy on myelosuppression in patients who received samarium Sm 153 lexidronam for osseous metastases. Methods and Materials: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of 139 patients treated with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam between November 1997 and February 2008. New-onset adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam were reported. The effect of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam on platelet and peripheral white blood cell counts and the duration of myelosuppression after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam plus EBRT and/or chemotherapy were calculated. Differences in the prevalence of adverse events among patients with varying treatment histories were evaluated with the Pearson chi-square test. Results: Hematologic follow-up was available for 103 patients. Chemotherapy and/or EBRT had no effect on the magnitude or duration of myelosuppression. The most common nonhematologic adverse events were acute lower extremity edema (n = 27) and acute and transient neuropathy (n = 29). Patients treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam had a higher prevalence of lower extremity edema (9 of 18 [50%]) than those who were not treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (18 of 85 [21.2%]) (p = 0.01, chi-square test). No adverse events were correlated with EBRT. Conclusions: Our observation of new-onset, acute and transient edema and neuropathy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and of a relationship between edema and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam chemotherapy suggests the need for re-examination of patients in past series or for a prospective investigation with nonhematologic adverse events as a primary endpoint.

  20. Adverse events in the long-term follow-up of patients treated with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam for osseous metastases.

    PubMed

    Paravati, Anthony J; Russo, Andrea L; Aitken, Candice

    2011-10-01

    To investigate adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and the effect of pre- and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and/or chemotherapy on myelosuppression in patients who received samarium Sm 153 lexidronam for osseous metastases. We performed a single-institution retrospective review of 139 patients treated with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam between November 1997 and February 2008. New-onset adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam were reported. The effect of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam on platelet and peripheral white blood cell counts and the duration of myelosuppression after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam plus EBRT and/or chemotherapy were calculated. Differences in the prevalence of adverse events among patients with varying treatment histories were evaluated with the Pearson chi-square test. Hematologic follow-up was available for 103 patients. Chemotherapy and/or EBRT had no effect on the magnitude or duration of myelosuppression. The most common nonhematologic adverse events were acute lower extremity edema (n = 27) and acute and transient neuropathy (n = 29). Patients treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam had a higher prevalence of lower extremity edema (9 of 18 [50%]) than those who were not treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (18 of 85 [21.2%]) (p = 0.01, chi-square test). No adverse events were correlated with EBRT. Our observation of new-onset, acute and transient edema and neuropathy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and of a relationship between edema and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam chemotherapy suggests the need for re-examination of patients in past series or for a prospective investigation with nonhematologic adverse events as a primary endpoint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Arabidopsis SET-domain protein ASHR3 is involved in stamen development and interacts with the bHLH transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS).

    PubMed

    Thorstensen, Tage; Grini, Paul E; Mercy, Inderjit S; Alm, Vibeke; Erdal, Sigrid; Aasland, Rein; Aalen, Reidunn B

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains more than 30 genes encoding SET-domain proteins that are thought to be epigenetic regulators of gene expression and chromatin structure. SET-domain proteins can be divided into subgroups, and members of the Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) have been shown to be important regulators of development. Both in animals and plants some of these proteins are components of multimeric protein complexes. Here, we have analyzed the Arabidopsis trxG protein ASHR3 which has a SET domain and pre- and post-SET domains similar to that of Ash1 in Drosophila. In addition to the SET domain, a divergent PHD finger is found in the N-terminus of the ASHR3 protein. As expected from SET-domain proteins involved in transcriptional activation, ASHR3 (coupled to GFP) localizes to euchromatin. A yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that the ASHR3 protein interacts with the putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS), which is involved in anther and stamen development in Arabidopsis. Deletion mapping indicated that both the PHD finger and the SET domain mediate the interaction between the two proteins. Overexpression of ASHR3 led in general to growth arrest, and specifically to degenerated anthers and male sterility. Expression analyses demonstrated that ASHR3 like AMS is expressed in the anther and in stamen filaments. We therefore propose that AMS can target ASHR3 to chromatin and regulate genes involved in stamen development and function.

  2. Development of spent fuel reprocessing process based on selective sulfurization: Study on the Pu, Np and Am sulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirishima, Akira; Amano, Yuuki; Nihei, Toshifumi; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Sato, Nobuaki

    2010-03-01

    For the recovery of fissile materials from spent nuclear fuel, we have proposed a novel reprocessing process based on selective sulfurization of fission products (FPs). The key concept of this process is utilization of unique chemical property of carbon disulfide (CS2), i.e., it works as a reductant for U3O8 but works as a sulfurizing agent for minor actinides and lanthanides. Sulfurized FPs and minor actinides (MA) are highly soluble to dilute nitric acid while UO2 and PuO2 are hardly soluble, therefore, FPs and MA can be removed from Uranium and Plutonium matrix by selective dissolution. As a feasibility study of this new concept, the sulfurization behaviours of U, Pu, Np, Am and Eu are investigated in this paper by the thermodynamical calculation, phase analysis of chemical analogue elements and tracer experiments.

  3. A magnetic nanoparticle-labeled immunoassay with europium and samarium for simultaneous quantification of serum pepsinogen I and II.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Xiao, H; Zhang, J; Zhou, B; Deng, L; Zhang, Y; Huang, B

    2017-07-01

    To develop a novel immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of serum pepsinogen I (PG I) and pepsinogen II (PG II) by combining established methods of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) and magnetic nanoparticles separation. This new immunoassay method was characterised by immobilising primary antibodies on the surface of magnetic particles and labelled with stable fluorescent chelates of europium and samarium. Using magnetic nanoparticles, the TRFIA immunoassay exhibited broad dynamic assay ranges for PG I with detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL, while for PG II with detection limit of 0.38 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity between PGs I and II were <15. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient variations of the method were <3%, and the recoveries were in the range of 97-103% for serum samples. Bland-Altman analysis of 124 serum samples showed good consistency with a commercial TRFIA kit. For PG I, the mean (95% confidence interval) difference was 0.97 (-14.3-12.3) ng/mL, whilst for PG II the difference was 0.6 (-4.4-3.2) ng/mL. Our data suggest that the method is feasible and could be developed into a platform for the routine clinical determination of PG I and PG II levels in human serum.

  4. Direct umpolung of glycals and related 2,3-unsaturated N-acetylneuraminic acid derivatives using samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Le, Tien Xuan; Papin, Caroline; Doisneau, Gilles; Beau, Jean-Marie

    2014-06-10

    The umpolung of glycals with samarium diiodide offers a simple route to novel carbohydrate-derived nucleophilic reagents in a single step using a readily available reductant. The corresponding allyl samarium reagent that arises from the hexose series reacts with ketones at the C3 position with high stereoselectivity; carbon-carbon bond formation takes place only anti to the substituent at the C4 position of the dihydropyran ring. For the sialic acid series, the completely regio- and stereoselective coupling process of the samarium reagent occurs at the anomeric carbon atom and provides a new approach to the α-C-glycosides of N-acetyl neuraminic acid. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Low energy AMS of americium and curium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Marcus; Dai, Xiongxin; Lachner, Johannes; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has evolved over the past years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for actinide analyses. While analyses of U and Pu isotopes have already become routine at the ETH Zurich 0.5 MV AMS system "Tandy", there is an increasing demand for highly sensitive analyses of the higher actinides such as Am and Cm for bioassay applications and beyond. In order to extend the actinide capabilities of the compact ETH Zurich AMS system and to develop new, more sensitive bioassay routines, a pilot study was carried out. The aim was to investigate and document the performance and the potential background of Am and Cm analyses with low energy AMS. Our results show that 241Am and Cm isotopes can be determined relative to a 243Am tracer if samples and AMS standards are prepared identically with regard to the matrix elements, in which the sample is dispersed. In this first test, detection limits for Cm and Am isotopes are all in the sub-femtogram range and even below 100 ag for Cm isotopes. In a systematic background study in the mass range of the Cm isotopes, two formerly unknown metastable triply charged Th molecules were found on amu(244) and amu(248). The presence of such a background is not a principal problem for AMS if the stripper pressure is increased accordingly. Based on our first results, we conclude that ultra-trace analyses of Am and Cm isotopes for bioassay are very well possible with low energy AMS.

  6. X-ray spectrum in the range (6-12) A emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium

    SciTech Connect

    Louzon, Einat; Henis, Zohar; Levi, Izhak; Hurvitz, Gilad; Ehrlich, Yosi; Fraenkel, Moshe; Maman, Shlomo; Mandelbaum, Pinchas

    2009-05-15

    A detailed analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium (6-12 A) is presented, using ab initio calculations with the HULLAC relativistic code and isoelectronic considerations. Resonance 3d-nf (n=4 to 7), 3p-4d, 3d-4p, and 3p-4s transitions in Ni samarium ions and in neighboring ionization states (from Mn to Zn ions) were identified. The experiment results show changes in the fine details of the plasma spectrum for different laser intensities.

  7. Intercalated samarium as an agent enabling the intercalation of oxygen under a monolayer graphene film on iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'eva, E. Yu.; Rut'kov, E. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2016-06-01

    Using thermal desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry and thermionic methods, it is shown that oxygen does not intercalate under a graphene monolayer grown correctly on iridium, at least at temperatures of T = 300-400 K and exposures below 12000 L. However, if the graphene film on iridium is preliminary intercalated with samarium atoms (up to coverage of θSm = 0.2-0.45), the penetration of oxygen atoms under the graphene film is observed. The oxygen atoms in the intercalated state are chemically bonded to samarium atoms and remain under graphene up to high temperatures (~2150 K).

  8. AMS beyond 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1993-12-28

    The occasion of this conference, the Sixth International Conference on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, falls sixteen years after the remarkable triple simultaneous discovery of this powerful isotopic measurement. In the interval since the Fifth Conference in Paris in 1991, new facilities of both large and small size have become fully operational, achieving impressive gains in both measurement throughput and precision. The purpose of this short review is to extrapolate from recent gains and experience and to project the status of the field beyond the coming millennial date. AMS achieved instant application in archaeology and the geosciences and its early growth was stimulated by the excitement caused by the early results. The ability to obtain an accurate radiocarbon date with a sample one thousand times smaller than possible with scintillation or gas counting, the ability to trace {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in sea water with a similar thousand fold shrinkage in sample size, and the wide utility of {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 129}I as tracers and chronometers of erosion, hydrology and paleoclimate were sufficient to drive the partial conversion of existing accelerators and the construction of new dedicated ones. These applications remain the core of the present field and continue to justify its growth. The past few years, however, have seen developments in new fields. Biomedicine, chemical kinetics, materials science, forensic dosimetry, and arms control/counter proliferation have been explored. These applications have varying promise and will influence development of AMS programs in new ways in the future.

  9. A combined spectroscopic and plasma chemical kinetic analysis of ionospheric samarium releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey M.; Dressler, Rainer A.; Pedersen, Todd R.; Caton, Ronald G.; Miller, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Two rocket-borne releases of samarium vapor in the upper atmosphere occurred in May 2013, as part of the Metal Oxide Space Clouds experiment. The releases were characterized by a combination of optical and RF diagnostic instruments located at the Roi-Namur launch site and surrounding islands and atolls. The evolution of the optical spectrum of the solar-illuminated cloud was recorded with a spectrograph covering a 400-800 nm spectral range. The spectra exhibit two distinct spectral regions centered at 496 and 636 nm within which the relative intensities change insignificantly. The ratio between the integrated intensities within these regions, however, changes with time, suggesting that they are associated with different species. With the help of an equilibrium plasma spectral model we attribute the region centered at 496 nm to neutral samarium atoms (Sm I radiance) and features peaking at 649 nm to a molecular species. No evidence for structure due to Sm+ (Sm II) is identified. The persistence of the Sm I radiance suggests a high dissociative recombination rate for the chemi-ionization product, SmO+. A one-dimensional plasma chemical kinetic model of the evolution of the density ratio NSmO/NSm(t) demonstrates that the molecular feature peaking at 649 nm can be attributed to SmO radiance. SmO+ radiance is not identified. By adjusting the Sm vapor mass of the chemical kinetic model input to match the evolution of the total electron density determined by ionosonde data, we conclude that less than 5% of the payload samarium was vaporized.

  10. Intramolecular, reductive cyclization of beta-ketoisothiocyanates promoted by using samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Seok; Lee, In Sang; Kang, Sung Ho; Kim, Yong Hae

    2005-02-18

    A novel samarium diiodide (SmI2) promoted intramolecular cyclization of beta-ketoisothiocyanate, derived from alpha,beta-unsaturated esters and ammonium thiocyanate led to alpha-hydroxythiolactams and/or thiolactams in high yields. Treatment of beta-ketoisothiocyanate with two equivalents of SmI2 gave a mixture of alpha-hydroxythiolactam and thiolactam. Four equivalents of SmI2 afforded only thiolactam in high yields. The intramolecular cyclization took place with high to complete stereoselectivity. A mechanism to explain this transformation is proposed.

  11. Low-temperature anisotropy of the Faraday rotation in the samarium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, M.; Le Gall, H.; Desvignes, J. M.; Artinian, M.

    1991-11-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) measurements performed on single crystals of samarium iron garnet (SmIG) at 1.15-μ wavelength in a magnetic field up to 20 kOe applied along the <210> cubic direction in the 6-77-K temperature range are reported. Abrupt changes of both spontaneous FR and FR susceptibility are evidenced at 20 and 60 K, temperatures which correspond to the three spin-reorientation transitions <210>■<110>■<111>; the results are compared to the FR data previously obtained for the <111> direction.

  12. A novel and efficient samarium iodide-mediated synthesis of neoflavonoids (4-arycloumarins)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ryohke, Hirosi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ito, Keiichi

    1995-12-31

    Bioactive 4-arylcoumarins (4-aryl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-ones) have been recently isolated from the plants belonging to the families like Leguminosae, Guttiferae, and Compositae, some of which are still used as the traditional folk medicine. Despite many methods reported so far, there appears to be of limited success or of no success in some cases (II{sub b-g}) and, therefore, a simpler and more reliable one remains to be highly desired. Thus, a new and sterling protocol is now presented for the synthesis of neoflavonoids, which involves the intramolecular Reformatsky-type reaction via a one electron transfer process with samarium diiodide as a key step.

  13. Effect of samarium substitution on structural and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankachan, Smitha; Jacob, Binu P.; Xavier, Sheena; Mohammed, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Samarium doped magnesium ferrite was prepared (MgSmxFe2-xO4) by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the samples are single phasic with crystallite sizes in the 13-25 nm regime. Increase in lattice parameter with doping concentration suggests the expansion in unit cell with Sm3+ doping. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum shows substitution of Sm3+ ions in octahedral B site. Transmission Electron Micrograph shows the spherical shape of nano-particles. Magnetic measurement shows a decrease in magnetization with doping which is explained using dependence on particle size.

  14. Low-temperature anisotropy of the Faraday rotation in the samarium iron garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, M. ); Le Gall, H.; Desvignes, J.M.; Artinian, M. )

    1991-11-15

    Faraday rotation (FR) measurements performed on single crystals of samarium iron garnet (SmIG) at 1.15-{mu} wavelength in a magnetic field up to 20 kOe applied along the {l angle}210{r angle} cubic direction in the 6--77-K temperature range are reported. Abrupt changes of both spontaneous FR and FR susceptibility are evidenced at 20 and 60 K, temperatures which correspond to the three spin-reorientation transitions {l angle}210{r angle} {l angle}110{r angle} {l angle}111{r angle}; the results are compared to the FR data previously obtained for the {l angle}111{r angle} direction.

  15. Unexpected synthesis of cinnamaldehyde-dimedone adduct using samarium (III) chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyana, A. H.; Nadila, A.; Ardiansah, B.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, 1,8-dioxooctahydroxanthene cannot be obtained from the reaction between cinnamaldehyde and dimedone (ratio 1:2) using samarium(III) chloride as a Lewis acid catalyst. The unexpected product formed is 5,5-dimethyl-2-(3-phenylallylidene)cyclohexane-1,3-dione as a result of 1:1 adduct. The product is obtained in a low to good yield and the optimum protocol can be achieved by running the reaction using 10% mol SmCl3 in water at room temperature for 2 h. This product is preliminary screened for its radical scavenging test with moderate activity.

  16. Ultimate intrinsic-coercivity samarium-cobalt magnet: An Earth-based feasibility study for space-shuttle missions. [containerless melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, D. K.; Kumar, K.; Frost, R. T.; Chang, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for containerless melting and solidification of the samarium-cobalt alloy without excessive oxidation were developed. The rationale for extending these experiments in a weightless environment is also discussed. The effect of oxygen content from 0.15 to 0.63 weight percent and grain size in the range of 2 to 10 micrometers has been examined on arc-plasma-sprayed SmCo5 magnets. Contrary to expectations, the larger grain sizes tended to improve the coercivities. This was attributed to an increase in homogeneity resulting from higher temperature treatments used to produce larger grain size. No significant differences in coercivity were observed on the basis of oxygen content in the range examined. It is expected that more meaningful data on the relationship between oxygen content and coercivity will be seen when the oxygen content can be lowered to less than 0.1 weight percent.

  17. AMS Data Analysis Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Malchow, Russell L.

    2015-04-20

    This presentation discusses standard techniques and processes used for radiation mapping (RM) via an AMS, Aerial Measurement System. The advantages and shortcomings of standard AMS-based RM are presented, along with some suggested areas for improvement. Issues touched on include what gets counted, data quality, background correction, data processing, altitude correction, isotope extraction, contouring, and time shift.

  18. A Distorted Circadian Clock Causes Early Flowering and Temperature-Dependent Variation in Spike Development in the Eps-3Am Mutant of Einkorn Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gawroński, Piotr; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Himmelbach, Axel; Poursarebani, Naser; Kilian, Benjamin; Stein, Nils; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Gill, Bikram S.; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Viable circadian clocks help organisms to synchronize their development with daily and seasonal changes, thereby providing both evolutionary fitness and advantage from an agricultural perspective. A high-resolution mapping approach combined with mutant analysis revealed a cereal ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LUX ARRHYTHMO/PHYTOCLOCK 1 (LUX/PCL1) as a promising candidate for the earliness per se 3 (Eps-3Am) locus in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). Using delayed fluorescence measurements it was shown that Eps-3Am containing einkorn wheat accession KT3-5 had a distorted circadian clock. The hypothesis was subsequently confirmed by performing a time course study on central and output circadian clock genes, which showed arrhythmic transcript patterns in KT3-5 under constant ambient conditions, i.e., constant light and temperature. It was also demonstrated that variation in spikelet number between wild-type and mutants is sensitive to temperature, becoming negligible at 25°. These observations lead us to propose that the distorted clock is causative for both early flowering and variation in spike size and spikelet number, and that having a dysfunctional LUX could have neutral, or even positive, effects in warmer climates. To test the latter hypothesis we ascertained sequence variation of LUX in a range of wheat germplasm. We observed a higher variation in the LUX sequence among accessions coming from the warmer climate and a unique in-frame mutation in early-flowering Chinese T. turgidum cultivar ‘Tsing Hua no. 559.’ Our results emphasize the importance of the circadian clock in temperate cereals as a promising target for adaptation to new environments. PMID:24443443

  19. Magnetic transition temperatures follow crystallographic symmetry in Samarium under high-pressures and low-temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-12-21

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal samarium (Sm) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to high-pressure up to 47 GPa and low-temperature to 10 K. The two magnetic transitions at 106 K and 14 K in the α-Sm phase, attributed to antiferromagnetic ordering on hexagonal and cubic layers respectively, collapse in to one magnetic transition near 10 GPa when Sm assumes a double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) phase. On further increase in pressure above 34 GPa, the magnetic transitions split again as Sm adopts a hexagonal-hP3 structure indicating different magnetic transition temperatures for different crystallographic sites. A model for magnetic ordering for the hexagonal-hP3 phase in samarium has been proposed based on the experimental data. The magnetic transition temperatures closely follow the crystallographic symmetry during α-Sm → dhcp → fcc/dist.fcc → hP3 structure sequence at high-pressures and low-temperatures.

  20. Magnetic transition temperatures follow crystallographic symmetry in Samarium under high-pressures and low-temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-12-21

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal samarium (Sm) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to high-pressure up to 47 GPa and low-temperature to 10 K. The two magnetic transitions at 106 K and 14 K in the α-Sm phase, attributed to antiferromagnetic ordering on hexagonal and cubic layers respectively, collapse in to one magnetic transition near 10 GPa when Sm assumes a double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) phase. On further increase in pressure above 34 GPa, the magnetic transitions split again as Sm adopts a hexagonal-hP3 structure indicating differentmore » magnetic transition temperatures for different crystallographic sites. A model for magnetic ordering for the hexagonal-hP3 phase in samarium has been proposed based on the experimental data. The magnetic transition temperatures closely follow the crystallographic symmetry during α-Sm → dhcp → fcc/dist.fcc → hP3 structure sequence at high-pressures and low-temperatures.« less

  1. X-Band Microwave Reflection Properties of Samarium/Bismuth-Substituted Barium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahel, Shalini; Pubby, Kunal; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra

    2017-03-01

    Samarium/bismuth-substituted barium lanthanum titanate ceramics with chemical composition Ba4 (La_{1 - y - z} Smy Biz )_{9.33} Ti_{18} O_{54} ( y = 0.5, 0.7; z = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15), intended as microwave reflecting materials, have been investigated in microwave X-band (8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz) and the effect of substitution on their dielectric properties, i.e., dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent, has been studied by vector network analyzer. Dielectric analysis showed that the dielectric constant increased with increasing samarium as well as bismuth content. Dielectric relaxation was observed for all samples in the scanned frequency range. Microwave reflection and transmission analysis of ceramic pellets of thickness 4 mm was carried out using two methods, i.e., open- and short-circuit approach, both indicating very high values of reflected power and very low values of transmitted power for all the doped materials in comparison with the base composition. The doped compositions are therefore potential microwave shielding materials for use in anechoic chambers, microwave laboratories, and radar equipment. Double-layer reflectors are also proposed, having better reflection properties (˜99% reflection) compared with single-layer reflectors.

  2. Magnetic transition temperatures follow crystallographic symmetry in samarium under high-pressures and low-temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Craig R.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal samarium (Sm) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to high-pressure up to 47 GPa and low-temperature to 10 K. The two magnetic transitions at 106 K and 14 K in the α-Sm phase, attributed to antiferromagnetic ordering on hexagonal and cubic layers respectively, collapse in to one magnetic transition near 10 GPa when Sm assumes a double hexagonal close packed (dhcp) phase. On further increase in pressure above 34 GPa, the magnetic transitions split again as Sm adopts a hexagonal-hP3 structure indicating different magnetic transition temperatures for different crystallographic sites. A model for magnetic ordering for the hexagonal-hP3 phase in samarium has been proposed based on the experimental data. The magnetic transition temperatures closely follow the crystallographic symmetry during α-Sm  →  dhcp  →  fcc/dist.fcc  →  hP3 structure sequence at high-pressures and low-temperatures.

  3. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Samarium Doped Lanthanum Magnesium Nitrate. Ph.D. Thesis - Va. Polytechnic Inst.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The dynamic nuclear polarization of hydrogen nuclei by the solid effect in single crystals of samarium doped lanthanum magnesium nitrate (Sm:LMN) was studied theoretically and experimentally. The equations of evolution governing the dynamic nuclear polarization by the solid effect were derived in detail using the spin temperature theory and the complete expression for the steady state enhancement of the nuclear polarization was calculated. Experimental enhancements of the proton polarization were obtained for eight crystals at 9.2 GHz and liquid helium temperatures. The samarium concentration ranged from 0.1 percent to 1.1 percent as determined by X-ray fluorescence. A peak enhancement of 181 was measured for a 1.1 percent Sm:LMN crystal at 3.0 K. The maximum enhancements extrapolated with the theory using the experimental data for peak enhancement versus microwave power and correcting for leakage, agree with the ideal enhancement (240 in this experiment) within experimental error for three of the crystals.

  4. Synthesis and theoretical analysis of samarium nanoparticles: perspectives in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Ascencio, Jorge A; Rincon, Ana C; Canizal, Gerardo

    2005-05-12

    The use of lanthanides as radionuclides in nuclear medicine is well-known, because they can be used for detecting and treating cancerous tumors. Due to the fact that the doses are directly related to the number of unstable atoms involved, the possibility of obtaining controlled-size lanthanide nanoparticles opens a wide scope for their application in nuclear medicine. In this work, we report the synthesis of anew samarium nanoparticle by using the bioreduction method, where the pH conditions play an important role in the size control of the produced clusters. The nanoparticles were characterized by using an transmission electron microscope, in addition to the use of a quantum mechanical method to relate the atomic and electronic structures to the chemical selectivity, which allows us to predict a direct coordination between the DTPA-bis-biotin molecules with the samarium nanoparticles larger than 55 atoms. This work involves experimental and theoretical methods to propose a totally new application for nanotechnology in nuclear medicine.

  5. Electrical properties of samarium cobaltite nanoparticles synthesized using Sol–Gel autocombustion route

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyamoorthy, B.; Md Gazzali, P.M.; Murugesan, C.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The structural evolution and its electrical properties of samarium cobaltite nanograins are discussed. • Optimization of SmCoO{sub 3} nanograins is achieved by post sintering as-prepared gel at 800 °C. • The impedance spectra indicate the semiconducting behavior SmCoO{sub 3} nanograins. - Abstract: Nanograins of SmCoO{sub 3} are prepared by citric acid assisted Sol–Gel autocombustion route. The characterizations of crystal structure, surface morphology and electrical properties of SmCoO{sub 3} powder are done using XRD, HRSEM, FTIR and BDS. The structural evolution of SmCoO{sub 3} upon increasing the annealing temperature is followed using XRD and FTIR analyses. The powder sample contains polycrystalline grains with average size equal to 35 nm and orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pbnm space group. The vibrational bands observed in FTIR spectrum at 545 cm{sup −1} and 439 cm{sup −1} correspond to Co-O stretching modes in cobaltite system. HRSEM images of the sample show the formation of hexagonal shaped grains of samarium cobaltite. The AC electrical conductivity of 4.914 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 295 K is measured for SmCoO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The impedance spectra bring out the semiconducting behavior of the material.

  6. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

  7. X-Band Microwave Reflection Properties of Samarium/Bismuth-Substituted Barium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahel, Shalini; Pubby, Kunal; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra

    2017-01-01

    Samarium/bismuth-substituted barium lanthanum titanate ceramics with chemical composition Ba4 (La_{1 - y - z} Smy Biz )_{9.33} Ti_{18} O_{54} (y = 0.5, 0.7; z = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15), intended as microwave reflecting materials, have been investigated in microwave X-band (8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz) and the effect of substitution on their dielectric properties, i.e., dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent, has been studied by vector network analyzer. Dielectric analysis showed that the dielectric constant increased with increasing samarium as well as bismuth content. Dielectric relaxation was observed for all samples in the scanned frequency range. Microwave reflection and transmission analysis of ceramic pellets of thickness 4 mm was carried out using two methods, i.e., open- and short-circuit approach, both indicating very high values of reflected power and very low values of transmitted power for all the doped materials in comparison with the base composition. The doped compositions are therefore potential microwave shielding materials for use in anechoic chambers, microwave laboratories, and radar equipment. Double-layer reflectors are also proposed, having better reflection properties (˜99% reflection) compared with single-layer reflectors.

  8. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Xue; Yang, Chao; Yi, Yanfeng

    2012-11-01

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm2O3 nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm2O3) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm2O3 composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm2O3 composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm2O3 composite at a current density of 20 mA cm-2 in a 1.0 M NaNO3 electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g-1 was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm2O3 composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  9. Writing of nonlinear optical Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal lines at the surface of glass by samarium atom heat processing

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Benino, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Komatsu, T.; Sato, R.

    2005-06-15

    Some glasses such as 21.25Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.63.75MoO{sub 3}.15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol %) giving the formation of nonlinear optical Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals through conventional crystallization in an electric furnace and through continuous-wave Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser (wavelength: 1064 nm) irradiation (samarium atom heat processing) have been developed. It is proposed from x-ray diffraction analyses, micro-Raman-scattering spectra, and second-harmonic generation measurements that the crystal structure of Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} formed by the crystallization is the {beta}{sup '}-phase structure with an orthorhombic (noncentrosymmetric) symmetry. The lines consisting of nonlinear optical {beta}{sup '}-Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals are written at the surface of glasses by YAG laser irradiation (laser power: P=0.4 W, laser scanning speed: S=1-10 {mu}m/s), and, in particular, homogeneous crystal lines are formed at the laser scanning speed of 1 {mu}m/s. Refractive index changes (not crystallization) are also induced by YAG laser irradiation of P=0.4 W and a high laser scanning speed of S=25 {mu}m/s. The crystallization mechanism in the laser-irradiated region has been proposed. The present study demonstrates that the samarium atom heat processing is a technique for the writing of rare earth containing optical nonlinear/ferroelectric crystal lines in glass.

  10. "I actually don't know who I am": the impact of bipolar disorder on the development of self.

    PubMed

    Inder, Maree L; Crowe, Marie T; Moor, Stephanie; Luty, Suzanne E; Carter, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2008-01-01

    The majority of patients with bipolar disorder have onset prior to twenty years with early onset associated with increased impairment. Despite this, little attention has been given to the psychosocial developmental impact of this disorder. This qualitative study explored the impact of having bipolar disorder on the development of a sense of self and identity. Key findings from this qualitative study identified that for these participants, bipolar disorder had a significant impact in the area of self and identity development. Bipolar disorder created experiences of confusion, contradiction, and self doubt which made it difficult for these participants to establish continuity in their sense of self. Their lives were characterized by disruption and discontinuity and by external definitions of self based on their illness. Developing a more integrated self and identity was deemed possible through self-acceptance and incorporating different aspects of themselves. These findings would suggest that it is critical to view bipolar disorder within a psychosocial developmental framework and consider the impact on the development of self and identity. A focus on the specific areas of impact and targeting interventions that facilitate acceptance and integration thus promoting self and identity development would be recommended.

  11. Cyclizations producing hydrindanones with two methyl groups at the juncture positions mediated by samarium diiodide and electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sono, Masakazu; Ise, Natsuko; Shoji, Tsutomu; Tori, Motoo

    2012-09-13

    One-electron reductive intramolecular cyclization of enones with ketones or aldehydes mediated by samarium diiodide and electrolysis to afford cis-trimethyl- hydrindanolones. The reactions gave selectivities ranging from 1:1 to 100:0 depending on the conditions.

  12. A new approach to 3-hydroxyprolinol derivatives by samarium diiodide-mediated reductive coupling of chiral nitrone with carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Feng; Zheng, Xiao; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2009-07-21

    A flexible diastereoselective approach to trans-(3S)-hydroxyprolinol derivatives is described, which is based on the samarium diiodide-mediated reductive coupling of the chiral 1-pyrroline N-oxide (nitrone)(S)-10 with carbonyl compounds. The reductive hydroxyalkylation of nitrone 10 with ketones and aromatic aldehydes is highly diastereoselective in establishing the C-2 chiral center of the pyrrolidine ring.

  13. The determination of samarium, europium, gadolinium and dysprosium in uranium products by direct-current plasma emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Flavelle, F; Westland, A D

    1986-05-01

    Samarium, europium, gadolinium and dysprosium were separated from uranium-containing materials by means of solvent extraction with Alamine 336, followed by cation-exchange. The elements were determined in the sub-ppm range by means of direct-current plasma atomic-emission spectrometry.

  14. "I Am a Pibidiana": Societal Relations as the Locus of Sustained Development in a Teacher Education Program in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Kadri, Michele Salles; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers point to the theory-practice gap between university training and their school-based work. Coteaching in conjunction with cogenerative dialoguing as a means of teacher induction has been shown to overcome this gap. In this paper, we articulate teacher development in the praxis-centered (coteaching/cogenerative dialoguing) setting of…

  15. Integrating Assessment and Research Strategies on a Large Development and Research Project: Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists (KaAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara L.; Koszalka, Tiffany A.

    Combining assessment and research components on a large development and research project is a complex task. There are many descriptions of how either assessment or research should be conducted, but detailed examples illustrating integration of such strategies in complex projects are scarce. This paper provides definitions of assessment,…

  16. Sci—Sat AM: Stereo — 05: The Development of Quality Assurance Methods for Trajectory based Cranial SRS Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B; Duzenli, C; Gete, E; Teke, T

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate non-planar linac beam trajectories defined by the dynamic motion of the gantry, couch, jaws, collimator and MLCs. This was conducted on the Varian TrueBeam linac by taking advantage of the linac's advanced control features in a non-clinical mode (termed developers mode). In this work, we present quality assurance methods that we have developed to test for the positional and temporal accuracy of the linac's moving components. The first QA method focuses on the coordination of couch and gantry. For this test, we developed a cylindrical phantom which has a film insert. Using this phantom we delivered a plan with dynamic motion of the couch and gantry. We found the mean absolute deviation of the entrance position from its expected value to be 0.5mm, with a standard deviation of 0.5mm. This was within the tolerances set by the machine's mechanical accuracy and the setup accuracy of the phantom. We also present an altered picket fence test which has added dynamic and simultaneous rotations of the couch and the collimator. While the test was shown to be sensitive enough to discern errors 1° and greater, we were unable to identify any errors in the coordination of the linacs collimator and couch. When operating under normal conditions, the Varian TrueBeam linac was able to pass both tests and is within tolerances acceptable for complex trajectory based treatments.

  17. AMS Prototyping Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the activity around the Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) prototype. An AMS reference implementation has been available since late 2005. It is aimed at supporting message exchange both in on-board environments and over space links. The implementation incoroporates all mandatory elements of the draft recommendation from July 2007: (1) MAMS, AMS, and RAMS protocols. (2) Failover, heartbeats, resync. (3) "Hooks" for security, but no cipher suites included in the distribution. The performance is reviewed, and a Benchmark latency test over VxWorks Message Queues is shown as histograms of a count vs microseconds per 1000-byte message

  18. AMS Prototyping Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the activity around the Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) prototype. An AMS reference implementation has been available since late 2005. It is aimed at supporting message exchange both in on-board environments and over space links. The implementation incoroporates all mandatory elements of the draft recommendation from July 2007: (1) MAMS, AMS, and RAMS protocols. (2) Failover, heartbeats, resync. (3) "Hooks" for security, but no cipher suites included in the distribution. The performance is reviewed, and a Benchmark latency test over VxWorks Message Queues is shown as histograms of a count vs microseconds per 1000-byte message

  19. AMS-02 antiprotons reloaded

    SciTech Connect

    Kappl, Rolf; Reinert, Annika; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang E-mail: areinert@th.physik.uni-bonn.de

    2015-10-01

    The AMS-02 collaboration has released preliminary data on the antiproton fraction in cosmic rays. The surprisingly hard antiproton spectrum at high rigidity has triggered speculations about a possible primary antiproton component originating from dark matter annihilations. In this note, we employ newly available AMS-02 boron to carbon data to update the secondary antiproton flux within the standard two-zone diffusion model. The new background permits a considerably better fit to the measured antiproton fraction compared to previous estimates. This is mainly a consequence of the smaller slope of the diffusion coefficient favored by the new AMS-02 boron to carbon data.

  20. Neutron powder diffraction with (nat)Sm: crystal structures and magnetism of a binary samarium deuteride and a ternary samarium magnesium deuteride.

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, Holger; Werner, Franz; Yvon, Klaus; Hilscher, Gerfried; Reissner, Michael; Cuello, Gabriel J

    2007-01-01

    Binary SmH(3) (trigonal, a=656.7(3), c=680.1(3) pm, P$\\bar 3$c1, Z=6), ternary SmMg2H7 (tetragonal, a=626.47(6), c=937.2(2) pm, P4(1)2(1)2, Z=4) and the corresponding deuterides SmD3 (a=653.9(1)m, c=676.7(2) pm) and SmMg2D7 (a=624.10(1), c=934.81(2) pm) have been prepared by hydrogenation (deuteration) of elemental samarium and the Laves phase SmMg2, respectively, and investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and SQUID and vibration magnetometry. The problem of the enormous neutron absorption of the natural isotopic mixture (natSm) is circumvented by carefully choosing the neutron wavelength (approximately 50 pm) and the use of double-walled cylindrical sample holders and a high-intensity neutron diffractometer (D4c at ILL). SmD3 crystallises with a tysonite-type structure and has three independently ordered deuterium atom sites with trigonal-planar, trigonal-pyramidal and tetrahedral metal environments and Sm--D bond lengths in the range 220(1)-258(1) pm (average: 235 pm). SmMg2D7 is a new deuteride that crystallises with an LaMg2D7-type structure. It displays four fully occupied deuterium sites having triangular and tetrahedral metal environments and Sm--D bond lengths in the range 227.6(5)-246.8(8) pm (average: 239 pm). These are the first samarium-deuterium bond lengths to be reported. Both deuterides are paramagnetic down to 2 K (SmD3: mueff=0.63(1) muB, thetap approximately -4 K; SmMg2D7: mueff=0.57(2) muB, thetap approximately -4 K). Their crystal structures and chemical and physical properties suggest mainly ionic bonding according to the limiting ionic formulae Sm3+(H-)3 and Sm3+(Mg2+)2(H-)7.

  1. AMS in Phytonutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Dueker, S R; Buchholz, B A

    2003-08-26

    As public interest in phytonutrition continues to increase, the result will be an augmented demand for extensive phytochemical research. The fact that foods are inherently phytochemically complex dictates a need to apply scientific techniques, which can detect synergistic interaction among the many active principles and adjuvant substances in the plant, and furthermore, modify the activities of these components. As illustrated by the experiments discussed in this presentation, the advantages of AMS are unique and extensive. These advantages are best summarized by Dr. John Vogel, an originator of biological AMS experimentation: ''AMS brings (at least) three advantages to biochemical tracing: high sensitivity for finding low probability events or for use of physiologic-sized doses; small sample sizes for painless biopsies or highly specific biochemical separations; and reduction of overall radioisotope exposures, inventories, and waste streams.'' AMS opens the door to increased phytochemical tracing in humans to obtain biochemical data concerning human health at dietary relevant levels of exposure. AMS, thus, obviates the need for uncertain extrapolations from animal models, which express marginal relevance to human metabolism. The unparalleled capabilities and benefits of AMS will undoubtedly establish this particular MS technique as an important analytical tool in phytochemical research.

  2. "I am very, very proud of myself": improving youth activity levels using self-determination theory in program development.

    PubMed

    Springer, Judy B

    2013-01-01

    Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This 10-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT) approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention.

  3. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii

  4. Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Samarium

    SciTech Connect

    G. Leinweber; J.A. Burke; H.D. Knox; N.J. Drindak; D.W. Mesh; W.T. Haines; R.V. Ballad; R.C. Block; R.E. Slovacek; C.J. Werner; M.J. Trbovich; D.P. Barry; T. Sato

    2001-07-16

    The purpose of the present work is to accurately measure the neutron cross sections of samarium. The most significant isotope is {sup 149}Sm, which has a large neutron absorption cross section at thermal energies and is a {sup 235}U fission product with a 1% yield. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Sm samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25 meter flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at 15- and 25-meter flight stations with {sup 6}Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments (three capture and three transmission) using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2. The significant features of this work are as follows. Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0.1 and 8 eV without saturation. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. The diluent feature of the SAMMY program was used to analyze these data. The SAMMY program also includes multiple scattering corrections to capture yield data and resolution functions specific to the RPI facility. Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Thermal capture cross-section and capture resonance integral calculations were made using the resultant resonance parameters and were compared to results obtained using resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 3. Extending the definition of the capture resonance integral to include the strong 0.1 eV resonance in {sup 149}Sm, present measurements agree within estimated

  5. Neutron Activated Samarium-153 Microparticles for Transarterial Radioembolization of Liver Tumour with Post-Procedure Imaging Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Hashikin, Nurul Ab Aziz; Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Chung, Lip-Yong; Dahalan, Rehir; Perkins, Alan Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Samarium-153 (153Sm) styrene divinylbenzene microparticles were developed as a surrogate for Yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres in liver radioembolization therapy. Unlike the pure beta emitter 90Y, 153Sm possess both therapeutic beta and diagnostic gamma radiations, making it possible for post-procedure imaging following therapy. The microparticles were prepared using commercially available cation exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120 H+ (620-830 μm), which were reduced to 20-40 μm via ball mill grinding and sieve separation. The microparticles were labelled with 152Sm via ion exchange process with 152SmCl3, prior to neutron activation to produce radioactive 153Sm through 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. Therapeutic activity of 3 GBq was referred based on the recommended activity used in 90Y-microspheres therapy. The samples were irradiated in 1.494 x 10(12) n.cm(-2).s(-1) neutron flux for 6 h to achieve the nominal activity of 3.1 GBq.g(-1). Physicochemical characterisation of the microparticles, gamma spectrometry, and in vitro radiolabelling studies were carried out to study the performance and stability of the microparticles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the Amberlite IR-120 resins showed unaffected functional groups, following size reduction of the beads. However, as shown by the electron microscope, the microparticles were irregular in shape. The radioactivity achieved after 6 h neutron activation was 3.104 ± 0.029 GBq. The specific activity per microparticle was 53.855 ± 0.503 Bq. Gamma spectrometry and elemental analysis showed no radioactive impurities in the samples. Radiolabelling efficiencies of 153Sm-Amberlite in distilled water and blood plasma over 48 h were excellent and higher than 95%. The laboratory work revealed that the 153Sm-Amberlite microparticles demonstrated superior characteristics for potential use in hepatic radioembolization.

  6. Effects of increasing doses of samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate on axial and appendicular skeletal growth in juvenile rabbits.

    PubMed

    Essman, Stephanie C; Lewis, Michael R; Fox, Derek B

    2008-02-01

    Targeted radiotherapy using samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (153 Sm-EDTMP) is currently under investigation for treatment of osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma often occurs in children, and previous studies on a juvenile rabbit model demonstrated that clinically significant damage to developing physeal cartilage may occur as a result of systemic 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP on skeletal structures during growth to maturity and to determine if there is a dose response of 153 Sm-EDTMP on growth of long bones. Female 8-week-old New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three treatment groups plus controls. Each rabbit was intravenously administered a predetermined dose of 153 Sm-EDTMP. Multiple bones of each rabbit were radiographed every 2 months until physeal closure, with subsequent measurements made to assess for abbreviated bone growth. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the differences in bone length between groups, with significance set at P<.05. Significant differences in lengths of multiple bones were detected between the high-dose group and other treatment groups and controls at each time interval. A significant difference in lengths of the tibias was also noted in the medium-treatment group, compared to controls. Mean reduction of bone length was first detected at 4 months and did not increase significantly over time. These data suggest that clinically significant bone shortening may occur as a result of high-dosage administration of 153 Sm-EDTMP. Further investigation regarding the effects of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals on bone growth and physeal cartilage is warranted.

  7. Neutron Activated Samarium-153 Microparticles for Transarterial Radioembolization of Liver Tumour with Post-Procedure Imaging Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Hashikin, Nurul Ab. Aziz; Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Chung, Lip-Yong; Dahalan, Rehir; Perkins, Alan Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Samarium-153 (153Sm) styrene divinylbenzene microparticles were developed as a surrogate for Yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres in liver radioembolization therapy. Unlike the pure beta emitter 90Y, 153Sm possess both therapeutic beta and diagnostic gamma radiations, making it possible for post-procedure imaging following therapy. Methods The microparticles were prepared using commercially available cation exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120 H+ (620–830 μm), which were reduced to 20–40 μm via ball mill grinding and sieve separation. The microparticles were labelled with 152Sm via ion exchange process with 152SmCl3, prior to neutron activation to produce radioactive 153Sm through 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. Therapeutic activity of 3 GBq was referred based on the recommended activity used in 90Y-microspheres therapy. The samples were irradiated in 1.494 x 1012 n.cm-2.s-1 neutron flux for 6 h to achieve the nominal activity of 3.1 GBq.g-1. Physicochemical characterisation of the microparticles, gamma spectrometry, and in vitro radiolabelling studies were carried out to study the performance and stability of the microparticles. Results Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the Amberlite IR-120 resins showed unaffected functional groups, following size reduction of the beads. However, as shown by the electron microscope, the microparticles were irregular in shape. The radioactivity achieved after 6 h neutron activation was 3.104 ± 0.029 GBq. The specific activity per microparticle was 53.855 ± 0.503 Bq. Gamma spectrometry and elemental analysis showed no radioactive impurities in the samples. Radiolabelling efficiencies of 153Sm-Amberlite in distilled water and blood plasma over 48 h were excellent and higher than 95%. Conclusion The laboratory work revealed that the 153Sm-Amberlite microparticles demonstrated superior characteristics for potential use in hepatic radioembolization. PMID:26382059

  8. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

    2010-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of samarium iron and related alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, Brian Eugene

    There were three research objectives. The first objective was to determine what controls the structural scale of the microstructure in Sm-Fe alloys. The second objective was to study the morphological development of antiphase domains. The last objective was to determine the effect of the microstructural state on the coercivity and magnetization reversal of Sm2Fe 17Nx. The as-solidified alloys had large grains with irregular shape but the metal carbide modified alloys had a refinement of the microstructural scale and improved homogeneous grain shape. The magnitude of the scale reduction depended on the additives. It was determined that an important factor for the refinement was the glass forming ability of the alloy composition. The evidence points to solute segregation at the solidification boundary as the dominant mechanism that controls the grain size. The as-solidified binary alloy had significant strain. As annealing occurs the development of antiphase domains causes the reduction of strain, which reduces the defect density. A similar morphology occurs in the TiC modified alloy. It was discovered that order pattern in the antiphase domains has a twin symmetry. This is a new structural feature that has not been seen in antiphase domains before and is called rebel ordering. The recoil data showed that nucleation of reversed domains causes a peak in the remanent susceptibility curve. However, when domain wall pinning occurs there are fluctuations. It was discovered that as the loop shape improves, the separation between the coercivity and the peak center decreases linearly with either the squareness ratio or the fullness factor. The nitrided binary alloy coercivity decreases with increasing ordering. However, there is a narrow order parameter region where the antiphase structure effectively pins domain walls resulting in an enhancement of the coercivity. The microstructural scale affects the coercivity. The single domain limit was determined to be about 300 nm

  10. Strychnine as Target, Samarium Diiodide as Tool: A Personal Story.

    PubMed

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Strychnine stands out from the group of classical natural products as one of the first complex compounds to be isolated in pure form and an extreme challenge to be structurally characterized. It has played a central role in natural product total syntheses and the surge in the development of innovative synthetic methods for many decades. Recently, we have accomplished one of the shortest formal total syntheses of strychnine (in ten steps and 14% overall yield or even shorter in eight steps and 10% overall yield). The evolution of a productive synthetic strategy, as well as the synthetic challenges tackled, are described here in detail, including examples of related transformations. The successful synthetic strategy was inspired by the premise that the core structure could be derived from simple aromatic indole precursors by a reductive SmI2 -induced ketyl-aryl coupling. Other key reactions included a diastereoselective reduction and a regioselective elimination protocol. Altogether one of the shortest syntheses of iso-strychnine and hence of strychnine was established. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A doxorubicin delivery system: Samarium/mesoporous bioactive glass/alginate composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xiang; Su, Yanli; Chen, Dongya; Zhong, Wenxing

    2016-10-01

    Samarium (Sm) incorporated mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG) microspheres have been prepared using the method of alginate cross-linking with Ca(2+) ions. The in vitro bioactivities of Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres were studied by immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods. The results indicated that the Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres have a faster apatite formation rate on the surface. To investigate their delivery properties further, doxorubicin (DOX) was selected as a model drug. The results showed that the Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres exhibit sustained DOX delivery, and their release mechanism is controlled by Fickian diffusion according the Higuchi model. In addition, the delivery of DOX from Sm/MBG/alginate microspheres can be dominated by changing the doping concentration of Sm and the values of pH microenvironment. These all revealed that this material is a promising candidate for the therapy of bone cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Magnetocaloric Effect and Heat Capacity of Suspensions of High-Dispersity Samarium Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, V. V.; Aref'ev, I. M.; Ramazanova, A. G.

    2008-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect and specific heat capacity of an aqueous suspension of samarium ferrite were determined calorimetrically over the temperature range 288-343 K in magnetic fields of 0-0.7 T. The data obtained were used to calculate changes in the magnetic component of the molar heat capacity and entropy of the magnetic phase and changes in the enthalpy of the process under an applied magnetic field. The magnetocaloric effect was found to increase nonlinearly as the magnetic field induction grew. The corresponding temperature dependences contained a maximum at 313 K related to the second-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie point. The field and temperature dependences of heat capacity contained a maximum in fields of 0.4 T and a minimum at the magnetic phase transition temperature.

  13. Samarium Doped Cerium Oxide Clusters: a Study on the Modulation of Electronic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topolski, Josey E.; Kafader, Jared O.; Marrero-Colon, Vicmarie; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Cerium oxide is known for its use in solid oxide fuel cells due to its high ionic conductivity. The doping of trivalent samarium atoms into cerium oxide is known to enhance the ionic conductivity through the generation of additional oxygen vacancies. This study probes the electronic structure of Sm_{x}Ce_{y}O_{z} (x+y=3, z=2-4) anion and neutral clusters. Anion photoelectron spectra of these mixed metal clusters exhibit additional spectral features not present in the previously studied cerium oxide clusters. Density functional theory calculations have been used to aid interpretation of collected spectra. The results of this work can be used to inform the design of materials used for solid oxide fuel cells.

  14. 23 to 300{degrees}C demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Niedra, J.M.; Overton, E.

    1991-10-01

    The influence of temperature on the knee point and squareness of the M-H demagnetization characteristic of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. Composite plots of the knee field and the demagnetizing field required to produce a given magnetic induction swing below remanence were obtained for several commercial Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}-type magnet samples in the temperature range of 23 to 300{degrees}C. The knee point was used to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization, and the resulting plots are interpreted to show the temperature-induction swing limits of safe magnet operation. The observed second quadrant M-H characteristic squareness is shown, by two measures, to increase gradually with temperature and to peak in the interval 200 to 300{degrees}C.

  15. The 23 to 300 C demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Overton, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The influence of temperature on knee point and squareness of the M-H demagnetization characteristic of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperature in demagnetization resistent permanent magnet devices. Composite plots of the knee field and the demagnetizing field required to produce a given magnetic induction swing below remanence were obtained for several commercial Sm2Co17 type magnet samples in the temperature range of 23 to 300 C. Using the knee point to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization, such plots are shown to provide an effective overview of the useable regions in the space of temperature-induction swing parameters. The observed second quadrant M-H characteristic squareness is shown, by two measures, to increase gradually with temperature, reaching a peak in the interval 200 to 300 C.

  16. Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films grown by PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoulakis, S.; Suchea, M.; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E.

    2007-07-01

    Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films (CaS:Eu,Sm) with different thickness were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition technique using sintered targets. A typical homemade deposition chamber and XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) were employed and the films were deposited in helium atmosphere onto silicon and corning glass substrates. Structural investigations carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy showed a strong influence of the deposition parameters on the film properties. The films grown had an amorphous or polycrystalline structure depending on growth temperature and the number of pulses used, the same parameters affecting the film roughness, the grain shape and dimensions, the film thickness and the optical transmittance. This work indicates that pulsed laser deposition can be a suitable technique for the preparation of CaS:Eu,Sm thin films, the film characteristics being controlled by the growth conditions.

  17. A Samarium-Iron Nitride Magnet Fabricated by Shock-Compaction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hideaki; Kondo, Ken-ichi; Uchida, Hirohisa; Matsumura, Yoshihito; Tachibana, Shingo; Kawanabe, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    A samarium-iron nitride Sm2Fe17N3 powder was shock-consolidated by using a propellant gun with metal-plate impactor system. Disk-like magnets were consolidated under each experimental condition. At an optimum condition in this study, apparent density of shock-compacted Sm2Fe17N x magnets was 97% of solid density, and X-ray diffraction patterns of these magnets showed no appearance of the decomposition of rhombohedral Sm2Fe17N x structure. The highest value of the maximum energy product obtained so far was 10.5 MG·Oe. Microstructural analyses suggested the possibility of improving magnetic properties of the magnets.

  18. One-step chemical synthesis of samarium telluride thin films and their supercapacitive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, V. S.; Lokhande, A. C.; Gaikwad, N. S.; Lokhande, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    The letter reports synthesis of samarium telluride (Sm2Te3) thin films through a one-step chemical route. The formation of Sm2Te3 is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. The surface morphological study is carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement techniques. The film shows barley-like microstructure with an average length of barley of about 5 μm and diameter of about 300 nm. The Sm2Te3 film surface exhibits lyophilic nature with contact angle of 21.3° for propylene carbonate electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry results revealed specific capacitance of 207 F g-1 with power density of 14.18 kW kg-1 in LiClO4-propylene carbonate electrolyte.

  19. Preparation of hollow core/shell microspheres of hematite and its adsorption ability for samarium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Hui; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2014-07-09

    Hollow core/shell hematite microspheres with diameter of ca. 1-2 μm have been successfully achieved by calcining the precursor composite microspheres of pyrite and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in air. The synthesized products were characterized by a wide range of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas sorptometry. Temperature- and time-dependent experiments unveil that the precursor pyrite-PVP composite microspheres finally transform into hollow core/shell hematite microspheres in air through a multistep process including the oxidation and sulfation of pyrite, combustion of PVP occluded in the precursor, desulfation, aggregation, and fusion of nanosized hematite as well as mass transportation from the interior to the exterior of the microspheres. The formation of the hollow core/shell microspheres dominantly depends on the calcination temperature under current experimental conditions, and the aggregation of hematite nanocrystals and the core shrinking during the oxidation of pyrite are responsible for the formation of the hollow structures. Moreover, the adsorption ability of the hematite for Sm(III) was also tested. The results exhibit that the hematite microspheres have good adsorption activity for trivalent samarium, and that its adsorption capacity strongly depends on the pH of the solution, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Sm(III) is 14.48 mg/g at neutral pH. As samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, our results suggest that the hollow hematite microspheres have potential application in removal of rare earth elements (REEs) entering the water environment.

  20. Innovative Instructional Tools from the AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1996, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has been developing online educational materials with dynamic features that engage students and encourage additional exploration of various concepts. Most recently, AMS transitioned its etextbooks to webBooks. Now accessible anywhere with internet access, webBooks can be read with any web browser. Prior versions of AMS etextbooks were difficult to use in a lab setting, however webBooks are much easier to use and no longer a hurdle to learning. Additionally, AMS eInvestigations Manuals, also in webBook format, include labs with innovative features and educational tools. One such example is the AMS Climate at a Glance (CAG) app that draws data from NOAA's Climate at a Glance website. The user selects historical data of a given parameter and the app calculates various statistics revealing whether or not the results are consistent with climate change. These results allow users to distinguish between climate variability and climate change. This can be done for hundreds of locations across the U.S. and on multiple time scales. Another innovative educational tool used in AMS eInvestigations Manuals is the AMS Conceptual Climate Energy Model (CCEM). The CCEM is a computer simulation designed to enable users to track the paths that units of energy might follow as they enter, move through and exit an imaginary system according to simple rules applied to different scenarios. The purpose is to provide insight into the impacts of physical processes that operate in the real world. Finally, AMS educational materials take advantage of Google Earth imagery to reproduce the physical aspects of globes, allowing users to investigate spatial relationships in three dimensions. Google Earth imagery is used to explore tides, ocean bottom bathymetry and El Nino and La Nina. AMS will continue to develop innovative educational materials and tools as technology advances, to attract more students to the Earth sciences.

  1. AMS-02 as a Space Weather Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, K.; Bindi, V.; Chati, M.; Consolandi, C.; Corti, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state-of-the-art space detector that measures particles in the energy range of hundreds of MeV to a few TeV. AMS-02 has been installed onboard of the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011 where it will operate for the duration of the station. To date, there is an abundance of space-based solar data collected in the low energy regimes, whereas there are very few direct measurements of higher energy particles available. AMS-02 is capable of measuring arrival time and composition of the highest energy SEPs in space. It is crucial to build a better knowledge base regarding the most energetic and potentially harmful events. We are currently developing a program to employ AMS-02 as a real-time space weather observatory. SEPs with higher energies are usually accelerated during a short period of time and they are the first particles to reach the Earth. AMS-02, measuring these highest energy SEPs, can alert the onset of an SEP event. During the past two years of operation, we have identified two main quantities in AMS-02 that are particularly sensitive to the arrival of SEPs: the detector livetime and the transition radiation detector (TRD) event size. By monitoring the detector livetime and the TRD event size, AMS-02 can pinpoint in real-time the arrival of SEPs inside the Earth's magnetosphere operating as a space weather detector.

  2. AMS at ANTARES - The first 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, E. M.; Elliott, G.; Fallon, J.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Lee, P.; Smith, A. M.; Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.

    2000-10-01

    The status and capabilities of the ANTARES AMS facility after 10 years are reviewed. The common AMS radioisotopes, 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl and 129I, are routinely analysed. A capability for the detection of 236U and other actinide isotopes has been developed. The measurement program includes support to Quaternary science projects at Australian universities and to ANSTO projects in global climate change and nuclear safeguards.

  3. Formation of Core-Shell Nanoparticles Composed of Magnetite and Samarium Oxide in Magnetospirillum magneticum Strain RSS-1.

    PubMed

    Shimoshige, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Kobayashi, Hideki; Yanagisawa, Keiichi; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Shimamura, Shigeru; Mizuki, Toru; Inoue, Akira; Maekawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize magnetosomes composed of membrane-enveloped magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) particles in the cells. Recently, several studies have shown some possibilities of controlling the biomineralization process and altering the magnetic properties of magnetosomes by adding some transition metals to the culture media under various environmental conditions. Here, we successfully grow Magnetospirillum magneticum strain RSS-1, which are isolated from a freshwater environment, and find that synthesis of magnetosomes are encouraged in RSS-1 in the presence of samarium and that each core magnetic crystal composed of magnetite is covered with a thin layer of samarium oxide (Sm2O3). The present results show some possibilities of magnetic recovery of transition metals and synthesis of some novel structures composed of magnetic particles and transition metals utilizing MTB.

  4. High-temperature studies of the magnetic susceptibility of samarium and the Al{sub 2}Sm compound

    SciTech Connect

    Uporova, N. S.; Uporov, S. A.; Sidorov, V. E.

    2012-02-15

    The magnetic susceptibility of metallic samarium and the Al{sub 2}Sm intermetallic compound has been experimentally studied by the Faraday method in the temperature range of 300-1800 K. It has been shown that the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility of Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm in a crystalline state can be described in the framework of Van Vleck paramagnetism theory taking into account variable valence and the contribution from the conduction electrons. Using this theoretical interpretation of the data, the effective valence of samarium in the metallic state and in the Al{sub 2}Sm intermetallic compound has been estimated as a function of the temperature.

  5. Formation of Core-Shell Nanoparticles Composed of Magnetite and Samarium Oxide in Magnetospirillum magneticum Strain RSS-1

    PubMed Central

    Shimoshige, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Kobayashi, Hideki; Yanagisawa, Keiichi; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Shimamura, Shigeru; Mizuki, Toru; Inoue, Akira; Maekawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize magnetosomes composed of membrane-enveloped magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) particles in the cells. Recently, several studies have shown some possibilities of controlling the biomineralization process and altering the magnetic properties of magnetosomes by adding some transition metals to the culture media under various environmental conditions. Here, we successfully grow Magnetospirillum magneticum strain RSS-1, which are isolated from a freshwater environment, and find that synthesis of magnetosomes are encouraged in RSS-1 in the presence of samarium and that each core magnetic crystal composed of magnetite is covered with a thin layer of samarium oxide (Sm2O3). The present results show some possibilities of magnetic recovery of transition metals and synthesis of some novel structures composed of magnetic particles and transition metals utilizing MTB. PMID:28125741

  6. Preparation and Use of Samarium Diiodide (SmI2) in Organic Synthesis: The Mechanistic Role of HMPA and Ni(II) Salts in the Samarium Barbier Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Dhandapani V.; Choquette, Kimberly A.; Flowers, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Although initially considered an esoteric reagent, SmI2 has become a common tool for synthetic organic chemists. SmI2 is generated through the addition of molecular iodine to samarium metal in THF.1,2-3 It is a mild and selective single electron reductant and its versatility is a result of its ability to initiate a wide range of reductions including C-C bond-forming and cascade or sequential reactions. SmI2 can reduce a variety of functional groups including sulfoxides and sulfones, phosphine oxides, epoxides, alkyl and aryl halides, carbonyls, and conjugated double bonds.2-12 One of the fascinating features of SmI-2-mediated reactions is the ability to manipulate the outcome of reactions through the selective use of cosolvents or additives. In most instances, additives are essential in controlling the rate of reduction and the chemo- or stereoselectivity of reactions.13-14 Additives commonly utilized to fine tune the reactivity of SmI2 can be classified into three major groups: (1) Lewis bases (HMPA, other electron-donor ligands, chelating ethers, etc.), (2) proton sources (alcohols, water etc.), and (3) inorganic additives (Ni(acac)2, FeCl3, etc).3 Understanding the mechanism of SmI2 reactions and the role of the additives enables utilization of the full potential of the reagent in organic synthesis. The Sm-Barbier reaction is chosen to illustrate the synthetic importance and mechanistic role of two common additives: HMPA and Ni(II) in this reaction. The Sm-Barbier reaction is similar to the traditional Grignard reaction with the only difference being that the alkyl halide, carbonyl, and Sm reductant are mixed simultaneously in one pot.1,15 Examples of Sm-mediated Barbier reactions with a range of coupling partners have been reported,1,3,7,10,12 and have been utilized in key steps of the synthesis of large natural products.16,17 Previous studies on the effect of additives on SmI2 reactions have shown that HMPA enhances the reduction potential of SmI2 by

  7. Preparation and use of samarium diiodide (SmI(2)) in organic synthesis: the mechanistic role of HMPA and Ni(II) salts in the samarium Barbier reaction.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Dhandapani V; Choquette, Kimberly A; Flowers, Robert A

    2013-02-04

    Although initially considered an esoteric reagent, SmI(2) has become a common tool for synthetic organic chemists. SmI(2) is generated through the addition of molecular iodine to samarium metal in THF.(1,2-3) It is a mild and selective single electron reductant and its versatility is a result of its ability to initiate a wide range of reductions including C-C bond-forming and cascade or sequential reactions. SmI(2) can reduce a variety of functional groups including sulfoxides and sulfones, phosphine oxides, epoxides, alkyl and aryl halides, carbonyls, and conjugated double bonds.(2-12) One of the fascinating features of SmI-(2)-mediated reactions is the ability to manipulate the outcome of reactions through the selective use of cosolvents or additives. In most instances, additives are essential in controlling the rate of reduction and the chemo- or stereoselectivity of reactions.(13-14) Additives commonly utilized to fine tune the reactivity of SmI(2) can be classified into three major groups: (1) Lewis bases (HMPA, other electron-donor ligands, chelating ethers, etc.), (2) proton sources (alcohols, water etc.), and (3) inorganic additives (Ni(acac)(2), FeCl(3), etc).(3) Understanding the mechanism of SmI(2) reactions and the role of the additives enables utilization of the full potential of the reagent in organic synthesis. The Sm-Barbier reaction is chosen to illustrate the synthetic importance and mechanistic role of two common additives: HMPA and Ni(II) in this reaction. The Sm-Barbier reaction is similar to the traditional Grignard reaction with the only difference being that the alkyl halide, carbonyl, and Sm reductant are mixed simultaneously in one pot.(1,15) Examples of Sm-mediated Barbier reactions with a range of coupling partners have been reported,(1,3,7,10,12) and have been utilized in key steps of the synthesis of large natural products.(16,17) Previous studies on the effect of additives on SmI(2) reactions have shown that HMPA enhances the

  8. AM 1316-241

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-24

    AM 1316-241 is made up of two interacting galaxies—a spiral galaxy on the left of the frame in front of an elliptical galaxy on the right of the frame. This image is part of a large collection of images of merging galaxies taken by NASA Hubble.

  9. The Schoolma'am.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Frances R.

    In the 1930s and reprinted in 1974, approximately 85 percent of the teachers in U.S. public schools were women--"schoolma'ams." This book provides a portrait of women teachers of that era, as well as a comprehensive overview of their lives, their careers, the conditions under which they taught in rural and urban schools, and the…

  10. Experimental demonstration of a passive all-fiber Q-switched erbium- and samarium-doped laser.

    PubMed

    Preda, Cristina Elena; Ravet, Gautier; Mégret, Patrice

    2012-02-15

    Self-Q-switched operation of the all-fiber laser using erbium and samarium fibers in the cavity is realized experimentally. This passively Q-switched all-fiber laser produces very stable pulses with energy of 142 nJ and duration of 450 ns. The experimental results were well reproduced by the results obtained through the numerical integration of a rate-equations model.

  11. Facile synthesis of a benzindenoazepine alkaloid, bulgaramine, via samarium diiodide promoted ring expansion of an alpha-aminocarbonyl compound.

    PubMed

    Honda, Toshio; Aranishi, Eriko; Kaneda, Kyosuke

    2009-04-16

    A novel synthetic path to a benzindenoazepine alkaloid was established by employing a samarium diiodide promoted ring expansion reaction of an alpha-aminocarbonyl compound as a key reaction, in which a regioselective carbon-nitrogen bond cleavage followed by ring-closing reactions occurred to give the basic ring skeleton of the target compound. Bulgaramine was synthesized from the known tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative in 5 steps in 50% overall yield.

  12. Creating carbon-carbon bonds with samarium diiodide for the synthesis of modified amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Ebran, Jean-Philippe; Jensen, Christina M; Johannesen, Sine A; Karaffa, Jakob; Lindsay, Karl B; Taaning, Rolf; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2006-10-07

    In this perspective, an overview of our experiences on the application of samarium diiodide in organic synthesis for the preparation of amino acid and peptide analogues is presented. Three different carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are discussed, including side chain introductions, gamma-amino acid synthesis and acyl-like radical additions for the construction of C-C mimics of the peptidic bonds.

  13. Intercomparison study on (152)Eu gamma ray and (36)Cl AMS measurements for development of the new Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02).

    PubMed

    Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Ishikawa, M; Straume, T; Komura, K; Rühm, W; Nolte, E; Huber, T; Nagashima, Y; Seki, R; Sasa, K; Sueki, K; Fukushima, H; Egbert, S D; Imanaka, T

    2008-07-01

    In the process of developing a new dosimetry system for atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (DS02), an intercomparison study between (152)Eu and (36)Cl measurements was proposed, to reconcile the discrepancy previously observed in the Hiroshima data between measurements and calculations of thermal neutron activation products. Nine granite samples, exposed to the atomic-bomb radiation in Hiroshima within 1,200 m of the hypocenter, as well as mixed standard solutions containing known amounts of europium and chlorine that were neutron-activated by a (252)Cf source, were used for the intercomparison. Gamma-ray spectrometry for (152)Eu was carried out with ultra low-background Ge detectors at the Ogoya Underground Laboratory, Kanazawa University, while three laboratories participated in the (36)Cl measurement using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS): The Technical University of Munich, Germany, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA and the University of Tsukuba, Japan. Measured values for the mixed standard solutions showed good agreement among the participant laboratories. They also agreed well with activation calculations, using the neutron fluences monitored during the (252)Cf irradiation, and the corresponding activation cross-sections taken from the JENDL-3.3 library. The measured-to-calculated ratios obtained were 1.02 for (152)Eu and 0.91-1.02 for (36)Cl, respectively. Similarly, the results of the granite intercomparison indicated good agreement with the DS02 calculation for these samples. An average measured-to-calculated ratio of 0.98 was obtained for all granite intercomparison measurements. The so-called neutron discrepancy that was previously observed and that which included increasing measured-to-calculated ratios for thermal neutron activation products for increasing distances beyond 1,000 m from the hypocenter was not seen in the results of the intercomparison study. The previously claimed discrepancy could be explained by

  14. New Samarium(III), Gadolinium(III), and Dysprosium(III) Complexes of Coumarin-3-Carboxylic Acid as Antiproliferative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kostova, Irena; Momekov, Georgi; Stancheva, Peya

    2007-01-01

    New complexes of samarium(III), gadolinium(III), and dysprosium(III) with coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) were prepared by the reaction of the ligand with respective metal nitrates in ethanol. The structures of the final complexes were determined by means of physicochemical data, elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectra. The metal-ligand binding mode in the new Ln(III) complexes of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid was elucidated. The vibrational study gave evidence for bidentate coordination of CCA− to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen atoms. The complexes were tested for antiproliferative activitiy on the chronic myeloid leukemia-derived K-562, overexpressing the BCR-ABL fusion protein. Cytotoxicity towards tumor cells was determined for a broad concentration range. The samarium salt exerted a very weak antiproliferative effect on these cells. This is in contrast to the lanthanide complexes, especially samarium complex, which exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. The present study confirms our previous observations that the lanthanide complexes of coumarins exhibit antiproliferative activity towards K-562 cell line. PMID:18274603

  15. SCADA -- AM/FM interface: Platforms, technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.F. )

    1994-05-01

    Efficient utility operations is enhanced by close interoperation between automated mapping/facility management (AM/FM) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Important benefits of such integration are improvements in service quality and reduced maintenance costs. Development of an AM/FM -- SCADA interface to provide automatic database and display generation for SCADA through AM/FM functions is continuing by Valmet Automation. To minimize or eliminate vendor-dependence, the AM/FM-SCADA interface is compliant with the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) utility communication architecture (UCA). The utility industry is changing at an unprecedented rate. To remain a leader, or even to keep pace, utilities must be flexible and innovative. Competition forces companies to become more streamlined and efficient. These forces make the requirements for automation go beyond simple SCADA. Among several developing trends in the industry is the emergence of AM/FM. Collectively, these trends indicate the need to increase efficiency in the design, operation and maintenance of the transmission and distribution system. To accomplish its mission, SCADA and AM/FM must be a highly integrated system to provide timely information to its users. Open systems, the client-server paradigm and better information integration tools facilitate meeting these needs. UCA specification provides the technological glue, to achieve application integration between heterogeneous systems.

  16. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  17. Photoluminescence of samarium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Dong Jin; Sekino, Tohru; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Hayashi, Asuka; Kusunose, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro

    2011-10-15

    Samarium (Sm)-modified TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized by low-temperature soft chemical processing. X-ray powder diffraction analyses of the synthesized Sm-doped and non-doped TNTs show a broad peak near 2{theta}=10{sup o}, which is typical of TNTs. The binding energy of Sm {sup 3}d{sub 5/2} for 10 mol% Sm-doped TNT (1088.3 eV) was chemically shifted from that of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1087.5 eV), showing that Sm existed in the TiO{sub 2} lattice. Sm-doped TNTs clearly exhibited red fluorescence, corresponding to the doped Sm{sup 3+} ion in the TNT lattice. The Sm-doped TNT excitation spectrum exhibited a broad curve, which was similar to the UV-vis optical absorption spectrum. Thus, it was considered that the photoluminescence emission of Sm{sup 3+}-doped TNT with UV-light irradiation was caused by the energy transfer from the TNT matrix via the band-to-band excitation of TiO{sub 2} to the Sm{sup 3+} ion. - Graphical Abstract: Samarium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs) having a nanotubular structure were synthesized by soft chemical route. It was revealed that the energy associated by the band-to-band excitation of TNT matrix transferred to the doped Sm{sup 3+} ions in the lattice, resulting in emission of strong and visible red fluorescence. Highlights: > Sm-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes synthesized by low-temperature soft chemical processing. > Sm{sup 3+} substitutes Ti{sup 4+} ions in the nanotube lattice. > Clear fluorescent emission due to the f-f transition at the Sm{sup 3+} in a crystal field environment. > Band-to-band excitation of TiO{sub 2} and followed energy transfer to Sm{sup 3+} causes the luminescence.

  18. Radiocarbon measurements at the CSIRO AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sie, S. H.; Leaney, F.; Gillespie, R.; Suter, G. F.; Ryan, C. G.

    1994-06-01

    The CSIRO AMS facility based on a 3 MV Tandetron at the HIAF (Heavy Ion Analytical Facility) laboratory became operational in 1990 for 14C measurements, achieving 2-4% precision. The main drive behind the AMS development is its potential use in exploration, and although the cosmogenic isotopes are potentially useful in regolith studies, the emphasis is shifting towards the development of the capability of in-situ detection of ultra traces of heavy stable isotopes and geochronology. The 14C capability, and other cosmogenic isotopes, will continue to be developed, to meet other CSIRO interests, e.g. in environmental problems.

  19. Detonation nanodiamond introduced into samarium doped ceria electrolyte improving performance of solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Kai; Li, Hongdong; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Richeng; Zhao, Haofei; Shen, Xi; Wang, Liying; Song, Yanpeng; Qiu, Dongchao

    2017-02-01

    A novel electrolyte materials of introducing detonation nanodiamond (DNDs) into samarium doped ceria (SDC) is reported here. 1%wt. DNDs doping SDC (named SDC/ND) can enlarge the electrotyle grain size and change the valence of partial ceria. DNDs provide the widen channel to accelerate the mobility of oxygen ions in electrolyte. Larger grain size means that oxygen ions move easier in electrolyte, it can also reduce the alternating current (AC) impedance spectra of internal grains. The lower valence of partial Ce provides more oxygen vacancies to enhance mobility rate of oxygen ions. Hence all of them enhance the transportation of oxygen ions in SDC/ND electrolyte and the OCV. Ultimately the power density of SOFC can reach 762 mw cm-2 at 800 °C (twice higher than pure SDC, which is 319 mw cm-2 at 800 °C), and it remains high power density in the intermediate temperature (600-800 °C). It is relatively high for the electrolyte supported (300 μm) cells.

  20. Uranyl sensitization of samarium (III) luminescence in a two-dimensional coordination polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Knope, Karah E.; de Lill, Daniel T.; Rowland, Clare E.; Cantos, Paula M.; de Bettencourt-Dias, Ana; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2012-01-02

    Heterometallic carboxyphosphonates UO₂2+/Ln3+ have been prepared from the hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate, lanthanide nitrate (Ln = Sm, Tb, Er, Yb), and phosphonoacetic acid (H₃PPA). Compound 1, (UO₂)₂(PPA)(HPPA)₂Sm(H₂O)·2H₂O (1) adopts a two-dimensional structure in which the UO₂2+ metal ions bind exclusively to the phosphonate moiety, whereas the Ln3+ ions are coordinated by both phosphonate and carboxylate functionalities. Luminescence studies of 1 show very bright visible and near-IR samarium(III)-centered emission upon direct excitation of the uranyl moiety. The Sm3+ emissive state exhibits a double-exponential decay with lifetimes of 67.2 ± 6.5 and 9.0 ± 1.3 μs as measured at 594 nm, after excitation at both 365 and 420 nm. No emission is observed in the region typical of the uranyl cation, indicating that all energy is either transferred to the Sm3+ center or lost to nonradiative processes. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure, and luminescent behavior of 1, as well as those of the isostructural terbium, erbium, and ytterbium analogues.

  1. Palliative treatment of bone metastases with samarium-153 EDTMP at onset of pain.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Rosj; Giacomobono, Sabrina; Nardelli, Anna; Pellegrino, Teresa; Simeon, Vittorio; Gattozzi, Domenico; Maddalena, Francesca; Mainenti, Pierpaolo; Storto, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the pain response and daily discomfort in patients suffering from a borderline degree of bone pain due to breast or lung cancer bone metastases, who had undergone early palliative radionuclide treatment. The results were compared with those from patients who had received standard analgesic therapy. Twenty-one patients (65.7 ± 3 years; 17 women) with metastatic bone cancer underwent samarium-153 (Sm-153) ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) administration (group A) and 18 patients (64.3 ± 8 years; 16 women)continued to receive standard analgesics (group B; control group). The patients kept a daily pain diary assessing both their discomfort and the pain at specific sites by means of a visual analog scale, rating from 0 (no discomfort–no pain)to 10 (worst discomfort–pain). These diaries were reviewed weekly for 2 months and three physicians rated the pain response on a scale from -2 (considerable deterioration) to +2 (considerable improvement). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The reduction of total discomfort and of bone pain in group A was significantly greater compared to group B (p < 0.0001). A significant improvement of clinical conditions was observed in group A, where the physician rate changed from -1 to 1, compared to group B in which the rate changed from -1 to 0. Sm-153 EDTMP therapy can be considered for patients with bone pain from breast and lung cancer in advance, i.e.,before the establishment of severe pain syndrome.

  2. Ligand field and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters of samarium doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanko, Y. A.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Sahar, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    We report the samarium ions (Sm3+) contents dependent ligand field and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) of zinc tellurite glass. The amorphous nature of the melt-quench synthesized glasses is confirmed using XRD. The lower energy region of the absorption spectra is used to calculate JO intensity parameters and the UV edge is exploited to determine the Nephelauxetic ratio, bonding, and Racah parameters. The Nephelauxetic ratio and Racah parameter is reduced and the bonding parameter is enhanced with the increase of Sm3+ concentration. The enhancement in covalency is found to increase the non-bridging oxygen and crystal field strength by delocalizing more d-shell electrons. Furthermore, Nephelauxetic function revealed an increase due to the reduction of localized d-electrons that is aroused from the overlap of d-orbital and ligand orbital. The JO intensity parameters displayed the Ω4>Ω6>Ω2 trend. Increase in Ω2 and decrease in Ω2 and Ω2 with the increase of Sm3+ concentration indicated an increase in the Smsbnd O covalency and coordination in the asymmetry of the prepared glasses. The large vale of spectroscopic quality factor (greater than unity) makes the proposed glass system prospective for various optical devices fabrication.

  3. Photoinduced hydroxyl radical and photocatalytic activity of samarium-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qi; Si, Zhichun; Zhang, Jiang; Xiao, Chong; Tan, Xiaoke

    2008-01-15

    Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline has been prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and also UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). These Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) samples were tested for methylene blue (MB) decomposition and *OH radical formation. The analysis of *OH radical formation on the sample surface under UV irradiation was performed by fluorescence technique with using terephthalic acid, which readily reacted with *OH radical to produce highly fluorescent product, 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid. It was observed that the presence of Sm(3+) ion as a dopant significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity for MB degradation under UV light irradiation because both the larger specific surface area and the greater the formation rate of *OH radical were simultaneously obtained for Sm(3+)-doped TiO(2) nanocrystalline. The adsorption experimental demonstrated that Sm(3+)-TiO(2) had a higher MB adsorption capacity than undoped TiO(2) and the adsorption capacity of MB increased with the increase of samarium ion content. The results also indicated that the greater the formation rate of *OH radical was, the higher photocatalytic activity was achieved. In this study, the optimum amount of Sm(3+) doping was 0.5 mol%, at which the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes could be effectively inhibited, the highest formation rate of *OH radicals was, and thereby the highest photocatalytic activity was achieved.

  4. Samarium lexidronam (153Sm-EDTMP): skeletal radiation for osteoblastic bone metastases and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Pete; Nuñez, Rodolfo

    2007-11-01

    Radiation therapy can be an effective means to treat bone metastases, which occur in more than 50% of cancer patients. (153)Samarium lexidronam ((153)Sm-EDTMP; Quadramet, Cytogen) is a radiopharmaceutical designed for deposition into bone metastases. Bone scans can identify patients that may benefit from targeted radiation therapy with (153)Sm-EDTMP. As an unsealed source of radiation therapy, (153)Sm-EDTMP is simple to administer: 1 mCi/kg is given in a similar fashion to a bone scan injection ((99m)Tc-MDP bone scan injection is given at 0.2-0.35 mCi/kg. Therefore, both are administered intravenously. However, the radiation-absorbed dose and radiopharmaceutical energy are different). Nevertheless, despite simplicity of administration, (153)Sm-EDTMP is underutilized for improving cancer pain in the skeleton. Repeated cycles and combined treatment with other modalities such as bisphosphonates, chemotherapy and/or external beam radiation are possible. (153)Sm-EDTMP combined with bisphosphonates, chemotherapy and/or radiation may provide better palliation of bone metastases and also in bone-forming tumors (osteosarcoma). Encouraging experience using high-dose (153)Sm-EDTMP for total marrow irradiation in hematologic malignancies involving the bones (e.g., myeloma or acute leukemia) is also reviewed.

  5. Thermoluminescence of terbium sensitised by samarium in CaF2.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Y; Niwa, T

    2006-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) in sintered CaF2 doped with Tb4O7 has been studied for UV and X-ray irradiation. Three TL glow peaks for the Tb4O7 doped sample appeared in the temperature regions of about (1) 347-353 K, (2) 378-383 K and (3) 453-458 K, when heated at a rate of 20 K min(-1) after UV or X-ray irradiation at room temperature. It has been found that the 378 K peak intensity of the samples co-doped with Tb4O7 and Sm2O3 became stronger when compared with those doped with only terbium or samarium ions, and the TL peaks of (1) 347-353 K and (3) 453-458 K were not observed. The intensity of the 378 K peak of the co-doped sample was 12.9 times that of the sample doped only with Tb4O7. From the TL spectra and the excitation and emission spectra of photoluminescence for the CaF2 doped activators, it is concluded that the TL of Tb3+ ions is sensitised by the existence of Sm3+ ions. The 378 K TL peak may also be suitable for UV radiation dosimetry.

  6. Structural studies of lithium boro tellurite glasses doped with praseodymium and samarium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Damas, Pedro; Coelho, João; Hungerford, Graham; Hussain, N. Sooraj

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: [TeO{sub 4}] trigonal bipyramid structural unit, which is formed by two unequivalent pair of oxygen atoms: two equatorial oxygens (O{sub eq}) and two axial oxygens (O{sub ax}). Highlights: ► Pr{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped LBT glasses have been prepared and characterized. ► LBT glasses present normal surfaces without metallic clusters. ► Raman spectra revealed the network modifying behaviour of dopant ions. -- Abstract: This paper reports the preparation and structural studies of praseodymium and samarium (0.5, 2 and 4 mol%) oxide doped lithium boro tellurite glasses. These materials were prepared by the quenching technique in a ceramic crucible at 950 °C. Structural characterization was performed by Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Results from Raman analysis are in good agreement with those reported in the literature, revealing a normal glass structure for the host material. Understanding on how the glasses internal structure changed when the doping concentration increases was also assessed.

  7. Palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain with radiopharmaceuticals: A perspective beyond Strontium-89 and Samarium-153.

    PubMed

    Guerra Liberal, Francisco D C; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-04-01

    The present review article aims to provide an overview of the available radionuclides for palliative treatment of bone metastases beyond (89)Sr and (153)Sm. In addition, it aims to review and summarize the clinical outcomes associated with the palliative treatment of bone metastases using different radiopharmaceuticals. A literature search was conducted on Science Direct and PubMed databases (1990 - 2015). The following search terms were combined in order to obtain relevant results: "bone", "metastases", "palliative", "care", "therapy", "treatment", "radiotherapy", "review", "radiopharmaceutical", "phosphorus-32", "strontium-89", "yttrium-90", "tin-117m", "samarium-153", "holmium-166", "thulium-170", "lutetium-177", "rhenium-186", "rhenium-188" and "radium-223". Studies were included if they provided information regarding the clinical outcomes. A comparative analysis of the measured therapeutic response of different radiopharmaceuticals, based on previously published data, suggests that there is a lack of substantial differences in palliative efficacy among radiopharmaceuticals. However, when the comparative analysis adds factors such as patient's life expectancy, radionuclides' physical characteristics (e.g. tissue penetration range and half-life) and health economics to guide the rational selection of a radiopharmaceutical for palliative treatment of bone metastases, (177)Lu and (188)Re-labeled radiopharmaceuticals appear to be the most suitable radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of small and medium/large size bone lesions, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Samarium (III) adsorption on bentonite modified with N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Chang, Xijun; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Qihui; Li, Ruijun; Chai, Xiaoli

    2011-02-15

    A new material has been synthesized using dry process to activate bentonite followed by N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine connecting chlorosilane coupling agent. The synthesized new material was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and thermogravimetry which proved that bentonite was successfully modified. The most interesting trait of the new material was its selective adsorption for rare earth elements. A variety of conditions of the new material were investigated for adsorption. The optimal conditions were determined with respect to pH and shaking time. Samarium (Sm) was quantitatively adsorbed at pH 4 and shaking time of 2 min onto the new material. Under these conditions the maximum static adsorption capacity of Sm(III) was found to be 17.7 mg g(-1). The adsorbed Sm(III) ion were quantitatively eluted by 2.0 mL 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl and 5% CS (NH(2))(2) solution. According to IUPAC definition, the detection limit (3σ) of this method was 0.60 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) under optimum conditions was less than 3% (n=8). The new material also was applied for the preconcentration of trace Sm(III) in environmental samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Samarium-153 treatment of bone pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lars J; Lund, Lars; Jønler, Morten; Jakobsen, Mette; Abrahamsen, Jan

    2010-06-01

    Painful bone metastases are common in advanced prostate cancer. We report the clinical outcome after administration of Samarium-153 ((153)Sm), an emitter of beta-particles that concentrates in the areas of enhanced osteoblastic activity. Twenty-two patients (median age 73 years) with metastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer received a single bolus infusion of (153)Sm (37 MBq/kg). All patients had painful bone metastases to more than one anatomical region, and most had inadequate pain relief to narcotic analgesics. Bone specific pain, analgesic score according to WHO, ECOG performance status, and blood count were evaluated before and up to 28 weeks after treatment. Median follow-up was six weeks (mean 14 weeks). Eleven patients died within the 28 week observation period (ten from terminal disease), and four patients had their observation period truncated. Median pain score was 56.3%, 50.0%, and 50.0% of baseline values at week 4 (n = 20), 16 (n = 10), and 28 (n = 7), respectively. A reduction of baseline pain score by 50% or more was observed in 50%, 70% and 71% of patients at week 4, 16, and 28, respectively. Hematological toxicity was mild and reversible in most cases. Administration of (153)Sm to prostate cancer patients with painful bone metastases offered clinical relevant pain relief with tolerable hematological toxicity.

  10. Samarium doped calcium fluoride: A red scintillator and X-ray phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixie, Laura Catherine; Edgar, Andrew; Bartle, Colin Murray

    2014-07-01

    We report the photoluminescence, X-ray luminescence and scintillation properties of CaF2:Sm2+. Large single crystals of CaF2:Sm2+ were grown by simply slow cooling of the calcium fluorite melt doped with samarium metal. The photoluminescence at room temperature shows a broad red 5d→4f emission band peaked at 725 nm which is well matched to the response of silicon photodetectors, and only a very weak Sm3+ emission is observed. On cooling, the zero phonon lines of the Sm2+ emission can be observed. The lifetime of the broad emission is short at room temperature (46 ns), but temperature dependent, and slows on cooling, reaching a constant value of 1.25 μs below 180 K. The X-ray luminescence comprises both red Sm2+ and Sm3+ emissions and a blue self-trapped exciton band for low Sm concentrations, but just the broad red emission Sm2+ for highly doped (~1%) samples. The scintillation decay at room temperature shows two components, of 58 ns and 870 ns, in an integrated intensity ratio of 0.7:1 for a 0.1% Sm sample. The light output is around 15,000 photons/MeV when cooled by dry ice, with a scintillation decay time of 1.4 μs at that temperature. The performance of the material as an X-ray phosphor and scintillator is discussed.

  11. M-H characteristics and demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the M-H demagnetization characteristics of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. In high temperature space power converters, such as free-piston Stirling engine driven linear alternators, magnet demagnetization can occur as long-term consequence of thermal agitation of domains and of metallurgical change, and also as an immediate consequence of too large an applied field. Investigated here is the short-term demagnetization resistance to applied fields derived from basic M-H data. These quasistatic demagnetization data were obtained for commercial, high-intrinsic-coercivity, Sm2Co17-type magnets from 5 sources, in the temperature range 23 to 300 C. An electromagnet driven, electronic hysteresigraph was used to test the 1-cm cubic samples. The observed variation of the 2nd quadrant M-H characteristics was a typical rapid loss of M-coercivity and a relatively lesser loss of remanence with increasing temperature.

  12. PENTAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL DERIVATIVES OF THE TRIVALENT LANTHANIDE ELEMENTS (NEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, AND YTTERBIUM)

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, T. Don; Andersen, R.A.

    1980-07-01

    The anionic complexes of the type (ML{sub x})(Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}M'Cl{sub 2}, where M is lithium or sodium, L is diethyl ether or N,N,-N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethylethylenediamine, and M{prime} is neodymium, samarium, or ytterbium, have been prepared from the metal trichlorides and the pentamethylcyclopentadienide anion. The neutral species (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}NdCl(THF), (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}NdN(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, and (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}YbCl(THF) have also been prepared. The mono-ring derivatives (Na(OEt{sub 2}){sub 2})((C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})NdCl{sub 3}) and (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5})Nd(N(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2} are also described.

  13. Lunar prospector measurements of the distribution of incompatible elements gadolinium, samarium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-04-01

    Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (NS) and gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) observations have been used to map out the distribution of incompatible elements on the lunar surface. Specifically, the GRS data provide maps of the distribution of thorium and potassium while the NS data provide information on the distribution of iron and titanium, and the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Using results of analysis of Celementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data, the Fe- and Ti-contributions to the NS data can be removed, leaving primarily rare earth element contributions from Gd and Sm. The Th and K maps correlate with the inferred Gd and Sm maps (r {approximately} 0.93), but there are regions of significant disagreement. One of these is in the KREEP-rich circum-Imbrium ring. No clear explanation has emerged for this disagreement, though Th, K, Gd and Sm have differing degrees of incompatibility. These results clearly are important to discussions of the geochemistry of the Procellarum-Imbrium Th-rich Terrane and the South-Pole-Aitken Terrane.

  14. High temperature phase transitions and critical exponents of Samarium orthoferrite determined by in situ optical ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berini, B.; Fouchet, A.; Popova, E.; Scola, J.; Dumont, Y.; Franco, N.; da Silva, R. M. C.; Keller, N.

    2012-03-01

    Determining phase transitions has always been a great challenge in material science due to their important fundamental and technological aspects. Recently, iron-based perovskites (RFeO3), exhibiting phase transitions at high temperatures, have attracted much interest for their functional properties at room temperature, such as multiferroicity (BiFeO3) and ultrafast spin dynamics (TmFeO3). In this family of materials, Samarium orthoferrite (SmFeO3) is a weak ferromagnet, ordering at high temperatures and exhibiting an intrinsic spin reorientation transition above room temperature, which is "hidden" in macroscopic magnetization measurements in polycrystalline samples. In the present article, we show that the related magnetic high temperature phase transitions can be studied through their dielectric functions by spectroscopic ellipsometry in situ and without any need for an applied external magnetic field. The presence of this intrinsic spin reorientation transition is demonstrated for textured SmFeO3 films and we have determined a critical exponent of β = 0.45 ± 0.01 for the magnetic phase transition, coherently from optical, magneto-optical, and structural investigations.

  15. Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Singh, Sangeeta; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb1-3x/2 SmxZr0.65Ti0.35O3-0.05Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P-E and M-H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field.

  16. Dielectric behavior and ac electrical conductivity in samarium substituted Mg-Ni ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melagiriyappa, E.; Veena, M.; Somashekarappa, A.; Shankaramurthy, G. J.; Jayanna, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    Samarium substituted MgNi ferrites with composition Mg1-xNixFe2-ySmyO4 ( x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0; y = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1) have been prepared by ceramic method. Dielectric measurements of the samples have been carried out at room temperature as a function of frequency and composition. X-ray diffraction patterns have confirmed the single-phase spinel cubic structure for all the samples. Dielectric constant ( ɛ') and dielectric loss (tan δ) decrease while ac electrical conductivity ( σ ac ) increases with increase in frequency. Dielectric properties have been explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner's two layer model. The conduction mechanism in these ferrites is due to electron hopping between Ni2+ and Ni3+ as well as Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions on octahedral sites. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity increases and decreases respectively with nickel content. A significant reduction in the values of dielectric constant and ac electrical conductivity has been observed in Sm3+ ions substituted samples.

  17. M-H characteristics and demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the M-H demagnetization characteristics of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. In high temperature space power converters, such as free-piston Stirling engine driven linear alternators, magnet demagnetization can occur as long-term consequence of thermal agitation of domains and of metallurgical change, and also as an immediate consequence of too large an applied field. Investigated here is the short-term demagnetization resistance to applied fields derived from basic M-H data. These quasistatic demagnetization data were obtained for commercial, high-intrinsic-coercivity, Sm2Co17-type magnets from 5 sources, in the temperature range 23 to 300 C. An electromagnet driven, electronic hysteresigraph was used to test the 1-cm cubic samples. The observed variation of the 2nd quadrant M-H characteristics was a typical rapid loss of M-coercivity and a relatively lesser loss of remanence with increasing temperature.

  18. The effect of electromotive-force generation on electrical properties of thin samarium sulfide films

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminskii, V. V. Kazanin, M. M.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sharenkova, N. V.; Volodin, N. M.

    2006-06-15

    Electrical properties of thin SmS polycrystalline films with various values of the lattice constant at T = 300-580 K are studied. Specific features of the temperature dependences of electrical conductivity at T > 450 K are revealed. The effect of generation of the electromotive force with magnitude as large as 1.3 V at T = 440-470 K is observed when the films were subjected to the pressure of a spherical indenter. It is shown that it is possible to transform SmS films into a high-resistivity state (with the difference in the resistivity by three orders of magnitude) by applying an electric field with the strength higher than 100 V/cm. All the results obtained are accounted for using a model of the phenomenon of the electromotive-force generation in SmS under uniform heating of the sample and can also be attributed to the variable valence of samarium ions with respect to the lattice defects.

  19. Effect of samarium and iron substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Randeep; Kaur, Anumeet; Singh, Anupinder; Singh, Mandeep; Singh, Lakhwant

    2016-05-01

    Samarium and Iron doped barium zirconate titanate (SF-BZT) ceramics with general formula (SmFeO3)x - (BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3)1-x (x = 0, 0.21, 0.22, 0.23) were prepared by solid state reaction route. X-Ray Diffraction revealed the proper phase formation and the profile matching with constant scale factor confirmed phase change from tetragonal to pseudo cubic with increase in samarium and iron content. The SEM micrographs show proper grain growth in samples. The magnetic data confirmed the presence of ferromagnetic character in the SF-BZT solid solutions.

  20. Synthesis and structural study of samarium hexacyanoferrate (III) tetrahydrate, SmFe(CN) 6·4H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullica, D. F.; Perkins, Herbert O.; Sappenfield, E. L.; Grossie, David A.

    1988-05-01

    Single crystals of SmFe(CN) 6·4H 2O prepared from an aqueous solution under ambient conditions have been used for single-crystal diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectrometric studies. This characterized compound is compared to previously reported LnT(CN) 6 (T =Cr, Fe, Co) structures. Samarium hexacyanoferrate (III) tetrahydrate is found to be monoclinic, not hexagonal or orthorhombic as presupposed. SmFe(CN) 6·4H 2O crystallizes in space group P2/ 1m (No. 11), a = 7.431(1), b = 13.724(3), c = 7.429(2)A˚, β = 119.95(1)°, Z = 2. Full-matrix least-squares refinement has yielded the final values of R = 0.0292 and R w = 0.0296 for 1028 unique reflections. The observed and calculated densities are 2.198(3) and 2.197 Mg m -3, respectively. The dominant feature of the structure is that the samarium ion is eight-coordinated, not nine as previously believed. The samarium ion is bonded to six cyanonitrogen atoms and two water molecules in a square antiprism geometry ( D 4d), the SmN 6(H 2O) 2 group. The FeC 6 group is octahedrally arranged. Cyanide bridging links these groups to build an infinite polymeric array. Additional water molecules are trapped in distorted cubic cages within the structure. The important averaged bond lengths are: Sm sbnd N = 2.505(15); Sm sbnd O = 2.402(1); Fe sbnd C = 1.931(3); and C tbnd N = 1.156(1)A˚.

  1. Samarium(II) induced asymmetric reductive cyclizations: The total synthesis of (-)-C{sub 10} desmethyl arteannuin B

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaebe, M.K.; Little, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Arteannuin B is a member of the qinghaosu family, a novel class of sesquiterpenes that exhibit powerful antimalarial activity even against chloroquinine resistant strains. It is readily convertible to qinghaosu in several high yielding steps and has potential antitumor activity. Several approaches to the construction of the cis-decalin backbone have involved the use of electrochemical and metal promoted reductions as well as alkylations. We report a short convenient total synthesis of (-)-C{sub 10} desmethyl arteannuin B utilizing an asymmetric reductive cyclization with samarium (II) iodide which selectively forms the cis-decalin ring structure while setting the trans relationship between the subunits of the {gamma}-hydroxy ester.

  2. Addition reaction of vinylic reagents, derived from alpha-chloroenones, to carbonyl compounds promoted by samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bernad, Pablo L; Huerta, Mónica; García-Granda, Santiago; Díaz, M Rosario

    2003-11-07

    A new samarium diiodide-promoted addition reaction of vinylsamarium reagents, derived from (Z)-alpha-chloro-alpha,beta-unsaturated phenones 1, to both ketones (in THF) and aldehydes (in acetonitrile) led to (Z)-2-(1-hydroxyalkyl)-2,3-unsaturated ketones in good yield. These transformations took place with total or very high inversion of the stereochemistry of the C-C double bond of the starting chloroenone, producing the Z diastereoisomer. A new methodology to prepare SmI(2) in acetonitrile by sonic treatment of 1,2-diiodoethane with Sm powder is also described. A mechanism to explain this transformation is proposed.

  3. Synthesis of different deuterated carboxylic acids from unsaturated acids promoted by samarium diiodide and D2O.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto

    2002-10-04

    An easy, and rapid reduction of the Cdbond;C bond of alpha,beta-unsaturated acids by means of samarium diiodide in the presence of D(2)O provides an efficient method for synthesizing 2,3-dideuterio acids. Starting from alka-2,4-dienoic acids, (E)-alpha,delta-dideuterio-betagamma-unsaturated acids are obtained, the new Cdbond;C bond being generated with complete diastereoselectivity. When H(2)O is used instead of D(2)O, saturated carboxylic acids and (E)-beta,gamma-unsaturated acids are isolated. A mechanism to explain each synthesis has been proposed.

  4. Compact AMS System At Yamagata University

    SciTech Connect

    Tokanai, Fuyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Anshita, Minoru; Izumi, Akihiro; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Saito, Tsugio

    2011-06-01

    A new compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system has been installed in the Kaminoyama research institute at Yamagata University. The AMS system is based on a 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator developed by National Electrostatics Corp. The performance of the system was investigated using C series samples (C1-C8), standard samples (HOxII), and reagent graphite without any chemical treatment. The precision of {sup 14}C measurements for the standard samples is typically higher than 0.3%. The ratio of {sup 14}C to {sup 12}C is less than 6x10{sup -16} for the reagent graphite. In this paper, we present the performance of the new compact AMS system, as well as of the fully automated 20-reactor graphite lines equipped at the research institute.

  5. Modification of chitosan by using samarium for potential use in drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kusrini, Eny; Arbianti, Rita; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Abdullah, Mohd Aidil A; Andriani, Fika

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of hydroxyl and amine groups, chitosan is highly reactive; therefore, it could be used as a carrier in drug delivery. For this study, chitosan-Sm complexes with different concentrations of samarium from 2.5 to 25 wt.% have been successfully synthesized by the impregnation method. Chitosan combined with Sm3+ ions produced a drug carrier material with fluorescence properties; thus, it could also be used as an indicator of drug release with ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug. We evaluated the spectroscopic and interaction properties of chitosan and Sm3+ ions, the interaction of chitosan-Sm matrices with IBU as a model drug, and the effect of Sm3+ ions addition on the chitosan ability to adsorb the drug. The result showed that the hypersensitive fluorescence intensity of chitosan-Sm (2.5 wt.%) is higher than the others, even though the adsorption efficiency of chitosan-Sm 2.5wt.% is lower (29.75%) than that of chitosan-Sm 25 wt.% (33.04%). Chitosan-Sm 25 wt.% showed the highest efficiency of adsorption of ibuprofen (33.04%). In the release process of ibuprofen from the chitosan-Sm-IBU matrix, the intensity of orange fluorescent properties in the hypersensitive peak of 4G5/2→6H7/2 transition at 590 nm was observed. Fluorescent intensity increased with the cumulative amount of IBU released; therefore, the release of IBU from the Sm-modified chitosan complex can be monitored by the changes in fluorescent intensity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural analysis, magnetic and electrical properties of samarium substituted lithium-nickel mixed ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hilli, Muthafar F.; Li, Sean; Kassim, Kassim S.

    2012-03-01

    A series of Sm-doped Li-Ni ferrites with formula of (Li0.5Fe0.5)0.4Ni0.6SmyFe2-yO4, where 0.0≤y≤0.1 were prepared by double sintering ceramic technique. The structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, which has confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel structure. The samarium concentration dependence of lattice parameters obeys Vegard's law. The octahedral site radii increased with Sm content while the tetrahedral site radii decreased. Deviation from the ideal crystal structure (Δ) is found to decrease with Sm substitution, and the hopping length on the octahedral site is found to increase with Sm content. Hall measurement confirmed p-type conductivity behavior for Sm-doped ferrite and the main charge transport mechanism is hopping of halls between Ni2+ and Ni3+. Sintering at 1300 °C resulted in low resistivity ferrite, which was found to increase with Sm content. Resistivity is governed by both charge carrier mobility and carrier concentration. It decreases with frequency, and this behavior with frequency is discussed according to Koop's theorem. The dielectric constant is found to decrease more rapidly at low frequencies than at higher frequencies while the dielectric constant increases with Sm content. The decrease in ε″ with frequency agrees with Deby's type relaxation process. Maximum in ε″ is observed when the hopping frequency is equal to the external electric field frequency. The variation in tan δ with frequency shows a similar nature to that of ε″ with frequency. The magnetization under applied magnetic field for the samples exhibits a clear hysteretic behavior. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies showed that the domain walls may tend to be trapped (pinned) by non-magnetic inclusions, precipitates and voids. The saturation magnetization (MS) increases with the sintering temperature, while the coercivity (HCi) is found to decrease.

  7. M-H characteristics and demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the M-H demagnetization characteristics of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. In high temperature space power converters, such as free-piston Stirling engine driven linear alternators, magnet demagnetization can occur as a long-term consequence of thermal agitation of domains and of metallurgical change, and also as an immediate consequence of too large an applied field. Investigated here is the short-term demagnetization resistance to applied fields derived from basic M-H data. This quasistatic demagnetization data was obtained for commercial, high-intrinsic-coercivity, Sm2Co17-type magnets from 5 sources, in the temperature range 23 to 300 C. An electromagnet driven, electronic hysteresigraph was used to test the 1-cm cubic samples. The observed variation of the 2nd quadrant M-H characteristics was a typical rapid loss of M-coercivity and a relatively lesser loss of remanence with increasing temperature. The 2nd quadrant M-H curve knee point is used to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization due to an excessive bucking field for a given flux density swing at temperature. Such safe operating area plots are shown to differentiate the high temperature capabilities of the samples from different sources. For most of the samples, their 2nd quadrant M-H loop squareness increased with temperature, reaching a peak or a plateau above 250 C.

  8. A phase I study of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate therapy for disseminated skeletal metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.; Claringbold, P.G.; Hetherington, E.L.; Sorby, P.; Martindale, A.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Thirty-five patients with disseminated skeletal metastases from a variety of tumor types underwent clinical trial of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) on a day-patient basis. Individual beta radiation dosimetry was based on pharmacokinetic studies of a 20 mCi tracer dose of 153Sm-EDTMP. The retained skeletal activity varied unpredictably from 40% to 95% of the administered dose, but in all patients greater than 98% of the nonosseous activity was cleared in the urine within 6 hours. Prospective calculation of radiation dosimetry in each patient permitted an accurate dosage schedule based upon total red marrow exposure, starting at 100 cGy and escalating to 280 cGy to define the dose-limiting myelotoxicity. Pain was relieved in 22 of 34 evaluable patients (65%) for periods ranging from 4 to 35 weeks, following a single administration of 153Sm-EDTMP. Recurrence of pain responded to retreatment with 153Sm-EDTMP in five of nine patients. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression manifested particularly by delayed thrombocytopenia. Platelet counts less than 100 x 10(9)/L occurred in 42% of courses when bone marrow radiation absorbed dose exceeded 200 cGy. Myelosuppression was transient and platelet counts had recovered to pretreatment levels within 10 weeks of treatment. 153Sm-EDTMP is effective for the amelioration of pain due to disseminated skeletal metastases particularly with carcinoma of breast or prostate where 83% of patients experienced pain relief. In 15 of the 34 evaluable patients there was evidence of stabilization or regression of skeletal metastases on radiographs and follow-up technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scans.

  9. Optically erasable samarium-doped fluorophosphate glasses for high-dose measurements in microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, B.; Okada, G.; Vahedi, S.; Koughia, C.; Edgar, A.; Varoy, C.; Belev, G.; Wysokinski, T.; Chapman, D.; Sammynaiken, R.; Kasap, S. O.

    2014-02-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that fluorophosphate (FP) glasses doped with trivalent samarium (Sm3+) can be used as a dosimetric detector in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) to measure high radiation doses and large dose variations with a resolution in the micrometer range. The present work addresses the use of intense optical radiation at 405 nm to erase the recorded dose information in Sm3+-doped FP glass plates and examines the underlying physics. We have evaluated both the conversion and optical erasure of Sm3+-doped FP glasses using synchrotron-generated high-dose x-rays at the Canadian Light Source. The Sm-ion valency conversion is accompanied by the appearance of x-ray induced optical absorbance due to the trapping of holes and electrons into phosphorus-oxygen hole (POHC) and electron (POEC) capture centers. Nearly complete Sm2+ to Sm3+ reconversion (erasure) may be achieved by intense optical illumination. Combined analysis of absorbance and electron spin resonance measurements indicates that the optical illumination causes partial disappearance of the POHC and the appearance of new POEC. The suggested model for the observed phenomena is based on the release of electrons during the Sm2+ to Sm3+ reconversion process, the capture of these electrons by POHC (and hence their disappearance), or by PO groups, with the appearance of new and/or additional POEC. Optical erasure may be used as a practical means to erase the recorded data and permits the reuse of these Sm-doped FP glasses in monitoring dose in MRT.

  10. Optically erasable samarium-doped fluorophosphate glasses for high-dose measurements in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, B.; Okada, G.; Vahedi, S.; Koughia, C. Kasap, S. O.; Edgar, A.; Varoy, C.; Belev, G.; Wysokinski, T.; Chapman, D.; Sammynaiken, R.

    2014-02-14

    Previous work has demonstrated that fluorophosphate (FP) glasses doped with trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) can be used as a dosimetric detector in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) to measure high radiation doses and large dose variations with a resolution in the micrometer range. The present work addresses the use of intense optical radiation at 405 nm to erase the recorded dose information in Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glass plates and examines the underlying physics. We have evaluated both the conversion and optical erasure of Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glasses using synchrotron-generated high-dose x-rays at the Canadian Light Source. The Sm-ion valency conversion is accompanied by the appearance of x-ray induced optical absorbance due to the trapping of holes and electrons into phosphorus-oxygen hole (POHC) and electron (POEC) capture centers. Nearly complete Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion (erasure) may be achieved by intense optical illumination. Combined analysis of absorbance and electron spin resonance measurements indicates that the optical illumination causes partial disappearance of the POHC and the appearance of new POEC. The suggested model for the observed phenomena is based on the release of electrons during the Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion process, the capture of these electrons by POHC (and hence their disappearance), or by PO groups, with the appearance of new and/or additional POEC. Optical erasure may be used as a practical means to erase the recorded data and permits the reuse of these Sm-doped FP glasses in monitoring dose in MRT.

  11. Welding of AM350 and AM355 steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. J.; Wroth, R. S.

    1967-01-01

    A series of tests was conducted to establish optimum procedures for TIG welding and heat treating of AM350 and AM355 steel sheet in thicknesses ranging from 0.010 inch to 0.125 inch. Statistical analysis of the test data was performed to determine the anticipated minimum strength of the welded joints.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID PROCEDURE TO ANALYSE Pu, Am AND 90Sr IN EMERGENCY URINE BIOASSAY IN CIEMAT BIOELIMINATION LABORATORY: METHOD VALIDATION BY EMERGENCY BIOASSAY INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISES.

    PubMed

    Sierra, I; Hernández, C

    2016-09-01

    After a radiological or nuclear incident, it is necessary to give a prompt response and to know the number of persons exposed to internal contamination, to evaluate the contamination levels in each person and even and to identify the radionuclides involved. In vitro laboratories routine monitoring measurements employed to quantify (90)Sr and actinides in urine require radiochemical separation and long counting time, which implies a minimum of 1 or 2 weeks to obtain the results, respectively. In this work, rapid radiochemical separation method applied directly to urine samples is presented. It is based on minimal sample preparation, without co-precipitation phase, using extraction resin columns and vacuum box technology. Pu isotopes and (241)Am are isolated, electrodeposited and measured by alpha spectrometry, whereas (90)Sr is measured by liquid scintillation counting. Finally, results of the participation in European Radiation Dosimetry Group intercomparison on Emergency Bioassay exercise and Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz exercise validate the accuracy of this procedure.

  13. Application of TOS/AMS to TDRS E and F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) and the study of an Apogee and Maneuvering Stage (AMS) to be used in conjunction with the TOS are presented. A definition of the TOS/AMS configuration is provided along with a detailed design analysis including layout drawings, component definition, performance, sts and spacecraft interface definition, schedules, cost estimates, and specifications documents.

  14. Treatment of AM 355 Steel for Adhesive Bonding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Surface treatments for AM355 prior to adhesive bonding have been developed. A sulfuric acid-dichromate immersion treatment and nitric acid...chromium content of the surface oxide layer produced using these and other treatments. Experiments indicate that AM355 is essentially impermeable to

  15. Why Am I So Sad?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Am I So Sad? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Am I So Sad? A A A What's in this ... ON THIS TOPIC My Pet Died - How Can I Feel Better? Five Steps for Fighting Stress What ...

  16. Gamma spectrometry and chemical characterization of ceramic seeds with samarium-153 and holmium-166 for brachytherapy proposal.

    PubMed

    Valente, Eduardo S; Campos, Tarcísio P R

    2010-12-01

    Ceramic seeds were synthesized by the sol-gel technique with Si:Sm:Ca and Si:Ho:Ca. One set of seeds was irradiated in the TRIGA type nuclear reactor IPR-R1 and submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), K(0) method, to determine mass percentage concentration of natural samarium and holmium in the seed as well as to determine all existing radionuclides and their activities. Attention was paid to discrimination of Si-31, Ca-40, Ca-45, Ca-47, Ca-49, Sm-145, Sm-155, Sm-153 and Ho-166. A second sample was submitted to atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) also to determine samarium and holmium concentrations in weight. A third sample was submitted to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to qualitatively determine chemical composition. The measured activity was due to Sm-153 and Ho-166 with a well-characterized gamma spectrum. The X-ray fluorescence spectrum demonstrated that there is no discrepancy in seed composition. The maximum ranges in the water of beta particles from Sm-153 and Ho-166 decay were evaluated, as well as the dose rate and total dose delivered within the volume delimited by the range of the beta particles. The results are relevant for investigation of the viability of producing Sm-153 and Ho-166 radioactive seeds for use in brachytherapy.

  17. Mechanism of samarium-catalyzed 1,5-regioselective azide-alkyne [3 + 2]-cycloaddition: a quantum mechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Mei; Yu, Shang-Bo; Li, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Quan-Rui; Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-02-26

    The mechanism of the samarium-catalyzed 1,5-regioselective azide-alkyne [3 + 2]-cycloaddition (SmAAC) reaction has been examined with quantum mechanical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory with ECP51MWB on Sm. Four stepwise pathways were located, with two leading to the 5-endocyclic 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole product PSmL2 (paths 1 and 2) and the other two to the exocyclic product ExoPSmCl2 (path 3) as well as 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole RegPSmL2 (path 4), respectively. Among them, path 2 (R-COM1-TS12-COM2-TS23-COM3-TS3P-PSmL2) is the most favored one both in the gas phase and in toluene solution, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, 1,1-insertion forming COM2 in path 2 is the rate-determining step. The computational results also infer that the participation of samarium catalyst changes the distribution of the electrostatic potential on the reactants' surface, which determines the polarization direction of the reactants and formation of different intermediates (COM1 and RegCOM1), and finally affects the regioselectivity. When solvent corrections for toluene are considered, the 1,1-insertion process is discouraged, while the intramolecular [1,3]-shift reaction is facilitated.

  18. Samarium-153-(4-[((bis (phosphonomethyl)) carbamoyl) methyl]-7,10-bis (carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid: A novel agent for bone pain palliation therapy.

    PubMed

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Enayati, Razieh; Hosntalab, Mohammad; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Bahrami-Samani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Various phosphonate ligands labeled with β--emitting radionuclides have shown good efficacy for bone pain palliation. In this study, a new agent for bone pain palliation has been developed. Samarium-153-(4-[((bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl)methyl]-7,10-bis (carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (153Sm-BPAMD) complex was prepared using BPAMD ligand and samarium-153 chloride. The effect of various parameters on the labeling yield of 153Sm-BPAMD including ligand concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time were studied. Production of 153Sm was performed at a research reactor using 152Sm (n, γ)153Sm nuclear reaction. The radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography. Stability studies of the complex in the final preparation and the presence of human serum were performed up to 48 h. Partition coefficient and hydroxyapatite (HA) binding of the complex were investigated and biodistribution studies using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and scarification were performed after injection of the complex to wild-type mice. 153Sm-BPAMD was prepared in a high radiochemical purity >98% and specific activity of 267 GBq/mmol at the optimal conditions. The complex demonstrated significant stability at the room temperature and in human serum at least for 48 h. HA binding assay demonstrated that at the amount of more than 5 mg, approximately, all radiolabeled complex was bind to HA. At the pH 7.4, log Po/w was - 1.86 ± 0.02. Both SPECT and scarification showed major accumulation of the labeled compound in the bone tissue. The results show that 153Sm-BPAMD has interesting characteristics as an agent for bone pain palliation, however, further biological studies in other mammals are still needed.

  19. Enantiomeric NMR signal separation behavior and mechanism of samarium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes with (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinate.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Okano, Masaru; Kidani, Takahiro

    2017-04-12

    Enantiomeric (1) H and (13) C NMR signal separation behaviors of various α-amino acids and DL-tartarate were investigated by using the samarium(III) and neodymium(III) complexes with (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinate as chiral shift reagents. A relatively smaller concentration ratio of the lanthanide(III) complex to substrates was suitable for the neodymium(III) complex compared with the samarium(III) one, striking a balance between relatively greater signal separation and broadening. To clarify the difference in the signal separation behavior, the chemical shifts of β-protons for fully bound D- and L-alanine (δb (D) and δb (L)) and their adduct formation constants (Ks) were obtained for both metal complexes. Preference for D-alanine was similarly observed for both complexes, while it was revealed that the difference between the δb (D) and δb (L) values is the significant factor to determine the enantiomeric signal separation. The neodymium(III) and samarium(III) complexes can be used complementarily for higher and smaller concentration ranges of substrates, respectively, because the neodymium(III) complex gives the larger difference between the δb (D) and δb (L) values with greater signal broadening compared to the samarium(III) complex.

  20. Synthesis of aromatic (E)- or (Z)-alpha,beta-unsaturated amides with total or very high selectivity from alpha,beta-epoxyamides and samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bardales, Eva

    2003-11-28

    Highly stereoselective synthesis of aromatic alpha,beta-unsaturated amides was achieved by treatment of aromatic alpha,beta-epoxyamides with samarium diiodide. The starting compounds 1 and 3 are easily prepared by the reaction of enolates derived from alpha-chloroamides with carbonyl compounds at -78 degrees C. A mechanism to explain this transformation is proposed.

  1. Am I Doing Anything Wrong?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Woo

    1998-04-01

    Absolutely not! Let me be more specific. Am I doing anything I do not want to do with my career? I don't think so. Am I satisfied? My initial career goal was to teach at a small four-year university and do research with undergraduate students. But I am more than satisfied with what I am doing now, and I am enjoying my job. It is true that many new and talented Ph.D.'s are currently looking for careers at two-year colleges instead of universities. Many people expect this trend will be even greater in the future. Surveys also show that younger people (20-30's) care a great deal about both family and career. Thus, a teaching job at a two-year college is ideal for them. It was quite a surprise to find that many of my friends, who are very talented in research, are now teaching at two-year colleges.

  2. 'Who am I?'.

    PubMed

    Schellinski, Kristina

    2014-04-01

    The dreams and existential questions of those, who came into being in order to replace a dead person, pivot around a central cry: 'Who am I?' If conceived, born or designated as a replacement child, such an individual may suffer-even as an adult-from a rarely recognized unconscious confusion of identity, compounded by grief and survivors' guilt. From before the child is born, the archetypal forces of death and life are joined in a fateful constellation; the soul of the replacement child bears the shadow of death from the very beginning of life. Hope for the replacement child lies in an emergence of true self as soul recreates original life. Analysis can help the replacement child experience a 'rebirth into true life', not as 'the one who returned', but as a psychologically newborn individual; the path of individuation countering the replacement child's identification with the dead. Jungian analysis offers unique concepts for understanding and healing the replacement child; C.G. Jung himself was born after two stillborn babies and an infant that lived only five days.

  3. Comparison of effects of overload on parameters and performance of samarium-cobalt and strontium-ferrite radially oriented permanent magnet brushless DC motors

    SciTech Connect

    Demerdash, N.A.; Nehl, T.W.; Nyamusa, T.A.

    1985-08-01

    Effects of high momentary overloads on the samarium-cobalt and strontium-ferrite permanent magnets and the magnetic field in electronically commutated brushless dc machines, as well as their impact on the associated machine parameters were studied. The effect of overload on the machine parameters, and subsequently on the machine system performance was also investigated. This was accomplished through the combined use of finite element analysis of the magnetic field in such machines, perturbation of the magnetic energies to determine machine inductances, and dynamic simulation of the performance of brushless dc machines, when energized from voltage source inverters. These effects were investigated through application of the above methods to two equivalent 15 hp brushless dc motors, one of which was built with samarium-cobalt magnets, while the other was built with strontium- ferrite magnets. For momentary overloads as high as 4.5 p.u. magnet flux reductions of 29% and 42% of the no load flux were obtained in the samarium-cobalt and strontiumferrite machines, respectively. Corresponding reductions in the line to line armature inductances of 52% and 46% of the no load values were reported for the samarium-cobalt and strontium-ferrite cases, respectively. The overload affected the profiles and magnitudes of armature induced back emfs. Subsequently, the effects of overload on machine parameters were found to have significant impact on the performance of the machine systems, where findings indicate that the samarium-cobalt unit is more suited for higher overload duties than the strontium-ferrite machine.

  4. Clinical evaluation after 1 year of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite synovectomy in patients with haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Calegaro, J U; Machado, J; DE Paula, J C; DE Almeida, J S C; Casulari, L A

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment with 153-samarium hydroxyapatite (153-Sm-HA) in haemophilic arthropathy. Thirty-one patients (30 males) with ages ranging from 8 to 34 years (average age = 20.6 years) were treated with fixed intra-articular dose of 185 MBq (5 mCi) and divided into two groups: infantile-juvenile (13 patients with up to 18 years of age, an average age of 12.7 years and arthropathy evolution of 7.8 years), and adult (18 patients older than 18 years, an average age of 24 years and arthropathy evolution of 18.7 years). The clinical evaluation before and after 1 year of synovectomy used the following criteria: subjective (pain through visual scale, articulation inspection), objective (articular movement through flexion level, sensitivity to palpation and leakage through joint circumference), reduction on the use of the coagulation factor, number of haemarthrosis, and the occurrence of adverse effects. The results were classified as: 1, good (remission from 70% to 100% of manifestations); 2, moderate (remission from 40% to 69%); and 3, poor (remission from 0% to 39%). Seventy-eight joints were tested: 15 knees, 36 elbows, 24 ankles, 1 shoulder and 2 hips. Early scintigraphic (1-2 h) and late scintigraphic (24-72 h) studies were performed after synoviorthesis. The cost of the procedure per joint was also estimated. No significant difference in the synoviorthesis result between groups was observed. The results were good for 75% of elbows, 87.5% of ankles and 40% of knees; the reduction in haemarthrosis and use of the coagulation factor was respectively 78% and 80% for elbows, 82% and 85% for ankles and 30% and 35% for knees. Four cases of reactional synovitis were observed in the 31 patients. The scintigraphic control showed homogeneous distribution of the material with no articular escape. The use of 153 Sm-HA in the treatment of the haemophilic arthropathy is effective for intermediate-size joints (elbows and ankles), but less

  5. Exotic negative molecules in AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golser, Robin; Gnaser, Hubert; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Wallner, Anton

    2007-06-01

    "The techniques and equipment developed for AMS studies are well suited for identifying exotic negative ions". With this sentence begins a pioneering paper by Roy Middleton and Jeff Klein (M&K) on small doubly-charged negative carbon clusters [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 123 (1997) 532]. M&K were the first to utilize Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to prove the existence of these clusters and a number of other exotic molecules. We review M&K's efforts and show how their work is being continued at other laboratories. The latest developments are: (1) the discovery of long-lived molecular hydrogen anions H2-,D2-and (2) the unambiguous identification of the smallest doubly-charged negative molecule (LiF3)2-. In particular we show new experimental data for D3-, and for (LiF3)2-, and we try to answer the question why M&K's search for this di-anion was unsuccessful.

  6. AMS/DOE Graduate Fellowship

    SciTech Connect

    None None

    2011-06-15

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Fellowship Program was established in 1991. To date, AMS has awarded over 150 Fellowships. This five year DOE award provided for one Fellowship a year for five years. The objective of this program is to provide enough funding to a student so as to allow the student to focus solely on coursework requirements, thus allowing them to begin their research at an earlier date.

  7. Liposomal amphotericin B, AmBisome.

    PubMed

    Hay, R J

    1994-05-01

    The unilamellar liposomal formulation of amphotericin B, AmBisome, is composed of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol and cholesterol. Early studies of its efficacy in an open design showed that remissions could be induced in candidosis and aspergillosis and that doses of up to 5 mg/kg could be used. Adverse events were infrequent, with the main abnormality seen being hypokalaemia in about 18% of patients. Subsequent developments have extended this work. AmBisome has been used in two open studies of patients with invasive aspergillosis; in one of these remission was achieved in 77% of 17 patients with confirmed infection who had failed to respond to conventional amphotericin B. In AIDS patients with cryptococcosis AmBisome given for 6 weeks at 3 mg/kg daily produced mycological remission of meningitis in 67%. Other infections treated with the drug include zygomycete (mucormycosis) and Fusarium infections. AmBisome has also been used as preventative therapy in bone marrow transplant recipients and was found to reduce fungal colonisation rates. There were fewer systemic fungal infections in the treated versus placebo groups although this did not achieve statistical significance. Lack of renal and liver toxicity or anaemia has been confirmed in subsequent studies. In addition febrile reactions to the AmBisome are rare. The drug has also been used effectively in children, including infants, with systemic fungal infections. In visceral leishmaniasis patients, including HIV positive individuals, remissions have been obtained using drug regimens of 1-2 mg/kg of 2.1 days and 3 mg/kg for 10 days.

  8. Effect of acute/subchronic samarium exposure on the concentration, motility, and morphology of sperm in male mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D Y; Shen, X Y; Xu, X L; Ruan, Q; Hu, S S; Chen, Y Y; Wang, Z M

    2016-06-21

    Male ICR mice were orally administered samarium nitrate [Sm(NO3)3] to investigate its effects on sperm concentration and sperm quality. After acute exposure to ≥2880.00 mg/kg Sm(NO3)3 via intragastric gavage, sperm motility and acrosome integrity were decreased, and the sperm malformation percentage was increased (P < 0.05). After subchronic exposure to ≥500.00 mg/L Sm(NO3)3 administered via drinking water for 90 days, relative gonad weight, sperm concentration, and sperm quality significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Sperm malformation also increased after subchronic exposure to Sm, which was found to be the most sensitive index. Sperm head malformation accounted for the largest proportion of all types of sperm malformations evaluated. Of the six different subtypes of head malformation, irregular shape accounted for the largest proportion.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Developmental Work Using a 243Am Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Castro, Alonso

    2015-02-24

    This project seeks to reestablish our analytical capability to characterize Am bulk material and develop a reference material suitable to characterizing the purity and assay of 241Am oxide for industrial use. The tasks associated with this phase of the project included conducting initial separations experiments, developing thermal ionization mass spectrometry capability using the 243Am isotope as an isotope dilution spike , optimizing the spike for the determination of 241Pu-241 Am radiochemistry, and, additionally, developing and testing a methodology which can detect trace to ultra- trace levels of Pu (both assay and isotopics) in bulk Am samples .

  10. "Now I Am Free"--Education and Human Resource Development in Eritrea: Contradictions in the Lives of Eritrean Women in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tanja R.

    2004-01-01

    Human resource development as an objective of education policy in developing countries is increasingly narrowed down to its human capital component. In Eritrea, the objective of a highly centralized human resource development strategy is to produce human capital for the advancement of the nation. This instrumentalist view ignores the fact that…

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in plutonium analysis.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    The paper summarizes the results of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio studies in atmospheric fallout samples collected in 1986 over Gdynia (Poland) as well as three Baltic fish species collected in 1997 using the accelerator mass spectrometry. A new generation of AMS has been developed during last years and this method is an efficient and good technique to measure long-lived radioisotopes in the environment and provides the most accurate determination of the atomic ratios between (240)Pu and (239)Pu. The nuclide compositions of plutonium in filter samples correspond to their means of production. AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout collected in April showed sufficient increase of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio from 0.28 from March to 0.47. Also such high increase of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, close to reactor core (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, was observed in September and equaled 0.47.

  12. Application of Faith Development Theory for Understanding Students' Transformational Learning as a Result of Bonfire at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Brent Russell

    2012-01-01

    Considerable attention by scholars for the last two decades has focused on issues of spirituality and higher education. Literature in the field of college student affairs suggest that, in order promote the development of the whole student, practitioners in the field should consider adopting theories of faith and spiritual development. This study…

  13. Application of Faith Development Theory for Understanding Students' Transformational Learning as a Result of Bonfire at Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Brent Russell

    2012-01-01

    Considerable attention by scholars for the last two decades has focused on issues of spirituality and higher education. Literature in the field of college student affairs suggest that, in order promote the development of the whole student, practitioners in the field should consider adopting theories of faith and spiritual development. This study…

  14. AMS/DOE Fellowship Recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Stephanie

    2016-11-21

    The AMS/DOE graduate fellowships were awarded to three students entering their first year of graduate study. The funds allowed each student to take a full course load during their first of year of graduate study which helps each of them to enter the professional, scientific community at an earlier date. Each recipient is academically outstanding, received glowing references of support and demonstrated their strong desire to perform scientific research. As part of the fellowship, each of the students was invited to attend the AMS Annual Meeting where they got to participate in the AMS student conference, attend scientific sessions and visit the exhibition hall. In addition, a student awards luncheon was held where each of the recipients got to meet their sponsor and receive a certificate.

  15. Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate, a beta-emitting bone-targeted radiopharmaceutical, useful for patients with osteoblastic bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Longo, John; Lutz, Stephen; Johnstone, Candice

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastases are prevalent among cancer patients and frequently cause significant morbidity. Oncology providers must mitigate complications associated with bone metastases while limiting therapy-related adverse effects and their impact on quality of life. Multiple treatment modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and radioisotopes, among others, have been recommended and utilized for palliative treatment of bone metastases. Radioisotopes such as samarium-153 are commonly used in the setting of multifocal bone metastases due to their systemic distribution, affinity for osteoblastic lesions, acceptable toxicity profile, and convenience of administration. This review focuses on samarium-153, first defining its radiobiologic and pharmacokinetic properties before describing many clinical trials that support its use as a safe and effective tool in the palliation of patients with bone metastases. PMID:23976864

  16. Overview of AMS (CCSDS Asynchronous Message Service)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Asynchronous Message Service (AMS). The topics include: 1) Key Features; 2) A single AMS continuum; 3) The AMS Protocol Suite; 4) A multi-continuum venture; 5) Constraining transmissions; 6) Security; 7) Fault Tolerance; 8) Performance of Reference Implementation; 9) AMS vs Multicast (1); 10) AMS vs Multicast (2); 11) RAMS testing exercise; and 12) Results.

  17. Use of calix[4]arenes in the redox chemistry of lanthanides: the reduction of dinitrogen by a calix[4]arene-samarium complex.

    PubMed

    Guillemot, Geoffroy; Castellano, Barbara; Prangé, Thierry; Solari, Euro; Floriani, Carlo

    2007-06-25

    The synthesis and structural characterization of a samarium-dinitrogen complex supported by a calix[4]arene ligand in which the N-N bond distance has been stretched to 1.611(16) Angstrom are described. The central mu(3)-eta(2):eta(2):eta(2)-hydrazido tetraanion formed is bonded to three Sm(III) centers with an overall butterfly-type arrangement.

  18. Structure of human uridine-cytidine kinase 2 determined by SIRAS using a rotating-anode X-ray generator and a single samarium derivative.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Todd C; Larson, Gary; Cheney, I Wayne; Walker, Heli; Wu, Jim Z; Zhong, Weidong; Hong, Zhi; Yao, Nanhua

    2005-03-01

    Uridine-cytidine nucleoside kinase 2 (UCK2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine-nucleotide salvage pathway. UCK2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of the natural ribonucleosides cytidine and uridine to cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) and uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP), respectively, and activates several important frontline antimetabolite drugs. The present contribution reports the rapid crystal structure determination of human UCK2 complexed with a magnesium ion and the reaction products adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and CMP. Diffraction data were collected on a copper rotating-anode X-ray generator from one native UCK2 crystal and a single samarium-derivative crystal. Utilizing the relatively high anomalous signal from the samarium derivative at the Cu Kalpha wavelength, the structure was determined by single isomorphous replacement and single anomalous signal (SIRAS) phasing techniques. Two of the four major samarium sites are located in the active sites of the two UCK2 molecules that form the asymmetric unit and appear to displace the magnesium ions present in the native crystals. The crystal structures of UCK2 alone and in complex with various ligands have recently been determined using traditional multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR) phasing techniques and data from three heavy-atom derivatives. The reported structures validate our independently determined structure. Of more than 1000 kinase crystal structure entries in the Protein Data Bank, less than 1% of them have been determined by SIRAS. For the published kinase crystal structures determined by SIRAS, all data were reportedly collected at various synchrotron-radiation facilities. This study demonstrates that diffraction data collected from a single samarium derivative using Cu Kalpha radiation provides sufficient phasing power to determine a novel macromolecular crystal structure.

  19. Crystal growth of semiorganic complex- samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid and its studies on structure and optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slathia, Goldy; Singh, Harjinder; Ramya, E.; Rao, D. Narayana; Bamzai, K. K.

    2017-05-01

    The semi-organic complex of samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid (SCTLT) has been grown as a single crystal by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. For structural studies, the grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Low cut off wavelength and transparent characteristics were explored by UV-VIS optical characterization. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of grown crystal were investigated by Z-scan technique.

  20. Activation of Ene-Diamido Samarium Methoxide with Hydrosilane for Selectively Catalytic Hydrosilylation of Alkenes and Polymerization of Styrene: an Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhao, Chaoyue; Liu, Jinxi; Huang, Hanmin; Wang, Fengxin; Xu, Xiufang; Cui, Chunming

    2016-09-06

    Samarium methoxide incorporating the ene-diamido ligand L(DME)Sm(μ-OMe)2Sm(DME)L (1; L = [DipNC(Me)C(Me)NDip](2-), Dip = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, and DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) has been prepared and structurally characterized. Complex 1 catalyzed the syndiospecific polymerization of styrene upon activation with phenylsilane and regioselective hydrosilylation of styrenes and nonactivated terminal alkenes. Unprecedented regioselectivity (>99.0%) for both types of alkenes has been achieved with the formation of Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov products in high yields, respectively, whereas the polymerization of styrene resulted in the formation of syndiotactic silyl-capped oligostyrenes. The kinetic experiments and density functional theory calculations strongly support a samarium hydride intermediate generated by σ-bond metathesis of the Sm-OMe bond in 1 with PhSiH3. In addition, the observed regioselectvity for hydrosilylation and polymerization is consistent with the calculated energy profiles, which suggests that the bulky ene-diamido ligand and samarium hydride intermediate have important roles for regio- and stereoselectivity.

  1. Interaction of oxygen with samarium on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film grown on Ni{sub 3}Al(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Dingling; Xu, Qian E-mail: jfzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Han, Yong; Ye, Yifan; Pan, Haibin; Zhu, Junfa E-mail: jfzhu@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-03-07

    The interaction between oxygen and samarium (Sm) on the well-ordered thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film grown on Ni{sub 3}Al(111) has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. At Sm coverage higher than one monolayer, exposure of oxygen to the Sm films at room temperature leads to the formation of both samarium peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) states and regular samarium oxide (O{sup 2−}) states. By contrast, when exposing O{sub 2} to Sm film less than one monolayer on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, no O{sub 2}{sup 2−} can be observed. Upon heating to higher temperatures, these metastable O{sub 2}{sup 2−} states dissociate, supplying active O atoms which can diffuse through the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film to further oxidize the underlying Ni{sub 3}Al(111) substrate, leading to the significant increase of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film thickness. Therefore, it can be concluded that Sm, presumably in its peroxide form, acts as a catalyst for the further oxidation of the Ni{sub 3}Al substrate by supplying the active oxygen species at elevated temperatures.

  2. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  3. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs…

  4. Texas A&M University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osters, Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Texas A&M University is a research extensive institution located in College Station. More than 45,000 students attend the university (about 20% are graduate or professional students). Academically, the university is known for its engineering, business, and agricultural and veterinary medicine programs, although there are more than 150 programs…

  5. I am a White Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Jeffrey L.

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that competence and merit are elements in need of examination, and gives four reasons why being a woman, black, or Spanish-American is a qualification for academic appointment. Stresses that energy ought to be directed to increasing support of colleges and universities and not to fighting affirmative action. (Author/AM)

  6. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 activate TRPA1 in sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mayur; Patwardhan, Amol; Salas, Margaux M.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Akopian, Armen N.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been utilized extensively in vivo as well as in vitro, but their selectivity has not been fully examined. We investigated activation of sensory neurons by two cannabinoid antagonists – AM251 and AM630. AM251 and AM630 activated trigeminal (TG) sensory neurons in a concentration-dependent fashion (threshold 1 μM). AM251 and AM630 responses are mediated by the TRPA1 channel in a majority (90–95%) of small-to-medium TG sensory neurons. AM630 (1–100 μM), but not AM251, was a significantly more potent agonist in cells co-expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. We next evaluated AM630 and AM251 effects on TRPV1- and TRPA1-mediated responses in TG neurons. Capsaicin (CAP) effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251. Mustard oil (MO) and WIN55,212-2 (WIN) TRPA1 mediated responses were also inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251 (25uM each). Co-treatment of neurons with WIN and either AM630 or AM251 had opposite effects: AM630 sensitized WIN responses, whereas AM251 inhibited WIN responses. WIN-induced inhibition of CAP responses in sensory neurons was reversed by AM630 pre-treatment and AM251 co-treatment (25μM each), as these conditions inhibit WIN responses. Hindpaw injections of AM630 and AM251 did not produce nocifensive behaviors. However, both compounds modulated CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in wild-type mice and rats, but not TRPA1 null-mutant mice. AMs also partially regulate WIN inhibition of CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in a TRPA1-dependent fashion. In summary, these findings demonstrate alternative targets for the cannabinoid antagonists, AM251 and AM630, in peripheral antihyperalgesia which involve certain TRP channels. PMID:21645531

  7. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 activate TRPA1 in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mayur; Patwardhan, Amol; Salas, Margaux M; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Akopian, Armen N

    2011-09-01

    Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been utilized extensively in vivo as well as in vitro, but their selectivity has not been fully examined. We investigated activation of sensory neurons by two cannabinoid antagonists - AM251 and AM630. AM251 and AM630 activated trigeminal (TG) sensory neurons in a concentration-dependent fashion (threshold 1 μM). AM251 and AM630 responses are mediated by the TRPA1 channel in a majority (90-95%) of small-to-medium TG sensory neurons. AM630 (1-100 μM), but not AM251, was a significantly more potent agonist in cells co-expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. We next evaluated AM630 and AM251 effects on TRPV1- and TRPA1-mediated responses in TG neurons. Capsaicin (CAP) effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251. Mustard oil (MO) and WIN55,212-2 (WIN) TRPA1 mediated responses were also inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251 (25 uM each). Co-treatment of neurons with WIN and either AM630 or AM251 had opposite effects: AM630 sensitized WIN responses, whereas AM251 inhibited WIN responses. WIN-induced inhibition of CAP responses in sensory neurons was reversed by AM630 pre-treatment and AM251 co-treatment (25 μM each), as these conditions inhibit WIN responses. Hindpaw injections of AM630 and AM251 did not produce nocifensive behaviors. However, both compounds modulated CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in wild-type mice and rats, but not TRPA1 null-mutant mice. AMs also partially regulate WIN inhibition of CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in a TRPA1-dependent fashion. In summary, these findings demonstrate alternative targets for the cannabinoid antagonists, AM251 and AM630, in peripheral antihyperalgesia which involve certain TRP channels.

  8. The role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in the development and BCR/TLR-dependent activation of AM14 rheumatoid factor B cells

    PubMed Central

    Nündel, Kerstin; Busto, Patricia; Debatis, Michelle; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The protein kinase Btk has been implicated in the development, differentiation, and activation of B cells through its role in the BCR and TLR signaling cascades. These receptors and in particular, the BCR and either TLR7 or TLR9 also play a critical role in the activation of autoreactive B cells by RNA- or DNA-associated autoantigens. To explore the role of Btk in the development of autoreactive B cells, as well as their responses to nucleic acid-associated autoantigens, we have now compared Btk-sufficient and Btk-deficient mice that express a prototypic RF BCR encoded by H- and L-chain sdTgs. These B cells bind autologous IgG2a with low affinity and only proliferate in response to IgG2a ICs that incorporate DNA or RNA. We found that Btk-sufficient RF+ B cells mature into naïve FO B cells, all of which express the Tg BCR, despite circulating levels of IgG2a. By contrast, a significant proportion of Btk-deficient RF+ B cells acquires a MZ or MZ precursor phenotype. Remarkably, despite the complete inability of RF+ Xid/y B cells to respond to F(ab′)2 anti-IgM, RF+ Xid/y B cells could respond well to autoantigen-associated ICs. These data reveal unique features of the signaling cascades responsible for the activation of autoreactive B cells. PMID:23804807

  9. Delineating Glacial Till Bed Kinematics using AMS and Pebble Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentoso, M. J.; Evenson, E.; Kodama, K. P.

    2010-12-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and pebble fabric analysis was used to explore glacial till bed kinematics in streamlined glacial landforms of the Weedsport Drumlin field of north central New York State. Five wave-truncated drumlins were sampled at two locations each along the shore of Lake Ontario. A total of 500 pebble orientations and 250 AMS samples were collected from 10 sampling sites in the drumlins. Six flutes were also sampled at 10 sampling sites for a total of 500 pebble orientations and 200 AMS measurements. All AMS measurements were conducted on a KLY-3s Kappabridge. The average orientation of the maximum principal susceptibility axes for the drumlins (N2°E) was parallel, within 95% confidence limits, to the average pebble long-axis orientations (N5°W) and parallel to the N-S trend of the drumlins. Both AMS and pebble average orientations plunge toward the north in the “up glacier” direction indicating an imbrication due to ice flow. The clustering of the AMS principal axis directions indicates that the strength of the AMS drumlin fabric is highly variable, at 3 of the 10 sites it is as strong as fabrics developed in a ring shear device (Iverson et al., 2008) at intermediate shear strains. AMS fabrics in the flutes are stronger and more unidirectional than for the drumlins with the average pebble direction (N4°E) parallel to the average AMS maximum susceptibility direction (N12°E), but not at the 95% confidence level. Northward plunge of these average orientations indicates an imbrication. The flutes trend N10°W, so the fabric orientations are not as closely parallel to the glacial landforms for the flutes as they are for the drumlins. Thermal demagnetization of three orthogonal components of an isothermal remanent magnetization indicates that the AMS is carried primarily by maghemite. The stronger AMS fabric in the flutes compared to the drumlins suggests that the till of the flutes has been subjected to higher strains and perhaps

  10. “I Am Very, Very Proud of Myself”: Improving Youth Activity Levels Using Self-Determination Theory in Program Development

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Judy B.

    2013-01-01

    Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This 10-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT) approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention. PMID:24350215

  11. Asociación de Hemato-Oncología Pediátrica de Centro América (AHOPCA): a model for sustainable development in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ronald D; Antillón Klussmann, Federico; Baez, Fulgencio; Bonilla, Miguel; Moreno, Belgica; Navarrete, Marta; Nieves, Rosa; Peña, Armando; Conter, Valentino; De Alarcón, Pedro; Howard, Scott C; Ribeiro, Raul C; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Biondi, Andrea; Velez, George; Tognoni, Gianni; Cavalli, Franco; Masera, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Bridging the survival gap for children with cancer, between those (the great majority) in low and middle income countries (LMIC) and their economically advantaged counterparts, is a challenge that has been addressed by twinning institutions in high income countries with centers in LMIC. The long-established partnership between a Central American consortium--Asociación de Hemato-Oncología Pediátrica de Centro América (AHOPCA)--and institutions in Europe and North America provides a striking example of such a twinning program. The demonstrable success of this endeavor offers a model for improving the health outcomes of children with cancer worldwide. As this remarkable enterprise celebrates its 15th anniversary, it is appropriate to reflect on its origin, subsequent growth and development, and the lessons it provides for others embarking on or already engaged in similar journeys. Many challenges have been encountered and not all yet overcome. Commitment to the endeavor, collaboration in its achievements and determination to overcome obstacles collectively are the hallmarks that stamp AHOPCA as a particularly successful partnership in advancing pediatric oncology in the developing world.

  12. 241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Evelyn M; Vieira, David J; Moody, Walter A; Slemmons, Alice K

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time

  13. Performances of the AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Coignet, G.; Girard, L.; Goy, C.; Kossakowski, R.; Lees-Rosier, S.; Pochon, J.; Vialle, J. P.; Cervelli, F.; di Falco, S.; Galeotti, S.; Incagli, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Venanzoni, G.; Falchini, E.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Paoletti, R.; Pilo, F.; Turini, N.; Valle, G.; Bolmont, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Sapinski, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Lu, Y.; Yang, C.

    2004-07-01

    A 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) made of scintillating fibers embedded in lead has been developed for the AMS-02 experiment to be installed on the International Space Station. A full scale ECAL prototype, partially instrumented, was tested in July 2002 in a beam at CERN. Several million events were recorded using muon, electron, proton, and antiproton beams, from which the ECAL behavior was determined. Results on the measurement of the ECAL parameters and performances are presented : radiation length, linearity, energy and angular resolutions, e/p separation.

  14. 7 CFR 65.105 - AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.105 AMS. AMS means the Agricultural Marketing...

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of 243Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Dares, C. J.; Lapides, A. M.; Mincher, B. J.; Meyer, T. J.

    2015-11-05

    A high surface area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand has been applied to the oxidation of trivalent americium to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode are used, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 M acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides, for the first time, a method for accessing the higher oxidation states of Am in non-complexing media for developing the coordination chemistries of Am(V) and Am(VI) and, more importantly, for separation of americium from nuclear waste streams.

  16. The use of AMS to the biomedical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) began making AMS measurements in 1989. Biomedical experiments were originally limited by sample preparation techniques, but we expect the number of biomedical samples to increase five-fold. While many of the detailed techniques for making biomedical measurements resemble those used in other fields, biological tracer experiments differ substantially from the observational approaches of earth science investigators. The role of xenobiotius in initiating mutations in cells is of particular interest. One measure of the damage caused to the genetic material is obtained by counting the number of adducts formed by a chemical agent at a given dose. AMS allows direct measurement of the number of adducts through stoichiometric quantification of the {sup 14}C label attached to the DNA after exposure to a labelled carcinogen. Other isotopes of interest include tritium, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 79}SE, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 26}Al and {sup 129}I. Our experiments with low dose environmental carcinogens reflect the protocols which will become a common part of biomedical AMS. In biomedical experiments, the researcher defines the carbon to be analyzed through dissection and/or chemical purification; thus the sample is merely'' combusted and graphitized at the AMS facility. However, since biomedical samples can have a {sup 14}C range of five orders of magnitude, preparation of graphite required construction of a special manifold to prevent cross-contamination. Additionally, a strain of {sup 14}C-depleted C57BL/6 mice is being developed to further reduce background in biomedical experiments. AMS has a bright and diverse future in radioisotope tracing. Such work requires a dedicated amalgamation of AMS scientists and biomedical researchers who will redesign experimental protocols to maximize the AMS technique and minimize the danger of catastrophic contamination. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Content-Based Networking: DTN, AMS, Sharednet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2006-01-01

    A detailed viewgraph presentation on DTN, AMS, and Sharednet content-based networking is shown. The contents include: 1) DARPA Content-Based Networking Summary of Requirements; 2) Concept; 3) Key Features of AMS; 4) Overview of Sharednet; 5) SharedNet Deployment History; 6) SharedNet AMS DTN; 7) Detailed Structure; and 8) Bottom line.

  18. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of samarium-doped ZnS nanoparticles: A novel visible light responsive photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hanifehpour, Younes; Soltani, Behzad; Amani-Ghadim, Ali Reza; Hedayati, Behnam; Khomami, Bamin; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Sm-doped ZnS Nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The as-prepared compounds were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM and UV techniques. • The photocatalytic effect of compounds was determined by Reactive Red 43 degradation. • The degradation of RRed 43 followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. - Abstract: We prepared pure and samarium-doped ZnS (Sm{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}S{sub 1+0.5x}) nanoparticles via hydrothermal process at 160 °C for 24 h. XRD analysis shows that the particles were well crystallized and corresponds to a cubic sphalerite phase. SEM and TEM images indicate that the sizes of the particles were in the range of 20–60 nm. The photocatalytic activity of Sm-doped ZnS nanoparticles was evaluated by monitoring the decolorization of Reactive Red 43 in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The color removal efficiency of Sm{sub 0.04}Zn{sub 0.96}S and pure ZnS was 95.1% and 28.7% after 120 min of treatment, respectively. Among the different amounts of dopant agent used, 4% Sm-doped ZnS nanoparticles indicated the highest decolorization. We found that the presence of inorganic ions such as Cl{sup −}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and other radical scavengers such as buthanol and isopropyl alcohol reduced the decolorization efficiency.

  1. Understanding low-temperature bulk transport in samarium hexaboride without relying on in-gap bulk states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoski, A.; Eo, Y. S.; Sun, K.; Kurdak, ć.

    2017-05-01

    We present a new model to explain the difference between the transport and spectroscopy gaps in samarium hexaboride (SmB6), which has been a mystery for some time. We propose that SmB6 can be modeled as an intrinsic semiconductor with an accumulation length that diverges at cryogenic temperatures. In this model, we find a self-consistent solution to Poisson's equation in the bulk, with boundary conditions based on Fermi energy pinning due to surface charges. The solution yields band bending in the bulk; this explains the difference between the two gaps because spectroscopic methods measure the gap near the surface, while transport measures the average over the bulk. We also connect the model to transport parameters, including the Hall coefficient and thermopower, using semiclassical transport theory. The divergence of the accumulation length additionally explains the 10-12 K feature in data for these parameters, demonstrating a crossover from bulk dominated transport above this temperature to surface-dominated transport below this temperature. We find good agreement between our model and a collection of transport data from 4-40 K. This model can also be generalized to materials with similar band structure.

  2. Magnetic phase transition of nanocrystalline Fe-doped samarium oxide (Sm1.90Fe0.10O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, J.; Sarkar, B. J.; Deb, A. K.; Chakrabarti, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe3+ doped samarium oxide (Sm1.90Fe0.10O3) has been prepared by the co-precipitation method. The as prepared sample has been annealed at 700 °C for 6 h in an argon atmosphere. The pure crystallographic phase as well as the substitution of Fe3+ ions in the lattice of Sm2O3 is confirmed by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns. The variation of magnetic susceptibility (χ) with temperature (T) is recorded by a Faraday Magnetometer in the temperature range of 300-14 K. The variation of χ vs. T down to ~50 K was successfully fitted by the Curie-Weiss law and below this temperature, susceptibility increases very rapidly, which suggests the presence of ordering at low temperature. To explore this, magnetic measurements are also carried out at different temperatures down to 2 K by using a SQUID Magnetometer. No hysteretic behavior is observed down to 50 K, but a feeble ferromagnetic behavior is observed in the magnetization vs. field curve recorded at ~30 K. A clear hysteresis loop is observed at 2 K with a comparatively high value of maximum magnetization (~3.32 emu/gm). The observed magnetic phase transition is analyzed by using the dipole-dipole interaction among the magnetic nanoparticles at low temperature.

  3. Observation of near infrared and enhanced visible emissions from electroluminescent devices with organo samarium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, B.; Li, W. L.; Hong, Z. R.; Zang, F. X.; Wei, H. Z.; Wang, D. Y.; Li, M. T.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2006-11-01

    Samarium (dibenzoylmethanato)3 bathophenanthroline (Sm(DBM)3 bath) was employed as an emitting and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and narrow electroluminescent (EL) emissions of a Sm3+ ion were observed in the visible and near infrared (NIR) region, differing from those of the same devices with Eu3+- or Tb3+-complex EL devices with the same structure. The EL emissions of the Sm3+-devices originate from transitions from 4G5/2 to the lower respective levels of Sm3+ ions. A maximum luminance of 490 cd m-2 at 15 V and an EL efficiency of 0.6% at 0.17 mA cm-2 were obtained in the visible region, and the improved efficiency should be attributed to introducing a transitional layer between the N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) film and the Sm(DBM)3 bath film and the avoidance of interfacial exciplex emission in devices. Sharp emissions of Sm3+ ions in the NIR region were also observed under a lower threshold value less than 4.5 V.

  4. Samarium-153 therapy for prostate cancer: the evaluation of urine activity, staff exposure and dose rate from patients.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Yasemin; Gumuser, Gul; Sayit, Elvan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of Samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acid ((153)Sm-EDTMP) in urine and to calculate the dose rate of its retention in the body as a function of time and the dose received by the skin of laboratory staff's finger. Urine samples were collected from 11 patients after intravenous injection of (153)Sm-EDTMP. The measurements of dose rate were performed. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used for absorbed dose measurements. Effective half-lives that were calculated from urine sample measurements were found as 7.1±3 h within the first 24 h. Whole body dose rates before collecting urine of patients were 60.0 ± 15.7 µSv h(-1) for within 1 h following (153)Sm-EDTMP administration. The highest finger radiation dose is to the right-hand thumb (3.8 ± 2 mGy). The results of the study imply that patients who recieved (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy should be kept a minumum of 8 h in an isolated room at hospital and that one staff should give therapy at most two patients per week. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Intense Red Catho- and Photoluminescence from 200 nm Thick Samarium Doped Amorphous AlN Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Samarium (Sm) doped aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are deposited on silicon (100) substrates at 77 K by rf magnetron sputtering method. Thick films of 200 nm are grown at 100–200 watts RF power and 5–8 m Torr nitrogen, using a metal target of Al with Sm. X-ray diffraction results show that films are amorphous. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies are performed and four peaks are observed in Sm at 564, 600, 648, and 707 nm as a result of4G5/2 → 6H5/2,4G5/2 → 6H7/2,4G5/2 → 6H9/2, and4G5/2 → 6H11/2transitions. Photoluminescence (PL) provides dominant peaks at 600 and 707 nm while CL gives the intense peaks at 600 nm and 648 nm, respectively. Films are thermally activated at 1,200 K for half an hour in a nitrogen atmosphere. Thermal activation enhances the intensity of luminescence. PMID:20596367

  6. A SnO2-samarium doped ceria additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Baolong; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2016-02-01

    The role of a SnO2-samarium doped ceria (SDC) additional anode layer in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) with SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite electrolyte and lithiated NiO-SDC-(Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 composite cathode is investigated and compared with a NiO-SDC extra anode layer. Catalytic grown carbon fiber mixed with (Li0.67Na0.33)2CO3 is used as a fuel. At 750 °C, the maximum power outputs of 192 and 143 mW cm-2 are obtained by the cells with SnO2-SDC and NiO-SDC layers, respectively. In the SnO2-SDC layer, the reduction of SnO2 and the oxidation of Sn happen simultaneously during the cell operation, and the Sn/SnO2 redox cycle provides an additional route for fuel conversion. The formation of an insulating dense interlayer between the anode and electrolyte layers, which usually happens in DCFCs with metal anodes, is avoided in the cell with the SnO2-SDC layer, and the stability of the cell is improved consequently.

  7. Novel spectrofluorimetric method for measuring the activity of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase using the nano composite optical sensor samarium(III)-doxycycline complex doped in sol-gel matrix.

    PubMed

    Attia, M S; Othman, A M; Aboaly, M M; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2010-07-15

    A novel, simple, sensitive, and precise spectrofluorimetric method was developed for measuring the activity of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU). The method was based upon measuring the quenching of the luminescence intensity of the produced yellow colored complex ion associate of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol [2-CNP] and a nano composite optical sensor samarium(III)-doxycycline [Sm(3+)-DC](+) complex in a sol-gel matrix at 645 nm. The remarkable quenching of the luminescence intensity of the [Sm(3+)-DC](+) complex doped in a sol-gel matrix by various concentrations of the reagent [2-CNP] was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of AFU activity. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 3.4 x 10(-9)-1.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) [2-CNP] with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a detection limit of 6.0 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The method was used satisfactorily for the assessment of the AFU activity in a number of serum samples collected from various patients. A significant correlation between the luminescence activity of the enzyme AFU measured by the proposed procedure and the standard method was applied to patients and controls. The method proceeds without practical artifacts compared to the standard method.

  8. The Radiolysis of AmVI Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2013-06-01

    The reduction of bismuthate-produced AmVI by 60Co gamma-rays was measured using post-irradiation UV/Vis spectroscopy. The reduction of AmVI by radiolysis was rapid, producing AmV as the sole product. Relatively low absorbed doses in the ~0.3 kGy range quantitatively reduced a solution of 2.5 x 10-4 M AmVI. The addition of bismuthate to samples during irradiation did not appear to protect AmVI from radiolytic reduction during these experiments. It was also shown here that AmV is very stable toward radiation. The quantitative reduction of the AmVI concentration here corresponds to 1.4 hours of exposure to a process solution, however the actual americium concentrations will be higher and the expected contact times short when using centrifugal contactors. Thus, the reduction rate found in these initial experiments may not be excessive.

  9. Effectiveness of radiation synovectomy with samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite in rheumatoid arthritis patients with knee synovitis: a controlled randomized double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marla Francisca dos; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Marchetti, Renata Rosa; Natour, Jamil

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Samarium(153)-particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic knee synovitis. Fifty-eight rheumatoid arthritis patients (60 knees) with chronic knee synovitis participated in a controlled double-blinded trial. Patients were randomized to receive either an intra-articular injection with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone (TH group) or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide combined with 15 mCi Samarium(153)-particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm/TH group). Blinded examination at baseline (T0) and at 1 (T1), 4 (T4), 12 (T12), 32 (T32), and 48 (T48) weeks post-intervention were performed on all patients and included a visual analog scale for joint pain and swelling as well as data on morning stiffness, flexion, extension, knee circumference, Likert scale of improvement, percentage of improvement, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Lequesne index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral corticosteroids, events and adverse effects, calls to the physician, and hospital visits. The sample was homogeneous at baseline, and there were no withdrawals. Improvement was observed in both groups in relation to T0, but no statistically significant differences between groups were observed regarding all variables at the time points studied. The Sm/TH group exhibited more adverse effects at T1 (p<0.05), but these were mild and transitory. No severe adverse effects were reported during follow-up. Intra-articular injection of Samarium(153)-particulate hydroxyapatite (15 mCi) with 40 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide is not superior to triamcinolone hexacetonide alone for the treatment of knee synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at 1 y of follow-up.

  10. Effectiveness of radiation synovectomy with Yttrium-90 and Samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite in rheumatoid arthritis patients with knee synovitis: a controlled, randomized, double-blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marla Francisca; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Marchetti, Renata Rosa; Silva, Constancia Pagano Gonçalves; Natour, Jamil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of and tolerance to Yttrium-90 and Samarium-153-particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic knee synovitis. Eight-four patients (90 knees) with chronic knee synovitis and RA (according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria) participated in a controlled, double-blinded trial. Patients were randomized to receive an intra-articular injection with either 5 mCi Yttrium-90 plus 40 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide (Y/TH Group), 15 mCi Samarium-153 hydroxyapatite plus 40 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide (Sm/TH Group), or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone (Control Group). Blinded examination at baseline, 1, 4, 12, 32, and 48 weeks post-intervention included a visual analog scale for joint pain and swelling, morning stiffness, range of motion, knee circumference, Likert scale, percentage of improvement, Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, Lequesne index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids, events and adverse effects, calls to the physician, and hospital visits. There were three withdrawals prior to the injections. Regarding the pain, there was a significantly better response in the Y/TH Group versus the Sm/TH Group at T1 (p = 0.025) and versus TH alone at T48 (p = 0.026). The Sm/TH group had more adverse effects (p = 0.042), but these were mild and transitory. For the pain parameter alone, Yttrium-90 radiosynovectomy associated to TH proved superior to Samarium-153 hydroxyapatite radiosynovectomy associated to TH at T1 and to synovectomy with TH at T48. No other statistically significant inter-group differences were detected.

  11. Effectiveness of Radiation Synovectomy with Samarium-153 Particulate Hydroxyapatite in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Knee Synovitis: A Controlled Randomized Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Marla Francisca; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Marchetti, Renata Rosa; Natour, Jamil

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Samarium153-particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic knee synovitis. METHODS: Fifty-eight rheumatoid arthritis patients (60 knees) with chronic knee synovitis participated in a controlled double-blinded trial. Patients were randomized to receive either an intra-articular injection with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone (TH group) or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide combined with 15 mCi Samarium153-particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm/TH group). Blinded examination at baseline (T0) and at 1 (T1), 4 (T4), 12 (T12), 32 (T32), and 48 (T48) weeks post-intervention were performed on all patients and included a visual analog scale for joint pain and swelling as well as data on morning stiffness, flexion, extension, knee circumference, Likert scale of improvement, percentage of improvement, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Lequesne index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral corticosteroids, events and adverse effects, calls to the physician, and hospital visits. RESULTS: The sample was homogeneous at baseline, and there were no withdrawals. Improvement was observed in both groups in relation to T0, but no statistically significant differences between groups were observed regarding all variables at the time points studied. The Sm/TH group exhibited more adverse effects at T1 (p<0.05), but these were mild and transitory. No severe adverse effects were reported during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular injection of Samarium153-particulate hydroxyapatite (15 mCi) with 40 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide is not superior to triamcinolone hexacetonide alone for the treatment of knee synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at 1 y of follow-up. PMID:20037706

  12. Ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Badiei, Alireza; Behnajady, Mohammad A; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, pure TiO2 and samarium, cerium mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method and their sonocatalytic efficiency studied toward removal of Methyl Orange as a model organic pollutant from the textile industry. The relationship of structure and sonocatalytic performance of catalysts was established by using various techniques, such as XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DRS, and PL. A comparison on the removal efficiency of sonolysis alone and sonocatalytic processes was performed. The results showed that the samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 catalyst with narrower band gap energy and smaller particle size leads to a rapid removal of pollutant. It was believed that Sm(3+) and Ce(4+) ions can serve as superficial trapping for electrons at conduction band of TiO2 and prolonged the lifetime of electron-hole pairs. Finally, the effect of synthesis and operational variables on the sonocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 catalyst was studied and optimized using response surface methodology as a statistical technique. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency (96.33%) was achieved at the optimum conditions: samarium content of 0.6 wt%, cerium content of 0.82 wt%, initial pollutant concentration of 4.31 mg L(-1), catalyst dosage of 0.84 mg L(-1), ultrasonic irradiation power of 700 W, and irradiation time of 50 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ketone-imide versus ketone-oxime reductive cross-coupling promoted by samarium diiodide: new mechanistic insight gained from a failed aminocyclopentitol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiara, Jose Luis; García, Angela; Cristóbal-Lumbroso, Gabriella

    2005-05-13

    [reaction: see text] The intramolecular 1,6-ketone/imide reductive coupling promoted by samarium diiodide competes favorably with an alternative 1,5-ketone/oxime ether coupling in a keto-oxime substrate derived from D-glucosamine N-protected with a phthalimido group. This pinacol coupling reaction affords new homochiral alpha-hydroxylactam scaffolds that could be useful in diversity-oriented synthesis. A mechanistic proposal for this reaction that explains the experimental results is supported by DFT quantum-mechanical calculations on model compounds.

  14. On the possibility of reduction of Ac{sup 3+} to Ac{sup 2+} in Aqueous-ethanolic solutions of bivalent samarium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Veleshko, I.E.; Kamenskaya, A.N.

    1995-07-01

    In view of contradictory data on the existence of Ac{sup 2+} in aqueous solutions, the possibility of actinium reduction was examined in aqueous-ethanolic solutions in which bivalent f-elements are more stable than in aqueous media. In the presence of bivalent samarium (E{sub Sm}{sup 0}3+/Sm 2+=-1.5 V) Ac(III) is not reduced to Ac(II). These results disagree with the previously published data on the radiopolarographic generation of Ac(II) in aqueous solutions.

  15. Oxidative addition/decarbonylation of. alpha. ,. omega. -alkanedioyl dichlorides. Metallacycle formation via intramolecular reductive cyclization of a pendant acid chloride with samarium(II) iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Zizelman, P.M.; Stryker, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Controlled oxidative addition and decarbonylation at one end of {alpha},{omega}-alkanedioyl dichlorides is reported with (Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Ir(N{sub 2})Cl, giving Ir(III) alkyl complexes bearing a pendant acid chloride functionality. The use of the dinitrogen complex enables suppression of competitive intramolecular lactonization processes. Use of 2 equiv of samarium(II) diiodide uniquely promotes intramolecular reductive cyclometalation of one of these complexes, forming a cyclic acyl complex. This cyclization is highly sensitive to both electronic factors in the substrate and the nature and stoichiometry of the reducing agent.

  16. The theoretical basis and clinical methodology for stereotactic interstitial brain tumor irradiation using iododeoxyuridine as a radiation sensitizer and samarium-145 as a brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, J.H.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Kanellitsas, C.; Clendenon, N.R. ); Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G. )

    1989-01-01

    High grade astrocytomas have proven resistant to all conventional therapy. A technique to produce radiation enhancement during interstitial brain tumor irradiation by using a radiation sensitizer (IdUrd) and by stimulation of Auger electron cascades through absorption of low energy photons in iodine (Photon activation) is described. Clinical studies using IdUrd, {sup 192}Ir as a brachytherapy source, and external radiation have produced promising results. Substituting samarium-145 for {sup 192}Ir in this protocol is expected to produce enhanced results. 15 refs.

  17. Synthesis of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides with high selectivity from alpha,beta-epoxyamides by using catalytic samarium diiodide or triiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bernad, Pablo L; Bardales, Eva

    2004-05-17

    The highly stereoselective synthesis of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides starting from alpha,beta-epoxyamides, by using catalytic SmI2 or SmI3, was achieved. This transformation can also be carried out by using SmI2 generated in situ from samarium powder and diiodomethane. The starting compounds 1 are easily prepared by the reaction of enolates derived from alpha-chloroamides with ketones at -78 degrees C. A mechanism to explain this transformation has been proposed. Cyclopropanation of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides has been performed to demonstrate their synthetic applications.

  18. A simulation study of linear RF ion guides for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.-L.; Litherland, A. E.

    2015-02-01

    The use of radiofrequency multipoles and particularly the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) controlled gas cell to facilitate on-line isobar separations for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is being explored experimentally and theoretically in a preliminary way at present. These new methods have the potential to extend greatly the analytical scope of AMS. However, there are many technical challenges to adapt an RF gas cell isobar separating device and still maintain stable and high transmission for routine AMS using the high current Cs+ sputter ion sources developed for nuclear physics and adapted to the detection of rare radioactive isotopes for AMS. An overview of linear RF ion guide properties is therefore needed to assist in the conceptualization of their efficient additions into AMS. In this work the intrinsic properties of linear RF ion guides, which are relevant to the generation of the RF induced ion energy distributions and for the evaluation of the ion transmissions in vacuum, are systematically studied using SIMION 8.1. These properties are compared among radiofrequency quadrupole, hexapole and octupole ion guides, so that their usefulness for AMS applications can be evaluated and compared. By simulation it is found that to prepare a typical RF captured AMS ion beam to within a safe range of ion energies prior to the onset of gas interactions, a higher multipole is more suitable for the first RF field receptor, while a quadrupole operated with q2 ∼ 0.5 is more suited as the final ion guide for concentrating the energy-cooled ions near axis.

  19. AM: An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Discovery in Mathematics as Heuristic Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    the domain of elementary number theory. AM was not designed to prove anything, but it did conjecture many well -known relationships (e.g., the unique...better research than either could alone.8 Although most of the concepts AM proposed and developed were already very well known, AM defined some of them...do mathematical research well , I claim that it is necessary and sufficent to have good methods for proposing new concepts from existing ones, and for

  20. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, R. J.; Kazi, Z. H.; Zhao, X.-L.; Chartrand, M. G.; Charles, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF3. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF3 precipitates were diluted about 6-8 fold with PbF2. The measured concentrations of 239,240Pu and 241Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of 239,240Pu and 241Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  1. Prospective evaluation of samarium-153-EDTMP radionuclide treatment for bone metastases in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, J; Vizda, J; Odrazka, K

    2007-01-01

    Bone is a common site of metastatic disease and the most frequent site of metastatic spread in patients with prostate cancer. Most patients with bone metastases complain of bone pains. This pain may be alleviated or eliminated by administration of radiotherapy at the site of metastases. Currently, two forms of radiotherapy administration exist: external-beam irradiation or intravenous administration of bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmacon such as samarium-153-ethylene-diamino-tetramethylene-phosphonate (EDTMP). This radiopharmacon produces beta-particles and concentrates in the areas of enhanced osteoblastic activity. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy. 32 men (aged 50-83, mean 70 years) with bone disseminated hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone pain received (153)Sm-EDTMP. Mean applied dosage was 40 MBq/kg of the patient's body weight. Karnofsky performance status, pain score (numerical rating scale), analgesic score (WHO) and blood count were evaluated before, and 1 and 3 months after the treatment. Significant pain relief was observed in 44 and 38% of patients, mild relief in 31 and 34% and no effect in 25 and 28% of patients, 1 and 3 months after administration, respectively. Pain palliation was accompanied by an improvement in mobility and a decrease in necessary dosage of analgesics. Mild and transient bone marrow suppression was observed as a side effect of (153)Sm-EDTMP treatment. None of the patients showed hematological toxicity grade 4, and only 2 showed grade 3 (NCI CTC). The majority of the patients had hematological toxicity grade 1 or 2. After (153)Sm-EDTMP administration, bone pain palliation was observed in 72% of patients for 3 months. Hematological toxicity after (153)Sm-EDTMP treatment was mild and transient.

  2. Vascular radiolesion as a deleterious effect of high-dose-rate intraarterial brachytherapy with samarium-153 in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Précoma, Dalton Bertolim; Noronha, Lúcia; Moura, Alvaro Vieira; Yamada, Airton Seiji; Knopfholz, José; Dusilek, César Lopes; Perussolo, Rita; Brofman, Paulo Roberto Slud; Olandoski, Márcia; Meneghetti, José Cláudio

    2006-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate vascular morphological and morphometric changes induced by brachytherapy with samarium-153 (Sm-153) at high doses in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Forty-three New Zealand White hypercholesterolemic rabbits were analyzed, and the total of 86 iliac arteries underwent balloon angioplasty injury. The rabbits were divided into three different groups: two irradiation groups (IG) assigned to 15 Gy (n=14) and 60 Gy (n=36) irradiation doses, respectively, and a control group (n = 36). Histomorphometric and qualitative histological analyses were performed for tissue evaluation. Significant reductions were found in neointimal proliferation (NIP) (p< 0.0001), media area (MA) (p<0.0001) and percent stenosis (p<0.0001) in the 15-Gy IG, compared to the other groups. The 60-Gy IG had the higher rate of NIP, increase in media and vessel areas (VA) and percent stenosis. The 60-Gy IG also showed the greatest number of xanthomatous cells (60-Gy IG: 86.11% and 15-Gy IG: 14.29%, p<0.0001) and the highest amount of hyaline amorphous tissue (60-Gy IG:58.33% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0001) and vascular proliferation (60-Gy IG:30.56% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0221). No statistically significant differences were found among groups concerning other tissue analyses. The high-dose irradiation of 60 Gy resulted in intense cell proliferation considered vascular radiolesion, unlike the 15-Gy dose, which was associated with an excellent inhibition of neointimal proliferation.

  3. Safety and efficacy of repeat administration of samarium Sm-153 lexidronam to patients with metastatic bone pain.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Oliver; Reid, Robert H; Bushnell, David L; Quick, Donald P; Ell, Peter J

    2007-02-01

    Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (Sm-153) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for painful bone metastases. The purpose of the analysis was to assess the safety and efficacy of repeated doses of Sm-153 in patients with metastatic bone pain. Data were collected prospectively for 202 patients administered 1.0 mCi/kg of Sm-153. Particular emphasis was placed on analysis of data from 55 patients receiving > or = 2 doses. Pain scores, adverse events, and hematologic parameters were assessed after each dose. Mild, transient suppression of platelets and white blood cell counts was the most common adverse event after treatment. Nadirs were approximately half of baseline at 4 weeks after dosing with recovery by Week 8 in 90% of patients. Temporary grade 3 thrombocytopenia occurred in 11%, 12%, and 17% of patients after the first, second, and third drug administration, respectively. Grade 3 leukopenia occurred in less than 7% of patients independent of the number of administrations. Significant decreases in pain scores (P < .001) were observed at Week 4 after each of the first 3 doses and maintained at Week 8 after the first 2 doses (P < .003) but not the third. Decreases in pain scores were observed in 70%, 63%, and 80% of patients, respectively, at Week 4 after the first 3 administrations. Repeated dosing of 1.0 mCi/kg of Sm-153 was both safe and effective and is a reasonable treatment option in patients whose bone pain responds and then recurs after an initial dose provided that adequate hematologic function is present at the time of drug administration. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  4. Radioactive synovectomy with (90) yttrium and (153) samarium hydroxyapatite in haemophilic joints: preliminary study on radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S; Mendes, J D; Souza, S A; Lorenzato, C S; Assi, P E; Pacheco, L R L; Gabriel, M B; Bordim, A; Gutfilen, B; da Fonseca, L M B

    2013-07-01

    Most countries still do not achieve 1 IU of factor VIII/capita sufficient for survival. Although primary prophylaxis prevents synovitis, is not universally used. Chronic synovitis is treated with arthroscopy at expense of considerable amount of coagulation factors, and specialized surgeons. Radioactive synovectomy (RS) is a minimally invasive and cost effective alternative to arthroscopy, often considered first the option for persistent synovitis. Even without established causation with cancer, RS is avoided by some, due to this concern. We aim contributing to the understanding of RS safety regarding malignancy, presenting a large number of treated patients, and a single case of cancer. Three centres in Brazil applied RS with (90) Yttrium Citrate, (90) Yttrium hydroxyapatite or (153) Samarium hydroxyapatite in haemophilic joints and performed a survey addressing cancer in these patients. Four hundred and eighty eight patients (ages 3-51) received 1-3 RS (total 842) and follow-up was 6 months to 9 years. One patient aged 14 years presented Ewing sarcoma, 11 months after RS. The tumour was treated successfully with surgery and chemotherapy. Causality of cancer by RS is improbable in this case. Accordingly, latency here is far below minimum 5-10 years for radio-induction of solid tumours. Moreover, ES is not a typically radio-induced tumour, even at high doses. In agreement with others, though recognizing limitations, this study suggests RS is safe regarding cancer induction. Synovitis is a known burden for patients. The decision of making reasonable usage of RS should be outweighed with the risks of leaving synovitis untreated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Phase I Trial of Vertebral Intracavitary Cement and Samarium (VICS): Novel Technique for Treatment of Painful Vertebral Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ashamalla, Hani; Cardoso, Erico; Macedon, Mark; Guirguis, Adel; Weng Lijun; Ali, Shamsah; Mokhtar, Bahaa; Ashamalla, Michael; Panigrahi, Nokul

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Kyphoplasty is an effective procedure to alleviate pain in vertebral metastases. However, it has no proven anticancer activity. Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) is used for palliative treatment of bone metastases. A standard dose of 1 mCi/kg is administrated intravenously. The present study was conducted to determine the feasibility of intravertebral administration of {sup 153}Sm with kyphoplasty. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 procedures were performed in 26 patients. Of these 26 patients, 7 underwent procedures performed at two vertebral levels. The mean age of the cohort was 64 years (range, 33-86). The kyphoplasty procedure was performed using a known protocol; 1-4 mCi of {sup 153}Sm was admixed with the bone cement and administered under tight radiation safety measures. Serial nuclear body scans were obtained. Pain assessment was evaluated using a visual analog pain score. Results: All patients tolerated the procedure well. No procedure-related morbidities were noted. No significant change had occurred in the blood counts at 1 month after the procedure. One case was not technically satisfactory. Nuclear scans revealed clear radiotracer uptake in the other 32 vertebrae injected. Except for the first patient, no radiation leakage was encountered. The mean pain score using the visual analog scale improved from 8.6 before to 2.8 after the procedure (p < .0001). Follow-up bone scans demonstrated a 43% decrease in the tracer uptake. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the combination of intravertebral administration of {sup 153}Sm and kyphoplasty is well tolerated with adequate pain control. No hematologic adverse effects were found. A reduction of the bone scan tracer uptake was observed in the injected vertebrae. Longer follow-up is needed to study the antineoplastic effect of the procedure.

  6. Determination of rare earth impurities in high purity samarium oxide using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after extraction chromatographic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinquan; Liu, Jinglei; Yi, Yong; Liu, Yonglin; Li, Xiang; Su, Yaqin; Lin, Ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the determination of trace of 14 rare earth elements (REEs) as impurities in high purity samarium oxide (Sm2O3) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was described. Analytes, such as La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Lu and Y were measured without Sm matrix separation because of no interference problems occurring that could affect the analysis of these elements. On the other hand, analytes, such as Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb were carried out after Sm matrix being eliminated completely by means of 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen-ethylhexy phosphonate (EHEHP) extraction chromatographic separation. The inherent problem associated with matrix-induced suppression was effectively compensated with spiking In as internal standard element and the mass spectra isobaric interferences of atomic and molecular ions arose from Sm matrix had been overcome after the removal of Sm matrix. The limits of quantitations (LOQ) for 14 REEs impurities were from 0.01 to 0.07 [mu]g g-1 together with the recoveries of spiking sample of 14 REEs were found to be in the range of 85-110% and the proposed method precision was less than 5%. A synthetic standard Sm2O3 sample with well-known 14 REEs concentrations was prepared and analysed in order to prove the accuracy and precision of the proposed method together with another high purity Sm2O3 was also measured using ICP-MS. The methodology had been found to be suitable for the determination of trace of 14 REEs in 99.999-99.9999% high purity Sm2O3.

  7. Dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Nath, R; Gray, L

    1987-06-01

    Sealed sources of 241Am emit primarily 60 keV photons which, because of multiple Compton scattering, produce dose distributions in water that are comparable to those from 226Ra or 137Cs. However, americium gamma rays can be shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials since the half value layer thickness is only 1/8th of a mm of lead for americium gamma rays as compared to a value of 12 mm for 226Ra gamma rays. This may allow effective in vivo shielding of critical organs, for example; the bladder can be partially shielded by hypaque solution, and the rectum and sigmoid colon by barium sulfate. In addition, the exposure to medical personnel involved in intracavitary application and patient care may be reduced substantially by the use of relatively thin lead aprons and light weight, portable shields. To investigate the feasibility of 241Am sources for intracavitary irradiation, dosimetry studies on prototype 241Am sources have been performed and a computer model for the determination of dose distributions around encapsulated cylindrical sources of 241Am has been developed and tested. Results of dosimetry measurements using ionization chambers, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, a scanning scintillation probe, and film dosimetry, confirm theoretical predictions that these sources can deliver dose rates adequate for intracavitary irradiation. Further dosimetry measurements in simulated clinical situations using lead foils and test tubes filled with hypaque or barium sulfate, confirm the predicted effectiveness of in vivo shielding which can be readily achieved with 241Am sources.

  8. AM-AM/AM-PM distortion versus complex Volterra kernels for modeling RF transceiver blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimmino, Rosario F.; Monsurrò, Pietro; Romano, Francesco; Scotti, Giuseppe; Trifiletti, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    We investigate AM/PM distortion models and compare them with baseband (BB) Volterra models. We show that the AM/PM model can be considered a special case of memoryless baseband Volterra models, and that adding memory can improve modeling accuracy by allowing the simulation of more complex nonlinearities. We report models of an LNA, a downconversion mixer, an upconversion mixer, and one class-AB Power Amplifier. All circuits are simulated using the 45nm STMicroelectronics CMOS process with Virtuoso, while the PA, with discrete devices, is simulated using ADS. Adding memory improves performance at the expense of increased numerical complexity: this makes real-time simulation and real-time calibration more expensive, so that there is a trade-off between complexity and accuracy or linearity (after calibration). Foreground calibration's techniques only require the real-time computation of the correction (inverse) system's output, whereas background calibration also requires the real-time estimation of the model coefficients, so the relevant complexity is that which is required during correction.

  9. Mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C

    1995-12-01

    The mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses implanted in 203 patients from April 1985 to June 1995 were evaluated. AMS Hydroflex prosthesis showed the highest incidence of mechanical failure (18.8%; 6/32 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 94.5 (64-117) months. Mean functioning time of the prostheses until malfunction was 50 (0-100) months. Bilateral fractures at junction of rear reservior and inflation chamber were found in 3 patients. AMS Dynaflex had a failure rate of 2.4% (2/85 patients) for an average of 35.3 (1-59) months. One patient showed complete fracture of silicone ball covering the proximal end of rear reservior onto which rear tip extenders are snapped. Regarding 3-piece inflatable prosthesis, AMS 700, AMS 700CX and AMS Ultrex had failure rates of 11.1% (1/9 patients), 10.5% (2/19 patients) and 4.0% (1/25 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 116.4 (103-125), 79.0 (60-94) and 44.4 (22-57) months, respectively. The verified causes of the mechanical failures were a tiny rupture of the cylinder in one case of AMS 700, an incomplete fracture of input tube in one case of AMS 700CX and a pump malfunction in one case of Ultrex. However, none of 33 cases of AMS 700CXM showed mechanical failure for an average of 21.3 (2-43) months. Therefore, AMS 700CXM and Ultrex seem to be very reliable, and the reliability of AMS Dynaflex was much higher than that of AMS Hydroflex. However, the long-term reliability of these devices needs more time to be determined.

  10. Mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses implanted in 203 patients from April 1985 to June 1995 were evaluated. AMS Hydroflex prosthesis showed the highest incidence of mechanical failure (18.8%; 6/32 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 94.5 (64-117) months. Mean functioning time of the prostheses until malfunction was 50 (0-100) months. Bilateral fractures at junction of rear reservior and inflation chamber were found in 3 patients. AMS Dynaflex had a failure rate of 2.4% (2/85 patients) for an average of 35.3 (1-59) months. One patient showed complete fracture of silicone ball covering the proximal end of rear reservior onto which rear tip extenders are snapped. Regarding 3-piece inflatable prosthesis, AMS 700, AMS 700CX and AMS Ultrex had failure rates of 11.1% (1/9 patients), 10.5% (2/19 patients) and 4.0% (1/25 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 116.4 (103-125), 79.0 (60-94) and 44.4 (22-57) months, respectively. The verified causes of the mechanical failures were a tiny rupture of the cylinder in one case of AMS 700, an incomplete fracture of input tube in one case of AMS 700CX and a pump malfunction in one case of Ultrex. However, none of 33 cases of AMS 700CXM showed mechanical failure for an average of 21.3 (2-43) months. Therefore, AMS 700CXM and Ultrex seem to be very reliable, and the reliability of AMS Dynaflex was much higher than that of AMS Hydroflex. However, the long-term reliability of these devices needs more time to be determined. PMID:8924226

  11. WSRC Am/Cm Stabilization Program - Cylindrical Induction Melter Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.A.

    1999-02-17

    1.1.1 Kilogram quantities of Americium and Curium isotopes (Am/Cm) have been produced at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. These highly radioactive isotopes have both government and commercial value and are currently stored as a nitric acid solution at the Savannah River Site. The material represents the largest source term in the F canyon at SRS. It is proposed that the Am/Cm material be vitrified to stabilize the material for long term, recoverable storage. This paper reviews the progress made during the process development phase of this program using the Cylindrical Induction Melter.

  12. Status report on the Seoul National University AMS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. C.; Youn, M.; Kim, I. C.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Kang, J.; Choi, H. R.

    2004-08-01

    We report recent progress at the Seoul National University AMS facility in the area of sample preparations, facility maintenance, and briefly describe examples of present applications and future plans. The background level depending on the preparation methods is discussed, and water preparation line that are still under development is described. As the successful application of our facility, dating results of a historic site and a Paleolithic site, dating of Siberian permafrost and bomb pulse measurement are shown. Future plans for Be/Al AMS and biomedical application are discussed.

  13. Further study on highly sensitive AMS measurement of 53Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kejun, Dong; Hao, Hu; Xianggao, Wang; Chaoli, Li; Ming, He; Zhenyu, Li; Shaoyong, Wu; Jiancheng, Liu; Guowen, Zheng; Heng, Li; Zhigang, Chen; Guangshan, Liu; Jian, Yuan; Shan, Jiang

    2012-08-01

    The AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy has been equipped with a ΔE-Q3D detection system for the measurements of 53Mn. While the sample material of MnO2 and the extraction ions of MnO- were used previously in AMS measurement of 53Mn with fairly good results, a method has recently been developed with the extraction of MnF- from ion source using MnF2 and MnO2 + PbF2 as sample materials. As a result, a sensitivity of 10-14 (53Mn/Mn) has been achieved. Compared with the original MnO-/MnO2 approach, the method of MnF- extraction, combined with ΔE-Q3D detection technique, demonstrated an improved sensitivity for AMS measurement of 53Mn.

  14. The AMS-02 lead-scintillating fibres Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Basara, L.; Bigongiari, G.; Bosi, F.; Brun, P.; Cadoux, F.; Cervelli, F.; Chambert, V.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Coignet, G.; Cougoulat, G.; Di Falco, S.; Dubois, J. M.; Elles, S.; Falchini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fougeron, D.; Fouque, N.; Galeotti, S.; Gallucci, G.; Gherarducci, F.; Girard, L.; Giuseppe, F.; Goy, C.; Hermel, R.; Incagli, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Journet, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Lepareur, V.; Li, Z. H.; Lieunard, B.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, Y. S.; Maestro, P.; Magazzù, C.; Maire, M.; Orsini, A.; Paniccia, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Peltier, F.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Pochon, J.; Rambure, T.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Spinella, F.; Tang, X. W.; Tassan-Viol, J.; Tazzioli, A.; Vannini, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Zhuang, H. L.

    2013-06-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a fine grained lead-scintillating fibres sampling calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the longitudinal and lateral shower development. It provides a high (≥106) electron/hadron discrimination with the other AMS-02 detectors [1] and good energy resolution. The calorimeter also provides a standalone photon trigger capability to AMS-02. The mechanical assembly was realized to ensure minimum weight, still supporting the intrinsically heavy calorimeter during launch. ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from GeV up to TeV. A full-scale flight-like model was tested using electrons and proton beams with energies ranging from 6 to 250 GeV.

  15. Cylinder problems with AMS 700 inflatable penile prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Fein, R L

    1988-04-01

    Six cases of cylinder problems encountered in 1986 with the AMS 700 Silastic inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) were studied in detail. The problems included 1 case of significant penile bending, the development of a cylinder tear, and several cylinder aneurysms. Possible causes of the problems are explored, along with possibilities for prevention of future problems.

  16. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  17. The ANTARES AMS facility at ANSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Smith, A. M.; Zoppi, U.; Child, D.; Mifsud, C.; van der Gaast, H.; Williams, A.; Williams, M.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of ANTARES operations, describing (1) technical upgrades that now allow routine 0.3-0.4% 14C precision for 1 mg carbon samples and 1% precision for 100 micrograms, (2) proficiency at 236U measurements in environmental samples, (3) new developments in AMS of platinum group elements and (4), some major application projects undertaken over the period of the past three years. Importantly, the facility is poised to enter into a new phase of expansion with the recent delivery of a 2 MV 14C tandem accelerator system from High Voltage Engineering (HVE) and a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer from Micromass Inc. for combustion of organic samples and isotopic analysis.

  18. Simple Resolution of Enantiomeric NMR Signals of α-Amino Acids by Using Samarium(III) Nitrate With L-Tartarate.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Kidani, Takahiro; Takada, Sayuri; Ofusa, Yumika

    2015-05-01

    Readily available L-tartaric acid, which is a bidentate ligand with two chiral centers forming a seven-membered chelate ring, was applied to the chiral ligand for the chiral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shift reagent of samarium(III) formed in situ. This simple method does not cause serious signal broadening in the high magnetic field. Enantiomeric (13)C and (1)H NMR signals and enantiotopic (1)H NMR signals of α-amino acids were successfully resolved at pH 8.0 and the 1:3 molar ratio of Sm(NO3)3:L-tartaric acid. It is elucidated that the enantiomeric signal resolution is attributed to the anisotropic magnetic environment for the enantiomers induced by the chiral L-tartarato samarium(III) complex rather than differences in stability of the diastereomeric substrate adducts. The present (13)C NMR signal resolution was also effective for the practical simultaneous analysis of plural kinds of DL-amino acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fabrication of a PVC membrane samarium(III) sensor based on N,N',N"-tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide as a selectophore.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Naghavi-Reyabbi, Fatemeh; Faridbod, Farnoush; Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Rad, Maryam

    2013-03-01

    A new ion-selective electrode for Sm(3+) ion is described based on the incorporation of N,N',N"-tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide (TPTA) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) matrix. The membrane sensor comprises nitrobenzene (NB) as a plasticizer, and oleic acid (OA) as an anionic additive. The sensor with the optimized composition shows a Nernstian potential response of 19.8 ± 0.5 mV decade(-1) over a wide concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-2) and 1 × 10(-6)mol L(-1), with a lower detection limit of 4.7 × 10(-7)mol L(-1) and satisfactor applicable pH range of 3.6-9.2. Having a short response time of less than 10s and a very good selectivity towards the Sm(3+) over a wide variety of interfering cations (e.g. alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions) the sensor seemed to be a promising analytical tool for determination of the Sm(3+). Hence, it was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of samarium ion with EDTA. It was also applied to the direct samarium recovery in binary mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison between features and performance characteristics of fifteen hp samarium cobalt and ferrite based brushless dc motors operated by same power conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Demerdash, N.A.; Ford, C.J.; Miller, R.H.; Nehl, T.W.; Overton, B.P.

    1983-01-01

    The impact of samarium-cobalt and ferrite magnet materials on the design and performance characteristics of electronically commutated brushless dc motors of equal horsepower output is presented. This is accomplished through the design, construction and testing of two 15 hp, 120 volt brushless dc motors built for propulsion of electric vehicles, and similar applications. In one of these motors, samarium-cobalt (Sm Co/sub 5/) is used as permanent magnet material, while in the other the magnets were made of strontium ferrite number 8. The two machines were built to operate from the same power conditioner, which consisted of a transistor chopper in series with a three phase full wave inverter/converter bridge, which consists of six transistor-diode switches. Both of the two motors achieved a continuous 2 hour rating of more than 15 hp with a peak one minute rating of 35 hp. System efficiency (combined motor and conditioner) under rated conditions of 90% was achieved for both machines. Details of these and other performance characteristics and design parameters are presented and analyzed to assess the impact of the choice of magnet material on design and performance for this, as well as other applications.

  1. Determination of the variation of the fluorescence line positions of ruby, strontium tetraborate, alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Selva Vennila; Zaug, Joseph M.; Chen, Bin; Yan, Jinyuan; Knight, Jason W.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Clark, Simon M.

    2011-07-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent fluorescence line-shift of strontium tetraborate has been measured concurrently with x-ray diffraction from the pressure standards sodium chloride or gold. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift under pressure. We found a maximum pressure uncertainty of ±1.8 GPa at 25 GPa (7.2%) and 857 K when making no temperature correction. The fluorescence line-shifts for ruby, Alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet were also determined, using our strontium tetraborate calibration to determine pressure and a thermocouple to measure temperature. Fluorescence measurements were extended up to 800 K for ruby and Alexandrite. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift of samarium-doped yittrium aluminum garnet. We found a maximum uncertainty of ±2.7 GPa at 25 GPa (11.1%) and 857 K when no temperature correction was applied. We determined equations relating to the fluorescence line position from these data, which include a cross derivative term to account for the combined effect of pressure and temperature. We present a method to independently determine pressure and/or temperature from combined fluorescence line-shift measurements of a pair of optical sensors.

  2. Samarium and Nitrogen Co-Doped Bi2 WO6 Photocatalysts: Synergistic Effect of Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) Redox Centers and N-Doped Level for Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangzhi; Li, Wenjun; Gu, Shaonan; Li, Hongda; Wu, Xue; Liu, Xintong

    2016-08-26

    Samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The crystal structures, morphology, elemental compositions, and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The incorporation of samarium and nitrogen ions into Bi2 WO6 was proved by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 possessed strong visible-light absorption. Remarkably, the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than single-doped and pure Bi2 WO6 under visible-light irradiation. Radical trapping experiments indicated that holes (h(+) ) and superoxide radicals ((.) O2 (-) ) were the main active species. The results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements demonstrated that the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons and holes pairs was greatly depressed. The enhanced activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of the in-built Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) redox pair centers and the N-doped level. The mechanism of the excellent photocatalytic activity of Sm-N-Bi2 WO6 is also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Samarium(III)-catalyzed C(sp3)-H bond activation: synthesis of indolizines via C-C and C-N coupling between 2-alkylazaarenes and propargylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Li, Shen-yan; Pan, Ying-ming; Wang, Heng-shan; Liang, Hong; Chen, Zhen-feng; Qin, Xiao-huan

    2014-01-17

    A new rare earth metal and samarium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H bond activation is reported in which 2-alkylazaarenes and propargylic alcohols were converted to indolizines. This process operates under mild conditions and solvent-free conditions. A broad scope of coupling partners has been established, and a likely mechanism has also been suggested.

  4. Dodecatungstophosphoric acid (H3PW 12O40), samarium and ruthenium (III) chloride catalyzed synthesis of unsaturated 2-phenyl-5(4H)-oxazolone derivatives under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Tikdari, Ahmad Momeni; Fozooni, Samieh; Hamidian, Hooshang

    2008-12-18

    We found that dodecatungstophosphoric acid (H(3)PW(12)O40), samarium and ruthenium(III) chloride act as efficient catalysts for synthesis of unsaturated 2-phenyl-5(4H)oxazolone derivatives under solvent-free conditions. The key features of the reported protocols are short reaction times, high yields of products, ambient conditions and simple workup.

  5. Photometry and dynamics of the minor mergers AM 1228-260 and AM 2058-381

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Jimenez, J. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Bonatto, C.; Rodrigues, I.; Krabbe, A. C.; Winge, Cláudia

    2015-08-01

    We investigate interaction effects on the dynamics and morphology of the galaxy pairs AM 2058-381 and AM 1228-260. This work is based on r' images and long-slit spectra obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini South Telescope. The luminosity ratio between the main (AM 2058A) and secondary (AM 2058B) components of the first pair is a factor of ˜ 5, while for the other pair, the main (AM 1228A) component is 20 times more luminous than the secondary (AM 1228B). The four galaxies have pseudo-bulges, with a Sérsic index n < 2. Their observed radial velocities profiles (RVPs) present several irregularities. The receding side of the RVP of AM 2058A is displaced with respect to the velocity field model, while there is a strong evidence that AM 2058B is a tumbling body, rotating along its major axis. The RVPs for AM 1228A indicate a misalignment between the kinematic and photometric major axes. The RVP for AM 1228B is quite perturbed, very likely due to the interaction with AM 1228A. NFW halo parameters for AM 2058A are similar to those of the Milky Way and M 31. The halo mass of AM 1228A is roughly 10 per cent that of AM 2058A. The mass-to-light (M/L) of AM 2058 agrees with the mean value derived for late-type spirals, while the low M/L for AM 1228A may be due to the intense star formation ongoing in this galaxy.

  6. Variations in AmLi source spectra and their estimation utilizing the 5 Ring Multiplicity Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann-Smith, R.; Beddingfield, D. H.; Enqvist, A.; Swinhoe, M. T.

    2017-06-01

    Active-mode assay systems are widely used for the safeguards of uranium items to verify compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Systems such as the Active-Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) use americium-lithium (AmLi) neutron sources to induce fissions which are measured to determine the sample mass. These systems have historically relied on calibrations derived from well-defined standards. Recently, restricted access to standards or more difficult measurements have resulted in a reliance on modeling and simulation for the calibration of systems, which introduces potential simulation biases. The AmLi source energy spectra commonly used in the safeguards community do not accurately represent measurement results and the spectrum uncertainty can represent a large contribution to the total modeling uncertainty in active-mode systems. The 5-Ring Multiplicity Counter (5RMC) has been used to measure 17 AmLi sources. The measurements showed a significant spectral variation between different sources. Utilization of a spectrum that is specific to an individual source or a series of sources will give improved results over historical general spectra when modeling AmLi sources. Candidate AmLi neutron spectra were calculated in MCNP and SOURCES4C for a range of physical AmLi characteristics. The measurement and simulation data were used to fit reliable and accurate AmLi spectra for use in the simulation of active-mode systems. Spectra were created for average Gammatron C, Gammatron N, and MRC series sources, and for individual sources. The systematic uncertainty introduced by physical aspects of the AmLi source were characterized through simulations. The accuracy of spectra from the literature was compared.

  7. AMS Climate Studies: Improving climate literacy through undergraduate education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P., Jr.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    In working to promote scientific literacy among the public, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has produced a suite of introductory college-level courses that engage students by investigating relevant topics in Earth science, and utilizing the most current, real-world environmental data. The newest of these courses, AMS Climate Studies, is a turnkey package which will be licensed by individual colleges for local offering in online, blended, or traditional lecture/lab settings. The course will place students in a dynamic learning environment where they will investigate Earth’s climate system using real-world data. This will allow the course to keep a strong focus on the science, while still addressing many of the societal impacts that draw the attention of today’s students. In this way, the course will serve as a great primer in preparing students to become responsible, scientifically-literate participants in discussions of climate science and climate change. Developed with major support from NASA, AMS Climate Studies will encourage students to investigate the atmosphere and world ocean as components of a larger Earth system. More than 500 colleges and universities throughout the United States have already offered AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies, after which AMS Climate Studies will be modeled. The learning system will consist of a fully-integrated set of printed and online learning materials focused around a brand new, hardcover 15-chapter textbook, Climate Studies: Introduction to Climate Science and an Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities that will emphasize the use of authentic science data. The package will also include a course website providing weekly Current Climate Studies activities along with access to environmental data streams, including an impressive suite of NASA and NOAA images and products. The development and testing of AMS Climate Studies is currently nearing completion. A number of college and university

  8. FM Stereo and AM Stereo: Government Standard-Setting vs. the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, W. A. Kelly

    The emergence of frequency modulation or FM radio signals, which arose from the desire to free broadcasting of static noise common to amplitude modulation or AM, has produced the controversial development of stereo broadcasting. The resulting enhancement of sound quality helped FM pass AM in audience shares in less than two decades. The basic…

  9. A&M. Plot plan of administration and A&M areas. Shows relationships ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Plot plan of administration and A&M areas. Shows relationships among administration buildings and to A&M building (TAN-607), railroad turntable. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2&3-ANP-U 3. Date: December 1952. INEEL index code no. 032-0100-00-693-106690 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Small scale shear zone in calcite: AMS and microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxerová, Zuzana; Machek, Matěj; Kusbach, Vladimír; Racek, Martin; Silva, Pedro F.

    2016-04-01

    Two structural profiles across thin shear zone in calcite from quarry in Estremoz (Portugal) were studied to find a relationship between AMS and strain in natural rocks. The mesoscopic fabric is characterized by the change from the subhorizontal coarse-grained foliation towards the ~2cm-wide shear zone center with subvertical fine-grained foliation. In microstructure, the shear zone records dynamic recrystallization of calcite aggregate which resulted in development of porphyroclastic microstructure with increasing proportion of fine-grained recrystallized matrix towards the shear zone center. Two distinct crystallographic preferred orientations of calcite were recorded. One related with porphyroclasts, characterized by subvertical orientation of calcite axes and another associated with recrystallized matrix showing subhorizontal calcite axes orientation. The magnetic susceptibility ranges from -8e-6SI to 9e-6SI, with the average -4e-6SI. The majority of the rock mass is diamagnetic, corresponding well with the thermomagnetic curves, with local paramagnetic accumulations in form of thin bands. The AMS of the both profiles exhibits stable subvertical foliation bearing vertical lineation which is locally alternated by the medium-angle foliation. We interpret the AMS fabric pattern which is perpendicular to the mineral one as a type of inverse AMS fabric, due to high iron content in major part of calcite grains The magnetic and microstructural description of the shear zone is accompanied by numerical modeling of AMS based on CPO and different proportion of porphyroclasts, matrix and mica for purposes of deciphering the influence of present microstructural features on AMS.

  11. Determination of AM-2201 metabolites in urine and comparison with JWH-018 abuse.

    PubMed

    Jang, Moonhee; Yang, Wonkyung; Shin, Ilchung; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chang, Hyejin; Kim, Eunmi

    2014-03-01

    With respect to the continuous emergence of new synthetic cannabinoids on the market since 2008, evaluation of the metabolism of these compounds and the development of analytical methods for the detection of these drugs including their respective metabolites in biological fluids have become essential. Other than JWH-018 or JWH-073, AM-2201 is one of the frequently identified synthetic cannabinoids in Korea. Recently, in our laboratory, several JWH-018 metabolites have been detected in some urine samples obtained from subjects who were arrested for the possession of herbal mixtures containing only AM-2201 or from those who confessed AM-2201 abuse. In the present study, we identified major urinary metabolites of AM-2201 and several metabolites of JWH-018, i.e., N-5-hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites from rats administered AM-2201 and found that the metabolic profile in rats was similar to those in human subjects in this study. Analytical results of the urine samples from suspects who had a considerable possibility of AM-2201 or JWH-018 intake were also compared to distinguish between AM-2201 and JWH-018 abuse. The presence of 6-indole hydroxylated metabolites of each drug and N-4-hydroxy metabolite of AM-2201 was found to contribute to the decisive differences in the metabolic patterns of the two drugs. In addition, the concentration ratio of the N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite to the N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite of JWH-018 may be used as a criterion to differentiate between AM-2201 and JWH-018 abuse.

  12. Beneficial uses of /sup 241/Am

    SciTech Connect

    Mangeng, C.A.; Thayer, G.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report assesses the uses of /sup 241/Am and the associated costs and supply. The study shows that /sup 241/Am-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators in the range of 1 to 5 W electrical provide the most promising use of kilogram amounts of this isotope. For medical uses, where purity is essential, irradiation of /sup 241/Am can produce 97% pure /sup 238/Pu at $21,000/g. Using a pyro-metallurgical process, /sup 241/Am could be recovered from molten salt extraction (MSE) residues at an estimated incremental cost of $83/g adjusted to reflect the disposal costs of waste products. This cost of recovery is less than the $300/g cost for disposal of the /sup 241/Am contained in the MSE residues.

  13. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Najeeb Al Hallak, Mohammed; McCurdy, Matt; Zouain, Nicolas; Hayes, Justin

    2009-08-28

    (153)Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate) and Samarium-153 [1]. (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of (153)Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with (154)Eu (Europium-154) [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of (154)Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with (153)Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA) activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing the American-Canadian border. We assume that the (154)Eu which remained in the patients' bones activated the sensors. METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. RESULTS: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of (154)Eu emissions. CONCLUSION: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of (154)Eu retained in patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer

  14. Development of samarium [32P] phosphate colloid for radiosynoviorthesis applications: preparation, biological and preliminary clinical studies experience.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, G; Sachdev, Satbir S; Umamaheswari, S; Sivaprasad, N; Bhatia, Manohar H; Chaudhari, Pradip R; Solav, Srikant V

    2007-12-01

    A new therapeutic radio colloid for radiosynoviorthesis (RS) applications is reported. The method of preparation involves the reaction of SmCl3 carrier with carrier added [32P]H3PO4 in the presence of gelatin. The pure colloid was recovered by dialysis purification leading to radiochemical yield of around 90%. The radiochemical purity of the pure colloid formulated in isotonic saline was over 98%, for the usage period of 14 days, as assessed by paper chromatography. Ninety percent of colloid particles were in the size of 1-10 microm as evident from the laser diffraction particle size analysis, ideally suitable for the intended end use. Animal studies revealed complete retention of the radio colloid in the rabbit knee joint. The results of clinical trials in humans are satisfactory and encouraging, satisfactory retention of the colloid in the knee joint and negligible leakage into the systemic circulation.

  15. Estimating the AmLi Neutron Spectrum from Measured Ring Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Weinmann-Smith, Robert; Beddingfield, David H.; Enqvist, Andreas; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2016-11-10

    These are a set of slides on estimating the AmLi neutron spectrum from measured ring ratios. The IAEA uses an AmLi source in the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) to verify compliance with nonproliferation treaties. The UNCL requires calibration with known uranium samples. The AmLi spectrum isn’t known well enough to allow simulated calibrations. Alphas lose energy traveling through AmO2 particle of unknown size. Energy reduction below Li threshold enhances O contribution. Unknown Li matrix material affects neutron production and thermalization. There is large variation in spectra from each element. Other topics covered include: applications, physics considerations, current spectra, measurement overview, measurement results - variation between sources, simulations, spectra fitting, other simulations, and conclusions.

  16. The electronics for the AMS-02 calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervelli, F.; Di Falco, S.; Incagli, M.; Vannini, C.; Magazzù, C.; Pedreschi, E.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Spinella, F.

    2007-03-01

    AMS-02 is an astroparticle experiment that will operate on board of the ISS for a period of about three years. The main scientific goals of the experiment are the search for antimatter and dark matter and the study of gamma rays. In AMS-02 the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) plays a key role for its high capability to measure e+, e- and gamma spectra and to discriminate electromagnetic showers from hadronic cascades [C. Adloff, et al., Performance of a 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter for the AMS02 space experiment, Proceedings of Calor 2004, Perugia, Italy. [1

  17. Latest AMS Results on Cosmic Ray fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, Bruna; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a wide acceptance high-energy physics experiment installed on the International Space Station in May 2011 and it has been operating continuously since then. Accurate studies of CR composition and energy spectra can be performed in AMS thanks to the unprecedented collected statistics - more than 90 billion events as of today - and the redundant measurements of particle charge, velocity, rigidity and energy. In this contribution we will present an overview of the latest results on anti-particles, electrons and light nuclei fluxes. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  18. Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the Stillwater complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David D.; Shirey, Steven B.; Carlson, Richard W.; Morgan, John W.; Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of magma mixing in the formation of strategic platinum-group element ore deposits is examined using isotopic data from the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Nd and Os isotopic data show that the intrusion formed from at least two distinct magmas: ultramafic (U-type) affinity magmas and anorthositic (A-type) affinity magmas. The U-type magmas formed from a lithospheric mantle source containing recycled crustal materials and the A-type magmas originated either by crustal contamination of basaltic magmas or by partial melting of basalt in the lower crust. The results also suggest that the platinum-group element ore deposits were derived from A-type magmas which were injected into the U-type magma chamber at several stages during the development of the ultramafic series.

  19. Space Station Live: First Findings from the AMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    PAO Officer Kyle Herring interviews Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Project Manager Trent Martin about the first findings from the AMS. A small team from Johnson Space Center collaborates with AM...

  20. POTENTIAL ANXIOGENIC EFFECTS OF CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS/INVERSE AGONISTS IN RATS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN AM4113, AM251, AND THE BENZODIAZEPINE INVERSE AGONIST FG-7142

    PubMed Central

    Sink, KS; Segovia, KN; Sink, J; Randall, PA; Collins, LE; Correa, M; Markus, EJ; Vemuri, VK; Makriyannis, A; Salamone, JD

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonists suppress food-motivated behaviors, but may also induce psychiatric effects such as depression and anxiety. To evaluate behaviors potentially related to anxiety, the present experiments assessed the CB1 inverse agonist AM251 (2.0 – 8.0 mg/kg), the CB1 antagonist AM4113 (3.0 – 12.0 mg/kg), and the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG-7142 (10.0 – 20.0 mg/kg), using the open field test and the elevated plus maze. Although all three drugs affected open field behavior, these effects were largely due to actions on locomotion. In the elevated plus maze, FG-7142 and AM251 both produced anxiogenic effects. FG-7142 and AM251 also significantly increased c-Fos activity in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens shell. In contrast, AM4113 failed to affect performance in the plus maze, and did not induce c-Fos immunoreactivity. The weak effects of AM4113 are consistent with biochemical data showing that AM4113 induces little or no intrinsic cellular activity. This research may lead to the development of novel appetite suppressants with reduced anxiogenic effects. PMID:20015619

  1. Potential anxiogenic effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists in rats: comparisons between AM4113, AM251, and the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG-7142.

    PubMed

    Sink, K S; Segovia, K N; Sink, J; Randall, P A; Collins, L E; Correa, M; Markus, E J; Vemuri, V K; Makriyannis, A; Salamone, J D

    2010-02-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonists suppress food-motivated behaviors, but may also induce psychiatric effects such as depression and anxiety. To evaluate behaviors potentially related to anxiety, the present experiments assessed the CB1 inverse agonist AM251 (2.0-8.0mg/kg), the CB1 antagonist AM4113 (3.0-12.0mg/kg), and the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG-7142 (10.0-20.0mg/kg), using the open field test and the elevated plus maze. Although all three drugs affected open field behavior, these effects were largely due to actions on locomotion. In the elevated plus maze, FG-7142 and AM251 both produced anxiogenic effects. FG-7142 and AM251 also significantly increased c-Fos activity in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens shell. In contrast, AM4113 failed to affect performance in the plus maze, and did not induce c-Fos immunoreactivity. The weak effects of AM4113 are consistent with biochemical data showing that AM4113 induces little or no intrinsic cellular activity. This research may lead to the development of novel appetite suppressants with reduced anxiogenic effects.

  2. Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the stillwater complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, D.D.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; Shirey, S.B.; Carlson, R.W.; Zientek, M.L.; Koski, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Isotopic data for the Stillwater Complex, Montana , which formed about 2700 Ma (million years ago), were obtained to evaluate the role of magma mixing in the formation of strategic platinum-group element (PGE) ore deposits. Neodymium and osmium isotopic data indicate that the intrusion formed from at least two geochemically distinct magmas. Ultramafic affinity (U-type) magmas had initial ??Nd of -0.8 to -3.2 and a chondritic initial 187Os/186Os ratio of ???0.88, whereas anorthositic affinity (A-type) magmas had ??Nd of -0.7 to +1.7 and an initial 187Os/186Os ratio of ???1.13. These data suggest that U-type magmas were derived from a lithospheric mantle source containing recycled crustal materials whereas A-type magmas originated either by crustal contamination of basaltic magmas or by partial melting of basalt in the lower crust. The Nd and Os isotopic data also suggest that Os, and probably the other PGEs in ore horizons such as the J-M Reef, was derived from A-type magmas. The Nd and Os isotopic heterogeneity observed in rocks below the J-M Reef also suggests that A-type magmas were injected into the Stillwater U-type magma chamber at several stages during the development of the Ultramafic series.

  3. Formation of a new adduct based on fullerene tris-malonate samarium salt C60-[C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. A.; Keskinov, V. A.; Semenov, K. N.; Charykov, N. A.; Letenko, D. G.; Nikitin, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    Gram quantities of a new adduct based on light fullerene tris-malonate samarium salt C60 [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 are obtained via the reaction of ion exchange. The obtained adduct is studied by means of electron and infrared spectroscopy, X-ray and elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The polythermal solubility of [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 in water is determined in ampoules via saturation within 20-70°C. The composition of crystalline hydrate [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 · 36H2O, which exists in equilibrium with the saturated solution, is estimated.

  4. Spectra of optical parameters in bulk and film amorphous alloys of the Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} system containing samarium (Sm) impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Djalilov, N. Z.; Damirov, G. M.

    2011-09-15

    Reflectance spectra of bulk and film amorphous alloys of the Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} system containing samarium (Sm) impurities are studied in the energy range of 1-6 eV. Spectral dependences of optical constants and derivatives of optical dielectric functions are calculated by the Kramers-Kronig method. Changes in spectra of optical parameters depending on the content of impurities introduced into Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} and conditions of their preparation are explained based on the cluster model. According to the latter, changes in the electron density of states depends on changes in atomic configurations in clusters, i.e., short-range order changes.

  5. Dispersion of the refractive index of a samarium-doped Se{sup 95}Te{sup 5} chalcogenide glassy semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Atayeva, S. U. Mekhtiyeva, S. I.; Isayev, A. I.

    2015-07-15

    The transmission spectrum of a Se{sup 95}Te{sup 5} chalcogenide glassy semiconductor doped with samarium (0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 at %) is studied; the Swanepoel method and the single-oscillator model are used to determine the oscillator energy E{sup 0}, dispersion energy E{sup d}, optical width of the band gap E{sup g}, and linear (n) and nonlinear (n{sup 2}) refractive indices. The changes in the values of these parameters as a result of doping are attributed to modification of the local structure and to a change in the concentration of defect states.

  6. Dosimetry and toxicity of Samarium-153-EDTMP administered for bone pain due to skeletal metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Bayouth, J.E.; Macey, D.J.; Kasi, L.P.

    1994-01-01

    Palliation of bone pain in patients with cancer metastatic to bone is being evaluated in several cancer centers by the administration of the bone-seeking phosphonate ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) chelated with the beta particle-emitting radionuclide {sup 153}Sm. In this study {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP was intravenously injected into 19 patients over a 1-min period. Patients received up to four injections of 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) or 37 MBq (1.0mCi) per kilogram of body weight. Skeletal retention was calculated from urinary excretion. No uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in nonskeletal tissues was observed in whole-body gamma camera images. The mean skeletal uptake for all patients was 54% {plus_minus} 16% of the injected dose (%ID). This resulted in the bone marrow receiving 89 cGy/GBq {plus_minus} 27 cGy/GBq (3.28 cGy/mCi {plus_minus} 0.99 cGy/mCi), with calculated marrow doses ranging from 27 cGy to 338 cGy. For each patient, the estimated radiation absorbed dose to the marrow was correlated to the percent decrease in platelet number, ranging from 7.4% to 78.9%. Since the deviation of uptake between the four injections for a given patient (7.6% ID) was less than the deviation for all patients (16% ID), the initial dose may be used to estimate the skeletal uptake for the remaining doses. These radiation dose estimates permit patients at risk to be identified prior to reaching myelotoxicity and develop dose-response models. Thirteen patients (68%) reported significant pain relief from this radionuclide therapy. Bone pain appears to be alleviated by {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP with limited red marrow doses and no toxic effects in other organs. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 figs.

  7. Behavioral and Molecular Genetics of Reading-Related AM and FM Detection Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Matthew; Flax, Judy F; Buyske, Steven; Shindhelm, Amber D; Witton, Caroline; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Bartlett, Christopher W

    2017-03-01

    Auditory detection thresholds for certain frequencies of both amplitude modulated (AM) and frequency modulated (FM) dynamic auditory stimuli are associated with reading in typically developing and dyslexic readers. We present the first behavioral and molecular genetic characterization of these two auditory traits. Two extant extended family datasets were given reading tasks and psychoacoustic tasks to determine FM 2 Hz and AM 20 Hz sensitivity thresholds. Univariate heritabilities were significant for both AM (h (2)  = 0.20) and FM (h (2)  = 0.29). Bayesian posterior probability of linkage (PPL) analysis found loci for AM (12q, PPL = 81 %) and FM (10p, PPL = 32 %; 20q, PPL = 65 %). Bivariate heritability analyses revealed that FM is genetically correlated with reading, while AM was not. Bivariate PPL analysis indicates that FM loci (10p, 20q) are not also associated with reading.

  8. Minireview: 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM): a new player on the thyroid endocrine team?

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Thomas S

    2009-03-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (T(1)AM) is an endogenous compound with chemical features that are similar to thyroid hormone. T(1)AM has a carbon skeleton identical to that of T(4) and contains a single carbon-iodine bond. Theoretically, T(1)AM could be produced from T(4) by enzymatic decarboxylation and deiodination. Recent studies show that T(1)AM and higher iodinated thyronamines are subject to similar metabolic processing as iodothyronines such as T(4), suggesting a biological linkage between iodothyronines and iodothyronamines. In addition, single doses of T(1)AM administered to rodents induce a hypometabolic state that in certain ways resembles hibernation and is opposite to the effects of excess T(4). This review will discuss the latest developments on this recently discovered thyroid hormone derivative.

  9. Space Station Live: Installing the AMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    PAO Officer Kyle Herring interviews NASA astronaut Mike Fincke about his contribution during STS-134, the shuttle mission that installed the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) in May 2011. As a miss...

  10. AMS applied to Hiroshima and Chernobyl dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Marchetti, A.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    Two projects employing AMS are summarized and updated. One project employs AMS to measure {sup 36}Cl in concrete and other mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help reconstruct neutron fluences received by the atom-bomb survivors. In this project, we have demonstrated a large discrepancy between the neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and predictions based on the current dosimetry system. This discrepancy has practical implications for radiation risk assessment and radiation protection standards. The other project employs AMS to measure {sup 129}I in soil and other environmental samples from Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. This is a proof-of-principle study to determine if the long lived {sup 129}I isotope (half life, 16 x 10{sup 6} y) measured by AMS can be used to reconstruct deposition of the short lived {sup 131}I isotope from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident. This is required because {sup 131}I disappeared before adequate measurements could be made.

  11. Challenge of COPD: Am I at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Am I at Risk? Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... or the American Lung Association's COPD information section. COPD Learn More Breathe Better ® Program The COPD Learn ...

  12. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... long am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can ... more, depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause ...

  13. Effect of Samarium Oxide on the Electrical Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed SOFC Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, S. N.; Samadi, H.; Nemati, A.

    2016-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are rapidly becoming recognized as a new alternative to traditional energy conversion systems because of their high energy efficiency. From an ecological perspective, this environmentally friendly technology, which produces clean energy, is likely to be implemented more frequently in the future. However, the current SOFC technology still cannot meet the demands of commercial applications due to temperature constraints and high cost. To develop a marketable SOFC, suppliers have tended to reduce the operating temperatures by a few hundred degrees. The overall trend for SOFC materials is to reduce their service temperature of electrolyte. Meanwhile, it is important that the other components perform at the same temperature. Currently, the anodes of SOFCs are being studied in depth. Research has indicated that anodes based on a perovskite structure are a more promising candidate in SOFCs than the traditional system because they possess more favorable electrical properties. Among the perovskite-type oxides, SrTiO3 is one of the most promising compositions, with studies demonstrating that SrTiO3 exhibits particularly favorable electrical properties in contrast with other perovskite-type oxides. The main purpose of this article is to describe our study of the effect of rare-earth dopants with a perovskite structure on the electrical behavior of anodes in SOFCs. Sm2O3-doped SrTiO3 synthesized by a solid-state reaction was coated on substrate by atmospheric plasma spray. To compare the effect of the dopant on the electrical conductivity of strontium titanate, different concentrations of Sm2O3 were used. The samples were then investigated by x-ray diffraction, four-point probe at various temperatures (to determine the electrical conductivity), and a scanning electron microscope. The study showed that at room temperature, nondoped samples have a higher electrical resistance than doped samples. As the temperature was increased, the electrical

  14. The use of 185 MBq and 740 MBq of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite for knee synovectomy in haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Calegaro, J U M; Machado, J; Furtado, R G; de Almeida, J S C; de Vasconcelos, A V P; de Barboza, M F; de Paula, A P

    2014-01-01

    The penetration of beta energy of 153-samarium (153Sm) (0.8 MeV) is not only appropriate for synovectomy of median articulations but is possible to improve the radiobiological effect using increased activities. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 185 MBq and 740 MBq of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite (153Sm-HA) in knees of haemophilic patients. Thirty-one patients – 36 knees, 30 males, were divided into two groups without coinjection of corticosteroid: A – 14 patients (17 knees) treated with intra-articular dose of 185 MBq of 153Sm-HA, average age 23 years; B – 17 patients (19 knees) with 740 MBq of 153Sm-HA, average age 21.3 years. The evaluation before and after 1 year of synovectomy used the following criteria: reduction in the number of haemarthroses and use of the coagulation factor and improvement in articular motility. Adverse-effects occurrence was considered too. Early and late scintigraphic studies were performed after synoviorthesis and no joint immobilization was recommended. The reduction in haemarthrosis and use of coagulation factor were: group 1 – 31.3% and 25%; group 2 – 81.5% and 79% with P < 0.001 respectively; no significant improvement in knees motility was noted for both groups. Four cases of mild reactional synovitis were observed in each group. The scintigraphic control showed homogenous distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals with no articular escape; the material was considered safe by its permanence in the articulation. We have significant improvement in the synovectomy of haemophilic knees with 740 MBq of 153Sm-HA; the less penetration of its beta radiation was compensated by the increased biological effect with the higher used activity. PMID:24330418

  15. The use of 185 MBq and 740 MBq of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite for knee synovectomy in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Calegaro, J U M; Machado, J; Furtado, R G; de Almeida, J S C; de Vasconcelos, A V P; de Barboza, M F; de Paula, A P

    2014-05-01

    The penetration of beta energy of 153-samarium ((153) Sm) (0.8 MeV) is not only appropriate for synovectomy of median articulations but is possible to improve the radiobiological effect using increased activities. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 185 MBq and 740 MBq of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite ((153) Sm-HA) in knees of haemophilic patients. Thirty-one patients--36 knees, 30 males, were divided into two groups without coinjection of corticosteroid: A - 14 patients (17 knees) treated with intra-articular dose of 185 MBq of (153) Sm-HA, average age 23 years; B--17 patients (19 knees) with 740 MBq of (153) Sm-HA, average age 21.3 years. The evaluation before and after 1 year of synovectomy used the following criteria: reduction in the number of haemarthroses and use of the coagulation factor and improvement in articular motility. Adverse-effects occurrence was considered too. Early and late scintigraphic studies were performed after synoviorthesis and no joint immobilization was recommended. The reduction in haemarthrosis and use of coagulation factor were: group 1--31.3% and 25%; group 2--81.5% and 79% with P < 0.001 respectively; no significant improvement in knees motility was noted for both groups. Four cases of mild reactional synovitis were observed in each group. The scintigraphic control showed homogenous distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals with no articular escape; the material was considered safe by its permanence in the articulation. We have significant improvement in the synovectomy of haemophilic knees with 740 MBq of (153) Sm-HA; the less penetration of its beta radiation was compensated by the increased biological effect with the higher used activity. © 2013 The Authors. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. On the Light Curves of AM CVn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smak, J.

    2017-03-01

    Light curves of AM CVn are analyzed by decomposing them into their Fourier components. The amplitudes of the fundamental mode and overtones of the three components: the superhumps, the negative superhumps and the orbital variations, are found to be variable. This implies that variations in the shape of the observed light curve of AM CVn are not only due to the interference between those components, but also due to the intrinsic variability within these components.

  17. AM fungi patchiness and the clonal growth of Glechoma hederacea in heterogeneous environments

    PubMed Central

    Vannier, Nathan; Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Mony, Cendrine

    2016-01-01

    The effect of AM fungi spatial distribution on individual plant development may determine the dynamics of the whole plant community. We investigated whether clonal plants display, like for other resources, a foraging or a specialization response, to adapt to the distribution of AM fungi. Two separate experiments were done to investigate the response of Glechoma hederacea to a heterogeneous distribution of a mixture of 3 AM fungi species, and the effects of each species on colonization and allocation traits. No specialization and a limited foraging response to the heterogeneous distribution of AM fungi was observed. An effect of the AM fungal species on plant mass allocation and ramet production, but not on spacer length, was detected. Two possible explanations are proposed: (i) the plant’s responses are buffered by differences in individual effects of the fungal species or their root colonization intensity. (ii) the initial heterogeneous distribution of AM fungi is perceived as homogeneous by the plant either by reduced physiological integration or due to the transfer of AM fungi propagules through the stolons. Microscopic and DNA sequencing analyses provided evidence of this transfer, thus demonstrating the role of stolons as dispersal vectors of AM fungi within the plant clonal network. PMID:27886270

  18. Effects of noise reduction on AM and FM perception.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Calcus, Axelle; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Lorenzi, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The goal of noise reduction (NR) algorithms in digital hearing aid devices is to reduce background noise whilst preserving as much of the original signal as possible. These algorithms may increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an ideal case, but they generally fail to improve speech intelligibility. However, due to the complex nature of speech, it is difficult to disentangle the numerous low- and high-level effects of NR that may underlie the lack of speech perception benefits. The goal of this study was to better understand why NR algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility by investigating the effects of NR on the ability to discriminate two basic acoustic features, namely amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) cues, known to be crucial for speech identification in quiet and in noise. Here, discrimination of complex, non-linguistic AM and FM patterns was measured for normal hearing listeners using a same/different task. The stimuli were generated by modulating 1-kHz pure tones by either a two-component AM or FM modulator with patterns changed by manipulating component phases. Modulation rates were centered on 3 Hz. Discrimination of AM and FM patterns was measured in quiet and in the presence of a white noise that had been passed through a gammatone filter centered on 1 kHz. The noise was presented at SNRs ranging from -6 to +12 dB. Stimuli were left as such or processed via an NR algorithm based on the spectral subtraction method. NR was found to yield small but systematic improvements in discrimination for the AM conditions at favorable SNRs but had little effect, if any, on FM discrimination. A computational model of early auditory processing was developed to quantify the fidelity of AM and FM transmission. The model captured the improvement in discrimination performance for AM stimuli at high SNRs with NR. However, the model also predicted a relatively small detrimental effect of NR for FM stimuli in contrast with the average

  19. The use of MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am as burnable absorber actinides for the MTR research reactors.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    The MOX (UO2&PuO2) caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am as burnable absorber actinides was proposed as a fuel of the MTR-22MW reactor. The MCNP4C code was used to simulate the MTR-22MW reactor and estimate the criticality and the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors before and after replacing its original fuel (U3O8-Al) by the MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides. The obtained results of the criticality, the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors for the MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides were compared with the same parameters of the U3O8-Al original fuel and a maximum difference is -6.18% was found. Additionally, by recycling 2.65% and 2.71% plutonium and (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides in the MTR-22MW reactor, the level of (235)U enrichment is reduced from 4.48% to 3% and 2.8%, respectively. This also results in the reduction of the (235)U loading by 32.75% and 37.22% for the 2.65%, the 2.71% plutonium and (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A&M. Aerial view of turntable and A&M building (TAN607). Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Aerial view of turntable and A&M building (TAN-607). Pool, hot shop, cold shop, and machine shop are completed. Track leading to left edge of view goes to the IET. Ancient lake shoreline and berm beyond A&M building. Camera facing east. Administrative buildings beyond berm. Date: November 24, 1954. INEEL negative no. 13205 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Photon Counting Chirped AM Ladar: Concept, Simulation, and Experimental Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    sensitivity. This noise is well above the signal shot noise limit. We are developing a method using Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) photon counting...shifted chirp waveform. The range to the target is recovered in the same way as for the chirped AM ladar with linear response mode detectors. In...output pulse from signal generator 1 also triggers the start of signal generator 2, which operates in burst mode to output trigger pulses to the

  2. [Development and transition of magnetic attachments--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Hirata, M

    1997-12-01

    In the 1950 s, a new method of using magnets for the retainers of removable partial dentures (RPDs) was developed. It utilized magnetic attractive force instead of mechanical friction. However, the magnets used in those days were Alnico, Ferrite and/or Pt-Cobalt magnets and their retentive force was not strong enough to stabilize the dentures. Therefore, they gradually went out of use. In the middle of the 1970 s, Samarium Cobalt magnets, which have strong magnetic characteristics, were developed and introduced into dental field. In 1976, Sasaki first applied the samarium cobalt magnets to the retainers of PPDs. While in 1981, Mizutani, et al. first used well-fitted ferromagnetic alloy and the magnet for the purpose of stabilizing the RPD. Since then, many researchers have developed devices such as the magnetic retainer and the closed field magnetic attachment placed on the market in 1992. Now, as for the popular retainer of RPD, one can easily use a smaller yet stronger magnetic attachment which uses Neodium rather than Samarium Cobalt magnet.

  3. Brazilian gamma-neutron dosemeter: response to 241AmBe and 252Cf neutron sources.

    PubMed

    Souto, E B; Campos, L L

    2011-03-01

    With the aim of improving the monitoring of workers potentially exposed to neutron radiation in Brazil, the IPEN/CNEN-SP in association with PRO-RAD designed and developed a passive individual gamma-neutron mixed-field dosemeter calibrated to be used to (241)AmBe sources. To verify the dosimetry system response to different neutron spectra, prototypes were irradiated with a (252)Cf source and evaluated using the dose-calculation algorithm developed for (241)AmBe sources.

  4. Effect of samarium and iron substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of BaZr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Randeep; Kaur, Anumeet; Singh, Anupinder Singh, Mandeep; Singh, Lakhwant

    2016-05-23

    Samarium and Iron doped barium zirconate titanate (SF-BZT) ceramics with general formula (SmFeO{sub 3}){sub x} - (BaZr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3}){sub 1−x} (x = 0, 0.21, 0.22, 0.23) were prepared by solid state reaction route. X-Ray Diffraction revealed the proper phase formation and the profile matching with constant scale factor confirmed phase change from tetragonal to pseudo cubic with increase in samarium and iron content. The SEM micrographs show proper grain growth in samples. The magnetic data confirmed the presence of ferromagnetic character in the SF-BZT solid solutions.

  5. "That's What I Am: I Am a Teacher"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Betsy Rogers is the National Teacher of the Year. She teaches elementary school in Leeds, Alabama, near Birmingham, where she developed a looping class, staying with the same students for two years, from first through second grades. A teacher for 22 years, Rogers earned her bachelor's degree in elementary education in 1974 at Samford University.…

  6. Actualizacion Matematica, AM-2 (Modernizing Mathematics, AM-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Parot, Jean Jacques

    This document presents a series of exercises designed to help elementary school children develop skills in mathematics and logic. By means of stories, games, questions, and illustrations, the first set of exercises presents the idea of number systems with bases other than 10. Similar means are used to explain the concept of exponents and to teach…

  7. Lace plant ethylene receptors, AmERS1a and AmERS1c, regulate ethylene-induced programmed cell death during leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rantong, Gaolathe; Evans, Rodger; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N

    2015-10-01

    The lace plant, Aponogeton madagascariensis, is an aquatic monocot that forms perforations in its leaves as part of normal leaf development. Perforation formation occurs through developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). The molecular basis of PCD regulation in the lace plant is unknown, however ethylene has been shown to play a significant role. In this study, we examined the role of ethylene receptors during perforation formation. We isolated three lace plant ethylene receptors AmERS1a, AmERS1b and AmERS1c. Using quantitative PCR, we examined their transcript levels at seven stages of leaf development. Through laser-capture microscopy, transcript levels were also determined in cells undergoing PCD and cells not undergoing PCD (NPCD cells). AmERS1a transcript levels were significantly lower in window stage leaves (in which perforation formation and PCD are occurring) as compared to all other leaf developmental stages. AmERS1a and AmERS1c (the most abundant among the three receptors) had the highest transcript levels in mature stage leaves, where PCD is not occurring. Their transcript levels decreased significantly during senescence-associated PCD. AmERS1c had significantly higher transcript levels in NPCD compared to PCD cells. Despite being significantly low in window stage leaves, AmERS1a transcripts were not differentially expressed between PCD and NPCD cells. The results suggested that ethylene receptors negatively regulate ethylene-controlled PCD in the lace plant. A combination of ethylene and receptor levels determines cell fate during perforation formation and leaf senescence. A new model for ethylene emission and receptor expression during lace plant perforation formation and senescence is proposed.

  8. Insight into the Am-O Phase Equilibria: A Thermodynamic Study Coupling High-Temperature XRD and CALPHAD Modeling.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Enrica; Guéneau, Christine; Belin, Renaud C; Vauchy, Romain; Lebreton, Florent; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Joly, Alexis; Valot, Christophe; Martin, Philippe M

    2017-07-03

    In the frame of minor actinide transmutation, americium can be diluted in UO2 and (U, Pu)O2 fuels burned in fast neutron reactors. The first mandatory step to foresee the influence of Am on the in-reactor behavior of transmutation targets or fuel is to have fundamental knowledge of the Am-O binary system and, in particular, of the AmO2-x phase. In this study, we coupled HT-XRD (high-temperature X-ray diffraction) experiments with CALPHAD thermodynamic modeling to provide new insights into the structural properties and phase equilibria in the AmO2-x-AmO1.61+x-Am2O3 domain. Because of this approach, we were able for the first time to assess the relationships between temperature, lattice parameter, and hypostoichiometry for fcc AmO2-x. We showed the presence of a hyperstoichiometric existence domain for the bcc AmO1.61+x phase and the absence of a miscibility gap in the fcc AmO2-x phase, contrary to previous representations of the phase diagram. Finally, with the new experimental data, a new CALPHAD thermodynamic model of the Am-O system was developed, and an improved version of the phase diagram is presented.

  9. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  10. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  11. 33 CFR 103.300 - Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Maritime Security (AMS... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee § 103.300 Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee. (a) The AMS Committee is established under the...

  12. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction following liposomal amphotericin-B (AmBisome) infusion.

    PubMed

    Nath, Proggananda; Basher, Ariful; Harada, Michiyo; Sarkar, Santana; Selim, Shahjada; Maude, Richard J; Noiri, Eisei; Faiz, Abul

    2014-10-01

    Liposomal amphotericin-B (AmBisome) is now becoming first choice for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) patients due to high efficacy and less toxicity. The reported incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to liposomal amphotericin-B (AmBisome), especially during therapy, is very rare. We report two patients with kala-azar: one developed breathing difficulties and hypotension followed by shock and the other had facial angioedema with chest tightness during treatment. Both patients were managed with immediate action of injection: adrenaline, diphenhydramine and hydrocortisone. In our experience, AmBisome can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions that warrant proper support and close supervision.

  13. Development of a Mobile Phone-Based Weight Loss Lifestyle Intervention for Filipino Americans with Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol and Early Results From the PilAm Go4Health Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States, and were found to have the highest prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to all Asian subgroups and non-Hispanic whites. In addition to genetic factors, risk factors for Filipinos that contribute to this health disparity include high sedentary rates and high fat diets. However, Filipinos are seriously underrepresented in preventive health research. Research is needed to identify effective interventions to reduce Filipino diabetes risks, subsequent comorbidities, and premature death. Objective The overall goal of this project is to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of the Filipino Americans Go4Health Weight Loss Program (PilAm Go4Health). This program is a culturally adapted weight loss lifestyle intervention, using digital technology for Filipinos with T2D, to reduce their risk for metabolic syndrome. Methods This study was a 3-month mobile phone-based pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) weight loss intervention with a wait list active control, followed by a 3-month maintenance phase design for 45 overweight Filipinos with T2D. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (n=22) or active control group (n=23), and analyses of the results are underway. The primary outcome will be percent weight change of the participants, and secondary outcomes will include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, physical activity, fat intake, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Data analyses will include descriptive statistics to describe sample characteristics and a feasibility assessment based on recruitment, adherence, and retention. Chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, and nonparametric rank tests will be used to assess characteristics of randomized groups. Primary analyses will use analysis of covariance and linear mixed models to compare primary and secondary outcomes at 3 months, compared by arm

  14. Development of a Mobile Phone-Based Weight Loss Lifestyle Intervention for Filipino Americans with Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol and Early Results From the PilAm Go4Health Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda Sarmiento; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Villanueva, Carissa; Arai, Shoshana

    2016-09-08

    Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States, and were found to have the highest prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to all Asian subgroups and non-Hispanic whites. In addition to genetic factors, risk factors for Filipinos that contribute to this health disparity include high sedentary rates and high fat diets. However, Filipinos are seriously underrepresented in preventive health research. Research is needed to identify effective interventions to reduce Filipino diabetes risks, subsequent comorbidities, and premature death. The overall goal of this project is to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of the Filipino Americans Go4Health Weight Loss Program (PilAm Go4Health). This program is a culturally adapted weight loss lifestyle intervention, using digital technology for Filipinos with T2D, to reduce their risk for metabolic syndrome. This study was a 3-month mobile phone-based pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) weight loss intervention with a wait list active control, followed by a 3-month maintenance phase design for 45 overweight Filipinos with T2D. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (n=22) or active control group (n=23), and analyses of the results are underway. The primary outcome will be percent weight change of the participants, and secondary outcomes will include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, physical activity, fat intake, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Data analyses will include descriptive statistics to describe sample characteristics and a feasibility assessment based on recruitment, adherence, and retention. Chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, and nonparametric rank tests will be used to assess characteristics of randomized groups. Primary analyses will use analysis of covariance and linear mixed models to compare primary and secondary outcomes at 3 months, compared by arm and controlled for baseline

  15. Magnetic fabric of selected loess/paleosol sections as studied by AMS, anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.; Hrouda, F.; Jezek, J.

    2015-12-01

    The preferred orientation of magnetic minerals in loess/paleosol sequencies can be studied through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which can be above all employed in the investigation of the dynamics of the eolian deposition including the changes in paleowind directions. In addition, it can be used in the indication of the post-depositional magnetic fabric re-working, or in tracing the magnetic fabric changes during pedogenesis. Recently developed techniques using anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdAMS) and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS) can assess the magnetic sub-fabrics of viscous particles on transition between SP and SSD. The width of the particle size interval investigated by the fdAMS is controlled by the operating frequencies used and their differences. In case of opAMS, the interval is always narrower than that in fdAMS and depends also on the operating frequency used. In three loess/paleosol sequences investigated in the Czech Republic, the degrees of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are significantly lower in paleosols than in loess horizons. This indicates that the preferred orientation of magnetic particles created during pedogenesis is much weaker than that of the particles deposited during loess formation. In addition, the degrees of fdAMS and opAMS are much higher than that of AMS. This may indicate strong anisotropy of viscous magnetic particles, because the fdAMS and opAMS are primarily controlled by them. The degree of AMS of the whole rock is low due to compensation effects of SP and SSD particles, whose grain anisotropies are anti-coaxial. The principal directions of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are mostly roughly co-axial suggesting more or less identical origins of magnetic sub-fabrics according to grain size. Less frequently, the principal directions of fdAMS or opAMS differ from those of AMS probably indicating post-depositional effects on particular grain-size classes. The fdAMS and opAMS show as powerful

  16. Absolute calibration of 10Be AMS standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Imamura, Mineo; Caffee, Marc W.; Southon, John R.; Finkel, Robert C.; McAninch, Jeffrey

    2007-05-01

    The increased detection sensitivity offered by AMS has dramatically expanded the utility of 10Be. As these applications become more sophisticated attention has focused on the accuracy of the 10Be standards used to calibrate the AMS measurements. In recent years it has become apparent that there is a discrepancy between two of the most widely used 10Be AMS standards, the ICN 10Be standard and the NIST 10Be standard. The ICN (ICN Chemical & Radioisotope Division) 10Be AMS standard was calibrated by radioactive decay counting. Dilutions, ranging from 5 × 10 -13 to 3 × 10 -1110Be/Be, have been prepared and are extensively used in many AMS laboratories. The NIST 10Be standard, prepared at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is calibrated by mass spectrometric isotope ratio measurements. To provide an independent calibration of the 10Be standards we implanted a known number of 10Be atoms in both Si detectors and Be foil targets. The 10Be concentrations in these targets were measured by AMS. The results were compared with both the ICN and NIST AMS standards. Our 10Be measurements indicate that the 10Be/ 9Be isotopic ratio of the ICN AMS standard, which is based on a 10Be half-life of 1.5 × 10 6 yr, is 1.106 ± 0.012 times lower than the nominal value. Since the decay rate of the ICN standard is well determined, the decrease in 10Be/ 9Be ratio requires that the 10Be half-life be reduced to (1.36 ± 0.07) × 10 6 yr. The quoted uncertainty includes a ±5% uncertainty in the activity measurement carried out by ICN. In a similar fashion, we determined that the value of the NIST 10Be standard (SRM4325) is (2.79 ± 0.03) × 10 -1110Be/ 9Be, within error of the certified value of (2.68 ± 0.14) × 10 -11. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) internal standards were also included in this study. We conclude that the 9Be(n, γ) neutron cross section is 7.8 ± 0.23 mb, without taking into account the uncertainty in the neutron irradiation.

  17. AMS-02 antiprotons: implications for dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaud, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the Ams-02 experiment we reevaluate the secondary astrophysical antiproton to proton ratio and its uncertainties, and compare it with the ratio preliminarly reported by AMS-02. We find no unambiguous evidence for a significant excess with respect to expectations. Yet, some preference for a flatter energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient (with respect to the Med benchmark often used in the literature) starts to emerge. Finally, we provide a first assessment of the room left for exotic components such as Galactic Dark Matter annihilation, deriving new stringent constraints.

  18. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Landa, A.; Oudot, B.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F.

    2016-12-01

    We present a newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. We included the previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) in the database and is briefly described in the present work. In conclusion, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.

  19. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    DOE PAGES

    Perron, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Landa, A.; ...

    2016-12-01

    We present a newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. We includedmore » the previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) in the database and is briefly described in the present work. In conclusion, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.« less

  20. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Landa, A.; Oudot, B.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F.

    2016-12-01

    A newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U is presented. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. The previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) is also included in the database and is briefly described in the present work. Finally, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.

  1. Entwicklungsarbeit am Spurendetektor fur das CDF Experiment am Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Frank

    2000-02-01

    Silicon, the element, which revolutionized the development of electronics, is known as an important and multiusable material, dominating todays electronic technology. It's properties are well investigated and today well known. Silicon is used in solar cells, computers and telecommunications. Since the Sixties semiconductors have been used as particle detectors. Initially they were operated in fixed- target experiments as calorimeters and as detectors with a high precision track reconstruction. Since the Eighties they are widely used in collider experiments as silicon microstrip or silicon pixel detectors near the primary vertex. Silicon sensors have a very good intrinsic energy resolution: for every 3.6 eV released by a particle crossing the medium, one electron-hole pair is produced. Compared to 30 eV required to ionize a gas molecule in a gaseous detector, one gets 10 times the number of particles. The average energy loss and high ionized particle number with 390 e V / μm ~ 108 (electron - hole pairs)/ μm is effectively high due to the high density of silicon. These detectors allow a high precision reconstruction of tracks, primary and secondary vertices, which are especially important for b flavour tagging. The Tevatron and its detectors are being upgraded for the next data taking run starting in 2001 (RUN II). The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) [2] for the upcoming Run II and its upgraded components are described in chapter 2. The main upgrade project is the design and construction of a completely new inner tracking system.

  2. A/M Area Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kupar, J.; Jarosch, T.R.; Jackson, D.G. Jr.; Looney, B.B.; Jerome, K.M.; Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    Characterization and monitoring data from implementation and the first two and one half years of vadose zone remediation operations indicate that this activity has substantially improved the performance of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Program. During this period, vadose zone remediation removed approximately 225, 000 lbs (100,000 Kg) of chlorinated solvents (CVOCs) from the subsurface. Further, vadose zone remediation system operation increased the overall CVOC removal rate of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action by 300% to 500% during this period versus the groundwater pump and treat system along. Various support activities have been performed to support operation and documentation of performance of the vadose zone remediation system. These activities address performance of existing systems (contaminant distributions, zone of influence, and process monitoring data), evaluation of suspect sources, evaluation of alternative/enhancement technologies, and initial development of remediation goals. In particular, the most recent A/M vadose zone remediation support activities (described in WSRC-RP-97-109) were completed and the results provide key documentation about system performance.

  3. A method for determining Am-241 activity for large area contamination.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Emilien; Arbor, Nicolas; Gutierrez, Sébastien; Ménard, Stéphanie; Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2017-01-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry system HELINUC™ is used for different missions. Although well-developed for estimation of high energy emitters' activity, it is rarely used for low energy emitters. A new method for the determination of Am-241 activity over extended sites based both on statistical analysis of spectra and deconvolution of Am-241 signal with a reference library is presented. Results show a lowering of the detection threshold and a good agreement with ground level measurements.

  4. Reprocessing of 10B-contaminated 10Be AMS targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. J.; Pedro, J. B.; Smith, A. M.; Child, D. P.; Fink, D.

    2013-01-01

    10Be accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an increasingly important tool in studies ranging from exposure age dating and palaeo-geomagnetism to the impact of solar variability on the Earth’s climate. High levels of boron in BeO AMS targets can adversely impact the quality of 10Be measurements through interference from the isobar 10B. Numerous methods in chemical sample preparation and AMS measurement have been employed in order to reduce the impact of excessive boron rates. We present details of a method developed to chemically reprocess a set of forty boron-contaminated BeO targets derived from modern Antarctic ice. Previously, the excessive boron levels in these samples, as measured in an argon-filled absorber cell preceding the ionisation detector, had precluded routine AMS measurement. The procedure involved removing the BeO + Nb mixture from the target holders and dissolving the BeO in hot concentrated H2SO4. The solution was then heated with HF to remove the boron as volatile BF3 before re-precipitating as Be(OH)2 and calcining to BeO. This was again mixed with niobium and pressed into fresh target holders. Following reprocessing, the samples gave boron rates reduced by 10-100×, which were sufficiently low and similar to previous successful batches of ice core, snow and associated blank samples, thus allowing a successful 10Be measurement in the absence of any boron correction. Overall recovery of the BeO for this process averaged 40%. Extensive testing of relevant processing equipment and reagents failed to determine the source of the boron. As a precautionary measure, a similar H2SO4 + HF step has been subsequently added to the standard ice processing method.

  5. Modeling of UV Emission Lines in AM HER Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, Jennifer; Howell, Steve

    We present preliminary models of the UV emission lines from the accretion streams in AM Her systems. These models are based on the theory that the emission lines are due to reprocessing of the high energy photons from the hot spot and shock regions by the accretion stream. The models were developed using the radiative-collisional equilibrium program CLOUDY. They show the same trends of emission line strength versus magnetic field strength as seen in IUE observations. We have also examined the effects of other parameters on the predicted emission line strengths. The development of more sophisticated models is underway.

  6. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.201 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1221.201 Section 1221.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  10. Pro-Am Collaboration and the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A.

    2006-04-01

    Professionals need to be aware that there is a valuable resource available and waiting to be used -- the amateur astronomy community. We give some examples of how pro-am collaborations have worked in the past, indicate the advantages and disadvantages of such collaborations, and suggest methods by which a professional can find and work effectively with amateur astronomers.

  11. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. Chemical thermodynamic representation of AmO 2- x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiriet, C.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2003-08-01

    The AmO 2- x solid solution data set for the dependence of the oxygen potential on the composition, x, and temperature was retrieved from the literature and represented by a thermodynamic model. The data set was analysed by least-squares using equations derived from the classical thermodynamic theory for the solid solution of a solute in a solvent. Two representations of the AmO 2- x data were used, namely the Am 5/4O 2-AmO 2 and AmO 3/2-AmO 2 solid solution. No significant difference was found between the two, and the Am 5/4O 2-AmO 2 solution was preferred on the basis of the phase diagram. From the results the Gibbs energy of formation of Am 5/4O 2 has been derived.

  17. CAOS spectroscopy of Am stars Kepler targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, G.; Ripepi, V.; Biazzo, K.; Busá, I.; Frasca, A.; Leone, F.; Giarrusso, M.; Munari, M.; Scuderi, S.

    2015-07-01

    The Kepler space mission and its K2 extension provide photometric time series data with unprecedented accuracy. These data challenge our current understanding of the metallic-lined A stars (Am stars) for what concerns the onset of pulsations in their atmospheres. It turns out that the predictions of current diffusion models do not agree with observations. To understand this discrepancy, it is of crucial importance to obtain ground-based spectroscopic observations of Am stars in the Kepler and K2 fields in order to determine the best estimates of the stellar parameters. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data for seven stars previously classified as Am stars. We determine the effective temperatures, surface gravities, projected rotational velocities, microturbulent velocities and chemical abundances of these stars using spectral synthesis. These spectra were obtained with CAOS, a new instrument recently installed at the observing station of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory on Mt Etna. Three stars have already been observed during quarters Q0-Q17, namely: HD 180347, HD 181206 and HD 185658, while HD 43509 was already observed during K2 C0 campaign. We confirm that HD 43509 and HD 180347 are Am stars, while HD 52403, HD 50766, HD 58246, HD 181206 and HD 185658 are marginal Am stars. By means of non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) analysis, we derived oxygen abundances from O I λ7771-5 Å triplet and we also discussed the results obtained with both non-LTE and LTE approaches.

  18. [Colonization and community structural features of AM fungi in urban ecosystem: a review].

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-jun; Diao, Zhi-kai; Liu, Run-jin

    2011-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, an important component of soil microbes, are of significance in maintaining the sustainable development of urban ecosystem. This paper summarized the characteristics of the colonization and community structure of AM fungi in urban ecosystems, and discussed the effects of urban ecological factors, e.g., human activities, vegetation re-establishment and maintenance, and urban soil status, on the colonization and community structure. It was considered that the researches on the community structure and function of AM fungi in urban ecosystems, such as the effects and mechanisms of the key urban ecological factors (e.g., water resource shortage and heat island effect) on the alternation of AM fungal community structure should be strengthened in the future.

  19. Variations in AmLi source spectra and their estimation utilizing the 5 Ring Multiplicity Counter

    DOE PAGES

    Weinmann-Smith, Robert; Beddingfield, David H.; Enqvist, Andreas; ...

    2017-02-28

    Active-mode assay systems are widely used for the safeguards of uranium items to verify compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Systems such as the Active-Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) use americium-lithium (AmLi) neutron sources to induce fissions which are measured to determine the sample mass. These systems have historically relied on calibrations derived from well-defined standards. Recently, restricted access to standards or more difficult measurements have resulted in a reliance on modeling and simulation for the calibration of systems, which introduces potential simulation biases. Furthermore, the AmLi source energy spectra commonly used in the safeguardsmore » community do not accurately represent measurement results and the spectrum uncertainty can represent a large contribution to the total modeling uncertainty in active-mode systems.« less

  20. Investigation of the 241Am(n ,2 n )240Am cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamara, A.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Patronis, N.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 241Am(n ,2 n )240Am reaction cross section has been measured at four energies, 10.0, 10.4, 10.8, and 17.1 MeV, by means of the activation technique, relative to the 27Al(n ,α )24Na reaction reference cross section. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 2H(d ,n )3He and the 3H(d ,n )4He reactions at the 5.5 MV Tandem T11/25 accelerator laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos". The high purity 241Am targets were provided by JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium. The induced γ -ray activity of 240Am was measured with high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the mcnp code. The present results are in agreement with data obtained earlier and predictions obtained with the empire code.

  1. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  2. Behavior of 241Am in fast reactor systems - a safeguards perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Lafleur, Adrienne M

    2009-01-01

    Advanced fuel-cycle developments around the world currently under development are exploring the possibility of disposing of {sup 241}Am from spent fuel recycle processes by burning this material in fast reactors. For safeguards practitioners, this approach could potentially complicate both fresh- and spent-fuel safeguards measurements. The increased ({alpha},n) production in oxide fuels from the {sup 241}Am increases the uncertainty in coincidence assay of Pu in MOX assemblies and will require additional information to make use of totals-based neutron assay of these assemblies. We have studied the behavior of {sup 241}Am-bearing MOX fuel in the fast reactor system and the effect on neutron and gamma-ray source-terms for safeguards measurements. In this paper, we will present the results of simulations of the behavior of {sup 241}Am in a fast breeder reactor system. Because of the increased use of MOX fuel in thermal reactors and advances in fuel-cycle designs aimed at americium disposal in fast reactors, we have undertaken a brief study of the behavior of americium in these systems to better understand the safeguards impacts of these new approaches. In this paper we will examine the behavior of {sup 241}Am in a variety of nuclear systems to provide insight into the safeguards implications of proposed Am disposition schemes.

  3. Development of a YAG laser system for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hatae, T.; Yatsuka, E.; Hayashi, T.; Ono, T.; Kusama, Y.; Yoshida, H.

    2012-10-15

    A prototype YAG laser system for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER has been newly developed. Performance of the laser amplifier was improved by using flow tubes made of samarium-doped glass; the small signal gain reached 20 at its maximum. As a result, an output energy of 7.66 J at 100 Hz was successfully achieved, and the performance exceeded the target performance (5 J, 100 Hz).

  4. A&M. TAN607. Elevation for secondphase expansion of A&M Building. Work ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Elevation for second-phase expansion of A&M Building. Work areas south of the Carpentry Shop. High-bay shop, decontamination room at south-most end. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. Ralph M. Parsons 1299-5-ANP/GE-3-607-A 106. Date: August 1956. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-107166 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. A&M. A&M building (TAN607). Camera facing east. From left to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. A&M building (TAN-607). Camera facing east. From left to right, pool section, hot shop, cold shop, and machine shop. Biparting doors to hot shop are in open position behind shroud. Four rail tracks lead to hot shop and cold shop. Date: August 20, 1954. INEEL negative no. 11706 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Pyrolysis result of polyethylene waste as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the result of pyrolysis on polyethylene was used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The pyrolysis result is a liquid which consists of hydrocarbon chains. According to GC-MS analysis, the hydrocarbons mainly consist of C7 to C20 hydrocarbon chain. Then, the liquid was applied to a single cell of NSDC-L | NSDC | NSDC-L. NSDC is a composite SDC (samarium doped-ceria) with sodium carbonate. Meanwhile, NSDC-L is a composite of NSDC with LiNiCuO (LNC). NSDC and LNC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to understand their crystal structure. The result shows that presence of carbonate did not change the crystal structure of SDC. SEM EDX analysis for fuel cell before and after being loaded with polyethylene oil to get information of element diffusion to the electrolyte. Meanwhile, the conductivity properties were investigated through impedance measurement. The presence of carbonate even increases the electrical conductivity. The single cell test with the pyrolysis result of polyethylene at 300 – 600 °C, found that the highest power density is at 600 °C with the maximum power density of 0.14 mW/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.4 Volt. Elemental analysis at three point spots of single cell NDSC-L |NSDC|NSDC-L found that a migration of ions was occurred during fuel operation at 300 – 600 °C.

  7. Investigation on structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of samarium-substituted BiFeO3-PbTiO3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Truptimayee; Behera, Banarji

    The polycrystalline samples of 0.8BiSmxFe1-xO3-0.2PbTiO3 (x=0.05,0.10,0.15 and 0.20) were prepared by using the conventional solid-state reaction technique and sintered at high temperature (850∘C). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the distorted rhombohedral crystal structure for all the composites at room temperature. The surface morphology was checked by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) technique and homogeneous mixing of the components was confirmed by energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The detailed study of dielectric properties of the composites reveals an increasing nature of dielectric constant (ɛr) and loss tangent (tanδ) with the increase of temperature due to thermal activation. The Arrhenius plots of temperature dependence of AC conductivity yield the activation energy within the material at high-temperature range. The ferroelectric study shows that the remnant polarization decreases with the increase of Samarium (Sm) concentration.

  8. Use of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam for the treatment of dogs with primary tumors of the skull: 20 cases (1986-2006).

    PubMed

    Vancil, Jarrod M; Henry, Carolyn J; Milner, Rowan J; McCoig, Amber M; Lattimer, Jimmy C; Villamil, Jose Armando; McCaw, Dudley L; Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate samarium Sm 153 lexidronam ((153)Sm-EDTMP) as a treatment option for dogs with bony tumors of the skull. Retrospective case series. Dogs with multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) or osteosarcoma (OSA) of the skull. Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital records from the Universities of Missouri and Florida from 1986 to 2006 were searched for dogs with primary skull tumors treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP. 25 dogs were initially evaluated, with 5 dogs subsequently excluded because of inadequate follow-up or unrelated death. Seven OSAs and 13 MLOs were diagnosed. Tumors involved the occipital and frontal bones (n = 10), zygomatic arch and maxilla region (6), palate (3), and mandible (1). No clinically important adverse effects related to (153)Sm-EDTMP treatment were documented. Of the 20 dogs evaluated 21 days after injection with (153)Sm-EDTMP, 4 had subjective improvement, 13 had progressive disease, and 3 had insufficient follow-up. On the basis of radiographic findings, metastasis was suspected in 1 dog; 16 dogs had no metastasis evident, and medical records were insufficient for 3 dogs. Survival time, defined as the (153)Sm-EDTMP injection date to the date of death, ranged from 3 to 1,314 days (median, 144 days). The subjective improvement in 4 patients and lack of clinical evidence of adverse effects suggested that (153)Sm-EDTMP injection may be an option for the treatment of dogs with MLO or OSA of the skull when other treatments have failed or surgery is not possible.

  9. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of magnetic samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide at the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongliang; Lai, Hong; Yao, Shuhua

    2012-08-01

    Preparation of samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide (Sm/MTiO2) coated magnetite (Fe3O4) photocatalysts (Sm/MTiO2/Fe3O4) and their activities under visible light were reported. The catalysts with Sm/MTiO2 shell and a Fe3O4 core were prepared by coating photoactive Sm/MTiO2 onto a magnetic Fe3O4 core through the hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OBu)4, TBT) with precursors of Sm(NO3)3 and TBT in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The effect of Sm ion content on the photocatalytic activity was studied. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts under visible light were estimated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue (MB, 50 mg/L) in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the prepared photocatalyst was activated by visible light and used as effective catalyst in photooxidation reactions. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of the prepared photocatalyst was also confirmed. Moreover, Sm/MTiO2 was tightly bound to Fe3O4 and could be easily recovered from the medium by a simple magnetic process. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  10. Effects of some rare earth and carbonate-based co-dopants on structural and electrical properties of samarium doped ceria (SDC) electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Mustafa; Khan, Zuhair S.; Mustafa, Kamal; Rana, Akmal

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, samarium doped ceria (SDC) and SDC-based composite with the addition of K2CO3 were prepared by co-precipitation route and effects of pH of the solution and calcination temperature on microstructure of SDC and SDC-K2CO3, respectively, were investigated. Furthermore, experimentation was performed to investigate into the ionic conductivity of pure SDC by co-doping with yttrium i.e., YSDC, XRD and SEM studies show that the crystallite size and particle size of SDC increases with the increase in pH. The SEM images of all the samples of SDC synthesized at different pH values showed the irregular shaped and dispersed particles. SDC-K2CO3 was calcined at 600∘C, 700∘C and 800∘C for 4 h and XRD results showed that crystallite size increases while lattice strain, decreases with the increase in calcination temperature and no peaks were detected for K2CO3 as it is present in an amorphous form. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with the increase in temperature and SDC-K2CO3 shows the highest value of ionic conductivity as compared to SDC and YSDC. Chemical compatibility tests were performed between the co-doped electrolyte and lithiated NiO cathode at high temperature. It revealed that the couple could be used up to the temperature of 700∘C.

  11. Samarium doped ceria-(Li/Na) 2CO 3 composite electrolyte and its electrochemical properties in low temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Jing; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Chengyang; Zheng, Jiaming; Fan, Liangdong; Zhu, Bin

    A composite of samarium doped ceria (SDC) and a binary carbonate eutectic (52 mol% Li 2CO 3/48 mol% Na 2CO 3) is investigated with respect to its morphology, conductivity and fuel cell performances. The morphology study shows the composition could prevent SDC particles from agglomeration. The conductivity is measured under air, argon and hydrogen, respectively. A sharp increase in conductivity occurs under all the atmospheres, which relates to the superionic phase transition in the interface phases between SDC and carbonates. Single cells with the composite electrolyte are fabricated by a uniaxial die-press method using NiO/electrolyte as anode and lithiated NiO/electrolyte as cathode. The cell shows a maximum power density of 590 mW cm -2 at 600 °C, using hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Unlike that of cells based on pure oxygen ionic conductor or pure protonic conductor, the open circuit voltage of the SDC-carbonate based fuel cell decreases with an increase in water content of either anodic or cathodic inlet gas, indicating the electrolyte is a co-ionic (H +/O 2-) conductor. The results also exhibit that oxygen ionic conductivity contributes to the major part of the whole conductivity under fuel cell circumstances.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of the divalent samarium Zintl-phases SmMg2Bi2 and SmMg2Sb2

    DOE PAGES

    Ramirez, D.; Gallagher, A.; Baumbach, R.; ...

    2015-08-29

    Here, single crystals of LnMg2Bi2 (Ln = Yb, Eu, Sm) and SmMg2Sb2 were synthesized using Mg-Bi metal and Mg-Sb metal fluxes, respectively. The crystal structures are of the CaAl2Si2 type with space group P3 m1 (#164, Z = 1): SmMg2Bi2 (a = 4.7745(1)Å, c = 7.8490(2)Å), EuMg2Bi2 (a = 4.7702(1)Å, c = 7.8457(2) Å), YbMg2Bi2 (a = 4.7317(2)Å, c = 7.6524(3) Å), and SmMg2Sb2 (a = 4.6861(1) Å, c = 7.7192(2) Å). Heat capacity, electrical transport, and magnetization of all bismuth containing phases were measured. The materials behave as “poor metals” with resistivity between 2 and 10 mΩ·cm. Temperature independentmore » Van Vleck paramagnetism is observed in SmMg2Bi2 indicative of divalent samarium (Sm2+) ions.« less

  13. AM363 martensitic stainless steel: A multiphase equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Crockett, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    A multiphase equation of state for stainless steel AM363 has been developed within the Opensesame approach and has been entered as material 4295 in the LANL-SESAME Library. Three phases were constructed separately: the low pressure martensitic phase, the austenitic phase and the liquid. Room temperature data and the explicit introduction of a magnetic contribution to the free energy determined the martensitic phase, while shock Hugoniot data was used to determine the austenitic phase and the phase boundaries. More experimental data or First Principles calculations would be useful to better characterize the liquid.

  14. (26)Al investigations at the AMS-laboratory in Lund.

    PubMed

    Faarinen, M; Magnusson, C E; Hellborg, R; Mattsson, S; Kiisk, M; Persson, P; Schütz, A; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2001-11-01

    At the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory in Lund, a facility for (26)Al analysis is under development. The sensitivity is expected to be several orders of magnitude higher than with standard mass spectrometry. The planned biomedical program includes studies of aluminium uptake, distribution and retention in man. The initial work has been concentrated on the construction and testing of a new dedicated injector for the accelerator and on the preparation of biological samples for aluminium analysis. The current quality of the facility is presented and the first experimental results reported.

  15. A+M Collisional Databases in ALADDIN Format

    DOE Data Explorer

    ALADDIN (A Labelled Atomic Data Interface) is a database system developed in order to provide a standard and flexible format and interface for the exchange and management of atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction data of interest to fusion research. As part of the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS), introduced by the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit, the ALADDIN interface is available on-line. Twelve databases from DOE and IAEA sources are available from the CFADC website under the heading A+M Collisional Databases.

  16. AMS with light nuclei at small accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2017-06-01

    AMS applications with lighter nuclei are presented. It will be shown how Carbon-14, Boron-10, Beryllium-10, and Tritium-3 can be used to provide valuable information in forensic science, environmental physics, nuclear pollution, in material science and for diagnose of the plasma confinement in fusion reactors. Small accelerators are reliable, efficient and possess the highest ion beam transmissions that confer high precision in measurements.

  17. Signal Enhancement in AM-FM Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-17

    the short-time linear assumption, it provides a good test of the suppression algorithm. A 10-ms Hamming window, a 4-ms frame, and a 2048-point DFT...complex suppression with a different test signal consisting of the AM-FM interference added to an information signal generated from a closing stapler...1st The results of an informal listening test are also listed in Table 1, based on the judgment of interference reduction and clarity of the information

  18. Heat capacities and thermal conductivities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Akinori; Ichise, Kenichi; Arai, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    The thermal diffusivity of AmO 2 was measured from 473 to 773 K and that of AmO 1.5 between 473 and 1373 K using a laser flash method. The enthalpy increment of AmO 2 was measured from 335 to 1081 K and that of AmO 1.5 between 335 and 1086 K using drop calorimetry. The heat capacities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5 were derived from the enthalpy increment measurements. The thermal conductivity was determined from the measured thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and bulk density. The heat capacities of AmO 2 was found larger than that of AmO 1.5. The thermal conductivities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5 were found to decrease with increasing temperature in the investigated temperature range. The thermal conductivity of AmO 1.5 with A -type hexagonal structure was smaller than that of AmO 2 with C-type fluorite structure but larger than that of sub-stoichiometric AmO 1.73.

  19. Binaries among AP and AM stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, P.; Ginestet, N.; Carquillat, J.-M.; Carrier, F.; Udry, S.

    1998-04-01

    The results of long-term surveys of radial velocities of cool Ap and Am stars are presented. There are two samples, one of about 100 Ap stars and the other of 86 Am stars. Both have been observed with the CORAVEL scanner from Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France. The conspicuous lack of short-period binaries among cool Ap stars seems confirmed, although this may be the result of an observational bias; one system has a period as short as 1.6 days. A dozen new orbits could be determined, including that of one SB2 system. Considering the mass functions of 68 binaries from the literature and from our work, we conclude that the distribution of the mass ratios is the same for the Bp-Ap stars than for normal G dwarfs. Among the Am stars, we found 52 binaries, i.e. 60%; an orbit could be computed for 29 of them. Among these 29, there are 7 SB2 systems, one triple and one quadruple system. The 21 stars with an apparently constant radial velocity may show up later as long-period binaries with a high eccentricity. The mass functions of the SB1 systems are compatible with cool main-sequence companions, also suggested by ongoing spectral observations.

  20. The unusual helium variable AM Canum Venaticorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Robinson, E. L.; Solheim, J.-E.; Clemens, J. C.; Bradley, J. L.; Kleinman, S. J.; Kanaan, A.; Claver, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    The unusual variable star AM CVn has puzzled astronomers for over 40 years. This object, both a photometric and spectroscopic variable, is believed to contain a pair of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs of extreme mass ratio, transferring material via an accretion disk. We examine the photometric properties of AM CVn, analyzing 289 hours of high-speed photometric data spanning 1976 to 1992. The power spectrum displays significant peaks at 988.7, 1248.8, 1902.5, 2853.8, 3805.2, 4756.5, and 5707.8 microHz (1011.4, 800.8, 525.6, 350.4, 262.8, 210.2, and 175.2 s). We find no detectable power at 951.3 microHz (1051 s), the previously reported main frequency. The 1902.5, 2853.9, and 3805.2 microHz peaks are multiplets, with frequency splitting in each case of 20.77 +/- 0.05 microHz. The 1902.5 microHz seasonal pulse shapes are identical, within measurement noise, and maintain the same amplitude and phase as a function of color. We have determined the dominant frequency to be 1902.50902 +/- 0.00001 microHz with dot P = +1.71 (+/- 0.04) x 10(exp -11) s/s. We discuss the implications of these findings on a model for AM CVn.

  1. Seven Passive 1-h Hypoxia Exposures Do Not Prevent AMS in Susceptible Individuals.

    PubMed

    Faulhaber, Martin; Pocecco, Elena; Gatterer, Hannes; Niedermeier, Martin; Huth, Maike; Dünnwald, Tobias; Menz, Verena; Bernardi, Luciano; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a preacclimatization program comprising seven passive 1-h exposures to 4500-m normobaric hypoxia on the prevalence and severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during a subsequent exposure to real high altitude in persons susceptible to AMS. The project was designed as a randomized controlled trial including 32 healthy female and male participants with known susceptibility to AMS symptoms. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to the hypoxia or the control group to receive the preacclimatization program (seven passive 1-h exposures within 7 d to normobaric hypoxia or sham hypoxia). After completing preacclimatization, participants were transported (bus, cog railway) to real high altitude (3650 m, Mönchsjoch Hut, Switzerland) and stayed there for 45 h (two nights). Symptoms of AMS and physiological responses were determined repeatedly. AMS incidence and severity did not significantly differ between groups during the high-altitude exposure. In total, 59% of the hypoxia and 67% of the control group suffered from AMS at one or more time points during the high-altitude exposure. Hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses were not affected by the preacclimatization program. Resting ventilation at high altitude tended to be higher (P = 0.06) in the hypoxia group compared with the control group. No significant between-group differences were detected for heart rate variability, arterial oxygen saturation, and hematological and ventilatory parameters during the high-altitude exposure. Preacclimatization using seven passive 1-h exposures to normobaric hypoxia corresponding to 4500 m did not prevent AMS development during a subsequent high-altitude exposure in AMS-susceptible persons.

  2. Responses of midbrain auditory neurons in rats to FM and AM tones presented simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Lee, M F; So, Edmund C; Poon, Paul W F

    2010-12-31

    Speech and other communication signals contain components of frequency and amplitude modulations (FM, AM) that often occur together. Auditory midbrain (or inferior colliculus, IC) is an important center for coding time-varying features of sounds. It remains unclear how IC neurons respond when FM and AM stimuli are both presented. Here we studied IC neurons in the urethane-anesthetized rats when animals were simultaneously stimulated with FM and AM tones. Of 122 units that were sensitive to the dual stimuli, the responses could be grossly divided into two types: one that resembled the respective responses to FM or AM stimuli presented separately ("simple" sensitivity, 45% of units), and another that appeared markedly different from their respective responses to FM or AM tones ("complex" sensitivity, 55%). These types of combinational sensitivities were further correlated with individual cell's frequency tuning pattern (response area) and with their common response pattern to FM and AM sounds. Results suggested that such combinational sensitivity could reflect local synaptic interactions on IC neurons and that the neural mechanisms could underlie more developed sensitivities to acoustic combinations found at the auditory cortex.

  3. Plutonium measurements on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Elena; Enamorado, Santiago Miguel; García-León, Manuel; Suter, Martin; Wacker, Lukas

    2008-11-01

    Plutonium isotopes have been recently added to the list of radionuclides that can be measured with the new generation of compact AMS facilities. In this paper we present first experimental results concerning the development of the plutonium AMS technique at 680 kV on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla, Spain. This is the first compact AMS machine designed and manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa. As we demonstrate, the obtained backgrounds for 239,240Pu, of about 10 6 atoms, and the 239Pu/ 238U mass suppression factor, in the range of 10 -9, compare to the ones achieved on other AMS facilities. With the measurement of reference materials provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-375, IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-381) and samples already studied on the 600 kV compact ETH/PSI AMS system at Zürich, we show that the CNA system can be perfectly used for the routine measurement of plutonium isotopes at environmental levels.

  4. Think Big: Leadership Projects for AMS and Montessori Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2014-01-01

    The American Montessori Society's (AMS) 2014 Living Legacy recipient, John Chattin-McNichols, delivered the keynote address at the Annual Conference in Dallas, TX, on March 27, 2014, In his speech, he described three overall highlights of AMS: (1) AMS is now a world-leading organization; (2) It must become a learning organization; and (3)…

  5. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  6. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  7. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  8. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  9. 47 CFR 73.45 - AM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM antenna systems. 73.45 Section 73.45... Broadcast Stations § 73.45 AM antenna systems. (a) All applicants for new, additional, or different AM... existing station must specify an antenna system, the efficiency of which complies with the requirements...

  10. 30 CFR 75.156 - AMS operator, qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AMS operator, qualifications. 75.156 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Qualified and Certified Persons § 75.156 AMS operator, qualifications. (a) To be qualified as an AMS operator, a person shall be provided with...

  11. Challenges of Enterprise Wide AM for Air Force Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    that paradigm will take time and deliberate steps. AM designers will need to be creative , innovative and utilize a new design method- ology that will...ing the Air Force have the necessary AM foundational skills. AM designers will need to be creative , innovative, and utilize a new design methodology

  12. Think Big: Leadership Projects for AMS and Montessori Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2014-01-01

    The American Montessori Society's (AMS) 2014 Living Legacy recipient, John Chattin-McNichols, delivered the keynote address at the Annual Conference in Dallas, TX, on March 27, 2014, In his speech, he described three overall highlights of AMS: (1) AMS is now a world-leading organization; (2) It must become a learning organization; and (3)…

  13. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  14. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  15. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  16. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  17. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing...

  18. Progress in AMS measurement of U isotope ratios in nanogram U samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kejun; He, Ming; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Xinhong; Li, Lili; Zhao, Yonggang; Wang, Xianggao; Shen, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoming; Pang, Fangfang; Xu, Yongning; Zhao, Qingzhang; Dou, Liang; Yang, Xuran; Wu, Shaoyong; Lin, Deyu; Li, Kangning; You, Qubo; Bao, Yiwen; Hu, Yueming; Xia, Qingliang; Yin, Xinyi; Jiang, Shan

    2015-10-01

    The determination of uranium isotopic composition in ultra-trace U samples is very important in different fields, especially for the nuclear forensics. A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique has been developed for the measurement of uranium isotopic ratios in ng level uranium samples at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). Recently, the method was further optimized and developed by using a series of blank and standard samples. The results show that the 236U at the femtogram level can be determined in nanogram U samples by the newly developed AMS technique at CIAE. The experimental setup, performances and results will be detailed in this contribution.

  19. Toward a Facies Model for AMS Fabrics in Deposits from Pyroclastic Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ort, M. H.; Newkirk, T.; Vilas, J. F.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in deposits from pyroclastic density currents have been made for 30 years. Early studies sought to find vent locations, but later studies have also used AMS to interpret flow and depositional processes. These studies show that AMS fabrics reflect shear directions at the base of the depositional regime and thoughtful interpretations of the directions, coupled with good observations of the deposits, can lead to a better understanding of depositional and flow processes in the currents. Here, we compare the AMS fabrics and deposit characteristics of deposits of dense and dilute pyroclastic density currents in order to develop an AMS facies model for such deposits. Deposits from individual phreatomagmatic density currents produced in the NE Hopi Buttes volcanic field, NE Arizona, can be traced from the maar edge laterally for 1.5 km or more. This allows the depositional facies to be described and sampled for AMS. The most proximal facies, consisting of tuff breccias, is characterized by a disorganized AMS fabric, marked by some grouping of the AMS axes but a very weak foliation. By about 350 m from the maar rim and extending out over a kilometer, a well lineated and foliated fabric develops in the stratified to sand-wave-bearing lapilli-tuffs, reflecting the shear within the well-developed current. At distances over a km from the vent, where the deposits are plane-parallel tuffs, a girdled fabric develops, with overlapping K1 and K2 axes. This likely reflects weak shearing within the slowing flow. At Caviahue caldera, Neuquen, Argentina, lateral sampling of ignimbrites from within the caldera and on a SE transect to ~25 km from the caldera rim, reveals systematic changes in the AMS fabric, with less obvious changes in the sedimentary characteristics. Intracaldera ignimbrites are rheomorphic and very densely welded, and their AMS fabrics are very strongly foliated but with a weak lineation. Moving out from the

  20. A new salicylate synthase AmS is identified for siderophores biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T).

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Dai, Shengwang; Shen, Jinzhao; Ren, Biao; Huang, Pei; Wang, Qiushui; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Buchang; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-07-01

    Siderophores are important for the growth of bacteria or the applications in treatment of iron overload-associated diseases due to the iron-chelating property. Salicylate synthase played a key role in the biosynthesis of some NRPS-derived siderophores by the providing of an iron coordination moiety as the initial building block. A new salicylate synthase, namely AmS, was identified in the biosynthesis pathway of siderophore amychelin in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T), since it shunt chorismate, an integrant precursor, from primary to secondary metabolite flow. The amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that AmS grouped into a new cluster. In vitro assays of AmS revealed its wide temperature tolerance ranged from 0 to 40 °C and narrow pH tolerant ranged from 7.0 to 9.0. AmS was resistant to organic solvents and non-ionic detergents. Moreover, AmS converted chorismate to salicylate with K m of 129.05 μM, k cat of 2.20 min(-1) at optimal conditions, indicating its low substrate specificity and comparable velocity to reported counterparts (Irp9 and MbtI). These properties of AmS may improve the iron-seizing ability of A. methanolica to compete with its neighbors growing in natural environments. Most importantly, serine and cysteine residues were found to be important for the catalytic activity of AmS. This study presented AmS as a new cluster of salicylate synthase and the reaction mechanism and potential applications of salicylate synthase were highlighted as well.

  1. A new, efficient and stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic and tetracyclic compounds by samarium diiodide induced cyclisations of naphthyl-substituted arylketones--an easy access to steroid-like skeletons.

    PubMed

    Aulenta, Francesca; Berndt, Mathias; Brüdgam, Irene; Hartl, Hans; Sörgel, Sebastian; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present the application of samarium diiodide induced cyclisations of naphthyl-substituted ketones towards an easy and stereoselective access to tri- and tetracyclic-functionalised compounds. Typical naphthalene derivatives were studied to investigate the scope and limitations of this novel cyclisation process. The model substrates studied demonstrate that the samarium ketyl cyclisations are essentially restricted to the formation of six-membered rings. The diastereoselectivity of these reactions is strongly influenced by the connection of the alkyl side chain to the naphthalene core. Gamma-naphth-1-yl-substituted ketones furnished cyclisation products, such as 17 or 22-26, as single diastereomers, whereas gamma-naphth-2-yl-substituted precursors gave mixtures of diastereomers--as demonstrated by the conversion of model compound 10 into tricyclic products 18 a/18 b, or that of cyclohexanone derivative 33 into tetracyclic diastereomers 34 a/34 b. Cyclic ketones as ketyl precursors furnished steroid-like tetracyclic skeletons; however, due to the cis/cis fusion of rings B/C and C/D these products have an "unnatural" bowl-like shape. Several of the cyclisation products have been identified by X-ray analyses, which not only proved the constitutions, but also the relative configurations and the preferred conformations. Steroid analogue 23 was subjected to subsequent transformations, which demonstrate that the styrene-like double bond of such compounds can be used for further structural diversification. First attempts to synthesise related azasteroids by incorporating nitrogen atoms into the ketone moiety are also reported. Thus, pyrrolidine derivatives 44 and 47 as well as piperidine derivatives 50 and 52 were subjected to samarium diiodide induced cyclisations. The expected tetracyclic products 48, 49 a/49 b, 51 and 53 a/53 b were obtained in moderate to good yields. The stereoselectivities observed follow the rules already established for the all

  2. 21 CFR 822.24 - What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.24 Section 822.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... SURVEILLANCE Responsibilities of Manufacturers § 822.24 What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? You must submit your plan to conduct postmarket...

  3. 21 CFR 822.24 - What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.24 Section 822.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... SURVEILLANCE Responsibilities of Manufacturers § 822.24 What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? You must submit your plan to conduct postmarket...

  4. 21 CFR 822.24 - What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.24 Section 822.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... SURVEILLANCE Responsibilities of Manufacturers § 822.24 What are my responsibilities once I am notified that I am required to conduct postmarket surveillance? You must submit your plan to conduct postmarket...

  5. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-10-28

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and, due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  6. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-08-31

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  7. Rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5900 balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5900 12.7-mm (1/2-in.) dia was determined in five-ball fatigue testers. The 10% life with the warm headed AMS 5900 balls was equivalent to that of AMS 5749 and over eight times that of AISI M-50. The AMS balls fabricated by cold heading had small surface cracks which initiated fatigue spalls where these cracks were crossed by running tracks. The cold-headed AMS 5900 balls had a 10% fatigue life an order of magnitude less than that of the warm headed balls even when failures on the cold headed balls at visible surface cracks were omitted.

  8. Development of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering model of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel was designed, fabricated, and tested under laboratory conditions. The basic unit consisted of two magnet bearings, a sculptured aluminum rotor, brushless dc spin motor, and electronics. The magnet bearings, utilizing rare-earth cobltrat-samarium magnets were active radially and passive axially. The results of the program showed that momentum wheels with magnetic bearings are feasible and operable, and that magnetic bearings of this type are capable of being used for applications where high capacity, high stiffness, and low power consumption are required. The tests performed developed criteria for improved performance for future designs.

  9. How to convert biological carbon into graphite for AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Getachew, G; Kim, S; Burri, B J; Kelly, P B; Haack, K W; Ognibene, T J; Buchholz, B A; Vogel, J S; Modrow, J; Clifford, A J

    2006-07-27

    Isotope tracer studies, particularly radiocarbon measurements, play a key role in biological, nutritional, and environmental research. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is now the most sensitive detection method for radiocarbon, but AMS is not widely used in kinetic studies of humans. Part of the reason is the expense, but costs would decrease if AMS were used more widely. One component in the cost is sample preparation for AMS. Biological and environmental samples are commonly reduced to graphite before they are analyzed by AMS. Improvements and mechanization of this multi-step procedure is slowed by a lack of organized educational materials for AMS sample preparation that would allow new investigators to work with the technique without a substantial outlay of time and effort. We present a detailed sample preparation protocol for graphitizing biological samples for AMS and include examples of nutrition studies that have used this procedure.

  10. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  11. New Ultraviolet Observations of AM CVn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Richard A.; Eracleous, Michael; Flohic, Hélène M. L. G.

    2007-11-01

    We have obtained observations of the ultraviolet spectrum of AM CVn, an ultrashort-period helium cataclysmic variable, using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We obtained data in time-tag mode during two consecutive orbits of HST, covering 1600-3150 and 1140-1710 Å, respectively. The mean spectrum is approximately flat in fν. The absorption profiles of the strong lines of N V, Si IV, C IV, He II, and N IV are blueshifted and in some cases asymmetric, evidencing a wind that is partly occulted by the accretion disk. There is weak redshifted emission from N V and He II. The profiles of these lines vary mildly with time. The light curve shows a decline of ~20% over the span of the observations. There is also flickering and a 27 s (or 54 s) "dwarf nova oscillation," revealed in a power-spectrum analysis. The amplitude of this oscillation is larger at shorter wavelengths. We assemble and illustrate the spectral energy distribution of AM CVn from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. Modeling the accretion phenomenon in this binary system can in principle lead to a robust estimate of the mass accretion rate on to the central white dwarf, which is of great interest in characterizing the evolutionary history of the binary system. Inferences about the mass accretion rate depend strongly on the local radiative properties of the disk, as we illustrate. Uncertainty in the distance of AM CVn and other parameters of the binary system currently limit the ability to confidently infer the mass accretion rate. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program 8159.

  12. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Am-241

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    For many years NASA has used the decay of Pu-238 (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTG's have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency (-5% efficiency) and the scarcity of Plutoinium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14 earth days) isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 watts with 2 GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (-30% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a 4-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of Americium 241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling convertor based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from 1 O's of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a replacement for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about 1/5 while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 watts electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot end and

  13. The AMS experiment: Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, B.; AMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment operates since May 2011 on board of the International Space Station to search for primordial anti-matter, to study the light anti-matter components in the Cosmic Rays (CR) and to perform a precision study of the CR composition and energy spectrum. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument up to now thanks to its large acceptance and the long exposure time. In this contribution we will discuss the most recent results, reviewing the instrument design and performances as well as the data analysis procedures enabling their achievement.

  14. The Use of Chelated Radionuclide (Samarium-153-Ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate) to Modulate Phenotype of Tumor Cells and Enhance T Cell–Mediated Killing

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mala; Wansley, Elizabeth K.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Yu, Sarah; Paik, Chang H.; Camphausen, Kevin; Becker, Michael D.; Goeckeler, William F.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Exposing human tumor cells to sublethal doses of external beam radiation up-regulates expression of tumor antigen and accessory molecules, rendering tumor cells more susceptible to killing by antigen-specific CTLs. This study explored the possibility that exposure to palliative doses of a radiopharmaceutical agent could alter the phenotype of tumor cells to render them more susceptible to T cell – mediated killing. Experimental Design Here, 10 human tumor cell lines (4 prostate, 2 breast, and 4 lung) were exposed to increasing doses of the radiopharmaceutical samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetrame-thylenephosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) used in cancer patients to treat pain due to bone metastasis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis for expression of five surface molecules and several tumor-associated antigens involved in prostate cancer were done. LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were exposed to153Sm-EDTMP and incubated with tumor-associated antigen-specific CTL in a CTL killing assay to determine whether exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to T cell – mediated killing. Results Tumor cells up-regulated the surface molecules Fas (100% of cell lines up-regulated Fas), carcinoembryonic antigen (90%), mucin-1 (60%), MHC class I (50%), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (40%) in response to 153Sm-EDTMP. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed additional up-regulated tumor antigens. Exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to killing by CTLs specific for prostate-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and mucin-1. Conclusions Doses of 153Sm-EDTMP equivalent to palliative doses delivered to bone alter the phenotype of tumor cells, suggesting that153Sm-EDTMP may work synergistically with immuno-therapy to increase the susceptibility of tumor cells to CTL killing. PMID:18594006

  15. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    SciTech Connect

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M; Sen, A; Parach, A; Kalantari, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  16. The use of chelated radionuclide (samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate) to modulate phenotype of tumor cells and enhance T cell-mediated killing.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mala; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Yu, Sarah; Paik, Chang H; Camphausen, Kevin; Becker, Michael D; Goeckeler, William F; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W

    2008-07-01

    Exposing human tumor cells to sublethal doses of external beam radiation up-regulates expression of tumor antigen and accessory molecules, rendering tumor cells more susceptible to killing by antigen-specific CTLs. This study explored the possibility that exposure to palliative doses of a radiopharmaceutical agent could alter the phenotype of tumor cells to render them more susceptible to T cell-mediated killing. Here, 10 human tumor cell lines (4 prostate, 2 breast, and 4 lung) were exposed to increasing doses of the radiopharmaceutical samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate ((153)Sm-EDTMP) used in cancer patients to treat pain due to bone metastasis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis for expression of five surface molecules and several tumor-associated antigens involved in prostate cancer were done. LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were exposed to (153)Sm-EDTMP and incubated with tumor-associated antigen-specific CTL in a CTL killing assay to determine whether exposure to (153)Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to T cell-mediated killing. Tumor cells up-regulated the surface molecules Fas (100% of cell lines up-regulated Fas), carcinoembryonic antigen (90%), mucin-1 (60%), MHC class I (50%), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (40%) in response to (153)Sm-EDTMP. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed additional up-regulated tumor antigens. Exposure to (153)Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to killing by CTLs specific for prostate-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and mucin-1. Doses of (153)Sm-EDTMP equivalent to palliative doses delivered to bone alter the phenotype of tumor cells, suggesting that (153)Sm-EDTMP may work synergistically with immunotherapy to increase the susceptibility of tumor cells to CTL killing.

  17. Safety analysis of repeated high doses of samarium-153 lexidronam in men with hormone-naive prostate cancer metastatic to bone.

    PubMed

    Higano, Celestia S; Quick, Donald P; Bushnell, David; Sartor, Oliver

    2008-03-01

    The safety and tolerability of repetitive doses of the boneseeking radiopharmaceutical samarium-153 lexidronam (153Sm- EDTMP) were investigated in men with hormone-naive prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Within 30 days of initiating androgen deprivation, the first of 4 planned doses of 153Sm- EDTMP given every 12 weeks was administered. Growth factors were not permitted. The first cohort of 6 patients received 153Sm-EDTMP at 2 mCi/kg per dose; 3 patients completed all 4 doses and 3 received 3 doses. There were 7 episodes of grade 3 neutropenia and 1 each of grade 3 and 4 thrombocytopenia. Of 6 patients in the second cohort who received 153Sm-EDTMP 2.5 mCi/kg per dose, only 1 received all 4 doses. Four events of grade 3 neutropenia and 2 events of grade 3 thrombocytopenia were reported. The 12-week dose schedule resulted in persistent low-grade thrombocytopenia and/or leukopenia, which prevented administration of all 4 planned doses. As a result, the dose of 153Sm-EDTMP was decreased to 2 mCi/kg for a total of 3 doses administered every 16 weeks. Five of 6 patients in this cohort received all 3 doses of 153Sm-EDTMP. There were 7 episodes of reversible grade 3 neutropenia. For all 18 patients on the study, there were no drug-related serious adverse events or grade 4 nonhemmatologic toxicities. In men with hormone-naive prostate cancer metastatic to bone, the feasible dose and schedule for repeated doses of 153Sm-EDTMP is 2 mCi/kg given every 16 weeks for 3 doses.

  18. Photocatalytic performance of novel samarium-doped spherical-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructures under visible light irradiation for 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation.

    PubMed

    Sin, Jin-Chung; Lam, Sze-Mun; Lee, Keat-Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    A novel samarium-doped spherical-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructure (Sm/ZnO) was synthesized via a facile and surfactant-free chemical solution route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results revealed that Sm ion was successfully doped into ZnO. It was also observed that the Sm doping increased the visible light absorption ability of Sm/ZnO and a red shift for Sm/ZnO appeared when compared to pure ZnO. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Sm/ZnO exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) compared with the pure ZnO and commercial TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic enhancement of Sm/ZnO products was attributed to their high charge separation efficiency and ·OH generation ability as evidenced by the photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic investigation also showed that various parameters exerted their individual influence on the degradation rate of 2,4-DCP. By using a certain of radical scavengers, ·OH was determined to play a pivotal role for the 2,4-DCP degradation. Moreover, the Sm/ZnO could be easily separated and reused, indicating great potential for practical applications in environmental cleanup. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Samarium-153-EDTMP (Quadramet®) with or without vaccine in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A randomized Phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Heery, Christopher R.; Madan, Ravi A.; Stein, Mark N.; Stadler, Walter M.; Di Paola, Robert S.; Rauckhorst, Myrna; Steinberg, Seth M.; Marté, Jennifer L.; Chen, Clara C.; Grenga, Italia; Donahue, Renee N.; Jochems, Caroline; Dahut, William L.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gulley, James L.

    2016-01-01

    PSA-TRICOM is a therapeutic vaccine in late stage clinical testing in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (Sm-153-EDTMP; Quadramet®), a radiopharmaceutical, binds osteoblastic bone lesions and emits beta particles causing local tumor cell destruction. Preclinically, Sm-153-EDTMP alters tumor cell phenotype facilitating immune-mediated killing. This phase 2 multi-center trial randomized patients to Sm-153-EDTMP alone or with PSA-TRICOM vaccine. Eligibility required mCRPC, bone metastases, prior docetaxel and no visceral disease. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients without radiographic disease progression at 4 months. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and immune responses. Forty-four patients enrolled. Eighteen and 21 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint in Sm-153-EDTMP alone and combination arms, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the primary endpoint, with two of 18 (11.1%) and five of 21 (23.8%) in Sm-153-EDTMP alone and combination arms, respectively, having stable disease at approximately the 4-month evaluation time point (P = 0.27). Median PFS was 1.7 vs. 3.7 months in the Sm-153-EDTMP alone and combination arms (P = 0.041, HR = 0.51, P = 0.046). No patient in the Sm-153-EDTMP alone arm achieved prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline > 30% compared with four patients (of 21) in the combination arm, including three with PSA decline > 50%. Toxicities were similar between arms and related to number of Sm-153-EDTMP doses administered. These results provide the rationale for clinical evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals, such as Ra-223, in combination with PSA-TRICOM. PMID:27486817

  20. Analogue sandbox experiments, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, Bjarne; Koyi, Hemin

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we present results from AMS measurements on samples from analogue models simulating fold-thrust belts. The models are made of 99 % well sorted beach sand, consisting of quartz and feldspar and 1 % magnetite, by volume. The sand is contained within a model space with initial size of 30 cm width, 60 cm length and 2 cm height. Four models with identical setup were deformed by bulk shortening (compression) ranging from 8 % to 33 %. In each model, three different tectonic domains were studied, representing the state of deformation, analogous to the compression experienced by a mountain belt. The hinterland, closest to the "pushing" side of the model (backstop) accommodate the largest deformation where thrust wedges develop. The foreland, being farthest away from the backstop, remains weakly affected by the compression. A transition zone separates these two end-member domains, where deformation is apparent by layer-parallel shortening and thickening, but thrusting is absent (deformation is accommodated by penetrative strain). With progressive shortening (compression), more of the model is deformed and the hinterland gradually expands. The analyzed AMS closely reflects the deformation in the models, and can be quantitatively used to study the development of model deformation. The initial undeformed fabric is oblate (depositional) and uniform throughout the model, where the k3 axes tightly group as a pole to the bedding/foliation plane. During shortening, the original magnetic fabric becomes gradually overprinted, with a reduction in the degree of anisotropy in the transition zone and development of a triaxial susceptibility ellipsoid. Principal susceptibility axes become more scattered. The degree of anisotropy increases in the hinterland, and the fabric consist of a mix of prolate and oblate susceptibility ellipsoids. The k1 axes obtain a grouping that is parallel to the backstop (i.e., parallel to the strike of the "orogenic wedge"). AMS analysis