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Sample records for developing wistar rats

  1. [Chronic administration of estradiol to ovariectomized female Wistar rats causes development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Iu O; Artem'eva, M M; Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the role of female sex hormone estradiol in the development of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Previously, it was shown that the development of pulmonary hypertension in Wistar female rats is accompanied by a twofold increase in the estradiol level. Ovariectomy reduces the degree of pulmonary hypertension in these animals. In this work, the effect of various chronic doses of exogenous estradiol (5 and 15 microg/kg per day) on the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in Wistar female rats has been studied. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (10 h a day for 2 weeks) at simulated altitude of 5000 m (O2 concentration reduced to 10%). The administration of estradiol in different doses (5 and 15 microg/kg per day) for 21 day initiated the development of pulmonary hypertension in ovariectomized Wistar female rats.

  2. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) from Growing Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Gustavo A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1) the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2) that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+), were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats. PMID:15154609

  3. Effects of 0. 6-Gy prenatal X irradiation on postnatal neurophysiologic development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant Wistar strain rats were irradiated with 0.6-Gy X rays or were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th days of gestation to determine if this dosage level would result in alterations in postnatal neurophysiologic development. Half of the mothers were sacrificed at term, and the developmental status of 221 newborns was evaluated. The remaining mothers delivered and raised their litters. The 161 offspring were observed for the age of attainment of the following physiologic parameters: pinna detachment, eye opening, testes opening. Offspring were also tested for the acquisition of the following selected reflexes: surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, and visual placing. Term fetal weight was lower than the controls in the group irradiated on the 9th day but was recuperable postnatally. None of the 9 developmental tests performed postnatally were abnormal in the animals irradiated on the 9th day. Thus, at least with regard to these measures, the surviving embryos exposed during the all-or-none period could not be differentiated from the controls. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day exhibited retarded growth which persisted during neonatal life. The three-day-mean neonatal weight was significantly lower in the group irradiated on the 17th day compared to controls. There were no significant maternal body weight or organ/weight differences between the groups. Rats exposed in utero on the 17th day had a significantly delayed acquisition of air righting. These results demonstrate that 0.6-Gy in utero irradiation on the 17th day of gestation can cause subtle alterations in growth and development of the Wistar strain rat during postnatal life.

  4. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67): received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc) on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14): received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0), female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip) at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction). The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term), the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) Tests (p < 0.05). Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1%) and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%), reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93%) and reduced degree of development (ossification sites). Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development. PMID:20416073

  5. Reproductive parameters of female Wistar rats treated with methylphenidate during development.

    PubMed

    Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Silveira, Kennia Moura; Pierone, Bruna Caroline; de Azevedo Camim, Nathália; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; de Fátima Paccola Mesquita, Suzana; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2016-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), a psychoactive agent that acts mainly by blocking the uptake of dopamine, is the main drug used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents. During development, important changes in brain architecture and plasticity occur, these changes, sensitive to exposure to stimulant drugs, are important in the control of GnRH secretion, influencing the release of sex hormones throughout the ovarian cycle. This study investigated the effects of repeated treatment with MPH during development on reproductive parameters of adult female rats. Wistar rats received MPH 2.5mg/kg, MPH 5.0mg/kg, or tap water (gavage) from postnatal day (PND) 21 to PND 60. From PND 75, one subgroup of females was selected for evaluation of estrous cycle, estradiol levels, weight of sexual organs, and histomorphological analysis of ovary follicles and uterus. In another subgroup, the sexual and maternal behaviors were evaluated at PND 90 and on lactational day 5, respectively. No significant alterations were observed in the MPH groups. This study demonstrated that repeated administration of MPH during the period corresponding to childhood to early adulthood does not interfere in the reproductive function of female rats in adulthood.

  6. Neonatally induced mild diabetes: influence on development, behavior and reproductive function of female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal STZ treatment induces a state of mild hyperglycemia in adult rats that disrupts metabolism and maternal/fetal interactions. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of neonatal STZ treatment on the physical development, behavior, and reproductive function of female Wistar rats from infancy to adulthood. Methods At birth, litters were assigned either to a Control (subcutaneous (s.c.) citrate buffer, n = 10) or STZ group, (streptozotocin (STZ) - 100 mg/kg-sc, n = 6). Blood glucose levels were measured on postnatal days (PND) 35, 84 and 120. In Experiment 1 body weight, length and the appearance of developmental milestones such as eye and vaginal opening were monitored. To assess the relative contribution of the initial and long term effects of STZ treatment this group was subdivided based on blood glucose levels recorded on PND 120: STZ hyperglycemic (between 120 and 300 mg/dl) and STZ normoglycemic (under 120 mg/dl). Behavioral activity was assessed in an open field on PND 21 and 75. In Experiment 2 estrous cyclicity, sexual behavior and circulating gonadotropin, ovarian steroid, and insulin levels were compared between control and STZ-hyperglycemic rats. In all measures the litter was the experimental unit. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way or, where appropriate, two-way ANOVA and significant effects were investigated using Tukey’s post hoc test. Fisher’s exact test was employed when data did not satisfy the assumption of normality e.g. presence of urine and fecal boli on the open field between groups. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 for all data. Results As expected neonatal STZ treatment caused hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in adulthood. STZ-treated pups also showed a temporary reduction in growth rate that probably reflected the early loss of circulating insulin. Hyperglycemic rats also exhibited a reduction in locomotor and exploratory behavior in the open field. Mild hyperglycemia did

  7. Exposure to constant light during testis development increases daily sperm production in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, D C; Debeljuk, L; França, L R

    1999-06-01

    Testis histometry and daily sperm production (DSP) were evaluated in adult (160-day-old) Wistar rats exposed to constant light for the first 25 days after birth, and compared with control animals which were exposed to a 12 h-light-12 h-dark light regimen. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) numbers of Sertoli cell nucleoli and round spermatids per cross-section of seminiferous tubule were found in animals exposed to constant light. In addition, epididymis weight, DSP per testis and per gram of testis, as well as Leydig cell compartment volume, were significantly increased in treated animals. Although there was a clear trend toward an increased Sertoli cell population per testis in animals exposed to constant light, this difference was not statistically significant (P < 0.05). The number of round spermatids as expressed per Sertoli cell was the same in both groups. Surprisingly, the diameter and volume of round spermatid nucleus at stages I and VII of the cycle of seminiferous epithelium were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in treated animals. In conclusion, constant illumination during neonatal testis development increased sperm production and Leydig cell compartment volume in adult rats probably through a mechanism involving elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone during the prepubertal period. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that altering the light regimen can affect sperm production in non-seasonal breeders.

  8. Effect of low-level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of low-dose prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development, and whether alterations would manifest at dosages lower than those which produce anatomic malformations from exposure at the most sensitive period of organogenesis. Ninety-eight Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 Gy X-radiation of were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. A conventional teratologic evaluation was completed on half of the animals (572 fetuses). The age of appearance of four physiologic markers and of acquisition of six reflexes was observed in 372 offspring. Exposure during early organogenesis at these levels had no effect on any of these parameters. Prenatal exposure to X-radiation on the 17th day of gestation at dosage levels greater than 0.1 Gy resulted in alterations in the appearance of three postnatal neurophysiologic parameters. Growth retardation throughout the postpartum period also was observed in the offspring. The induction of developmental and reflex alterations had a comparable threshold to the known threshold for anatomic malformations on the 9th day. These results indicate that all of the parameters studied had thresholds either at or above 0.2 Gy acute radiation, and that the postpartum developmental and reflex acquisition measures were not more sensitive indicators of exposure to X-radiation than growth parameters.

  9. Uranium deposition in bones of Wistar rats associated with skeleton development.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G; Arruda-Neto, J D T; Pereira, R M R; Kleeb, S R; Geraldo, L P; Primi, M C; Takayama, L; Rodrigues, T E; Cavalcante, G T; Genofre, G C; Semmler, R; Nogueira, G P; Fontes, E M

    2013-12-01

    Sixty female Wistar rats were submitted to a daily intake of ration doped with uranium from weaning to adulthood. Uranium in bone was quantified by the SSNTD (solid state nuclear track detection) technique, and bone mineral density (BMD) analysis performed. Uranium concentration as a function of age exhibited a sharp rise during the first week of the experiment and a drastic drop of 70% in the following weeks. Data interpretation indicates that uranium mimics calcium. Results from BMD suggest that radiation emitted by the incorporated Uranium could induce death of bone cells.

  10. Study for collecting background data on Wistar Hannover [Crl:WI(Han)] rats in embryo-fetal development studies--comparative data to Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Noritake, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Takashi; Ito, Keiichi; Miwa, Yoji; Senuma, Mika; Takashima, Hiromasa; Tateishi, Taishi; Hisada, Shigeru; Maki, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to collect the background data on Wistar Hannover [Crl:WI(Han)] (hereafter Wistar Han) rats in embryo-fetal development studies from the 6 safety research facilities of pharmaceutical companies and contract research organizations. In each facility, 20 or 22 female rats were dosed with vehicle solution during the organogenesis period. As a result, no abnormalities in clinical signs and necropsy findings in dams were found. Body weights and food consumption in dams were lower than those in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The number of corpora lutea (13.3 vs. 16.0 in SD) and implantations (11.8 vs. 14.7) were fewer, and fetal body weights (3.66 vs. 3.70) and placental weights (0.42 vs. 0.45) tended to be lower than those in SD rats. Regarding the fetal abnormalities, the incidence of several findings such as the persistent left umbilical artery (10.4% vs. 1.1%) and cervical (5.2% vs. 0.4%), full (7.4% vs. 0.9%) or short supernumerary (64.5% vs. 9.9%) and wavy ribs (6.6% vs. 0.3%) was higher than that in SD rats. Our present study showed that they maintained a sufficient number of live fetuses and the difference in the fetal sex ratio was not observed. In conclusion, Wistar Han rats were considered to be a suitable strain for embryo-fetal development toxicity study. Since the incidence of several abnormalities was higher than that in SD rats, it may be said that to accumulate background control data is important to evaluate the embryo-fetal development toxicity study using Wistar Han rats.

  11. Study of the motor corticospinal system in the developing rat fetus: comparison of Wistar and normal and hydrocephalic HTx rats.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, M R; Bannister, C M; Miyan, J A

    2002-12-01

    The motor corticospinal system can be identified from day E14 in Wistar and HTx fetuses. There are no significant anatomical differences between the two species of rats. In addition, in day E17 Wistar and HTx fetuses cell counts in the cortical mantle (cortical plate, intermediate zone and germinal matrix) are similar. However, in day E20 fetuses there are significant differences in the number of cells in the cortical mantle of the hydrocephalic HTx fetuses compared to that in the Wistar and normal HTx fetuses, their total number of cells being reduced compared to that of the normal HTx and Wistars. Breakdown of the numbers of cells in the different layers shows that in the hydrocephalics there is a significant reduction in the number of cells in the germinal matrix and intermediate zone but, although the number of cells is also reduced in the cortical plate, the reduction is not significant. Measurements of the anterior/posterior width of the pyramid show that its growth is almost complete by day E17 and that on day E20 the measurements are similar in Wistar and normal and hydrocephalic HTx fetuses. These findings suggest that it is only cells generated after day E17 that are missing from the cortex of day E20 hydrocephalic rats. It is known that the motor corticospinal tract axons arise from pyramidal cells in layers 6, 5 and 4 of the cortical plate. These layers are generated earlier than layers 3 and 2 and are almost certainly in place by day E17 and account for why motor corticospinal tract function is spared in younger animals with established hydrocephalus.

  12. SkQ1 slows development of age-dependent destructive processes in retina and vascular layer of eyes of wistar and OXYS rats.

    PubMed

    Saprunova, V B; Lelekova, M A; Kolosova, N G; Bakeeva, L E

    2012-06-01

    We show the development of clearly pronounced age-related pathological changes in eye tissues of Wistar and OXYS rats. Photoreceptor cells were virtually absent in all OXYS rats in the age of 24 months. Massive accumulations of lipofuscin granules were detected in the pigmented epithelium cells. Flattening, overgrowing, and degradation of endothelial cells of choriocapillaries were also observed. Along with these changes, vessels without signs of degradation were detected in the pigmented epithelium. In 24-month-old Wistar rats these changes were local and were seen in only some of the animals. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 (the rats were given SkQ1 daily with food at the dose of 250 nmol/kg for 5 months, starting from the age of 19 months) prevented the development of these pathological changes in both Wistar and OXYS rats. The data were subjected to mathematical processing and statistical analysis.

  13. To develop behavioral tests of vestibular functioning in the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two tests of vestibular functioning in the rat were developed. The first test was the water maze. In the water maze the rat does not have the normal proprioceptive feedback from its limbs to help it maintain its orientation, and must rely primarily on the sensory input from its visual and vestibular systems. By altering lighting conditions and visual cues the vestibular functioning without visual cues was assessed. Whether there was visual compensation for some vestibular dysfunction was determined. The second test measured vestibular functioning of the rat's behavior on a parallel swing. In this test the rat's postural adjustments while swinging on the swing with the otoliths being stimulated were assessed. Less success was achieved in developing the parallel swing as a test of vestibular functioning than with the water maze. The major problem was incorrect initial assumptions of what the rat's probable behavior on the parallel swing would be.

  14. Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2012-09-12

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

  16. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment.

  17. A combined treatment with ethanol and 6-dimethylaminopurine is effective for the activation and further embryonic development of oocytes from Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sano, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuki; Samejima, Tomo; Seita, Yasunari; Inomata, Tomo; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2009-02-01

    In nuclear-transferred or round spermatid-injected oocytes, artificial activation is required for further development in mammals. Although strontium chloride is widely used as the reagent for inducing oocyte activation in mice, the optimal method for oocyte activation remains controversial in rats because ovulated rat oocytes are spontaneously activated in vitro before artificial activation is applied. In our previous study, we found that cytostatic factor activity, which is indispensable for arrest at the MII stage, is potentially low in rats and that this activity differs greatly between two outbred rats (Slc: Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Crj: Wistar). Therefore, it is necessary to establish an optimal protocol for oocyte activation independent of strains. Given that comparative studies of the in vitro development of oocytes activated by different activation protocols are very limited, we compared four different protocols for oocyte activation (ethanol, ionomycin, strontium and electrical pulses) in two different SD and Wistar rats. Our results show that oocytes derived from SD rats have significantly higher cleavage and blastocyst formation than those from Wistar rats independent of activation regimes. In both types of rat, ethanol treatment provided significantly higher developmental ability at cleavage and blastocyst formation compared to the other activation protocols. However, the initial culture in a fertilization medium (high osmolarity mR1ECM) for 24 h showed a detrimental effect on the further in vitro development of parthenogenetic rat oocytes. Taken together, our results show that ethanol treatment is the optimal protocol for the activation of rat oocytes in SD and Wistar outbred rats. Our data also suggest that high-osmolarity media are inadequate for the in vitro development of parthenogenetically activated oocytes compared with fertilized oocytes.

  18. An iron-deficient diet during development induces oxidative stress in relation to age and gender in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Jiménez-Garcés, Clementina; Hernández-González, Margarita; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention. The ages studied roughly correspond to stages of human development: birth (0 postnatal day "PND" in rats), childhood (21 PND), early adolescence (42 PND), late adolescence (56 PND), and adulthood (70 PND). The following biomarkers in the brain, blood, and liver were analyzed: lipid peroxidation products (LPO), protein carbonyl content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. It was demonstrated that ID subjects are born with high levels of LPO in the brain and low antioxidant activity, the damage being more severe in males. After birth, antioxidant defense focuses on the central level (brain) in ID females and on the peripheral level (blood and liver) in ID males. In two critical stages of development, birth and late adolescence, antioxidant protection is insufficient to counteract oxidative damage in ID subjects. Moreover, we observed that the variability of results in the literature on oxidative stress and ID comes from gender and age of the subjects under study. With this, we can establish patterns and exact moments to carry out studies or treatments.

  19. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the genital circulation, fetal growth and postnatal development in the Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Altoama, Kassem; Yassine Mallem, Mohamed; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-05

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of nebivolol, a cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker of the third generation with vasodilatory properties, vs. bisoprolol on the genital circulation, uterine vasculature, fetal growth and postnatal development in pregnant Wistar rats. Non invasive measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR), and invasive measurement of genital blood flow (GBF) were taken in pregnant rats, by tail cuff and transonic probe methods respectively, after an oral treatment by gastric gavage with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy. Other morphometrical and histological measurements were performed on the ovarian and uterine arteries to evaluate the effect of nebivolol on the uterine vasculature. Furthermore, postnatal mortality and pup growth were recorded. The data demonstrated that nebivolol (compared with bisoprolol) induced a significant decrease in SBP, HR and GBF while DBP remained unchanged. Moreover, nebivolol increased the diameter and the length of ovarian and uterine arteries and the number of uterine artery segmental branches. The results also showed that the body weight gain of newborns in the nebivolol group was significantly lower vs. bisoprolol and vs. control with a higher mortality rate. The nebivolol action is not only limited to its favorable hemodynamic effects represented by a decrease in blood pressure, but it also produces adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development that may limit its therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  20. ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

  1. IMPACT OF ISOPRENALINE AND CAFFEINE ON DEVELOPMENT OF LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY AND RENAL HEMODYNAMIC IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar Z A; Rathore, Hassaan A; Khan, Safia Akhtar; Lazhari, Mohammed A; Hashmi, Fayaz; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a compensatory mechanism in response to an increased work load on the heart. This study investigated the impact of chronic isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C model) administration on cardiac geometry, systemic hemodynamic and physiological data in rats as LVH develops. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5 mg/kg s.c. every 72 h) and caffeine (62 mg/L) in drinking water for 14 days to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart weight, LV weight, LV chamber diameter and thickness of myocardium were observed as LVH indicators. MAP was significantly higher (142 ± 13 vs. 119 ± 2 mmHg, respectively) while heart rate (HR) in LVH was lower (314 ± 9 vs. 264 ± 18 BPM) compared to control WKY. Heart weight, LV weight and kidney weight were 31%, 38% and 7%, respectively, greater in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (all p < 0.05).The myocardium thickness was 101% greater while LV chamber diameter was 44% smaller in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (p < 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels were significantly reduced while malonodialdehyde (MDA) level increased in LVH as compared to control WKY (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C) induces LVH and cardiac hypertrophy with increases in blood pressure, fluid excretion and reduced renal hemodynamics. Prooxidant mechanism of the body and arterial stiffness are dominant in this disease model. This model of LVH is easily generated and associated with low mortality.

  2. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, Sakhila K. Samuel, Jawahar B.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Aruldhas, Michael M.

    2008-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) is used in a wide range of industries. Cr-VI from chromate industries and atmospheric emissions contribute to the Cr contamination in the environment. Cr is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects including ovotoxicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the basic mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity, and the protective role of vitamin C on ovarian follicular development and function in Cr(VI)-induced reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Lactating rats received potassium dichromate (200 mg/L) with or without vitamin C (500 mg/L), through drinking water from postpartum days 1-21. During postnatal days (PND) 1-21 the pups received Cr(VI) via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards, and euthanized on PND-21, -45 and -65. Cr(VI) decreased steroidogenesis, GH and PRL, increased FSH and did not alter LH. Cr(VI) delayed puberty, decreased follicle number, and extended estrous cycle. Spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells were treated with 12.5 {mu}M (IC{sub 50}) potassium dichromate for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment. Cr(VI) decreased the mRNA expressions of StAR, SF-1, 17{beta}-HSD-1, 17{beta}-HSD-2, FSHR, LHR, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. Vitamin C pre-treatment protected ovary and granulosa cells from the deleterious effects of Cr(VI) toxicity, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Cr(VI) toxicity could be a potential risk to the reproductive system in developing females, and vitamin C plays a protective role against Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity.

  3. Development of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Letrozole in Wistar Rat Serum and its Application in Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Acharjya, Sasmita Kumari; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Muddana, Bhanoji Rao E.; Bera, Ravikumar V. V.; Panda, Pinakini; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Mishra, Gitanjali

    2012-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP–HPLC) method for the determination of letrozole in Wistar rat serum was developed. In this method, liquid–liquid extraction of letrozole was achieved using diethyl ether as the extracting solvent. The analysis was carried out on a reversed-phase C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with an isocratic mobile phase of methanol–water (70:30,v/v), at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. Detection was carried out at 239 nm with a UV–visible spectrophoto-metric detector. The method was shown to be selective and linear over the concentration range of 0.15–100 μg mL−1. The intra-day and inter-day precision studies showed good reproducibility with coefficients of variation less than 11% for the analyte. The relative errors of intra– and inter–day accuracy were within −11.52 to −2.26%. The limit of quantification was evaluated to be 0.15 μg mL−1. The method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of letrozole after oral administration of 10 mg kg−1 of letrozole in six healthy Wistar rats. PMID:23264941

  4. The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sangun, Ozlem; Dundar, Bumin; Darici, Hakan; Comlekci, Selcuk; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Celik, Suheyla

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) (wireless internet frequency) on the growth and development of female Wistar rats. The study was conducted on three groups of rats. The prenatal and postnatal groups were exposed to EMF 1 h/day beginning from intrauterine and postnatal periods, respectively. The third group was the sham-exposed group. Growth, nutrition and vaginal opening (VO) were regularly monitored. Serum and tissue specimens were collected at puberty. Histological examinations, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements in ovary and brain tissues and also immunohistochemical staining of the hypothalamus were performed besides the determination of serum FSH, LH, E2 and IGF-1 values. Birth masses of the groups were similar (p > 0.05). Mass gain per day was significantly lower and the puberty was significantly later in the prenatal group. Brain and ovary TOS and OSI values in the prenatal group were significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Serum LH levels of the prenatal and postnatal groups were increased, although serum FSH, and E2 values did not differ among the groups (p > 0.05). Histological examinations of the specimens revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). Exposure to 2450 MHz EMF, particularly in the prenatal period, resulted in postnatal growth restriction and delayed puberty in female Wistar rats. Increased TOS and OSI values in the brain and ovary tissues can be interpreted as a sign of chronic stress induced by EMF. This is the first longitudinal study which investigates the effects of EMF induced by wireless internet on pubertal development beside growth.

  5. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation.

    PubMed

    Jensh, R P; Brent, R L

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  6. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  7. Genotoxicity of nimesulide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Debojyoti; Panda, Sushen K; Sahoo, Gyana R; Parija, Subas C

    2014-04-01

    It is mandatory for all new drugs to be tested for their potential genotoxicity in addition to general toxicity testing. Some old drugs have not been tested adequately for their genotoxic effects because these were in use before the local regulations were enforced. According to the material safety database, the toxicological effect of nimesulide is not yet fully understood. The present study therefore aimed to explore the genotoxic potential of nimesulide in Wistar albino rats. Nimesulide at the dose level of 50 (Gr-50), 100 (Gr-100) and 200 (Gr-200) mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was given orally. Each rat in treated groups (Gr-50 to Gr-200; n = 10) and negative control group (Gr-NC; n = 10) were administered orally (p.o.) with nimesulide and normal saline, respectively, for 14 days. Similarly, rats of positive control (Gr-PC; n = 10) were administered with cyclophosphamide (CPA; 20 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. CPA served as positive control, whereas normal saline served as as negative control. Approximately 1-2 mL of blood was collected from retro-orbital sinus for comet assay and subsequently rats were sacrificed to aspirate the femoral bone marrow for the micronucleus test. Structural chromosomal aberration, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and comet tail length were calculated using micronucleus assay and comet assay, respectively, which served as markers of genotoxicity. In the present study, it was observed that a significant increase in (1) different classified structural chromosomal aberrations with increase in nimesulide dose, such as gaps (50 mg/kg), gaps, breaks and pulverizations (100 mg/kg) and gaps, breaks, fragments, rings and pulverizations (200 mg/kg) and (2) % MnPCE and comet tail length was observed in animals treated with CPA (p < 0.001) or 200 mg of nimesulide (p < 0.05), as compared to negative control. In conclusion, nimesulide (200 mg/kg b.w.) produced a

  8. Sexual dimorphism of hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kava, R A; West, D B; Lukasik, V A; Greenwood, M R

    1989-02-01

    Obese and lean male and female Wistar fatty rats were fed a high-sucrose (68% of calories) diet from 5 to 22 wk of age. Obese males, but not obese females, developed hyperglycemia in the fed state and were more glucose intolerant during an intragastric glucose tolerance test than obese females. Lean Wistar fatty rats did not become hyperglycemic on the sucrose diet. Obese males also showed a smaller insulin response during the glucose tolerance test than did obese females. The Wistar fatty rat is a sexually dimorphic model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which the male but not the female obese rats become diabetic. The diabetic condition and impaired glucose tolerance in the obese male Wistar fatty rat may be related to impaired pancreatic insulin release and peripheral insulin resistance.

  9. High-fat diet-induced obesity Rat model: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Cláudia; Meireles, Manuela; Norberto, Sónia; Leite, Joana; Freitas, Joana; Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the past decades, obesity and associated metabolic complications have reached epidemic proportions. For the study of these pathologies, a number of animal models have been developed. However, a direct comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) Rat as models of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity has not been adequately evaluated so far. Wistar and SD rats were assigned for 2 experimental groups for 17 weeks: standard (St) and high-fat (HF) diet groups. To assess some of the features of the metabolic syndrome, oral glucose tolerance tests, systolic blood pressure measurements and blood biochemical analysis were performed throughout the study. The gut microbiota composition of the animals of each group was evaluated at the end of the study by real-time PCR. HF diet increased weight gain, body fat mass, mesenteric adipocyte's size, adiponectin and leptin plasma levels and decreased oral glucose tolerance in both Wistar and SD rats. However, the majority of these effects were more pronounced or earlier detected in Wistar rats. The gut microbiota of SD rats was less abundant in Bacteroides and Prevotella but richer in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus comparatively to the gut microbiota of Wistar rats. Nevertheless, the modulation of the gut microbiota by HF diet was similar in both strains, except for Clostridium leptum that was only reduced in Wistar rats fed with HF diet. In conclusion, both Wistar and SD Rat can be used as models of HF diet-induced obesity although the metabolic effects caused by HF diet seemed to be more pronounced in Wistar Rat. Differences in the gut microbial ecology may account for the worsened metabolic scenario observed in Wistar Rat. PMID:27144092

  10. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

    PubMed

    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation.

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON FEMALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female rats were dosed by oral gavage from postnatal day (PND) 22 through PND 41 with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg ATR /kg. Half of the females in each treatment group were killed on PND 41 and organ weights (e.g., liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, uterus and pituitary) and serum ...

  13. Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats--A Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Srigopalram, Srisesharam; Ock Kim, Young; Agastian, Paul; Baru, Rajasekhar; Choi, Ki Choon; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas

    2016-01-28

    Understanding the mechanism of chemical toxicity, which is essential for cross-species and dose extrapolations, is a major challenge for toxicologists. Standard mechanistic studies in animals for examining the toxic and pathological changes associated with the chemical exposure have often been limited to the single end point or pathways. Toxicoproteomics represents a potential aid to the toxicologist to understand the multiple pathways involved in the mechanism of toxicity and also determine the biomarkers that are possible to predictive the toxicological response. We performed an acute toxicity study in Wistar rats with the prototype liver toxin; the acetaminophen (APAP) effects on protein profiles in the liver and its correlation with the plasma biochemical markers for liver injury were analyzed. Three separate groups--control, nontoxic (150 mg/kg) and toxic dose (1500 mg/kg) of APAP--were studied. The proteins extracted from the liver were separated by 2-DE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The differential proteins in the gels were analyzed by BIORAD's PDQuest software and identified by feeding the peptide mass fingerprint data to various public domain programs like Mascot and MS-Fit. The identified proteins in toxicity-induced rats were classified based on their putative protein functions, which are oxidative stress (31%), immunity (14%), neurological related (12%) and transporter proteins (2%), whereas in non-toxic dose-induced rats they were oxidative stress (9%), immunity (6%), neurological (14%) and transporter proteins (9%). It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. Several other proteins were identified as a first step in developing an in-house rodent liver toxicoproteomics database.

  14. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  15. Effects of trace acrylamide intake in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko; Fujioka, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180 degrees C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein.

  16. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.; Moser, A.D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats. PMID:22473322

  17. Paraptosis-like cell death in Wistar rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ramírez, Nayeli; Escobar, María L; Vázquez-Nin, Gerardo H; Ortiz, Rosario; Echeverría, Olga M

    2016-10-01

    Follicular atresia, a common process present in all mammals, involves apoptotic and autophagic cell death. However, the participation of paraptosis, a type of caspase-independent cell death, during follicular atresia is unknown. This study found swollen endoplasmic reticulum in the granulosa cells of adult Wistar rats. Calnexin was used as a marker of the endoplasmic reticulum at the ultrastructural and optical levels. The cells with swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum were negative to the TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 immunodetection, indicating that this swelling is not part of any apoptotic or autophagic process. Additionally, immunodetection of the CHOP protein was used as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and this confirmed the presence of the paraptosis process. These data suggest that paraptosis-like cell death is associated with the death of granulosa cells during follicular atresia in adult Wistar rats.

  18. DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms.

  19. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Hou-Pan; Li, Xin; Yu, Rong; Zeng, Guang; Yuan, Zhen-Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Hui-Yong; Cai, Xiong

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans.

  20. Antipsychotic-like effects of zolpidem in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewski, Pawel; Kolaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Wesolowska, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Maciej; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2016-02-15

    Aside from their use in the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia, benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor positive modulators are widely used as add-on treatments in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic psychoses. However, there is relatively little direct clinical or pre-clinical evidence for antipsychotic effects of GABAergic medications. Previous studies have indicated that zolpidem, a GABAergic drug acting preferentially at α1-containing GABAA receptors, may produce catalepsy through interactions with dopaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of zolpidem in experimental models of antipsychotic activity and extrapyramidal side effects in Wistar rats. Effects of zolpidem were compared with that of a classic benzodiazepine drug, diazepam and a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone. High doses of risperidone (10.0mg/kg, i.p.) and zolpidem (10.0mg/kg, i.p.), but not diazepam, induced relatively short-lasting cataleptic responses in the bar test. Zolpidem and risperidone, but not diazepam, produced some antipsychotic-like effects at doses, which produced no catalepsy and did not inhibit spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The present results tend to indicate that zolpidem exerts some neuroleptic-like effects at doses, which do not produce motor side effects. Our findings may provide further rationale for the development of new subtype-selective GABAA receptor modulators for the treatment of psychotic symptoms.

  1. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  2. [Consequences for posterity of two generations of an irradiation pregnant from females rats Wistar in small doses during a bookmark of reproduction system of fetuses development of posterity of the second generation and it reproduction function].

    PubMed

    Palyga, G F; Chibisova, O F

    2006-01-01

    With the purpose of study of consequences for development and reproduction functions of posterity of the second generation from females rats Wistar of a total unitary gamma-irradiation in dozes 0.25; 0.5 and 1 Gy (capacity of a doze 0.03 sGy/s) on 10th day of pregnancy (the period of the onset of fetuses reproduction system development) is investigated more than 630 females, 1400 with the age of 19th days, and about 3200 young rats. The revealed deviations(rejections) in development of posterity of two generations parents, antenatal irradiated in not sterilizing dozes, in he period of a beginning of formation of reproduction system, them a variety at different dozes of radiating influence, shown as at posterity of the irradiated mothers, and fathers, testify about instability genoms in a line of generations requiring the account and acceptance of necessary measures for preservation normal genofund.

  3. Metabolism of 2,6-dinitrotoluene in male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Kawajiri, T; Sayama, M; Taniuchi, Y; Miyahara, T; Kozuka, H

    1989-07-01

    1. Unchanged 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, 2-amino-6-nitrobenzyl alcohol, conjugated 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol and conjugated 2-amino-6-nitrobenzyl alcohol were detected in urine of male Wistar rats dosed with 2,6-DNT. The major metabolite was conjugated 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, which accounted for about 1.5% of the dose. 2. Unchanged 2,6-DNT, 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, and conjugates of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde were detected in the bile of rats dosed with 2,6-DNT. The major metabolite was conjugated 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, which accounted for 30% of the dose. Conjugates of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol (major) and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde (minor) were common biliary metabolites in rats dosed with 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol or 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde. 3. 2,6-Dinitrobenzyl alcohol and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde were detected by incubating bile from rats given 2,6-DNT with rat intestinal contents under N2. 4. Incubation of 2,6-DNT with hepatic microsomal preparations gave 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol. Incubation of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol with microsomal plus cytosol preparations gave 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde. Incubation of 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde with cytosol preparations gave 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid. The activities of 2,6-DNT oxidation to 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol oxidation to 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde, 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde oxidation to 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid, and 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde reduction to 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol were 22.0, 4.7, 1.3, and 23.3 nmol formed/g liver per min, respectively. 5. These results indicate that 2,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde, an intermediary metabolite of 2,6-DNT in male Wistar rats, is produced either by oxidation of 2,6-DNT in the liver, or by oxidation of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol formed by hydrolysis of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol conjugates excreted in the

  4. Electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from Wistar Audiogenic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fernando; Aguiar, José F; Oliveira, José A; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Varanda, Wamberto A

    2005-03-15

    The main goal of this work was to analyze the electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from a particular epileptic rat strain, called Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WAR). The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record both active and passive membrane responses in an attempt to detect alterations in their characteristics in relation to controls from Wistar rats. Neurons from WARs show a significant reduction in the magnitude of the inhibitory GABAergic currents ( approximately 45%), in spite of maintaining a normal level of the excitatory glutamatergic currents. In addition, the magnitude of potassium currents, measured at +80 mV, is reduced by about 30% in comparison to controls. Surprisingly, we also found important changes in the passive cellular properties in WAR neurons such as membrane potential (-50.0 mV in WARs and -63.1 mV in controls) and input resistance (647 MOmega in WARs and 408 MOmega in controls). The changes described here, could be the basis of the neurophysiological and behavioral alterations present in these hyperexcitable animals, contributing to a better understanding of epileptogenesis in this particular animal model.

  5. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castañon, G. A.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patiño-Marin, N.; Reyes-Macías, J. F.; Vargas-Morales, J. M.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2013-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) ( p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  6. Development of safety profile evaluating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of a combination of pioglitazone and olmesartan medoxomil in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pinaki; Nandi, Utpal; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Pioglitazone (PIO), an antidiabetic drug and olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), an antihypertensive drug were administered orally alone and in combination to Wistar albino rats for evaluation of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity of individual drugs and their combination. Pharmacokinetic study was performed by orally administering PIO and OLM at single dose of 3 and 2mg/kg, respectively alone and in combination analyzing the plasma samples using LC-MS/MS. Antidiabetic activity evaluation was done in type-2 diabetes mellitus induced animals at same dose level as in pharmacokinetic study daily for 30 days. PIO and/or OLM were administered orally to animals at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg for 28 days for toxicity study. There was no significant alteration in the pharmacokinetic parameters of either drug indicating absence of any pharmacokinetic interaction when co-administered. Positive pharmacodynamic interaction between PIO and OLM was established in this study. Two drugs in combination showed no evidence of potentiation of 28-day repeated dose toxicity in animals. Again, drugs, alone and in combination, caused only minor changes in clinical-laboratory tests and histopathological change was not found in the experiment performed. In conclusion, PIO and OLM combination can primarily be stated as safe in terms of present toxicity and pharmacokinetics findings.

  7. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  8. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA somatic mutations in OXYS and Wistar strain rats.

    PubMed

    Rotskaya, U N; Rogozin, I B; Vasyunina, E A; Kolosova, N G; Malyarchuk, B A; Nevinsky, G A; Sinitsyna, O I

    2009-04-01

    Rats of the OXYS strain are sensitive to oxidative stress and serve as a biological model of premature aging. We have compared spectra of somatic mutations in a control region of mtDNA from the liver of the OXYS rat strain and of Wistar rats as a control. The majority of nucleotide substitutions in the mutation spectra were represented by transitions: 94 and 97% in the OXYS and Wistar rats, respectively. It was shown that 40% of somatic mutations in the control region of mtDNA from Wistar rats were significantly consistent with the model of dislocation mutagenesis. No statistical support for this model was found for mutations in the control region of mtDNA from OXYS rats. The mutation frequency in the ETAS section was higher in the OXYS strain rats than in Wistar rats. These results suggest different mechanisms of mutagenesis in the two rat strains under study.

  9. Microscopic anatomy of brachial plexus branches in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Paula; Suaid, Carla Adelino; Fazan, Valéria Paula Sassoli; Barreira, Amilton Antunes

    2007-05-01

    In the present study, we analyze the morphology and morphometry of the lateral proper digital nerve of the third finger, and of the proximal and distal segments of the ulnar, median, and radial nerves, in Wistar rats 4 or 7 weeks old. The fascicular area and diameter were generally significantly greater in the proximal compared to distal segments and tended to be larger in 7-week-old compared to 4-week-old rats (e.g., median nerve area of 0.13 mm(2) for the proximal and 0.07 mm(2) for distal segments in 4-week-old rats, and 0.17 and 0.10 mm(2), respectively, for the proximal and distal segments of 7-week-old rats). The number of fascicles was significantly greater while the number of myelinated fibers was significantly less in the distal segments (e.g., 1,359 and 509 myelinated fibers, respectively, in the proximal and distal segments of the radial nerve 4-week-old rats). There was no significant difference in these parameters between the two age groups. The diameter of the myelinated fibers and their respective axons increased from 4 to 7 weeks of age (e.g., myelinated fiber diameter of 4.10 microm in 4-week-old animals and 4.7 microm in the ulnar nerve proximal segment of 7-week-old rats). The g-ratio regression line (axon diameter vs. fiber diameter quotient) was outlined for all the nerves studied here. Differences in myelinated fiber density were detected between the segments of the radial nerve, accompanying the number of myelinated fibers. Detailed knowledge of the microscopic anatomy of rat forelimb nerves provides control data for comparison with studies of experimentally induced neuropathies, which can shed more light on human neuropathies.

  10. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  11. [Comparative analysis of imipramine intake reactions in catatonic and wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Alekhina, T A; Palchikova, N A; Igonina, T N; Kuznetsova, N V

    2015-03-01

    Chronic imipramine intake (7.5 mg/kg) leads to the stable decrease of excitable reactions to sound stimulant in Wistar rats and induced phase behavioral response in catatonic GC rats. Increased noradrenaline level in frontal cortex and striatum in Wistar animals was shown, whereas it didn't reveal noradrenaline level differences in any brain structures in GC rats. The higher blood corticosterone concentration was decreased under antidepressant reaction in GC rats. Differences between intact GC animals were found out: reduced triglyceride level, lesser body weight, and greater weight index of adrenals in comparison with Wistar rats. Various mechanisms of imipramine action in two rat strains were shown: influence on adrenergic brain system, taking part in the control of exiting behavior in Wistar rats and reaction in adrenals in GC rats.

  12. Variability in the cardiac venous system of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle.

  13. Variability in the Cardiac Venous System of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle. PMID:25651085

  14. Toxicity assessment of nanosilver wound dressing in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Mahdavi, Moujan; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Korani, Mitra; Amani, Amir; Ziarati, Parisa

    2013-05-07

    Antibiotic resistance to microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care in burns patients. Silver nanoparticles have come up as potent antimicrobial agent and are being evaluated in diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. We aimed in present study to test the release of nanosilver from nanosilver wound dressing and compare the dermal and systemic toxicity of nanosilver dressings in a repeated dose (21 days) model. Under general anesthesia, a limited standard 2nd degree burns were provided on the back of each rat in all treatment, negative control (simple dressing) and 5% silver nitrate groups, each contained 5 male wistar rats. According to the analysis made by atomic absorption spectrometry, the wound dressings released 0.599 ± 0.083 ppm of nanosilver during first 24 hrs of study. Daily observations were recoded and wounds were covered with new dressings each 24 hrs. Burn healing was observed in nanosilver wound dressing group in shorter time periods than the control groups. In toxicity assessment, this dressing didn't cause any hematological and histopathological abnormalities in treatment group but biochemical studies showed significant rise of plasma transaminase (ALT) at the endpoint (21 days) of the study (P=0.027). Portal mononuclear lymphoid and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrations in three to four adjacent foci were recognized around the central hepatic vein in treatment group. Mild hepatotoxic effects of nanosilver wound dressing in wistar rat emphasize the necessity of more studies on toxicity potentials of low dose nanosilver by dermal applications.

  15. PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO PROPAZINE AND ATRAZINE BIOTRANSFORMATION BY-PRODUCTS, DIAMINO-S-CHLOROTRIAZINE AND HYDROXYATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown previously that the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine (ATR), delays the onset of pubertal development in female rats. ATR and its by-products of microbial degradation are present in soil and groundwater. Since current maximum contaminant levels are set only for ATR...

  16. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  17. Strain Differences in the Expression of Dopamine D1 Receptors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew; Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz

    2008-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a stress-sensitive strain that is prone to depressive-like behavior in various experimental paradigms. While recent work has highlighted a role for dopamine (DA) in the pathology of depression, research on the WKY rat has also suggested that dysfunction of DA pathways may be an important component of the behavior in this strain. Previous work has demonstrated differential patterns of dopamine transporter sites, dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the WKY rats compared to control strains. To further this work, the present study utilized autoradiographic analysis of [3H]-SCH23390 binding to DA D1 receptors in various brain regions of naïve male WKY and Wistar (WIS) rats. The results revealed a significant strain difference, with WKY rats demonstrating lower D1 binding in the caudate putamen and regions of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.05). An opposite pattern was found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata where D1 binding was higher in WKY rats compared to WIS rats (p<0.05). Because the D1 receptor represents a critical site where DA acts to modify behavior related to depression, the altered expression of this receptor in the WKY rat found in the present study may be reflective of the depressive susceptibility noted in this strain. PMID:18558411

  18. [The influence of the exogenous melanin on the development of the second generation of the female Wistar rats exposed during the critical period of the pegnancy at the nonsterilizing doses of different rate means].

    PubMed

    Palyga, G F; Zhavorokov, L P; Chibisova, O F; Pavlova, L N; Ivanov, V L; Kolganova, O I

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radio-protective activity of melanin for the reproductive status of Wistar rats. Wistar rats were exposed in utero either to the single gamma-irradiation on the tenth day of embryogenesis with the dose of 1 Gy or to the chronic gamma-irradiation with the total dose of 1 Gy during the first 10 days of embryogenesis. Such things like the ability of the rats to conceive, the embryogeny and early postnatal ontogeny of rat's posterity were studied. These doses of the radiation and the melanin did not produce the significant damages of the reproductive function of the survival offsprings of the first generation. The possible mechanisms of radio-protective effect of melanin on reproductive system of animals which have been exposed with the nonsterilizing doses at different mean dose rate were discussed.

  19. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats. PMID:27047060

  20. A program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on maximal oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Carol Góis; Levada, Adriana Cristina; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; De-Castro, Célia Barbosa; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Moderate physical training is often associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in athletes and the general population. In animals, studies are designed to investigate basic physiology that could be invasive and uncomfortable for humans. The standardization of an exercise training protocol for rats based on maximal consumption of oxygen (VO(2)max) is needed. This study validated a program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max determined once a week. A 10-stage treadmill running test was developed to measure VO(2)max through an indirect, open circuit calorimeter. Thirty male Wistar rats (210-226 g) were randomly assigned to either a nontrained group or a trained group. The animals were evaluated weekly to follow their VO(2)max during 8 weeks of moderate training and to adjust the intensity of the protocol of training. The soleus muscle was removed for determination of citrate synthase activity. Trained animals maintained their values of VO(2)max during a moderate running training and showed a significant less body weight gain. An increase of 42% in citrate synthase activity of the soleus muscle from trained rats was found after the training program. Our study presents a protocol of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on VO(2)max. Peripheral adaptations such as the values of citrate synthase activity also responded to the moderate training program imposed as observed for VO(2)max. Other studies can use our protocol of moderate training to study the physiologic adaptations underlying this specific intensity of training. It will provide support for study with humans.

  1. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  2. The role of oxidative stress in diazinon-induced tissues toxicity in Wistar and Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahvash; Salehi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Sediq; Asgari, Alireza; Abasnezhad, Maryam; Hajigholamali, Mansoure

    2012-10-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate pesticide widely used in agricultural to control insects and in veterinary medicine to control ectoparasites. This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the brain, heart, and spleen of Wistar and Norway rats treated with acute doses of DZN. Female Wistar and Norway rats were treated with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of DZN by intraperitoneal injection. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after treatment, and tissues were isolated and analyzed. The result of this study shows that DZN at higher doses increased the level of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities and decreased glutathione (GSH) level, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholinesterase activities in the brain, heart, and spleen of both rat strains. At these concentrations, DZN toxicity also lead to a significant decrease in catalase (CAT) activity in all tissues of Wistar rat and brain of Norway rat, while it increased heart CAT activity in Norway rat. However, the alteration of these parameters was observed at lower doses of DZN in Wistar rat. These results suggest that DZN at higher doses induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress in rat tissues and strains by alteration of antioxidant enzyme activity, depletion of GSH, and increasing lipid peroxidation. Induction of oxidative stress in DZN-treated rats is in the order of brain > heart > spleen. Wistar rats appear to be more sensitive to the effects of DZN on oxidative stress induction compared to Norway rat.

  3. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  4. Cerebellar structure and function in male Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rats.

    PubMed

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, male WKHAs emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in male WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone conditional stimulus (CS) or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs, and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC.

  5. The effect of the prenatal and post-natal long-term exposure to 50 Hz electric field on growth, pubertal development and IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Bumin; Cesur, Gokhan; Comlekci, Selcuk; Songur, Ahmet; Gokcimen, Alparslan; Sahin, Onder; Ulukut, Ozlem; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Sutcu, Recep; Caliskan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    To investigate prenatal and post-natal effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field (EF) on growth and pubertal development, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly distributed among three groups. The pregnant rats of the prenatal group were exposed to 24-hour EF at 50 Hz EF 10 kV/min during pregnancy and their subsequent randomly selected female pups continued to be exposed until puberty. The post-natal group was unexposed to EF during pregnancy, but randomly selected female pups from this group were exposed to EF between delivery and puberty at the same doses and duration as the prenatal group. The third group was a sham-exposed group. The mean birth weight and weight gain of the pups during study period were found significantly reduced in prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). No difference could be found among the three groups for body weight at puberty (p > 0.05). The mean age at vaginal opening and estrous were significantly higher at prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). Serum insulin-like growth hormone-1 (IGF-1) levels were found significantly reduced in prenatal exposure group compared with the other two groups (p < 0.001). There was no difference for birth weight, weight gain, the mean age at vaginal opening and estrous and IGF-1 levels between post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p > 0.05). There was also no difference for FSH, LH and E2 levels at puberty among the three groups (p > 0.05). Histological examination revealed that both the prenatal and post-natal groups had the evidence of tissue damage on hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries. In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar

  6. Antidepressants and REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Paterson, Louise M; Hutson, Peter H

    2005-10-17

    Compared to other rat strains, the Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep, one of the characteristic sleep changes observed in depressed patients. The aims of this study were firstly to validate a simple sleep stage discriminator and then compare the effect of antidepressants on suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats and an outbred rat strain (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes. Following recovery, the animals were orally dosed at light onset with either desipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), citalopram (10 or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle in a cross-over design. Every 12-s epoch was automatically scored as WAKE, NREM or REM sleep. Results confirm that Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep and decreased REM latency compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. All antidepressants significantly suppressed REM sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats, but only the high dose of citalopram suppressed REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These findings suggest that the enhanced REM activity in Wistar-Kyoto rats is less sensitive to the effect of antidepressants and therefore does not provide any additional predictive validity for assessing antidepressant efficacy.

  7. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  8. Evaluation of Effect of Nishamalaki on STZ and HFHF Diet Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Vijaya Anil; Bhosale, Madhura Shirish Kumar; Khatavkar, Pallawi Shashank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common complications affecting 50% of diabetic patients. Neuropathic pain is the most difficult types of pain to treat. There is no specific treatment for neuropathy. Nishamalaki (NA), combination of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis used to treat Diabetes Mellitus (DM). So, efforts were made to test whether NA is useful in prevention of diabetic neuropathy. Aim To evaluate the effect of NA on diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic wistar rats. Materials and Methods Group I (Control) vehicle treated consists of 6 rats. Diabetes induced in 36 wistar rats with Streptozotocin (STZ) (35mg/kg) intra-peritoneally followed by High Fat High Fructose diet. After confirmation of development of diabetes; rats divided into six groups (n=6). Group II – VII Diabetic Control, NA low dose, NA High dose, Glibenclamide, Pioglitazone and Epalrestat. Animals received drug treatment for next 12 weeks. Monitoring of Blood Sugar Level (BSL) done every 15 days and lipid profile at the end. Eddy’s hot plate and tail immersion test performed to assess thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. Walking function test performed to assess motor function. Results Diabetic rats exhibited significant (p<0.001) hyperalgesia and increased BSL compared to control rats. Dose-dependent improvement was observed in thermal hyperalgesia & cold allodynia in NA groups. Activity of NA was more than Glibenclamide, Epalrestat and Pioglitazone in high dose and comparable in low dose. Nishamalaki improved lipid profile. Conclusion Apart from controlling hyperglycaemia and reducing lipid levels, NA effectively prevented the development of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:27891351

  9. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  10. Proteolytic activity of IgGs from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kit, Yu Ya; Myronovsky, S L; Kril, I I; Havrylyuk, A M; Chop'yak, V V; Stoika, R S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the proteolytic activity of IgGs purified from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) induced by an injection of bovine collagen of type II. Twenty rats were immunized with a preparation of bovine collagen II (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) in the presence of complete Freund's adjuvant. ERA development was determined by inflammation in limbs of treated animals. IgG preparations were isolated from blood serum of immunized and non-immunized animals by precipitation of antibodies with 33% ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on the Protein G-Sepharose column. Human histone H1, bovine collagen II, calf thymus histones, myelin basic protein (MBP), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and bovine casein were used as substrates of the proteolytic activity of IgGs. It was found that IgG preparations from blood serum of rats with ERA were capable of cleaving histone H1 and MBP, however, they were catalytically inactive towards collagen II, casein, BSA, and core histones. IgGs from blood serum of non-immunized rats were proteolytically inactive towards all used protein substrates. Thus, we demonstrated that immunization of rats with bovine collagen II induced IgG-antibodies possessing the proteolytic activity towards histone H1 and MBP. This activity might be associated with the development of inflammatory processes in the immunized rats.

  11. The 5-HT₆ serotonin receptor antagonist SB-271046 attenuates the development and expression of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitisation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; Kloeze, B M; McCreary, A C

    2011-09-01

    5-HT(6) receptors are almost exclusively expressed in the central nervous system, particularly in areas relevant for addictive behaviour. Based on this, together with other data, this receptor may be a viable target for the control of drug abuse. The present study tested the ability of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 to attenuate the development and expression of nicotine-induced behavioural sensitisation. Rats were habituated to the test apparatus prior to experimentation (day 0) and locomotor activity recorded. On days 1 and 5, animals were placed in locomotor test apparatus and after 30 min injected with SB-271046 (1, 3, and 6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally IP) or vehicle. Thirty minutes later, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneously SC) or saline were administered and activity recorded for 60 min. On days 2, 3 and 4 treatments were performed in the home cage. After 17 days of withdrawal (day 23), a challenge test was performed with nicotine (0.4 mg/kg SC) or saline. In a separate experiment of similar design the effects of SB-271046 (1, 3, and 6 mg/kg IP) was tested for its ability to reduce the expression of behavioural sensitisation (day 23). SB-271046 dose dependently reduced the development and expression of nicotine sensitisation vs respective controls. In conclusion, the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 reduced both the development and expression of nicotine sensitisation, suggesting that the 5-HT(6) receptor may be a viable target for the control of nicotine abuse. Further studies are warranted to substantiate this conclusion and further understand the role of 5-HT(6) receptors in addiction.

  12. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  13. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oller, Adriana R. Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  14. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag; Axelstad, Marta; Dreisig, Karin; Hadrup, Niels; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie

    2013-12-01

    Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity can adversely affect reproductive development, but few studies evaluating estrogen-sensitive endpoints have been performed in Wistar rats. Therefore, time-mated Wistar rats (n=10) were gavaged during gestation and lactation with 0, 5, 15 or 50μg/kg bw/day of ethinyl estradiol. This potent estrogen was found to induce an increased number of nipples and reduced ovary weight in female offspring. Malformations of female genitalia were found in young as well as adult offspring, as an increased AGD was seen at birth and a deeper urethral slit length was seen in adulthood. In prepubertal male offspring, estrogen-regulated gene expression in ventral prostate was increased dose-dependently and a decreased ventral prostate weight was seen at 15μg/kg. Female external sexual characteristics and prostate development were found to be targets for exposure to estrogenic compounds and may be of interest in studies on estrogenic environmental compounds.

  15. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  16. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

  17. Preventive and Protective Effect of Nishamalaki in STZ Induced Diabetic Complications in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Vijaya Anil; Deshpande, Swapnil Suryakant; Mandpe, Amruta Sumedh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a metabolic disease of vital health importance because of the complications associated with it. Clinical trials and animal studies have demonstrated the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of Nishamalaki. Present study was planned to evaluate the protective potential of Nishamalaki on diabetic complication in rats. Aim To study the Nephro-protective effect and to assess the protective potential on retinal changes of Nishamalaki in diabetic wistar rats. Materials and Methods Diabetes induced with 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin and 110 mg/kg Nicotinamide IP. Nishamalaki, a combination of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis administered orally with honey. Rats divided into six groups, control and diabetic rats with blood glucose above 250 mg/dl were divided into 5 groups. After 8 weeks test animals were treated with Nishamalaki, Enalapril and control with saline for 30 days. Biochemical parameters measured like Serum BSL, BUN and Creatinine and rats were observed for development of cataract. Rats sacrificed and kidney samples were taken to examine histopathological changes. Results Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine values were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in Nishamalaki group than control group. Nishamalaki showed the protective effect on kidney pathology as seen on histopathology by near normal glomerular and tubular structures. Control group showed shrunken glomerulus and tubular vacuolations. In Nishamalaki group immature sub capsular cataract with mild lenticular opacity were seen compared to the mature cataract with significant lenticular opacity and corneal vascularisation in control group. Conclusion Nishamalaki showed protective effect on development of Nephrotoxicity and it has also delayed the progression of cataract in rats. PMID:27504308

  18. Gastroprotective Effect of Oxalis corniculata (Whole Plant) on Experimentally Induced Gastric Ulceration in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakat, S. S.; Tupe, Preeti; Juvekar, Archana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant) using pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. The extract was preliminary evaluated for acute oral toxicity test using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423. Further, it was studied for antiulcer potential at the dose levels of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Ranitidine was used as a standard drug (100 mg/kg). Acid secretory parameters like gastric volume, pH, total acidity and free acidity were measured in pylorus ligation model, whereas numbers of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index was measured in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Pretreatment of test extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased the gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats. It also showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in number of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Results of the study suggest that, the methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata possesses significant antisecretory and antiulcer effects and justify the traditional usage of this herb to treat peptic ulcers. PMID:23204622

  19. Age-related changes in growth hormone-immunoreactive cells in the anterior pituitary gland of Jcl: Wistar-TgN (ARGHGEN) 1Nts rats (Mini rats).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Miki, Takanori; Ogawa, Kazushige; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Satriotomo, Irawan; Li, Hong-Peng; Gu, He; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Karasawa, Shigeru; Ueda, Susumu; Sasaki, Fumihiko; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2006-12-01

    Rats of the Jcl: Wistar-TgN (ARGHGEN) 1Nts strain (Mini rats) are transgenic animals carrying an antisense RNA transgene for rat growth hormone (GH); they show poor somatic growth and a low blood GH level compared to age-matched wild-type Wistar (non-Mini) rats. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related changes in growth hormone-immunoreactive (GH-IR) cells in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of Mini rats at four, six, and eight weeks of age. The body weight and size of the GH-IR cells of Mini rats was significantly lower than that of non-Mini rats at six and eight weeks of age; however, this difference was not observed at four weeks of age. The AP volume and the number of GH-IR cells in Mini rats were significantly smaller than those of the age-matched non-Mini rats at the three ages. These results suggest that the abnormal development of GH-IR cells in the AP induced by the GH antisense RNA transgene is responsible for the poor somatic growth and the low blood GH levels in Mini rats.

  20. A novel mutation in the thyroglobulin gene that causes goiter and dwarfism in Wistar Hannover GALAS rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Abe, Kuniya; Yuzuriha, Misako; Fujii, Sakiko; Takahashi, Naofumi; Hojo, Hitoshi; Teramoto, Shoji; Aoyama, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Outbred stocks of rats have been used extensively in biomedical, pharmaceutical and/or toxicological studies as a model of genetically heterogeneous human populations. One of such stocks is the Wistar Hannover GALAS rat. However, the colony of Wistar Hannover GALAS rat has been suspected of keeping a problematic mutation that manifests two distinct spontaneous abnormalities, goiter and dwarfism, which often confuses study results. We have successfully identified the responsible mutation, a guanine to thymine transversion at the acceptor site (3' end) of intron 6 in the thyroglobulin (Tg) gene (Tgc.749-1G>T), that induces a complete missing of exon 7 from the whole Tg transcript by mating experiments and subsequent molecular analyses. The following observations confirmed that Tgc.749-1G>T/Tgc.749-1G>T homozygotes manifested both dwarfism and goiter, while Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes had only a goiter with normal appearance, suggesting that the mutant phenotypes inherit as an autosomal semi-dominant trait. The mutant phenotypes, goiter and dwarfism, mimicked those caused by typical endocrine disrupters attacking the thyroid. Hence a simple and reliable diagnostic methodology has been developed for genomic DNA-based genotyping of animals. The diagnostic methodology reported here would allow users of Wistar Hannover GALAS rats to evaluate their study results precisely by carefully interpreting the data obtained from Tgc.749-1G>T/+ heterozygotes having externally undetectable thyroidal lesions.

  1. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  2. Evaluation of rib microstructure in Wistar rats using SR-μCT after radiation therapy simulation for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Liebert P; de Almeida, André P; Braz, Delson; Andrade, Cherley B; Salata, Camila; Tromba, Giuliana; de Almeida, Carlos E; Barroso, Regina C

    2012-07-01

    A better understanding of biological interactions that occur after exposure to photon radiation is needed in order to optimize therapeutic regimens and facilitate development and strategies that decrease radiation-induced side effects in humans. In this work, ribs of Wistar rat submitted to radiotherapy simulation were imaged using synchrotron radiation computed microtomography at Elettra Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated directly from the 3D microtomographic images and showed significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated groups.

  3. Comparison of the differential expression miRNAs in Wistar rats before and 10 days after S.japonicum infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When compared to the murine permissive host of Schistosoma japonicum, Wistar rats are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, and are considered to provide a less suitable microenvironment for parasite growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), are a class of endogenous, non-coding small RNAs, that impose an additional, highly significant, level of gene regulation within eukaryotes. Methods To investigate the regulatory mechanisms provided by miRNA in the schistosome-infected rat model, we utilized a miRNA microarray to compare the progression of miRNA expression within different host tissues both before and 10 days after cercarial infection, in order to identify potential miRNAs with roles in responding to a schistosome infection. Results Among the analysed miRNAs, 16 within the liver, 61 within the spleen and 10 within the lung, were differentially expressed in infected Wistar rats. Further analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that many important signal pathways are triggered after infection with S. japonicum in Wistar rats. These include the signal transduction mechanisms associated with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, cellular differentiation, with a particular emphasis on adipocyte and erythroid differentiation. Conclusions The results presented here include the identification of specific differentially expressed miRNAs within the liver, lungs and spleen of Wistar rats. These results highlighted the function of host miRNA regulation during an active schistosome infection. Our study provides a better understanding of the regulatory role of miRNA in schistosome infection, and host–parasite interactions in a non-permissive host environment. PMID:23617945

  4. Efficacy and toxicological evaluation of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) extract in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja Priyadarshani; Jayatilaka, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardena; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) along with toxicological effects in alloxan induced diabetic and healthy Wistar rats. Methods A single graded dose of aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (0.25-2.00 g/kg) was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetic Wistar rats (n=6). In acute toxicity assessment, Wistar rats were administered the extract at the same dose range and observed for three days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily administration of the extract for 30 d at the dose which showed the optimum antihyperglycemic effect. Signs of toxicity, body weight of animals, consumption of food and water were monitored during the study period. The effects of the extract on biochemical (lipid parameters and activities of liver enzymes), hematological parameters (full blood count) and histopathological effects in organs were assessed at the end of the study. Results The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for Coccinia grandis leaf extract was found to be 0.75 g/kg in diabetic rats. The extract neither produced significant changes in consumption of food, intake of water, relative weight of organs nor affected biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions The extract at a dose of 0.75 g/kg was found to be toxicologically safe as a potential antihyperglycemic agent in Wistar rats.

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on type 2 diabetes parameters and liver metallothionein expressions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Li, Hongyan; Fan, Zhe; Liu, Ya

    2012-12-01

    Zinc is a trace metal and acts as an active component of various enzymes. Zinc deficiency has been suggested to be associated with the development of diabetes. The present study investigated the role of zinc supplementation on prevention of diabetic conditions. A double-disease model mimicking hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes was created by applying high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to Wistar rats. We demonstrated that zinc supplementation improved symptoms of diabetes such as polydipsia and increased serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicating that zinc supplementation has a potential beneficial effect on diabetic conditions. The level of maldondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress marker, was reduced in liver by zinc supplementation in high fat-fed rats with or without STZ injection. Meanwhile, we observed an increase in the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in liver of rats treated with zinc. This suggests that the induction of MTs in liver, which has been shown to be important in scavenging free radicals, could be one of the underlying mechanisms of zinc supplementation on reducing MDA levels in liver. Finally, we found that zinc levels in liver were increased while there was no change in serum zinc levels, indicating that local zinc level might be a critical factor for the induction of MTs. Also, the level of MTs could potentially be an index of zinc bioavailability. Taken together, these results suggest that both zinc and MT could play an important role in balancing nutrition and metabolism to prevent diabetic development.

  6. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse.

  7. Indatraline: synthesis and effect on the motor activity of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Márcia; Siqueira, Fernanda A; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam; Silva, Luiz F; Silva, Maria T A

    2011-11-10

    A new approach for the synthesis of indatraline was developed using as the key step an iodine(III)-mediated ring contraction of a 1,2-dihydronaphthalene derivative. Behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of indatraline and of its precursor indanamide on the motor activity of Wistar rats. Specific indexes for ambulation, raising and stereotypy were computed one, two and three hours after i.p. drug administration. Indatraline effects on motor activity lasted for at least three hours. On the other hand, no significant differences in motor activity were observed using indanamide. The results suggest that indatraline has a long lasting effect on motor activity and add evidence in favor of the potential use of that compound as a substitute in cocaine addiction.

  8. Effects of dopamine agents on a schedule-induced polydipsia procedure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and in Wistar control rats.

    PubMed

    Íbias, Javier; Miguéns, Miguel; Pellón, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been proposed as an animal model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically develops excessive patterns of response under most behavioural protocols. Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is the excessive water consumption that occurs as a schedule effect when food is intermittently delivered and animals are partially food- but not water-deprived. SIP has been used as a model of excessive behaviour, and considerable evidence has involved the dopaminergic system in its development and maintenance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the most common psychostimulants used in ADHD treatment on SIP, comparing their effects in SHRs with rats from control populations. SHR, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar rats were submitted to a multiple fixed time (FT) food schedule with two components: 30 s and 90 s. The acute effects of different dopaminergic compounds were evaluated after 40 sessions of SIP acquisition. All animals showed higher adjunctive drinking under FT 30 s than FT 90 s, and SHRs displayed higher asymptotic SIP levels in FT 90 s compared to WKY and Wistar rats. SHRs were less sensitive to dopaminergic agents than control rats in terms of affecting rates of adjunctive drinking. These differences point to an altered dopaminergic system in the SHR and provide new insights into the neurobiological basis of ADHD pharmacological treatments.

  9. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

  10. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  11. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was administered by gavage to groups of 25 male and 25 female young Wistar rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for one generation (F0). The study followed the treated F0 generation through mating, gestation, lactation, and weaning of the F1 generation. F1 animals were mated and followed to gestation day (GD) 15-17 at which time F2 implants were evaluated. There were no indications from the various clinical and gross pathological examinations that the oral administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer to the F0-parental rats produced any signs of general, reproductive, or developmental toxicity in the F0 or F1 animals or F2 implants. Based on the lack of any dose-related or biologically relevant effects on fertility, reproduction, development, and overall health of rats gavaged with PEG-PVA grafted copolymer and their progeny, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  12. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body.

  13. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.

  14. Identification of hydroxylated metabolites of hexabromocyclododecane in wildlife and 28-days exposed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Sicco H; Van der Ven, Leo T M; De Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the presence of hydroxylated metabolites of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in three wildlife species (tern egg, seal, and flounder) and in Wistar rats exposed to 30 and 100 mg HBCD/kg bw/day for 28 days. A nondestructive extraction, fractionation, and cleanup method was developed to separate the hydroxylated HBCD metabolites from the biotic sample matrix. Four different groups of hydroxylated HBCD metabolites were identified in rat adipose, liver, lung, and muscle tissues by liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS): monohydroxy metabolites of HBCD, pentabromocyclododecene (PBCDe), tetrabromocyclododecene (TBCDe), and dihydroxy-HBCD. Dihydroxy-PBCDe was identified by GC-MS but could not be confirmed by LCMS. Debromination of HBCD to PBCDe was another metabolic pathway observed. In tern eggs from the Western Scheldt the monohydroxy-HBCD was found and in the blubber of harbor seal (Wadden Sea) the monohydroxy metabolites of HBCD and PBCDe were found. No hydroxylated metabolites were detected in the tissue of flounder (Wadden Sea). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify different hydroxylated metabolite groups of HBCD in rat and wildlife samples.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty and Thyroid Function in the Male Wistar Rat. Stoker, T.E1., Guidici, D.L.2, Laws, S.C.2 and Cooper, R.L.2 Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  16. Effects of doxorubicin administration on bone strength and quality in sedentary and physically active Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, H; Carvalho, A; Esteves, J; Esteves, V I; Moreira-Gonçalves, D; Duarte, J A

    2016-12-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is used in pediatric cancer treatment. This study assessed the effects of 7 weeks of DOX and 10-week recovery on bone quality and biomechanical properties in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats. DOX decreases femur diaphysis radial growth and biomechanical properties. Some of these DOX effects were aggravated by exercise.

  17. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  18. ATRAZINE STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF ACTH AND ADRENAL STEROIDS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in increased serum corticosterone (C), progesterone (P), androgens and estrogens. The observation of increased C following single or multiple doses of ATR (up to 21 days of dosing) su...

  19. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  20. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Molet, Jenny; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS) alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control) from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%), self-grooming (69%), and putting the pups back to the nest (167%). LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring. PMID:27149676

  1. Imaging of Spontaneous Ventriculomegaly and Vascular Malformations in Wistar rats: implications for Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L. Christine; Williams, Rashida A.; Lescher, Jacob D.; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not utilized, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70/162 (43.2%) of Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were utilized to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesion and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem micro-CT and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p < 0.05). These results could impact the interpretation, e.g. of a pseudo-increase of axon integrity and a pseudo-decrease of myelin integrity, based on characteristics intrinsic to rats with ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurological disease or injury in the Wistar rats. PMID:25383642

  2. Differences between rat strains in the development of PRL-secreting pituitary tumors with long-term estrogen treatment: In vitro insulin-like growth factor-1-induced lactotroph proliferation and gene expression are affected in Wistar-Kyoto rats with low estrogen-susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Tetsuo; Ishida, Maho; Izawa, Michi; Arita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in the susceptibility of rat strains to pituitary growth and lactotroph proliferation caused by long-term treatment with estrogens. To investigate the pituitary mechanism for this strain difference in estrogen-induced lactotroph proliferation, we compared the abilities of 17-β estradiol (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to modulate lactotroph proliferation and gene expression in vitro in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. These two strains of rats have a high and very low susceptibility to estrogen, respectively. Long-term in vivo treatment with E2 was confirmed to markedly increase pituitary weight and lactotroph proliferation in ovariectomized Wistar, but not in WKY rats. Pituitary lactotrophs in primary cultures showed similar proliferative responsiveness to the culture condition-dependent, stimulatory and inhibitory actions of E2 in both strains. The only difference in lactotroph proliferation in vitro was a lower response to IGF-1 in WKY cells compared with Wistar cells. This difference in proliferation was associated with strain differences in IGF-1-induced gene expression in Wistar and WKY cultured cells. Of the genes tested, IGF-1-induced expression of the Wnt4, Stc1, Mybl1, and Myc genes was attenuated or abolished in WKY cells. These results suggest that the proliferative response to estrogen in lactotrophs in primary culture does not reflect the proliferative response to long-term estrogen treatment observed in vivo in Wistar and WKY rats. The strain difference in proliferation and gene expression to IGF-1 may be implicated in the variable degree of susceptibility for lactotroph proliferation observed in different strains of rats following long-term estrogen treatment.

  3. Comparison of cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature genetic absence epilepsy WAG/Rij rats with those in two other strains (ACI and Wistar).

    PubMed

    Mares, Pavel; Tolmacheva, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of cortical epileptic afterdischarges (ADs) in genetic absence epilepsy WAG/Rij rats, and to compare them with two strains with minimal incidence of spike-and-wave (SW) episodes (ACI and Wistar). Epileptic ADs were elicited by stimulation of sensorimotor cortex in 12-, 18-, and 25-day-old rats of the three strains. The threshold current intensities were established for movements accompanying stimulation, for ADs of the SW type and accompanying clonic seizures and for transition into limbic type of ADs (characterized by behavioral automatisms). Individual groups were formed by 7-12 rats. There were no differences among the three strains in the thresholds for elicitation of stimulation-bound movements. In contrast, WAG/Rij and ACI rats exhibited easier elicitation of SW ADs than Wistar rats at the age of 18 and 25 days. There was no difference among the three strains in transition into the limbic type of ADs in 18- and 25-day-old rats. Lower thresholds for SW ADs in 18- and 25-day-old WAG/Rij and ACI rats in comparison with Wistar rats are in agreement with our data from adult animals as well as with development of pharmacologically induced models of absence seizures. The failure to find a specific difference between WAG/Rij rats and the other two strains might indicate a difference in generation of SW episodes and SW cortical AD.

  4. No effect of testosterone on behavior in aged Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Borbélyová, Veronika; Domonkos, Emese; Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Bosý, Martin; Hodosy, Július; Celec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In men, aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in androgen secretion. Studies suggest beneficial effects of endogenous and exogenous testosterone on affective behavior and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral and cognitive sex differences and to analyze the effects of long-term androgen deficiency in aged male rats. Thirty-months old rats divided into three groups (males, females and males gonadectomized as young adults) underwent a battery of behavioral tests assessing locomotor activity, anxiety, memory, anhedonia, sociability and depression-like behavior. No major effect of gonadectomy was found in any of the analyzed behavioral measures in male rats. The only consistent sex difference was confirmed in depression-like behavior with longer immobility time observed in males. In an interventional experiment, a single dose of testosterone had no effect on gonadectomized male and female rats in the forced swim test. In contrast to previous studies this comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of aged rats revealed no major role of endogenous testosterone. Based on our results long-term hypogonadism does not alter the behavior of aged male rats, neither does acute testosterone treatment. Whether these findings have any consequences on androgen replacement therapy in aged men remains to be elucidated. PMID:27852981

  5. [Seasonal peculiarities of the ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) and Wistar rats circadian activity].

    PubMed

    Semenova, T P; Spiridonova, L A; Zakharova, N M

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal peculiarities of the circadian activity of hibernator, Yakutian long tail ground squirrels (S. undulatus) (n = 35) and non hibernator, Wistar rats (n = 35), were studied. The locomotor activity was registered in each subject individually during 5-17 days by means of "Animex" in the different periods of annual cycle. It was shown that ground squirrels were animals with daily type of activity. On the contrary, the Wistar rats demonstrated nocturne type of locomotors activity. The active period in rats was longer than in ground squirrels. It included not only at night, but morning time in spring, and daytime--in summer. The circadian differences between hibernators and non-hibernators were kept during all annual cycle at night time, but in daytime--only in spring and summer time.

  6. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

    1986-03-05

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with (/sup 14/C(U))glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N/sub 2/ followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism.

  7. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g) were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (TG), and functional electrical stimulation (FES) group (FG) with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P<0.001) and between TG and CG (P<0.001). Qualitative histological analyses confirmed 100% HO in FG and CG, while in TG the HO was detected in 54.5% of the animals. The effects of the muscle contractions caused by FES increased HO, while anti-inflammatory effects of TENS reduced HO. PMID:26292223

  8. Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

    2014-05-01

    Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250 gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2 cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested.

  9. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zotz, T G G; Paula, J B de

    2015-11-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g) were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (TG), and functional electrical stimulation (FES) group (FG) with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P<0.001) and between TG and CG (P<0.001). Qualitative histological analyses confirmed 100% HO in FG and CG, while in TG the HO was detected in 54.5% of the animals. The effects of the muscle contractions caused by FES increased HO, while anti-inflammatory effects of TENS reduced HO.

  10. [Levetiracetam modifies the pattern of audiogenic locomotive response in Wistar and Krushinsky-Molodkina strain rats].

    PubMed

    Malikova, L A; Fedotova, I B; Surina, N M; Poletaeva, I I; Raevskiĭ, K S

    2010-07-01

    The novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (keppra, 80 mg/kg, i.p.) produces a pronounced anticonvulsant effect on all parameters of the audiogenic locomotion response in Wistar rats, leading to the prevention of acoustic seizures approximately in 50% animals. Keppra injection also led to a decrease in the intensity of single audiogenic convulsive episode, a twofold prolongation of the latency of motor reaction, and a change in the pattern of seizure reaction toward increasing number of rats with "one-wave" response. In contrast, a lack of sound resistant animals and the change from one- to two-wave audiogenic response were observed in Krushinsky-Molodkina strain rats.

  11. Isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior without affecting learning abilities of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernandez, M; Tellez-Alcantara, P; Perez-Garcia, J

    2001-07-01

    1. Isolation-reared rats display fear-like behavior and depressive-like behavior in several behavioral tasks, suggesting that isolation rearing may model certain aspects of human psychopathologies. 2. After weaning (20 days old), male and female Wistar rats were isolation-reared during 20, 50 or 70 days. After that, they were tested in the elevated plus maze test, and in the open field test. Another group of isolation-reared rats (70 days of isolation) were tested in an auto-shaping task. 3. Isolation-reared rats displayed high levels of fear-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test, and hyperlocomotion in the open field test. But, isolation-reared rats learned an auto-shaping task. 4. In conclusion, isolation rearing induced fear-like behavior, without affect learning abilities of rats.

  12. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against hyperoxaluria induced mitochondrial dysfunction in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Minu; Kaur, Tanzeer; Singla, S K

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nephro-protective potential of N-acetylcysteine against hyperoxaluria-induced renal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Nine days dosing of 0.4 % ethylene glycol +1 % ammonium chloride, developed hyperoxaluria in male wistar rats which resulted in renal injury and dysfunction as supported by increased level of urinary lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, and decreased creatinine clearance. Mitochondrial oxidative strain in hyperoxaluric animals was evident by decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Declined activities of respiratory chain enzymes and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes showed mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperoxaluric animals. N-acetylcysteine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), by virtue of its -SH reviving power, was able to increase the glutathione levels and thus decrease the oxidative stress in renal mitochondria. Hence, mitochondrial damage is, evidently, an essential event in ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria and N-acetylcysteine presented itself as a safe and effective remedy in combating nephrolithiasis.

  13. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Humberto; Oliveira, José Antonio; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. Methods Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals. Results No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05). However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01) and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01). In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals. Conclusions Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy. PMID:27149672

  14. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Nenda, María M; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2016-05-20

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm(2) in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management.

  15. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    PubMed Central

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  16. Classical and instrumental conditioning of eyeblink responses in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ricart, Thomas M; Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety vulnerability, acquire lever-press avoidance faster than outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Faster avoidance acquisition may reflect an inherent ability to acquire cue-outcome associations, response-outcome associations or both. To evaluate cue-outcome learning, acquisition of classically conditioned eyeblink response was compared in SD and WKY rats using a delay-type paradigm (500-ms conditioned stimulus (CS) coterminating with a 10-ms unconditional stimulus (US)). WKY rats demonstrated enhanced classical conditioning, with both faster acquisition and greater asymptotic performance in delay-type training than SD rats. To evaluate response-outcome learning, separate SD and WKY rats were given control over US delivery through imposition of an omission contingency into delay-type training (emitting a conditioned response (CR) prevented delivery of the US). The schedule of US delivery derived by these rats became the training regimen for a separate group of SD and WKY rats, yoked within strain. In SD rats, no differences in acquisition were detected between those given control over US delivery and those trained with the same partial reinforcement schedule. Acquisition rates of those WKY rats with control exceeded those trained with a yoked-schedule of US presentation. Collectively, WKY rats exhibit enhanced classical conditioning and sensitivity to schedules of reinforcement compared to outbred SD rats. Anxiety vulnerability, in particular inhibited temperament, may be traced to active processes in the prediction and control of aversive events.

  17. Progressive Induction of Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of a Reality–Like Fructose Enriched Diet in Young Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dupas, Julie; Goanvec, Christelle; Feray, Annie; Guernec, Anthony; Alain, Charlène; Guerrero, François; Mansourati, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize short and medium-lasting effects of fructose supplementation on young Wistar rats. The diet was similar to actual human consumption. Methods Three week old male rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 16), fructose fed (FF; n = 16) with a fructose enriched drink for 6 or 12 weeks. Bodyweight, fasting glycemia and systolic blood pressure were monitored. Glucose tolerance was evaluated using an oral glucose tolerance test. Insulinemia was measured concomitantly and enable us to calculate insulin resistance markers (HOMA-IR, Insulin Sensitivity Index for glycemia: ISI-gly). Blood chemistry analyses were performed. Results After six weeks of fructose supplementation, rats were not overweight but presented increased fasting glycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity compared to control group. Systolic blood pressure and heart weight were also increased without any change in renal function (theoretical creatinine clearance). After twelve weeks of fructose supplementation, FF rats had increased bodyweight and presented insulin resistance (higher HOMA-IR, lower ISI-gly). Rats also presented higher heart volume and lower ASAT/ALAT ratio (presumed liver lesion). Surprisingly, the Total Cholesterol/Triglycerides ratio was increased only after six weeks of fructose supplementation, predicting a higher LDL presence and thus a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This risk was no longer present after twelve weeks of a fructose enriched diet. Conclusion On young Wistar rats, six weeks of fructose supplementation is sufficient to induce signs of metabolic syndrome. After twelve weeks of fructose enriched diet, rats are insulin resistant. This model enabled us to study longitudinally the early development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26799836

  18. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Wistar and August rats with low and high motor activity (a cytochemical study).

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2014-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity was quantitatively evaluated by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus CA3 field) of August and Wistar rats demonstrating high and low motor activity in the open field test. In August rats, acetylcholinesterase activity in the analyzed brain structures prevailed in animals with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low motor activity. In Wistar rats, the differences between the animals demonstrating high and low motor activity were less pronounced, but varied depending on the experimental series of studies. Comparisons of August rats with low motor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (maximum difference of motor function in these animals) revealed significant excess of acetylcholinesterase activity in layer III of the sensorimotor cortex in August rats and no differences in other brain structures of the examined animals.

  19. Nephroprotective action of Peucedanum grande against cadmium chloride induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Dayal, Rameshver; Javid, Kalim; Umar, Sadiq; Asiaf, Asia; Nafees, Sana; Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Wani, Arjumand; Samim, Mohammad; Singh, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial pollutant which accumulates in the kidney and its exposure leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of Peucedanum grande against CdCl2 induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were subjected to oral pre-treatment of P. grande (60 and 120 mg/kg b.wt) against the renal toxicity induced by administration of CdCl2 (3mg/kg b.wt). Efficacy of P. grande against the renal toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities and histopathological changes. P. grande pretreatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by CdCl2 through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of increased oxidative stress as well as by restoration of histopathological changes against CdCl2 administration.

  20. Evaluation of the Toxicity of Pradosia huberi Extract during the Preimplantation in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Aldeíde de Oliveira Batista; Sousa, Liliane de Queirós; Mota, Clélia de Alencar Xavier; Santos, Elane Cristina S.; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Pimenta, Martina Bragante F.; da Silveira e Sá, Rita de Cássia

    2013-01-01

    The treatment during the embryonic preimplantation phase of Wistar rats with the Pradosia huberi extract did not interfere with the water and feed consumption, as well as upon the body-weight gain. However, it has expressed a decrease of the uterine implant number, followed by the preimplantation losses at all applied doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5 mg/kg), and the number of embryonic resorptions in the two highest doses (6.1 and 30.5 mg/kg). After the organ weighing (hypophysis, ovaries, and uterus), only the relative weight of the hypophysis was raised at the different doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5 mg/kg). It was concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of Pradosia huberi compromises the reproductive ability during the embryonic preimplantation phase, suggesting a possible toxic effect upon the reproductive system of Wistar rats. PMID:23509706

  1. [The modifying effect of long-term administration of ascorbic acid with drinking water on asbestos-induced pleural carcinogenesis in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Stadnikova, N M; Vasil'eva, L A; Shelepov, V P; Pylev, L N

    1996-01-01

    Ascorbic acid administered with drinking water, in a concentration of 2.5%, together with sucrose (1%) was found to significantly inhibit the development of mesothelial and pleural tumors induced in Wistar rats by asbestos treatment. Said agents, however, failed to influence spontaneous carcinogenesis.

  2. Assessment of enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation by intermittent fasting in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Razzak, Rima L Abdul; Abu-Hozaifa, Bodour M; Bamosa, Abdullah O; Ali, Nemah M

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a type of feeding regimen where the frequency of eating is reduced enhances cardiovascular stress adaptation and improves cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Data on the effect of IF on the endothelium is not common, so we examined whether IF showed similarity to documented beneficial effects of caloric restriction on endothelium-dependent vasodilatory responses of rat aortic rings. 25 young male Wistar rats had ad libitum (AL) access to food and 25 others were provided with food every other day for 2 months, during which their weight was measured every 2 weeks. Vascular reactivity of abdominal aorta was simultaneously evaluated using dual wire myographs. Weight gain was greater in the AL group (P<0.001) at all weighing intervals. Acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10)-10(-5)M) produced greater (P<0.05) vasorelaxation in IF rats at the two highest concentrations. IF reduces weight gain in young male rats and improves their aortic endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  3. Triazophos-induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in ovary of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dharmender; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur; Khera, Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Triazophos (TZ), a non-systemic broad spectrum organophosphate (OP), is being extensively used against a wide range of pests in agricultural practices. The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of triazophos (TZ) in female Wistar rats. Three sub-chronic dose levels of TZ corresponding to 1/10th, 1/20th and 1/40th of LD50 were given for 30 days to adult female Wistar rats through oral intubation. During the treatment period estrous cycle was significantly altered. Activity levels of different oxidative stress (OS) parameters viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were differentially altered in the ovary of treated rats. Estradiol levels were significantly high while progesterone levels were significantly reduced in plasma of 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ-treated rats. Histomorphological studies of ovary revealed increased follicular atresia and increased ovarian surface epithelial height in 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ-treated rats. Enhanced apoptosis and necrosis were also observed in ovarian granulosa cells at dose-dependent manner. Results infer that TZ exposure may lead to the number of pathophysiological conditions in female rats and severity increases at high doses.

  4. Dysfunctional Inhibitory Mechanisms in Locus Coeruleus Neurons of the Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bruzos-Cidón, C; Llamosas, N; Ugedo, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) has functional relevance in several psychopathologies such as stress, anxiety, and depression. In addition to glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs, the activation of somatodendritic α2-adrenoceptors is the main responsible for LC activity regulation. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat exhibits depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and hyperresponse to stressors. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate in vitro the sensitivity of α2-adrenoceptors, as well as the glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity on LC neurons of the WKY strain. Methods: For that purpose patch-clamp whole-cell recordings were done in LC slices. Results: The α2-adrenoceptors of LC neurons from WKY rats were less sensitive to the effect induced by the agonist UK 14 304 as compared to that recorded in the Wistar (Wis) control strain. In addition, the GABAergic input to LC neurons of WKY rats was significantly modified compared to that in Wis rats, since the amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic currents was reduced and the half-width increased. On the contrary, no significant alterations were detected regarding glutamatergic input to LC neurons between rat strains. Conclusions: These results point out that in WKY rats the inhibitory control exerted by α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic input onto LC neurons is dysregulated. Overall, this study supports in this animal model the hypothesis that claims an imbalance between the glutamatergic-GABAergic systems as a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:25586927

  5. BCG Induces Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in the Wistar Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Amit; Mathys, Vanessa; Kiass, Mehdi; Creusy, Colette; Delaire, Baptiste; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dartois, Véronique; Kaplan, Gilla; Bifani, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the correlation of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-mediated immune responses and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is still limited. We have recently characterized a Wistar rat model of experimental tuberculosis (TB). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in this model. Upon Mtb challenge, BCG vaccinated rats controlled growth of the bacilli earlier than unvaccinated rats. Histopathology analysis of infected lungs demonstrated a reduced number of granulomatous lesions and lower parenchymal inflammation in vaccinated animals. Vaccine-mediated protection correlated with the rapid accumulation of antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the infected lungs. Immunohistochemistry further revealed higher number of CD8+ cells in the pulmonary granulomas of vaccinated animals. Evaluation of pulmonary immune responses in vaccinated and Mtb infected rats by real time PCR at day 15 post-challenge showed reduced expression of genes responsible for negative regulation of Th1 immune responses. Thus, early protection observed in BCG vaccinated rats correlated with a similarly timed shift of immunity towards the Th1 type response. Our data support the importance of (i) the Th1-Th2 balance in the control of mycobacterial infection and (ii) the value of the Wistar rats in understanding the biology of TB. PMID:22162757

  6. Gene expression profiling reveals potential key pathways involved in pyrazinamide-mediated hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Su, Yijing; Chen, Mi; Li, Fu; Liu, Li; Sun, Lixin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Luyong

    2013-08-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important sterilizing prodrug that shortens the duration of tuberculosis therapy. However, hepatotoxicity has been reported during clinical trials investigating PZA. To determine the hepatotoxic effects of PZA in vivo and to further investigate the underlying cellular mechanism, we profiled the gene expression patterns of PZA-treated rat livers by microarray analysis. Wistar rats of both sexes were orally administered PZA at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 28 days. Body weight, absolute and relative liver weight, biochemical analysis, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates and changes in global transcriptomic expression were evaluated to study the hepatotoxic effects of PZA. Our results confirm the dose-dependent and sex-related hepatotoxicity of PZA. Female rats were more sensitive to PZA-induced hepatotoxicity than males. Furthermore, changes in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione and malondialdehyde), indicating the development of oxidative stress, were more significant in the PZA-treated group. PZA-induced gene expression changes were related to pathways involved in drug metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the regulation of selected genes involved in PZA-hepatotoxicity (Ephx1, Cyp2b1, Gstm1, Gstp1, Fabp7, Acaa1, Cpt-1b, Cyp8b1, Hmox1 and Ntrk1). We observed for the first time that these genes have effects on PZA-induced hepatotoxicity. In addition, drug metabolism and PPAR signaling pathways may play an important role in PZA hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these findings will be useful for future PZA hepatotoxicity studies.

  7. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  8. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H.; Bel, E. Del; Defino, H.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration. PMID:23532265

  9. Exposition to tannery wastewater did not alter behavioral and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-04-22

    There are scarce data on the neurotoxicity in mammalian induced by tannery wastewaters. Previously, the anxiogenic effect of tannery wastewater was demonstrated in mice, while wastewater submitted to photoelectrooxidation (PEO) process treatment did not affect the anxiety state. Considering that species may response differently to xenobiotics, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of exposure to tannery wastewaters (non-PEO or PEO-treated) on behavioral and neurochemical markers in another species of laboratory animals, specifically Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were given free access to water bottles containing non-PEO or PEO-treated tannery wastewaters (0.1, 1 and 5% in drinking water). During the exposure, behavioral tests of anxiety (elevated plus-maze, neophobia, open field and light-dark box), depression (forced swimming) and memory (inhibitory avoidance, novel object and discriminative avoidance) were performed. On the 30th day, brain structures were dissected out to evaluate cellular oxidative state (hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum) and acetylcholinesterase activity (hippocampus and striatum). Exposure to tannery effluent with or without photoelectrochemical treatment did not alter any behavioral and neurochemical parameters evaluated. Our data indicate that Wistar rats may not be an adequate species for ecotoxicological studies involving tannery effluents and that POE treatment did not generate other toxic compounds.

  10. Nuclear phenotype evaluation in skeletal muscle from Wistar rats exposed to low-level lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. G.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Vicentini, S. C.; Mencalha, A. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy includes devices emitting red and near-infrared radiation with output power below 100 mW. These devices are successfully used for the treatment of injuries and to improve exercise performance based on their biomodulatory effect. Despite the wide use of clinical protocols based on these lasers, the laser-induced effects on DNA are still disputed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. Wistar rats were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers (25, 50, and 100 J cm‑2, 100 mW, continuous-wave emission mode) and, after 24h, samples of this tissue were withdrawn for the analysis of chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation by Feulgen reaction detection of micronucleus, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Data obtained show that low-level red and infrared lasers alter geometric and densitometric parameters as well ploidy degree in muscle nuclei from Wistar rats, but do not induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin loss, and apoptosis at fluences taken out from clinical protocols.

  11. Wistar rats: a forgotten model of age-related hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Juan C.; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Blanco, José L.; Juiz, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is one of the most frequent sensory impairments in senescence and is a source of important socio-economic consequences. Understanding the pathological responses that occur in the central auditory pathway of patients who suffer from this disability is vital to improve its diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize age-related modifications in auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and to determine whether these functional responses might be accompanied by an imbalance between excitation and inhibition in the cochlear nucleus of Wistar rats. To do so, ABR recordings at different frequencies and immunohistochemistry for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) were performed in young, middle-aged and old male Wistar rats. The results demonstrate that there was a significant increase in the auditory thresholds, a significant decrease in the amplitudes and an increase in the latencies of the ABR waves as the age of the rat increased. Additionally, there were decreases in VGLUT1 and VGAT immunostaining in the VCN of older rats compared to younger rats. Therefore, the observed age-related decline in the magnitude of auditory evoked responses might be due in part to a reduction in markers of excitatory function; meanwhile, the concomitant reduction in both excitatory and inhibitory markers might reflect a common central alteration in animal models of ARLH. Together, these findings highlight the suitability of the Wistar rat as an excellent model to study ARHL. PMID:24634657

  12. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  13. Antifertility effects of Pouzolzia mixta in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance Rufaro

    2013-01-01

    The continued use of plants by women to prevent pregnancy suggests there are plants out there with potential use as contraceptives. In Zimbabwe, Pouzolzia mixta is used as a "morning after" contraceptive, thus it may possess postcoital antifertility activity. To test contraceptive activity, animals (n=8/group) were orally pretreated with aqueous (AqPM) or ethanolic (EtPM) extract of P. mixta at 300mg/kg b.wt for 7 days followed by mating with continued treatment for 10 days post-conception. To test for postcoital activity, treatment was initiated on day-1 of pregnancy and continued for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and implantations counted. For estrogenic activity, immature ovariectomised rats were treated for 7 days after which vaginal opening and uterine weights were determined. In vitro oxytocic effects were performed using uterine tissue in an organ bath with De Jalon's solution. Acetylcholine (Ach) was the positive control. Results showed modest contraceptive activity with EtPM more effective in inhibiting fertility compared to AqPM (37.5% vs 25%) with a similar trend for antiimplantation effects (31% vs 19%). There was potent postcoital antifertility effects with AqPM more effective in inhibiting implantation (94.6% vs 86%) and fertility (87.5% vs 75%) compared to EtPM. Immature rat bioassay for estrogenic activity demonstrated pronounced estrogenic activity by both extracts. Oxytocic effects at 400ng/ml were more pronounced for the AqPM (92% of 100ng/ml Ach) than EtPM (25% of 100ng/ml Ach). Findings demonstrate the antifertility effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. mixta. The antifertility effects may be attributed to antiimplantation, estrogenic and oxytocic effects of the plant extracts.

  14. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  15. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases. PMID:27882225

  16. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  17. Early Ethanol and Water Consumption: Accumulating Experience Differentially Regulates Drinking Pattern and Bout Parameters in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different origin, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. PMID:24095931

  18. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption.

  19. Subchronic toxicity study of ulvan from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huimin; Liu, Xiaolei; Wang, Kai; Liu, Dongmei; Huang, Liye; Liu, Shunmei; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-12-01

    Ulvan extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) is a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharide, for simplicity, the sulfated polysaccharide is referred to as ulvan in this paper. To our knowledge, there is no detailed report investigating the toxicity of ulvan. In this study, the subchronic (6 months) toxicity of varying levels of ulvan extracted from U. pertusa was investigated in Wistar rats after oral administration. ALT, ALB, ALP, WBC, PLT, and liver relative organ weigh of female rats showed significantly difference at 3000 mg/kg body weight per day, compared with control group. On the other hand, TG, T-CHO concentrations of female rats (6 months) were significantly decreased at 600, 1200 and 3000 mg/kg body weight per day. This result proved that ulvan had antihyperlipidemic activity. Beside, ulvan showed anticoagulant activity in this study. Overall, our findings indicated that ulvan had affected specific hematology, serum biochemistry parameters and liver, and had great differences between males and females rats.

  20. Litsea deccanensis ameliorates myocardial infarction in wistar rats: evidence from biochemical and histological studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions.

  1. Litsea Deccanensis Ameliorates Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: Evidence from Biochemical and Histological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions. PMID:22224035

  2. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  3. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  4. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cruzan, George; Corley, Richard A; Hard, Gordon C; Mertens, Jos J W M; McMartin, Kenneth E; Snellings, William M; Gingell, Ralph; Deyo, James A

    2004-10-01

    Ethylene glycol (CAS RN 107-21-1) can cause kidney toxicity via the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in a variety of species, including humans. Numerous repeated dose studies conducted in rats have indicated that male rats are more susceptible than female rats. Furthermore, subchronic and chronic studies using different dietary exposure regimens have indicated that male Wistar rats may be more sensitive to renal toxicity than male Fischer-344 (F-344) rats. This study was conducted to compare the toxicity of ethylene glycol in the two strains of rats under identical exposure conditions and to evaluate the potential contribution of toxicokinetic differences to strain sensitivity. Ethylene glycol was mixed in the diet at concentrations to deliver constant target dosage levels of 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks to groups of 10 male Wistar and 10 male F-344 rats based on weekly group mean body weights and feed consumption. Kidneys were examined histologically for calcium oxalate crystals and pathology. Samples of blood, urine, and kidneys from satellite animals exposed to 0, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 or 16 weeks were analyzed for ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. Treatment of Wistar rats at 1000 mg/kg/day resulted in the death of two rats; in addition, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, group mean body weights were decreased compared to control throughout the 16 weeks. In F-344 rats exposed at 1000 mg/kg/day and in Wistar rats receiving 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, there were lower urine specific gravities, higher urine volumes, and increased absolute and relative kidney weights. In both strains of rats treated at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, some or all treated animals had increased calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tubules and crystal nephropathy. The effect was more severe in Wistar rats than in F-344 rats. Accumulation of oxalic acid in the kidneys of both strains of rats was consistent with the dose-dependent and strain

  5. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats is related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruzan, G; Corley, Rick A.; Hard, G; Mertens, J W.; McMartin, K. E.; Snellings, W; Gingell, Ralph; Deyo, J A.

    2004-10-01

    Ethylene Glycol (CAS RN 107-21-1) can to cause kidney toxicity via the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in a variety of species including humans. Numerous repeated dose studies conducted in rats have indicated that male rats are more susceptible than female rats. Furthermore, subchronic and chronic studies using different dietary exposure regimens have indicated that male Wistar rats may be more sensitive to renal toxicity than male F344 rats. This study was, therefore, conducted to compare the toxicity of ethylene glycol in the two strains of rats under identical exposure conditions and to evaluate the potential contribution of toxicokinetic differences to strain sensitivity. Ethylene glycol was mixed in the diet at concentrations to deliver constant target dosage levels of 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks to groups of 10 male Wistar and 10 male F-344 rats based upon weekly group mean body weights and feed consumption. Kidneys were examined histologically for calcium oxalate crystals and pathology. Samples of blood, urine and kidneys from satellite animals exposed to 0, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 or 16 weeks were analyzed for ethylene glycol, glycolic acid and oxalic acid. Treatment of Wistar rats at 1000 mg/kg/day resulted in the death of 2 rats; in addition, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, group mean body weights were decreased compared to control throughout the 16 weeks. In F-344 rats exposed at 1000 mg/kg/day and in Wistar rats at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, there were lower urine specific gravities, higher urine volumes, and increased absolute and relative kidney weights. In both strains of rats treated at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, some or all treated animals had increased calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tubules and crystal nephropathy. The effect was more severe in Wistar rats than in F-344 rats. Accumulation of oxalic acid in the kidneys of both strains of rats were consistent with the dose- and strain-dependent toxicity. As the

  6. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Musa T.; Nurudeen, Quadri O.; Salimon, Saoban S.; Yakubu, Monsurat O.; Jimoh, Rukayat O.; Nafiu, Mikhail O.; Akanji, Musbau A.; Oladiji, Adenike T.; Williams, Felicia E.

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels. PMID:25893000

  7. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  8. Development and validation of a new GC-MS method for the detection of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine in blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats treated with the combination of heroin and tramadol.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Tarek; El-Shihi, Taha H; Emara, Mostafa M; Chericoni, Silvio; Giusiani, Mario; Giorgi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Heroin is one of the most dangerous abused drugs in the world. Tramadol is an additive recently found at high concentration levels in street heroin seizures in Egypt. This substance could affect the usual analytical method for the detection of heroin and metabolites, as well as the pharmacokinetic and disposition of single analytes. One shortfall regarding this issue is present in the literature. This study describes a validated, simple, sensitive and selective method to determine tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, 6-acetylmorphine and free morphine in the blood, brain, liver and kidney of Wistar rats, intraperitoneally treated with a combination of heroin and tramadol (10 and 70 mg/kg, respectively) using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. The calibration curves of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and 6-acetylmorphine in blood were linear in the concentration range from 25-5,000 ng/mL and morphine was found in the concentration range 50-5,000 ng/mL. The analytes were detected in all tested matrices, except 6-acetylmorphine, which was not detected in liver. The highest concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were observed in kidney (22,9381 and 28,498 ng/g), while 6-acetylmorphine and morphine were found at the highest levels in brain (3,280 and 3,899 ng/g, respectively). The present method is simple, rapid and sensitive and can be used to study the pharmacokinetics, disposition and interaction of these drugs in several animal models.

  9. Histological, Histochemical, and Protein Changes after Induced Malocclusion by Occlusion Alteration of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Guerra, Carolina; Carla Lara Pereira, Yamba; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel Guimarães, Elaine A.; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2014-01-01

    Although disorders of the stomatognathic system are common, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Our objective was to study the changes in the masseter muscles after unilateral exodontia. Molar extraction was performed on Wistar rats (left side), and the animals were sacrificed after either 14 or 26 days. The masseter muscle was processed for histological analysis, conventional and in situ zymography, and immunohistochemistry. The morphological analysis showed unique and specific characteristics for the experimental group. By conventional zymography no significant values of 72 kDa MMP-2 (P < 0.05) were found in both of the sides of masseter muscle after 14 and 26 days of unilateral extraction. The in situ zymography showed gelatinolytic activity on all deep masseter muscles, with significant increase on the contralateral side after 14 and 26 days (P < 0.05). The immunohistochemistry demonstrated greater expression of MMP-2 than MMP-9 and MMP-14 in all masseter muscles and there were few differences in the staining of 4 TIMPs. This knowledge about morphology and molecular masticatory muscle remodeling following environmental interventions can be used to develop clinically successful treatments. PMID:25028660

  10. Effects of ageing and pharmacological hypothyroidism on pituitary-thyroid axis of Dutch-Miranda and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, D G; Marassi, M P; Corrêa da Costa, V M; Carvalho, D P; Rosenthal, D

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the ability of the aged rat pituitary to increase TSH secretion in response to major decreases in serum thyroid hormones, hypothyroidism was induced by methimazole in young and old, male and female, Dutch-Miranda and Wistar rats. Before MMI-treatment there were no differences in serum TSH of young and old rats, but serum T(4) was significantly decreased in aged rats from both genders and strains, while serum T(3) was significantly decreased in aged male rats from both strains, and in old Wistar females. MMI treatment significantly decreased serum T(4) and T(3) in all treated animals, and progressively increased serum TSH in both male and female rats, but the increase was significantly smaller in the elder rats. The pituitary TSH content was higher in Wistar than in Dutch-Miranda rats, of both genders, and was not significantly affected by age. MMI treatment decreased the pituitary TSH in both young and old Dutch-Miranda rats, but in the Wistar strain only the old females had a significant decrease. Our results show that the ability of the pituitary thyrotrophs to increase hormonal secretion in response to decreased levels of thyroid hormones is impaired in the old rat, even when the thyroid hormone levels are dramatically reduced.

  11. Different relations between schedule-induced polydipsia and impulsive behaviour in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat and in high impulsive Wistar rats: questioning the role of impulsivity in adjunctive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ibias, Javier; Pellón, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    Rats belonging to three different strains (15 Wistar, 8 Spontaneously Hypertensive - SHR- and 8 Wistar Kyoto - WKY-) were used to evaluate the possible relationship between different levels of impulsivity and development of schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP). We first measured the rats' levels of impulsivity by means of delay-discounting and indifference-point procedures. Secondly, development of SIP was studied under a series of fixed time 15, 30, 60 and 120s food schedules, which were counterbalanced by means of a Latin-square design. Finally, we re-assessed the rats' levels of impulsivity by replicating the delay-discounting test. The findings showed that, starting from equivalent levels of impulsivity, development of SIP differed among the groups of rats. In comparison with the rest of the animals, the SHRs were observed to attain elevated drinking rates under SIP. On the other hand, the Wistar rats which had initial high impulsivity levels similar to those of the SHRs, displayed the lowest rates of induced drinking. Moreover, low levels of impulsivity in Wistar rats prior to SIP acquisition were reflected into high drinking rates. Relation of SIP and impulsivity is questioned by present results, which gives ground to the understanding of the behavioural mechanisms involved in adjunctive behaviour and its usefulness as an animal model of excessive behaviour.

  12. Serum pharmacokinetics and coagulation aberration induced by sodium dehydroacetate in male and female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Ying, Donglai; Liu, Hao; Yu, Zengrong; Han, Lingling; Xie, Jiayu; Xie, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Sodium dehydroacetate (Na-DHA) is used as a preservative in food, animal feeds and cosmetics. Severe haemorrhage in organs and prolongation of coagulation factors in Sprague–Dawley rats has been reported upon oral administration of Na-DHA. We investigated alterations in coagulation parameters and serum pharmacokinetics upon Na-DHA administration. Wistar rats were administered Na-DHA (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.). Weight gain, food consumption, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum levels of Vitamin k (Vk)1, and serum levels of Na-DHA were measured, and histopathology undertaken. Significant reductions in body weight, food consumption and serum levels of Vk1, as well as prolonged PT and APTT, were observed. Females were significantly different from males in terms of serum Na-DHA concentration. Congestion in hepatic sinusoids, renal tubules and spleen, as well as haemorrhage in lung alveoli, gastric mucosa, intestinal mucosa and cardiac muscle cells, were observed by histopathological analyses. Correlation of serum Na-DHA via PT and APTT, as well as serum Vk1 via PT and APTT, in females was better than that in males. Female rats are more sensitive than males to Na-DHA. Hence, Na-DHA can induce coagulation aberration in Wistar rats, with higher sensitivity seen in females than males. PMID:28387309

  13. Spontaneous appearance of uterine tumors in vehicle and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Anger, Dana L; Crankshaw, Denis J; Foster, Warren G

    2006-11-01

    During the conduct of a study designed to determine the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), a synthetic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that acts through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), on uterine contractility in Wistar rats, uterine tumors were identified in both vehicle and 3-MC-treated animals. The objective of the current study was to describe the histological characteristics of these tumors. Sexually mature female rats (110 days old) were treated with 70 micro mol/kg 3-MC or vehicle (olive oil) for 4 days and euthanized by exsanguination. At necropsy uterine tumors were unexpected findings in two vehicle and four 3-MC-treated rats. The tumors appeared as multiple unilateral or bilateral subserosal nodes. No tumors were found in other tissues on gross inspection. Prior to necropsy, tumor-presenting animals were acyclic and arrested in a state of persistent proestrus. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of tumor sections revealed nests of acidophilic granule-containing cells within a highly vascular stroma of the uterine wall below the muscularis. Positive periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining suggested the presence of glycogen or glycophospholipids within these granules, however, negative PAS diastase staining indicated that the acidophilic bodies were not composed of glycogen. The tumors are histologically similar to human dysgerminomas. We conclude that these tumors are unrelated to treatment and are of a granular type not previously documented in Wistar rats.

  14. Alternative Multiorgan Initiation-Promotion Assay for Chemical Carcinogenesis in the Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Solano, Marize de Lourdes Marzo; Rocha, Noeme Souza; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Franchi, Carla Adriene da Silva; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi; de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Cotrim Sartor; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; de Camargo, João Lauro Viana

    2016-12-01

    The medium-term multiorgan initiation-promotion chemical bioassay (diethylnitrosamine, methyl-nitrosourea, butyl-hydroxybutylnitrosamine, dihydroxypropylnitrosamine, dimethylhydrazine [DMBDD]) with the Fischer 344 rat was proposed as an alternative to the conventional 2-year carcinogenesis bioassay for regulatory purposes. The acronym DMBDD stands for the names of five genotoxic agents used for initiation of multiorgan carcinogenesis. The Brazilian Agency for the Environment officially recognized a variation of this assay (DMBDD(b)) as a valid method to assess the carcinogenic potential of agrochemicals. Different from the original protocol, this DMBDD(b) is 30-week long, uses Wistar rats and two positive control groups exposed to carcinogenesis promoters sodium phenobarbital (PB) or 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). This report presents the experience of an academic laboratory with the DMBDD(b) assay and contributes to the establishment of this alternative DMBDD bioassay in a different rat strain. Frequent lesions observed in positive groups to evaluate the promoting potential of pesticides and the immunohistochemical expressions of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B1/2B2 and CYP1A2 enzymes were assessed. Commonly affected organs were liver, kidney, intestines, urinary bladder, and thyroid. PB promoting activity was less evident than that of 2-AAF, especially in males. This study provides a repository of characteristic lesions occurring in positive control animals submitted to a modified alternative 2-stage multiorgan protocol for carcinogenesis in Wistar rat.

  15. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    PubMed

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  16. The Antidiabetic and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Pecan Shells in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Ethur, Eduardo M; Porto, Caroline D L; Marroni, Norma P; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2015-12-01

    Pecan shell decoction has been used to treat diabetes and obesity-related diseases. In this study, the effects of a pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) were evaluated in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats, analyzing clinical signs and biochemical as well as genotoxic and mutagenic parameters, to assess its safe use and efficacy. Diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia were induced with streptozotocin (STZ) and tyloxapol, respectively. Animals were orally administered PSAE (100 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) for 28 days. Biochemical analyses and genotoxicity were evaluated in blood samples and mutagenicity was evaluated in bone marrow. PSAE treatment decreased the blood glucose level and stabilized clinical signs of diabetes in diabetic rats. PSAE diminished the increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. The urea levels were higher in diabetic rats than in treated ones; however, creatinine values were the same in all groups. Elevated transaminase levels were suggestive of liver injuries in diabetic rats, and were not altered by PSAE treatment. PSAE did not show genotoxic or mutagenic activities in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats, indicating its safe use at 100 mg/kg b.w. not only in healthy rats but also in rats with induced metabolic alterations. The findings on PSAE's efficacy may indicate that its successful and popular use is in accordance with our results. Thus, PSAE might be a potential candidate for medical purposes as a complementary treatment of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Green tea catechins, alleviate hepatic lipidemic-oxidative injury in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, E; Jayakumar, T; Elanchezhian, R; Sakthivel, M; Geraldine, P; Thomas, P A

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the efficacy of green tea catechins (GTC from the plant Camellia sinensis), with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as the major component, was studied in relation to hepatic oxidative abnormalities in atherosclerotic rats. When male albino Wistar rats were fed an atherogenic diet for 30 days and then treated with saline for 7 or 15 days, there was a significant decline in hepatic mean activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase), and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E) while there was a significant elevation in the mean level of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), in comparison to the values noted in control rats fed a normal diet. In addition, a concomitant increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was noted, when compared to the values in control rats. Following intraperitoneal administration of GTC (100mg/kg) for 7 or 15 days to rats fed the atherogenic diet, significantly higher mean activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lower mean levels of MDA in hepatic tissue and lower mean activities of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH in serum were observed, compared to the values in the rats fed the atherogenic diet and treated with saline. Histopathological studies were performed to provide direct evidence of the atherogenic diet-induced hepatic changes and of the hepatoprotective effect of GTC. These results suggest that EGCG as a major component of green tea catechins may protect against the hepatic abnormalities occurring in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

  18. Oral L-glutamine administration attenuated cutaneous wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Saurabh; Kandhare, Amit; Zanwar, Anand A; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Shinde, Sudhir; Deshmukh, Shahaji; Kharat, Ravindran

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the wound healing potential of L-glutamine in laboratory rats using excision and incision wound models. Excision wounds of size 500 mm(2) and depth 2 mm were made on the dorsal portion of male Wistar rats (230-250 g) and were used for the study of oral L-glutamine (1 g/kg) treatment on the rate of contraction of wound and epithelisation. Histological evaluation of wound tissue was also performed. Six-centimetre-long two linear-paravertebral incisions in male Wistar rats (230-250 g) were used to study the effect of L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.) treatment on tensile strength, total protein and hydroxyproline content in the incision model. Oral administration of L-glutamine (1 g/kg) significantly decreased wound area, epithelisation period and wound index, whereas the rate of wound contraction significantly increased (P < 0·001) when compared with vehicle control rats in the excision wound model. Tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and protein level were significantly increased (P < 0·001) in L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.)-treated rats when compared with vehicle control rats in the incision wound model. Histological evaluation of wound tissue from L-glutamine (1 g/kg, p.o.)-treated rats showed complete epithelialisation with new blood vessel formation and high fibrous tissues in the excision wound model. In conclusion, oral administration of l-glutamine (1 g/kg) promotes wound healing by acting on various stages of wound healing such as collagen synthesis, wound contraction and epithelialisation.

  19. Comparative effects of X irradiation on the testes of adult Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delic, J I; Schlappack, O K; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-10-01

    The response of the testes of two strains of adult rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) to graded single doses and split doses of 230 kVp X rays has been investigated. A marked difference was noted between the strains in the response of the clonogenic spermatogonia to irradiation, as measured histologically by the repopulation index. Single-dose response curves derived for these cells in the Sprague-Dawley strain had a much larger shoulder (up to about 4-5 Gy) than for the Wistar (less than 2 Gy). Split-dose studies revealed that this difference may partly be explained by a greater repair capacity in the cells of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Changes in serum FSH concentrations mirrored the changes in clonogenic spermatogonial survival following split doses of radiation.

  20. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  1. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Results: Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Conclusion: Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI. PMID:21808588

  2. Effects of induced precocious puberty on cranial growth in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Antonio de Moraes; Mishima, Fernanda Danielle; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Farina, Marcos; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    This investigation examined the effects of pharmacologically induced precocious puberty on cranial growth in Wistar rats. Forty-eight female newborn Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a control group (C) and an experimental group (E), with four subgroups of six animals each. The time interval from birth until sacrifice differed between the subgroups, and was set at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. An intramuscular single dose (300 μg) of steroid hormone danazol was administered on day 5 after birth, as a means of inducing precocious puberty. Alizarin (2 mg/100 g) was administered to three animals in each subgroup three days prior to sacrifice. Body mass and dates corresponding to the beginning of the oestrous cycle were recorded. Craniometric measurements were undertaken. Histological analysis using light and fluorescence microscopy was then carried out to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and to visualize bone deposition patterns. The results were analysed with a Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Precocious puberty was effectively induced and differences between groups denoted an earlier maturation in the experimental rats. In qualitative analysis, a significant increase of total synchondrosis width was noted only in group E60, in comparison with C60, and an increase in the E90 subgroup cortical bone width compared with the C90 subgroup. Histomorphometrically, a statistical difference between total width values of subgroups E60 (434.3 μm) and C60 (323.5 μm) was detected. However, body mass and macroscopic measurements did not show statistically significant differences. An appropriate model for studying bone growth associated with precocious puberty in Wistar female rats was not achieved using steroid hormone danazol, when evaluated at 30 day intervals.

  3. Influences of an acoustic signal with ultrasound components on the acquisition of a defensive conditioned reflex in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Loseva, E V; Alekseeva, T G

    2007-06-01

    The effects of short (90 sec) exposures to a complex acoustic signal with ultrasound components on the acquisition of a defensive conditioned two-way avoidance reflex using an electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus in a shuttle box were studied in female Wistar rats. This stimulus induced audiogenic convulsions of different severities in 59% of the animals. A scale for assessing the ability of rats to acquire the conditioned two-way avoidance reflex was developed. Presentation of the complex acoustic signal was found to be a powerful stressor for Wistar rats, preventing the acquisition of the reflex in the early stages (four and six days) after presentation. This effect was independent of the presence and severity of audiogenic convulsions in the rats during presentation of the acoustic signal. On repeat training nine days after the acoustic signal (with the first session after four days), acquisition of the reflex was hindered (as compared with controls not presented with the acoustic signal). However, on repeat training at later time points (1.5 months after the complex acoustic signal, with the first session after six days), the rats rapidly achieved the learning criterion (10 correct avoidance responses in a row). On the other hand, if the acoustic signal was presented at different times (immediately or at three or 45 days) after the first training session, the animals' ability to acquire the reflex on repeat training was not impaired at either the early or late periods after exposure to the stressor. These results suggest that the complex acoustic signal impairs short-term memory (the process of acquisition of the conditioned two-way avoidance reflex at the early post-presentation time point) but has no effect on long-term memory or consolidation of the memory trace.

  4. Appetizer administration stimulates food consumption, weight gain and leptin levels in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadikar, D D; Premavalli, K S

    2011-08-01

    Appetizers based on different spices/herbs are highly acceptable but evaluation of their functionality needs more attention. The present study, investigated the effects of appetizers on food consumption, weight gain, and leptin levels in male Wistar rats. Three appetizers, namely ginger beverage, ajowan beverage, and karpurvalli beverage were administered to groups of rats. The fasting leptin levels ranged from 0.75 to 2.5 ng/ml, while weights were in the range of 147-201 g. Decreased (3.4-10.8%) leptin levels following the consumption of appetizers indicated their appetizing effect, with a greater reduction (p<0.05) for ginger beverage and karpurvalli beverage. Weight gain after 10 days was 7.68% in the control group whereas it was 11.20 and 13.26% in rats fed with ginger and karpurvalli beverages, respectively. However, food consumption was higher in all the appetizer groups than in the controls.

  5. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  6. Preventive Effect of Phytic Acid on Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brindha, E.; Rajasekapandiyan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on membrane bound enzymes such as sodium potassium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+ ATPase) and magnesium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+ ATPase) and glycoproteins such as hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively) for a period of 56 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant decrease in the activity of Na+ /K+ ATPase and increase in the activities of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase in the heart and a significant (P<0.05) increase in the levels of glycoproteins in serum and the heart were also observed in ISO-induced rats. Pretreatment with phytic acid for a period of 56 days exhibited a significant (P<0.05) effect and altered these biochemical parameters positively in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that phytic acid has cardioprotective role in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  7. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A. Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J. Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. Materials and Methods: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Results and Discussion: Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. Conclusions: The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. SUMMARY The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity. PMID:28250649

  8. Ethanol-Extracted Brazilian Propolis Exerts Protective Effects on Tumorigenesis in Wistar Hannover Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Naomi; Fujioka, Masaki; Doi, Kenichiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted over a course of 104 weeks to estimate the carcinogenicity of ethanol-extracted Brazilian green propolis (EEP). Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar Hannover rats, 6-week-old at commencement were exposed to EEP at doses of 0, 0.5 or 2.5% in the diet. Survival rates of 0.5% and 2.5% EEP-treated male and female rats, respectively, were significantly higher than those of respective control groups. Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in rat tissues after 2 years showed no significant increase of tumors or preneoplastic lesions in any organ of animals administered EEP. Significantly lower incidences of pituitary tumors in 0.5% EEP male and 2.5% EEP female groups, malignant lymphoma/leukemia in both 2.5% EEP-treated males and females and total thyroid tumors in 0.5% EEP male group were found. Administration of EEP caused significant decreases of lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus and lymph nodes in 2.5% EEP-treated rats, tubular cell hyperplasia of kidneys in all EEP groups, and cortical hyperplasia of adrenals in EEP-treated females. In the blood, significant reduction of neutrophils in all EEP-treated males and band neutrophils in 2.5% EEP-treated females was found indicating lower levels of inflammation. Total cholesterol and triglicerides levels were significantly lower in the blood of 2.5% EEP-treated female rats. In conclusion, under the conditions of the 2-year feeding experiment, EEP was not carcinogenic, did not induce significant histopathological changes in any organ, and further exerted anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects resulting in increase of survival of Wistar Hannover rats. PMID:27391589

  9. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel.

  10. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females.

  11. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Y. Damodar; Arya, Rahul Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics. PMID:27047007

  12. Effect of coadministration of neurovite and Lamivudine on the histomorphology of the cerebellum of wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Peter, A I; Ekong, M B; Davies, K; Azu, O O; Bassey, R B; Ugwu, L O; Umoh, I U

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor antiretroviral agent used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. This study was to investigate the effects of coadministration of neurovite and lamivudine on the histomorphology of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Twenty Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups. Group A animals were the control treated with distilled water. Groups B, C, and D animals were treated, respectively, with therapeutic dose of lamivudine (4.28 mg/kg), a combination of lamivudine (4.28 mg/kg) and neurovite (7.05 mg/kg), and neurovite (7.05 mg/kg) alone, daily. The rats were sacrificed using chloroform inhalation, processed, and stained using H&E method. Results. There was severe cellular degeneration with dystrophic changes, vacuolization in the molecular and granular layers, and aggregation of swollen Purkinje cells in group B animals compared with group C animals which showed only slight cellular dystrophy and inflammation. The mean cellular population was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the treatment groups compared with the control. Conclusion. There was amelioration of damage of the cerebellum in the animals treated with neurovite and lamivudine combination compared to animals treated with only lamivudine. Therefore, there is need to give neurovite to patients on lamivudine therapy.

  13. Cardioprotective potential of myricetin in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Roshan; Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Kasture, Sanjay; Maxia, Andrea; Ballero, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the protective role of myricetin obtained from Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) on heart rate, electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphological and histopathological changes in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate and ST elevation in ECG, and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes - lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with myricetin (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, levels of LDH, CK, AST, SOD, CAT, vascular reactivity changes and ECG patterns. Treatment with myricetin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) alone did not alter any of the parameters compared with vehicle treated Wistar rats. Myricetin treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Thus, myricetin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI.

  14. Sensitization and cross-sensitization after chronic treatment with methylphenidate in adolescent Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Frey, Benício N; Martins, Márcio R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Schimidtz, Filipe; Inácio, Cecília G; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2007-05-01

    An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent methylphenidate and D-amphetamine challenge in adolescent Wistar rats. Young Wistar rats (P25) were treated with either methylphenidate (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 28 days. After 14 days of washout, animals were challenged with methylphenidate 2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or D-amphetamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (P67). Locomotor behavior was assessed using the open field test. Rats chronically treated with methylphenidate in the adolescent period showed augmented locomotor sensitization to D-amphetamine but not to methylphenidate in the adult phase. These findings suggest that early exposure do methylphenidate might increase the risk for subsequent D-amphetamine abuse. Further studies focusing on the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate are warranted.

  15. The Anti-fertility Effects of Acacia nilotica in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lampiao, Fanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A bulk of contraceptives on the market is women-oriented today. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a medicinal herb, Acacia nilotica on various parameters of male fertility using a rat model. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly divided in to two groups. One group received Acacia nilotica, while the other acted as controls. Ten animals from each group were sacrificed after 16 weeks. Treatment was withdrawn for the remaining animals for 8 weeks. Blood was collected for hormonal analysis. The testis was removed for histological examination, while epididymal spermatozoa were retrieved for motility and morphological analysis. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Sperm motility, progressive motility and sperm concentration significantly decreased in treated animals compared to the controls (p<0.05). Withdrawing the treatment did not restore these parameters (p<0.05). Abnormal sperm morphology significantly increased in both the treated and treatment withdrawn groups when compared to the controls (p<0.05). Testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in the treated group when compared to the controls (p<0.05) and no significant differences were observed between the controls and the treated animals when treatment was withdrawn. Histological observations showed that Acacia nilotica treatment disrupted semeniferous tubule architechture and consequently the spermatogenesis process. Conclusion These results show that Acacia nilotica severely affects sperm morphology, progressive motility and sperm concentration irreversibly in Wistar rats. PMID:23926560

  16. Honey Attenuates the Detrimental Effects of Nicotine on Testicular Functions in Nicotine Treated Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, T A; Oyeyemi, W A; Adigwe, C; Leko, B; Udeh, C; Dapper, D V

    2015-12-20

    Effect of honey on reproductive functions of male rats exposed to nicotine was examined in this study. Thirty-two adult male wistar rats (n=8/Group) were grouped as Control (distilled water), Nicotine (1.0mg/kg bwt), Honey (100mg/kg bwt) and Nicotine with Honey. The animals were orally treated for 35 days consecutively. Epididymis sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were estimated, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone were assayed using ELISA method and testicular histology were also assessed. Significant reduction in percentage sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were observed in nicotine group compared to control. Serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were significantly reduced in nicotine group when compared with the control. There was significant improvement in sperm motility, viability, morphology, counts, FSH, LH and Testosterone in group co-treated with nicotine and honey  relative to nicotine group. Also, the degenerative seminiferous tubule architecture due to nicotine was improved by honey. In conclusion, honey may suppress nicotine toxic effect on reproductive functions in male Wistar rats.

  17. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated.

  18. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kosyreva, A M

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations were carried out on male and female two-day-old Wistar rats (10-12 g). SIRS was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (E. coli, O26: B6 strain, Sigma) in high dose-15 mg/kg. We did not find out any sex differences of the liver lesions severity between newborn males and females after LPS injection. The levels of endotoxin and estradiol in the serum, as the number of neutrophils in the intra-alveolar septa of the lungs, were higher in males than females with SIRS. Production of IL-2 and TNF-α by the spleen cells of males was higher than that in control group that reflects polarization predominantly on the Th1-type immune response. The secretion of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by ConA activated spleen cells of females decreased that reflects the suppression of Th1-type immune response. We suppose that the LPS administration in the high dose causes the multidirectional reaction of the immune system of neonatal males and females Wistar rats.

  19. Effect of lithium carbonate on subchondral bone in sexually mature Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lewicki, Marianela; Paez, Hugo; Mandalunis, Patricia M

    2006-11-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have shown that lithium carbonate causes a number of clinical manifestations such as hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, renal toxicity, and diabetes insipidus. The effect of this drug on the bone biology of experimental animals has not been studied to date. Therefore, the aim of the present experimental work was to study the effect of lithium on bone tissue in healthy sexually mature Wistar rats. Ten female Wistar rats, aged 312-412 months, 210-220 g body weight, were assigned to one of the following groups: untreated control group and experimental group receiving 45 mg/kg body weight/day of lithium carbonate in their drinking water during 3 months. Prior to euthanasia, blood samples were obtained in order to determine plasma phosphorus, calcium alkaline phosphatase, and lithium. After sacrifice, the tibiae were resected, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The following histomorphometric parameters were determined on digital photographs of the histologic sections: BV/TV (%), bone volume; Tb.Th (microm), trabecular thickness; Tb.N (mm(-2)/mm), trabecular number; Tb.Sp (microm), trabecular separation; Ob.S/BS (%), osteoblast surface; ES/BS (%), total erosive surface; Lc.S (%), lining cells surface; and GPC.Th (microm), thickness of growth plate cartilage. The results showed that administration of lithium carbonate cause bone loss in healthy sexually mature Wistar rats. Although the mechanism involved in bone toxicity remains to be clarified, the results obtained in the present study suggest that patients under long-term lithium therapy should be thoroughly evaluated, particularly those presenting other risk factors of osteopenia, such as menopause, low calcium intake, alcohol consumption, and glucocorticoid therapy.

  20. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy.

  1. Effect of herbal preparation on heavy metal (cadmium) induced antioxidant system in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dailiah Roopha, P; Padmalatha, C

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements found to damage antioxidant systems in mammals. To ameliorate cadmium toxicity and to prevent oxidative stress, natural products may be useful. In Indian ethnobotanical practice, a mixture of 17 herbal products is used to fortify the reproductive system of women after parturition and to reverse ovarian oxidative stress. Oral administration of this extract to rats exposed to cadmium was useful in reversing oxidative stress. Two different doses of cadmium (50 ppm and 200 ppm) were given to Wistar rats aged 45 and 65 days. An herbal extract derived from 17 plants was administered orally every day at a dose level of 200 mg/kg of body weight to the rats exposed to cadmium. A battery of enzymes involved in antioxidant activity in the ovary, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were measured in the control, cadmium-exposed rats without treatment and in the cadmium-exposed rats treated with herbal extract. The reduction in SOD, catalase, GPx and GST activity after cadmium exposure improved significantly in the rats treated with the herbal extract (p < 0.05). The decrease of antioxidant enzymes due to cadmium exposure was reversed significantly with herbal extract administration. The synergistic effect of each bioactive compound in different herbal extracts requires further study.

  2. HPLC-DAD Method for the Pharmacokinetic Interaction Study of Atorvastatin with Pioglitazone and Cholestyramine in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ritesh N; Pancholi, Shyam S

    2014-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness is used as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The combination of atorvastatin and pioglitazone was found to be effective in reducing the thickness of the carotid intima-media layer. The method of RP-HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for the pharmacokinetic interaction study of atorvastatin with pioglitazone and cholestyramine, respectively, in Wistar rats. Atorvastatin (ATR) and pioglitazone (PIO) were resolved on a C18 column with a mobile phase composed of 48% methanol, 19% acetonitrile, and 33% 10 mM ammonium formate (v/v/v; pH 3.5±0.3, by formic acid) and a 260 nm detection wavelength on the diode array detector. The method was validated according to international standards with good reproducibility and linear response; mean (r) 0.9987 and 0.9972 to ATR and PIO, respectively. The coefficients of variation of intra- and interassay precision ranged between 4.95-8.12 and 7.29-9.67, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in rats following an oral administration of atorvastatin in the presence and absence of pioglitazone and also with cholestyramine. Compared with the control given atorvastatin alone, the Cmax and AUC of atorvastatin were merely unchanged in rats with the co-administration of pioglitazone, while they decreased by nearly 21 and 15%, respectively, with the concurrent use of cholestyramine. There were no significant changes in Tmax and the plasma half-life (T1/2 ) of atorvastatin in both cases. The performed experiment demonstrated that the presented method was suitable for the estimation and pharmacokinetic interaction study of atorvastatin with pioglitazone and cholestyramine in Wistar rat plasma.

  3. Effects of Ceftriaxone on Glial Glutamate Transporters in Wistar Rats Administered Sequential Ethanol and Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Althobaiti, Yusuf S.; Alshehri, Fahad S.; Almalki, Atiah H.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the psychostimulants that is co-abused with ethanol. Repeated exposure to high dose of METH has been shown to cause increases in extracellular glutamate concentration. We have recently reported that ethanol exposure can also increase the extracellular glutamate concentration and downregulate the expression of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). GLT-1 is a glial transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate. A Wistar rat model of METH and ethanol co-abuse was used to examine the expression of GLT-1 as well as other glutamate transporters such as cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). We also examined the body temperature in rats administered METH, ethanol or both drugs. We further investigated the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate GLT-1, in this METH/ethanol co-abuse rat model. After 7 days of either ethanol (6 g/kg) or water oral gavage, Wistar rats received either saline or METH (10 mg/kg i.p. every 2 h × 4), followed by either saline or CEF (200 mg/kg) posttreatment. METH administered alone decreased GLT-1 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and increased body temperature, but did not reduce either xCT or GLAST expression in ethanol and water-pretreated rats. Interestingly, ethanol and METH were found to have an additive effect on the downregulation of GLT-1 expression in the NAc but not in the PFC. Moreover, ethanol alone caused GLT-1 downregulation in the NAc and elevated body temperature compared to control. Finally, CEF posttreatment significantly reversed METH-induced hyperthermia, restored GLT-1 expression, and increased xCT expression. These findings suggest the potential therapeutic role of CEF against METH- or ethanol/METH-induced hyperglutamatergic state and hyperthermia. PMID:27713684

  4. TITLE Disposition and kinetics of Tetrabromobisphenol A in female Wistar Han rats

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Gabriel A.; Sanders, J. Michael; Sadik, Abdella M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the brominated flame retardant with the largest production volume worldwide. NTP 2-year bioassays found TBBPA dose-dependent increases in uterine tumors in female Wistar Han rats; evidence of reproductive tissues carcinogenicity was equivocal in male rats. To explain this apparent sex-dependence, the disposition and toxicokinetic profile of TBBPA were investigated using female Wistar Han rats, as no data were available for female rats. In these studies, the primary route of elimination following [14C]-TBBPA administration (25, 250 or 1,000 mg/kg) was in feces; recoveries in 72 h were 95.7±3.5%, 94.3±3.6% and 98.8±2.2%, respectively (urine: 0.2-2%; tissues: <0.1). TBBPA was conjugated to mono-glucuronide and —sulfate metabolites and eliminated in the bile. Plasma toxicokinetic parameters for a 250 mg/kg dose were estimated based on free TBBPA, as determined by UV/radiometric-HPLC analyses. Oral dosing by gavage (250 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid absorption of compound into the systemic circulation with an observed Cmax at 1.5 h post-dose followed by a prolonged terminal phase. TBBPA concentrations in plasma decreased rapidly after an IV dose (25 mg/kg) followed by a long elimination phase. These results indicate low systemic bioavailability (F<0.05), similar to previous reports using male rats. Elimination pathways appeared to become saturated leading to delayed excretion after a single oral administration of the highest dose (1,000 mg/kg); no such saturation or delay was detected at lower doses. Chronic high exposures to TBBPA may result in competition for metabolism with endogenous substrates in extrahepatic tissues (e.g., SULT1E1 estrogen sulfation) resulting in endocrine disruption. PMID:24977115

  5. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  6. Hypertension and impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive and L-NAME-treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, F; Miyake, Y; Hirakawa, A; Nakahira, T; Yamaoka, M; Shimamura, K; Yamamoto, K; Sunano, S

    2001-04-01

    Effects of chronic treatment of normotensive Wistar rats with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on blood pressure and on endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta, carotid and iliac arteries were studied. The endothelium-dependent relaxation was compared in arteries from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and genetically hypertensive rats (stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHRSP). Chronic treatment of normotensive Wistar rats with L-NAME caused an elevation of blood pressure. The elevated blood pressure at 15 weeks of age was significantly higher in these animals than that of untreated Wistar rats, but lower than that of SHRSP. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of the arteries induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was almost abolished by chronic treatment with L-NAME. The remaining small relaxation in arteries from L-NAME-treated rats was completely inhibited by application of L-NAME (10(-4) M). In such preparations, higher concentrations of ACh induced a contraction, which was abolished by removal of the endothelium or by an application of indomethacin (10(-5) M). Endothelium-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was similar between preparations from untreated and L-NAME-treated Wistar rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in preparations from SHRSP, when compared with that in those from WKY. However, the impairment was less prominent in preparations from SHRSP than in those from L-NAME-treated rats. These results suggest that the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in the arteries from L-NAME-treated rats is not due to the elevated blood pressure resulting from the chronic treatment, and that impairment of NO synthesis by the endothelium does not play a major role in the initiation of hypertension in SHRSP.

  7. Repeated Acute Oral Exposure to Cannabis sativa Impaired Neurocognitive Behaviours and Cortico-hippocampal Architectonics in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Imam, A; Ajao, M S; Akinola, O B; Ajibola, M I; Ibrahim, A; Amin, A; Abdulmajeed, W I; Lawal, Z A; Ali-Oluwafuyi, A

    2017-03-06

    The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg. ip) was administered to the last group as a standard measure for the cannabis induced cognitive impairment. All treatments lasted for seven consecutive days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activities, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behaviour, and Y maze paradigm for spatial memory and data subjected to ANOVA and T test respectively. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and brains removed for histopathological studies. Cannabis significantly reduced rearing frequencies in the OFT and EPM, and increased freezing period in the OFT. It also reduced percentage alternation similar to scopolamine in the Y maze, and these effects were coupled with alterations in the cortico-hippocampal neuronal architectures. These results point to the detrimental impacts of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal neuronal architecture and morphology, and consequently cognitive deficits.

  8. Effect of time of exposure to rat coronavirus and Mycoplasma pulmonis on respiratory tract lesions in the Wistar rat.

    PubMed Central

    Schunk, M K; Percy, D H; Rosendal, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of time of exposure on the progression of pulmonary lesions in rats inoculated with Mycoplasma pulmonis and the rat coronavirus, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) were studied, using six groups of 18 SPF Wistar rats (n = 108). Rats were inoculated intranasally as follows: Group 1, sterile medium only; Group 2, sterile medium followed one week later by 150 TCID50 SDAV; Group 3, sterile medium followed by 10(5.7) colony forming units of M. pulmonis; Group 4, SDAV followed one week later by M. pulmonis; Group 5, M. pulmonis followed one week later by SDAV; Group 6, M. pulmonis followed two weeks later by SDAV. Six rats from each group were euthanized at one, two and three weeks after the final inoculation. In a separate experiment, six additional animals were inoculated in each of groups 3, 5 and 6 (n = 18) and were sampled at five weeks after they had received M. pulmonis. Bronchoalveolar lavage and quantitative lung mycoplasma cultures were conducted on two-thirds of the rats. Histopathological examination and scoring of lesion severity were performed on all animals. Based on the prevalence and extent of histopathological lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage cell numbers, neutrophil differential cell counts and the isolation of M. pulmonis, the most severe disease occurred in the groups that received both agents. There was no significant difference in lesion severity between the groups receiving both agents other than in those examined during the acute stages of SDAV infection. Based on these results, it is evident that SDAV enhances lower respiratory tract disease in Wistar rats whether exposure occurs at one week prior to or at various intervals following M. pulmonis infections. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:7704844

  9. Biodistribution study of free and microencapsulated 6-methylcoumarin in Wistar rats by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Aura Rocío; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Aragón, Diana Marcela

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive, specific and reproducible HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of 6-methylcoumarin (6MC) in plasma and other tissues in Wistar rats. A C18 column was used with UV detection at 321 nm and a gradient system consisting of methanol-deionized water was used as mobile phase. The retention time for 6MC was 14.921 min and no interfering peaks were observed for any of the matrices. Linear relationships (r(2)  > 0.997) were obtained between the peak height ratios and the corresponding biological sample concentrations over the range 0.4-12.8 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy were evaluated; the coefficient of variation and the relative error for all of the organs were <2 and 7%, respectively. The limit of quantitation was 0.20 µg/mL for the heart and 0.30 µg/mL for the other tissues evaluated. This HPLC method was successfully used in the determination of 6MC in the biodistribution study after administration of 200 mg/kg of both 6MC-free and 6MC-loaded polymeric microparticles. In this study, extensive 6MC was found, in both free and microencapsulated forms, in all the organs tested. The 6MC-free showed a range of between 1.7 and 11.5 µg/g, while the microencapsulated 6MC showed concentrations of between 6.35 and 17.7 µg/g, suggesting that 6MC improved absorption rate.

  10. Protective effects of Capparis sepiaria root extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, V; Pandey, Ajay Shankar; Murali, Anita; Yoganarasimhan, S N

    2012-01-09

    Capparis sepiaria L. known as Himsra is an important drug in Ayurveda. In this study extracts of the root of C. sepiaria were evaluated for their hepatoprotective potential on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats. The extent of hepatoprotection was evaluated by estimating the serum levels of hepatic transaminases (SGPT and SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), and bilirubin (total and direct). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sepiaria significantly reduced the increased liver weight as well as serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and bilirubin, and normalized the reduced serum protein levels in the treated rats. These observations were supported by the results of histopathology studies as well. The extracts were also subjected to preliminary organic analysis and chromatographic studies including HPTLC finger print studies. The results indicate that the roots of C. sepiaria show significant hepatoprotective effect on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, thus substantiating its use as a potential hepatoprotective drug.

  11. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  12. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  13. Infradian biorhythms of mitotic activity esophageal epithelium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Diatroptov, M E; Makarova, O V

    2015-01-01

    Infradian rhythms of esophageal epithelium mitotic activity were studied in male Wistar rats of two age groups: 35-45 days (prepubertal) and 3-4 months (adults). Studies of the time course of esophageal epithelium mitotic indexes in adult males showed 4- and 12-day biorhythms, while prepubertal rats exhibited only 4-day infradian biorhythms of this parameter. Studies of the mitotic activity over long periods (3 years) showed 4.058- and 12.175-day periodicity of infradian biorhythms for this parameter, presumably due to external exposures synchronizing the biorhythms. Studies of the mean daily values of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field during the period of our research (2012-2013) showed rhythmicities analogous to changes in the mitotic activity of the epithelium. The minimum mitotic indexes were detected on the days of the most pronounced negative values of the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component.

  14. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  16. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  17. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shatavisa; Sen, Sukanta; Biswas, Arunava; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use. PMID:26729959

  18. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging.

  19. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-09-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions.

  20. Isoflavones and their effects on the onset of puberty in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Caceres, S; Peña, L; Moyano, G; Martinez-Fernandez, L; Monsalve, B; Illera, M J; Millan, P; Illera, J C; Silvan, G

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to determine how two of the most important isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, affect the gonadal axis in male prepuberal rats. One hundred and seventy-five prepuberal male Wistar rats were allocated into seven groups: one control group and six experimental groups that were orally administered a high or low dose of genistein, daidzein or a mixture of both. Testosterone determination was assayed by EIA. The testes and body weights were measured, and the histology of the epididymis with the sperm content and epididymal sperm count were evaluated. In the control group, we observed an increase in the serum testosterone levels (>2.5 ng ml(-1) ) at the third week (52 days), which corresponded to the onset of puberty in these rats. The same increase in serum testosterone levels was observed at the fourth week in rats that received low doses of isoflavones; therefore, we concluded that the onset of puberty was delayed. At high doses, there was no significant increase in testosterone levels, which could be related to the fact that these male rats did not reach puberty. These findings were supported by the results obtained from the analysis of the epididymal content as well as the testes/body weight ratio.

  1. Testosterone reduces cumulative burying in female Wistar rats with minimal participation of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana I; Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Jacome-Jacome, Emma

    2009-10-01

    Testosterone exerts anxiolytic effects, but the participation of its aromatase metabolic product estradiol is controversial. Therefore, we used the defensive burying paradigm in female Wistar rats to explore testosterone's (1.0 mg/rat, s.c.) interactions with picrotoxin (a noncompetitive gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor [GABA(A)] antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), formestane (an aromatase inhibitor; 3.0 mg/rat, s.c.), and tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor-beta antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.). Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were determined in the same rats. Burying latency and locomotion did not significantly change. Systemic testosterone administration enhanced serum testosterone and estradiol levels and reduced defensive burying. This reduction in total burying was blocked by pretreatment with picrotoxin and tamoxifen, but not formestane. We conclude that testosterone produced anxiolytic-like effects in female rats that were mediated by actions at the GABA(A) receptor, with participation of the estradiol receptor-beta, rather than estradiol aromatization.

  2. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md. Sabir; Alam, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium. PMID:27294126

  3. Changes caused by haloperidol are blocked by music in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Tasset, Inmaculada; Quero, Ismael; García-Mayórgaz, Ángel D; del Río, Manuel Causse; Túnez, Isaac; Montilla, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of classical music, using Mozart's sonata for two pianos (K. 448), on changes in dopamine (DA) levels in the striatal nucleus (SN), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and mesencephalon, and on prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone secretion in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) haloperidol treatment (single dose of 2 mg/kg s.c.), (3) music (two 2-h sessions per day) and (4) haloperidol plus music. Rats were sacrificed 2 h after haloperidol injection. Music prompted a fall in plasma PRL and corticosterone levels in healthy rats (P < 0.05) and prevented the increase in levels triggered by haloperidol (P < 0.001). Moreover, exposure to music was associated with a significant increase in DA levels in all groups, with the increase being particularly marked in PFC and SN (P < 0.001). Haloperidol is a recognised D2 receptor antagonist, and these findings suggest that music, by contrast, enhances DA activity and turnover in the brain. The results obtained here bear out reports that music triggers a reduction in systolic pressure and an increase in mesencephalon dopamine levels in human and rats treated with ecstasy, through a calmodulin-dependent system.

  4. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD(50) = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days.

  5. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg(-1) body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg(-1) bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg(-1) bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats.

  6. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  7. Pathological and biochemical effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of celecoxib in Wistar albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, Evrim A; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz; Kismet, Kemal; Akay, M Turan

    2010-10-01

    Celecoxib is intended for acute pain, menstrual cramps, pain, and inflammation of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of celecoxib (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) treatment on rats orally for 28 days. We examined effects on some biochemical parameters and kidney and liver tissues of celecoxib-treated Wistar albino male rats. At the end of the study, hepatic and renal function tests were performed and liver and kidney of rats were microscopically examined to detect systemic toxicity of celecoxib. Celecoxib-treated rats had statistically significant decreases of cholesterol, total bilirubin, total protein, urea, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase levels increased in 10- and 50-mg/kg/day celecoxib-treated rats. Histological examinations showed mononuclear cell infiltration, hyperplasia, and cellular degeneration in liver and tubular damage and mononuclear cell infiltration in kidney. We suggest that high doses of celecoxib may cause changes in liver and kidney histopathology, liver function, and in some biochemical parameters.

  8. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of copovidone (Kollidon VA 64) in Wistar rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellert, W; Deckardt, K; Gembardt, C; Hildebrand, B; Schulte, S

    2004-10-01

    Kollidon VA 64 (copovidone, CAS-No. 25086-89-9) was administered in the diet to male and female Wistar rats (0, 700, 1400, and 2800 mg/kg body weight) for 24 months, and to male and female beagle dogs (0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 52 weeks. Clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, and gross and histopathological evaluations were conducted on both rats and dogs, and dogs also underwent hearing tests, ophthalmoscopic examinations, electrocardiograms, blood pressure measurement, and clinical chemistry and urinalysis evaluations. No adverse in-life observations related to treatment were observed in either species. The rats exhibited dark discoloration of the feces that was attributed to the intake and excretion of large amounts of test substance and was not considered to be an adverse effect. No treatment-related hematological changes, or gross or histopathological lesions were observed in either species that could be considered clinically relevant. Vacuolated histiocytosis in the mesenteric lymph nodes of four dogs that was not accompanied by inflammation or degenerative changes reflected histiocytic removal and degradation of the test article rather than a toxic effect. The results of these studies demonstrate the absence of any significant toxicological findings of high dietary levels copovidone in rats and dogs, resulting in no-observed-adverse-effect levels of 2800 mg/kg body weight/day in rats and 2500 mg/kg body weight/day in dogs, the highest doses tested.

  9. Effect of COX-2 inhibitor after TNBS-induced colitis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; de Oliveira Costa, Henrique; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Franco, Marcello

    2009-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by alternating periods of remission and active intestinal inflammation. Some studies suggest that antiinflammatory drugs are a promising alternative for treatment of the disease. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of lumiracoxib, a selective-cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Wistar rats (n = 25) were randomized into four groups, as follows: Group (1) Sham group: sham induced-colitis rats; Group (2) TNBS group: nontreated induced-colitis rats; Group (3) Lumiracoxib control group; and Group (4) Lumiracoxib-treated induced-colitis rats. Our results showed that rats from groups 2 and 4 presented similar histopathological damage and macroscopic injury in the distal colon as depicted by significant statistically differences (P < 0.01; P < 0.05) compared to the other two groups. Weak expression of COX-2 mRNA was detected in normal colon cells, while higher levels of COX-2 mRNA were detected in group 2 and group 4. Therapy with lumiracoxib reduced COX-2 expression by 20-30%, but it was still higher and statistically significant compared to data obtained from the lumiracoxib control group. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor lumiracoxib did not reduce inflammation-associated colonic injury in TNBS-induced experimental colitis. Thus, the use of COX-2 inhibitors for treating IBD should be considered with caution and warrants further experimental investigation to elucidate their applicability.

  10. Identification of potential antioxidant indices by biogenic gold nanoparticles in hyperglycemic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sengani, Manimegalai; V, Devi Rajeswari

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a crucial factor in diabetes, where the abnormal metabolic ambience leads to hyperglycemia resulting in the onset of several vascular complications. Under homeostasis, innate antioxidants efficiently inhibit the oxidative stress, thereby restrain further progression of diabetes. In the present study, a potential antioxidant marker was identified from hepatic tissue of diabetic Wistar rats after oral administration of biogenic gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Diabetic animals treated with GNPs showed increase in insulin level and subsequently reduced the concentration of blood glucose level to normal. Further, GNPs favoured to retain the hepatic enzymatic markers, serum lipid levels and followed by renal biochemical profile in the rats. In addition, GNPs treated rats displayed an elevated level of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymatic activity. Consequently, GNPs treated rats showed diminished level of histological injury in the hepatic, renal, and pancreatic tissues. Taken together, these results suggested that among the several antioxidant enzymes, catalase elucidated the highest area under curve (AUC) with 0.80 accomplished by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Collectively, our findings enlighten that GNPs treated rat able to alleviate the hyperglycemic condition due to the enzymatic activity of catalase.

  11. Antiurolithiatic effect of lithocare against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Lulat, Sumaiya I.; Yadav, Yogesh Chand; Balaraman, R.; Maheshwari, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of Lithocare (LC) (a polyherbal formulation) against ethylene glycol (EG) induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The protective effect of LC (400 and 800 mg/kg) was evaluated using EG-induced urolithiasis in rats. Results: Administration of EG in drinking water resulted in hyperoxaluria, hypocalcemia as well as an increased renal excretion of phosphate. Supplementation with LC significantly reduced the urinary calcium, oxalate, and phosphate excretion dose-dependently. There was a significant reduction in the levels of calcium, oxalate as well as a number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits in the kidney tissue of rats administered with LC in EG-treated rats. There was a significant reduction in creatinine, urea, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen when LC was administered in EG-treated rats. Conclusions: From this study, it was concluded that the supplementation of LC protected EG-induced urolithiasis as it reduced the growth of urinary stones. The mechanism underlying this effect might be due to its antioxidant, diuretic, and reduction in stone-forming constituents. PMID:26997728

  12. Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rizwana; Tanvir, E M; Karim, Nurul; Hossain, Md Sabir; Alam, Nadia; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium.

  13. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  14. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction.

  15. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression.

  16. Biochemical and histologic presentations of female Wistar rats administered with different doses of paracetamol/methionine.

    PubMed

    Iyanda, A A; Adeniyi, F A A

    2011-12-20

    This study was carried out to compare the hepatoprotective effect of methionine on paracetamol treated rats at both the peaks of toxicity and absorption. Female Wistar rats were divided into 17 groups consisting of eight rats per group and treated with different doses of paracetamol/methionine (5:1). Each control rat received 5 ml of physiologic saline. The study was terminated at two different end points -the 4th and 16th hours. Results show that rats administered with toxic doses (1000 mg/kg, 3000 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg BW) of paracetamol exhibited significant increases in the levels of ALT, AST, γ- GT compared with controls. These increases were much higher at the 16th than 4th hour but serum total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased by the end of the 16th hour. Histology results of rats in the 3000 and 5000 mg/kg (by the end of the 16th hour) confirmed hepatic damage, light microscopic evaluation of liver showed remarkable centrilobular necrosis. Moreover, the presence of mononuclear cells in liver section of rats intoxicated with APAP (5000 mg/kg) suggests a possible involvement of inflammatory process which resulted in regurgitation of bilirubin leading to its elevated level as well as increase activity of ALP. The hepatoprotective effect of methionine, on the other hand, was demonstrated in these rats at the 4th and 16th hours, and both results were comparable and therefore not significantly different but elevation in GGT level still persisted. In conclusion, data obtained from this study suggest that these agents may be capable of inducing GGT, although further study is required to establish a possible relationship between methionine and this enzyme in some other animal species.

  17. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that heavy drinking and alcohol abuse and dependence peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that alcohol exposure during adolescence can cause a modification in some aspects of behavioral development, causing the "adolescent phenotype" to be retained into adulthood. However, the "adolescent phenotype" has not been studied for a number of behavioral tests. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of behaviors over adolescence/young adulthood in the light/dark box, open field conflict and forced swim test in male Wistar rats. These data were compared to previously published data from rats that received intermittent alcohol vapor exposure during adolescence (AIE) to test whether they retained the "adolescent phenotype" in these behavioral tests. Three age groups of rats were tested (post-natal day (PD) 34-42; PD55-63; PD69-77). In the light/dark box test, younger rats escaped the light box faster than older adults, whereas AIE rats returned to the light box faster and exhibited more rears in the light than controls. In the open field conflict test, both younger and AIE rats had shorter times to first enter the center, spent more time in the center of the field, were closer to the food, and consumed more food than controls. In the forced swim test no clear developmental pattern emerged. The results of the light/dark box and the forced swim test do not support the hypothesis that adolescent ethanol vapor exposure can "lock-in" all adolescent phenotypes. However, data from the open field conflict test suggest that the adolescent and the AIE rats both engaged in more "disinhibited" and food motivated behaviors. These data suggest that, in some behavioral tests, AIE may result in a similar form of behavioral disinhibition to what is seen in adolescence.

  18. Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharwan, Gotmi; Jain, Parag; Pandey, Ravindra; Shukla, Shiv Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose) and sub-acute (repeated-dose) toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight, the histopathology of body organs, the hematology and the biochemistry of the animals. Methods: The toxicity profile of PI was evaluated using Wistar rats of both sexes. Animals were divided into four groups: Group 1; control group (normal saline), Group 2; PI-1 (250 mg/kg), Group 3; PI-2 (500 mg/kg), Group 4; PL-3 (1,000 mg/kg). An acute-toxicity study in which animals received a single dose of PI extract (2,000 mg/ kg) and were then observed for 14 days for changes in skin, fur, eye color, mucous membrane secretions and excretions, gait, posture, and tonic or clonic movements was performed according to guideline 425 of the Organization of Economic and Corporation Development (OECD). In the repeated-dose toxicity study (OECD – 407) animals received a daily dose of PI extract for 28 days (4 weeks). The parameters observed in this study include body weight, hematology and biochemistry of the animals. Results: In the acute toxicity study, no mortalities or changes in behavior were noted in the animals. The repeated-dose toxicity study was also devoid of any toxicity in the animals during the 28 days of testing with PI extract. The extract did not alter- the body weight, hematology or biochemistry of the animals. The methanolic extract of PI was to be found safe to the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for the single- dose and repeated-dose toxicity tests in rats. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of PI was devoid of toxicity; hence, it can be used for various ayurvedic preparations and treatments of diseases. PMID:27695635

  19. Rapamycin Effectively Impedes Melamine-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingxuan; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jing; Yu, Mei; Wang, Rubin; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Our previous investigation demonstrated that autophagy significantly reduced melamine-induced cell death in PC12 cells via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. In the present study, we further examine if rapamycin, used as an autophagy activator, can play a significant role in protecting neurons and alleviating the impairment of spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in melamine-treated rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, melamine-treated, and melamine-treated + rapamycin. The animal model was established by administering melamine at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Rapamycin was intraperitoneally given at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The Morris water maze test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in melamine-treated rats were considerably damaged, whereas rapamycin significantly impeded the cognitive function impairment. Rapamycin efficiently alleviated the melamine-induced impairments of both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation, which were damaged in melamine rats. Rapamycin further increased the expression level of autophagy markers, which were significantly enhanced in melamine rats. Moreover, rapamycin noticeably decreased the reactive oxygen species level, while the superoxide dismutase activity was remarkably increased by rapamycin in melamine rats. Malondialdehyde assay exhibited that rapamycin prominently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) level of hippocampal neurons in melamine-treated rats. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity, which was elevated by melamine. Consequently, our results suggest that regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine.

  20. Effect of an increase in brain serotonin on the osmoregulatory response to a hypo- or hyperosmotic load in Wistar and vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, L; Kochkaeva, L; Melidi, N

    2007-01-01

    Serotonin and its receptor agonists stimulate the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) into peripheral blood under intraventricular injection. To test the hypothesis that brain serotonin can modulate the development of natural osmoregulatory responses, the effect of an increase in endogenous brain serotonin on the response to an intragastric hypo- or hyperosmotic loading was studied in Wistar and AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats. 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the rate-limiting serotonin biosynthesis precursor known to increase the brain level of serotonin, was injected intraperitoneally (5 mg/100 g body weight). The renal functional parameters (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], free water reabsorption, and urine flow rate) were monitored during the 4 h after intragastric infusion of water or a 2% NaCl solution (5% of body weight). Plasma AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay. In Wistar rats, intraperitoneal injection of 5-HTP at the same time as water loading prevented the development of the renal diuretic response: there was no increase in urine flow rate and GFR, and free water reabsorption remained at the high level. In AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats, unlike Wistar rats, 5-HTP treatment was without effect on the renal function parameters. In Wistar rats, injection of 5-HTP at the peak of water diuresis produced an abrogation of the diuretic response to water loading due to the increase in free water reabsorption. Plasma AVP increased from 1.2 +/- 0.4 to 4.2 +/- 1.6 pg/ml (n = 8 in each group, p < 0.01). Hyperosmotic treatment of Wistar rats with a 2% NaCl solution stimulated AVP secretion compared to baseline (from 3.2 +/- 0.1, n = 7 to 5.6 +/- 0.9, n = 7, p < 0.01), and the saluretic response developed on the background of high free water reabsorption. When injected concomitantly with NaCl solution, 5-HTP revealed no additive effect on plasma AVP and on free water reabsorption. We conclude that the 5-HTP-caused increase in brain serotonin contributed significantly

  1. Cytotoxic compounds generated in heated oil and assimilation of oil in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Burenjargal, Munkhjargal; Totani, Nagao

    2009-01-01

    We have previously suggested that gluten binds with decomposition products from thermally oxidized oil during frying, and that low-molecular-weight compounds bound to browned gluten damage the liver in rats. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were fed for 11 weeks ad libitum a diet containing 7 wt% fresh frying oil and 0.1 wt% gluten heated in/without oil at 180 degrees C for 10 h. Feces collected weekly and serum were subjected to lipid and hematological analyses, respectively. Values obtained in the analyses did not differ from those of the control group. The results show that thermally processed gluten does not influence the digestion, absorption, metabolism, and growth of rats, regardless of the cytotoxic low-molecular-weight compounds, and that ingested fresh oil was assimilated normally. Together with the previous results, the odor of thermally processed gluten stimulated the rats' appetite, and completely assimilable fresh oil and cytotoxic low-molecular-weight compounds bound to gluten were ingested, and thus organ damage and rapid body weight increase were observed. As commercial deep-fried products are often made with repeatedly used oil with periodically added fresh oil, similar to the present experimental diet, obesity and organ damage may also occur in humans.

  2. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    López, Patricia; Moran, Javier; Cabello, Estefanía; Suárez, Ana; González, Celestino; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2014-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention) group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models. PMID:24971309

  3. The Protective Effect of Naringin against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Nergiz H.; Kara, Haki; Elagoz, Sahende; Deveci, Koksal; Gungor, Huseyin; Arslanbas, Emre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of naringin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups (control, bleomycin alone, bleomycin + naringin 40, and bleomycin + naringin 80) were used. Rats were administered a single dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg; via the tracheal cannula) alone or followed by either naringin 40 mg/kg (orally) or naringin 80 mg/kg (orally) or water (1 mL, orally) for 14 days. Rats and lung tissue were weighed to determine the lung index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels, hydroxyproline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assayed. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and 0.1% toluidine blue. TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA levels and hydroxyproline content significantly increased (p < 0.01) and GPx and SOD activities significantly decreased in bleomycin group (p < 0.01). Naringin at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β activity, hydroxyproline content, and MDA level (p < 0.01) and increased GPx and SOD activities (p < 0.05). Histological evidence supported the results. These results show that naringin has the potential of reducing the toxic effects of bleomycin and may provide supportive therapy for conventional treatment methods for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26977316

  4. Decreased leptin uptake in hypothalamic nuclei with ageing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Galaz, C; Fernández-Agulló, T; Campoy, F; Arribas, C; Gallardo, N; Andrés, A; Ros, M; Carrascosa, J M

    2001-10-01

    Leptin interacts with specific receptors in hypothalamic nuclei and modulates energy balance. Growing evidence has shown the association of obesity and hyperleptinaemia with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. The aged Wistar rat shows peripheral insulin resistance in the absence of obesity and alterations of glucose homeostasis. However, it is not known whether, in these animals, the leptin action is altered. Here we studied the effect of ageing on plasma leptin concentration and the ability of hypothalamic nuclei to capture i.c.v.-injected digoxigenin-labelled leptin. Our data indicate that 24-month-old animals are hyperleptinaemic. However, daily food intake was greater in old animals, suggesting that they are leptin resistant. Leptin uptake in the hypothalamus was reduced in old rats. This uptake was a receptor-mediated process as demonstrated by displacement. Leptin accumulation in hypothalamic nuclei was partially colocalized with neuropeptide Y fibres. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed a lower amount of the long form of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus of aged rats. Analysis by RT-PCR also demonstrated a decreased expression of leptin receptor mRNA in old animals. We conclude that the lower leptin uptake may be explained, at least in part, by a decreased amount of receptors in hypothalamic neurones of the aged rats.

  5. Effect of green tea extracts on liver functions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bun, S S; Bun, H; Guédon, D; Rosier, C; Ollivier, E

    2006-07-01

    An herbal medicinal product (Exolise) containing as active ingredient an hydro-alcoholic extract of green tea named AR25 (standardized to 25% catechins) has been implicated in hepatic failures, leading to the withdrawal of the marketing authorization. The active ingredient of Exolise being manufactured with 80% ethanol, the question to know whether the extraction solvent could introduce some toxic components was hypothesized. Two investigations were conducted in Wistar rats to determine if repeated oral administration of different green tea extracts could corroborate the reported hepatotoxicity in humans. In a preliminary 6 week-study, experimental groups (n=9/group) received either the vehicle or a methylene chloride extract (2500 mg/kg body weight) where potential non-polar hepatotoxin(s) could be concentrated. In a second experiment (12 week-study), rats were divided in three groups (n=10/group) and treated with either the vehicle, or an aqueous extract (1400 mg/kg) or AR25 green tea extract (2000 mg/kg). Rat liver functions were assessed by serum biochemistry of hepatotoxicity markers. No sign of evidence of characteristic hepatotoxicity was found in rats treated with very high amount of different green tea extracts in these two experiments (respectively a daily dosage, which was about 900 and 80 times higher to the therapeutic daily dosage of Exolise.

  6. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Salwe, Kartik J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark. PMID:23284212

  7. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p < 0.05), erythrocytes lipid peroxidation (MDA) (p < 0.01), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) (p < 0.001), increased by 153%, 31%, and 290%, respectively, in response to alloxan treatment, while intracellular reduced glutathione (p < 0.001) and total antioxidant potential of plasma in terms of Ferric reducing ability (FRAP) (p < 0.01) decreased by 75% and 22%, respectively, on alloxan treatment. Okra supplementation provided protection to the rats against alloxan-induced changes. Based on the present results, we hypothesize that okra has strong antioxidative potential and may be used as a dietary supplementation in diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sikander, Mohammad; Malik, Shabnam; Parveen, Kehkashan; Ahmad, Maqsood; Yadav, Deepak; Hafeez, Zubair Bin; Bansal, Manish

    2013-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (OV) leaves extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in normal and hepatotoxic rats. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of OV, rats were divided into six groups: control group, O. vulgare group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and OV at doses of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in serum, lipid peroxide (LPO), GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH in liver tissue were estimated to assess liver function. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to controls. OV administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in dose-dependent manner, maximum activity was found in CCl4 + OV3 (150 mg/kg body weight) groups and changes in the hepatocytes were confirmed through histopathological analysis of liver tissues. It was also associated with significantly lower serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels, higher GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH level in liver tissue. The level of LPO also decreases significantly after the administration of OV leaves extract. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Thus, the study suggests O. vulgare showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and might be beneficial for the liver toxicity.

  9. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  10. Immune modulating capability of two exopolysaccharide-producing Bifidobacterium strains in a Wistar rat model.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nuria; López, Patricia; Garrido, Pablo; Moran, Javier; Cabello, Estefanía; Gueimonde, Miguel; Suárez, Ana; González, Celestino; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 10(9) cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF- β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention) group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  11. Mild ingestion of used frying oil damages hepatic and renal cells in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Ojiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control) or used frying oil recovered from Japanese food manufacturing companies (recovered oil) for 12 weeks and subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to recovered oil were observed. There was a tendency toward higher consumption of the diet in the experimental group as compared to the control group. In the serum of the experimental group, no difference was detected in the levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. But many dark-red patches, necrosis, and bleeding were found in the livers of 75% of the experimental rats; these rats had extremely high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values. Average AST and ALT values of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the controls. The renal cells were also obviously damaged. These results raise the concern that frying oil contained in ready-made foods, snacks, etc., if deteriorated to an extent equal to or greater than that of the recovered oil, may be able to change human serum AST/ALT levels and damage the liver and kidneys.

  12. A multidimensional magnetic resonance histology atlas of the Wistar rat brain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G Allan; Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2012-09-01

    We have produced a multidimensional atlas of the adult Wistar rat brain based on magnetic resonance histology (MRH). This MR atlas has been carefully aligned with the widely used Paxinos-Watson atlas based on optical sections to allow comparisons between histochemical and immuno-marker data, and the use of the Paxinos-Watson abbreviation set. Our MR atlas attempts to make a seamless connection with the advantageous features of the Paxinos-Watson atlas, and to extend the utility of the data through the unique capabilities of MR histology: a) ability to view the brain in the skull with limited distortion from shrinkage or sectioning; b) isotropic spatial resolution, which permits sectioning along any arbitrary axis without loss of detail; c) three-dimensional (3D) images preserving spatial relationships; and d) widely varied contrast dependent on the unique properties of water protons. 3D diffusion tensor images (DTI) at what we believe to be the highest resolution ever attained in the rat provide unique insight into white matter structures and connectivity. The 3D isotropic data allow registration of multiple data sets into a common reference space to provide average atlases not possible with conventional histology. The resulting multidimensional atlas that combines Paxinos-Watson with multidimensional MRH images from multiple specimens provides a new, comprehensive view of the neuroanatomy of the rat and offers a collaborative platform for future rat brain studies.

  13. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats ("EAE" group). 2- "N. sativa + EAE" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- "EAE + N. sativa" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE.

  14. Oral propylparaben administration to juvenile male Wistar rats did not induce toxicity in reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Gazin, Vincent; Marsden, Edward; Marguerite, Fabien

    2013-12-01

    Parabens are in widespread use as preservatives in drugs. In the late 1990 s, concerns were raised about their capacity to disrupt endocrine function based on in vitro data and in vivo uterotrophic tests. Studies in juvenile male rats provided conflicting results on pospubertal sperm production. In an exploratory pharmacokinetic study, Wistar male rats received a single dose of propylparaben (PP) at 3, 10, 100, or 1000 mg/kg, orally on postnatal day (PND) 31. Plasma PP concentrations were quantifiable up 8h after dosing with a mean T max value of 15 min. Distribution was 4.8 l/kg, the plasma elimination half-life was 47 min, and clearance was 4.20 (l/h)/kg at 10mg/kg. A sulfoconjugated metabolite was detected. In the juvenile toxicology study, PP was orally administered by gavage to 20 Wistar male rats at doses of 3, 10, 100, or 1000 mg/kg/day in 1% hydroxyethylcellulose for 8 weeks starting on PND21. A first subgroup of 10 males/dose was necropsied immediately after the 8-week exposure period; a second subgroup of 10 males/dose was necropsied after a 26-week washout period. Blood samples were taken from additional satellite animals after dosing on PND21 and PND77 for toxicokinetic analysis. There was no evidence of an effect of PP on the weight of the male reproductive organs, epididymal sperm parameters, hormone levels, or histopathology. The dose of 1000 mg/kg/day was the no-observed adverse effect level, corresponding to a maximum plasma concentration of 12,030 ng/ml and exposure to 47 760 ng · h/ml (AUC0-8 h) at the end of the treatment.

  15. The effect of green tea on oxidative damage and tumour formation in Lobund-Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Sheridan, Juliette; Mulcahy, Hugh; Tenniswood, Martin; Morrissey, Colm

    2008-11-01

    A number of epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of green tea reduces the incidence of prostate cancer. As the major catechins present in green tea are potent antioxidants, we hypothesized that genetic and cellular damage induced by oxygen free radicals could be significantly reduced by potent antioxidants in green tea, thus reducing the cumulative genetic and cellular damage with age, and slowing or preventing tumour formation. Long-term administration of a decaffeinated green tea extract to Lobund-Wistar rats for periods up to 26 months almost halved the incidence of primary tumours in the genitourinary tract when compared with an age-matched cohort receiving just water. We observed no inhibition of DNA adduct formation or lipid peroxidation in animals consuming green tea compared with animals consuming deionized water. The decrease in tumour formation was associated with an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxynonenal content (markers of DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation, respectively) in the epithelium of the ventral prostate in aging animals. In addition, there was an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine expression, but no change in 4-hydroxynonenal expression in the seminal vesicles of older animals. An age-associated increase in expression of the antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase in the epithelium of the ventral prostate of aging animals was observed. Furthermore, there was also an increase in manganese superoxide dismutase expression, but no change in catalase expression in the seminal vesicles of older animals. These data demonstrate that consumption of green tea decreases the incidence of genitourinary tract tumours in the Lobund-Wistar rat, but has no effect on age-associated DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation in the ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of the aging rat.

  16. Prenatal effects by exposing to amoxicillin on dental enamel in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Gottberg, Beatriz; Berné, Jeanily; Quiñónez, Belkis

    2014-01-01

    Amoxicillin is an antibiotic widely prescribed; its most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. Over the last 10 years studies have been published which suggest that amoxicillin may cause dental alterations similar to dental fluorosis. Never the less, the results are not conclusive, this is why it was planned the need to make controlled studies on test animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect produced by amoxicillin prenatal administration on dental enamel in Wistar rats. Study Design: 12 pregnant adult rats were used distributed into five different groups: witness control (n=2) didn’t get any treatment; negative control (n=2) they were prescribed with saline solution; positive control (n=3) they were prescribed with tetracycline 130 mg/kg, and two groups (n=3 and n=2) treated with amoxicillin doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively. The treatments were daily administered by mouth, from the 6th gestation day to the end of gestation. Twenty five days after they were born, the offspring were sacrificed with a sodium pentobarbital overdose, the mandible was dissected and the first lower molars were gotten. The samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and clinically and histologically observed to determine any enamel disorders. Results: hypomineralization was observed in every single sample of the tetracyclic and amoxicillin treated group 100 mg/kg, meanwhile only 50% from the group administered with 50 mg/kg amoxicillin showed this histological disorder. Conclusions: the side effect caused by amoxicillin on dental enamel was doses dependent. Key words:Amoxicillin, dental enamel, hypomineralization, Wistar rats. PMID:24121904

  17. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of the Median Septum of Juglans regia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ravanbakhsh, Asma; Mahdavi, Majid; Jalilzade-Amin, Ghader; Javadi, Shahram; Maham, Masoud; Mohammadnejad, Daryosh; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Median septum of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) with anti-diabetic effects has been used in Iranian traditional medicine. The present study estimates both oral acute and subchronic toxicities. Methods: In the oral acute toxicity study, female Wistar rats were treated with doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/ kg of the Juglans regia septum of methanol extract (JRSME), and were monitored for 14 days. In subchronic study, JRSME was administered by gavage at dose of 1000 mg/kg daily in Wistar rats for 28 days. Antioxidant status and biochemical examinations were fulfilled, and the vital organs were subjected to pathological analyses. Results: The extract did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the medium lethal dose must be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic study, No significant morphological and histopathological changes were observed in the studied tissues. There was a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level in treated group compared to control after 4 weeks of JRSME intake. The treatment of rats resulted in a significant reduction of serum urea level (p<0.05), kidney’s xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity (p<0.001) and elevation of aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity (p<0.05) in kidney. In the treated group, the mean diameter of glomerulus and proximal urine tube epithelium stature was slightly greater than control group. A significant increase in serum MDA level is subject for further studies. Conclusion: This study showed that the extract has no acute or subacute adverse effects with dose of 1000 mg/kg. The administration of JRSME may improve kidney structure and function and help in treatment of some chronic diseases. PMID:28101461

  18. Diesel Exhaust Worsens Cardiac Conduction Instability in Dobutamine-Challenged Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Mehdi S; Lancaster, Jarrett L; Starobin, Joseph M; Farraj, Aimen K; Cascio, Wayne E

    2017-04-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution, particularly from vehicular sources, increases the risk of acute clinical cardiovascular events. However, cardiotoxicity is not always clearly discernible under ambient conditions; therefore, more subtle measures of cardiac dysfunction are necessary to elucidate the latent effects of exposure. Determine the effect of whole diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on reserve of refractoriness (RoR), an intrinsic electrophysiological measure of the heart's minimum level of refractoriness relative to development of electrical conduction instability, in rats undergoing exercise-like stress. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats implanted with radiotelemeters to continuously collect electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate were exposed to 150 µg/m(3) of DE and challenged with dobutamine 24 h later to mimic exercise-induced increases of the heart rate. The Chernyak-Starobin-Cohen (CSC) model was then applied to the ECG-derived QT and RR intervals collected during progressive increases in heart rate to calculate RoR for each rat. Filtered air-exposed WKY and SH rats did not have any decrease in RoR, which indicates increased risk of cardiac conduction instability; however, DE caused a significant decrease in both strains. Yet, the decrease in RoR in SH rats was eight times steeper when compared to WKY rats indicating greater cardiac conduction instability in the hypertensive strain. These data indicate that after exposure to DE, risk of cardiac instability increases during increasing stress, particularly in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the CSC model, which was previously shown to reveal cardiac risk in humans, can be applied to rodent toxicology studies.

  19. Effects of post-weaning social isolation and environment al enrichment on exploratory behavior and ankiety in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested.

  20. A Novel Wistar Rat Model of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Sucrose-Rich Diet.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria Luíza R P; Leite, Laura H R; Gioda, Carolina R; Leme, Fabíola O P; Couto, Claudia A; Coimbra, Cândido C; Leite, Virginia H R; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina A

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not fully understood, and experimental models are an alternative to study this issue. We investigated the effects of a simple carbohydrate-rich diet on the development of obesity-related NAFLD and the impact of physical training on the metabolic abnormalities associated with this disorder. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups, which were fed with sucrose-enriched (18% simple carbohydrates) and standard diet, respectively. At the end of each experimental period (5, 10, 20, and 30 weeks), 6 animals from each group were sacrificed for blood tests and liver histology and immunohistochemistry. From weeks 25 to 30, 6 animals from each group underwent physical training. The experimental group animals developed obesity and NAFLD, characterized histopathologically by steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning, clinically by increased thoracic circumference and body mass index associated with hyperleptinemia, and metabolically by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, depletion of the antioxidants liver enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and increased hepatic levels of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. Rats that underwent physical training showed increased high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol levels. In conclusion, a sucrose-rich diet induced obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and NAFLD in rats.

  1. A Novel Wistar Rat Model of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Sucrose-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria Luíza R. P.; Leite, Laura H. R.; Gioda, Carolina R.; Leme, Fabíola O. P.; Couto, Claudia A.; Coimbra, Cândido C.; Leite, Virginia H. R.; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina A.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not fully understood, and experimental models are an alternative to study this issue. We investigated the effects of a simple carbohydrate-rich diet on the development of obesity-related NAFLD and the impact of physical training on the metabolic abnormalities associated with this disorder. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups, which were fed with sucrose-enriched (18% simple carbohydrates) and standard diet, respectively. At the end of each experimental period (5, 10, 20, and 30 weeks), 6 animals from each group were sacrificed for blood tests and liver histology and immunohistochemistry. From weeks 25 to 30, 6 animals from each group underwent physical training. The experimental group animals developed obesity and NAFLD, characterized histopathologically by steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning, clinically by increased thoracic circumference and body mass index associated with hyperleptinemia, and metabolically by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, depletion of the antioxidants liver enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and increased hepatic levels of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. Rats that underwent physical training showed increased high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol levels. In conclusion, a sucrose-rich diet induced obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and NAFLD in rats. PMID:26788524

  2. Biosterilant effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 extract on male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Peki, Vanlal; Devi, Maibam Sunita; Sanjeev, Sanasam; Khusboo, Maurya; Zothansanga, R; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2017-01-15

    Chemosterilants have long been used in sterilization programs for managing pet, stray, and wild animals but adverse effects such as trauma, incomplete responses to treatment, and complete abolition of gonadal sources of testosterone often occurs. This study describes the biosterilant effects of administering three doses of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 (Bt 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg; 20 rats/dose) extract in adult male Wistar albino rats on testicular parameters, function, histology, and a number of biochemical markers of overall health, free radical production, and cell proliferation. Intratesticular administration of Bt extract to rats induces testicular oxidative stress and damages and consequently, perturb spermatogenesis, degeneration of testis, reduction in testes size, and depletion of testosterone and antioxidant enzyme concentrations in a dose-dependent manner because of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. No morbidity or mortality adverse effects were observed in both the saline control and Bt extract-treated rats. Significant variation was noted in clinical manifestations, weight and volume of testes, and hormonal and biochemical profiles between Bt doses in comparison with the saline control. Aspermia/azoospermia (100%) resulted in Bt-treated rats without any adverse effects. Histopathological analysis showed degeneration, necrosis, vacuolation, fewer germ cells, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and a lack of elongated spermatids in atrophic seminiferous tubules in Bt extract-treated groups in the presence of low concentrations of testosterone, antioxidant enzymes, and suppression of germ cell proliferation. Dose-dependent effects were evident in most parameters that were measured. The vast array of tests that were undertaken also provides some important indicators of the physiological effects associated with the treatments that were applied. Intratesticular injection of Bt extract impairs spermatogenesis and induces permanent sterility

  3. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-01-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30–60 min and 60–120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats. PMID:18398501

  4. Effects of paraoxon on serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress induction in various tissues of Wistar and Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahvash; Salehi, Maryam; Asgari, Alireza; Ahmadi, Sediq; Abbasnezhad, Maryam; Hajihoosani, Reza; Hajigholamali, Mansoure

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of different doses of paroxon (POX), an active metabolite of the organophosphate pesticide parathion, on some serum biochemical parameters and induction of oxidative stress in various tissues of female Wistar and Norway rats. The rats were intraperitoneally treated with 0.3, 0.7, 1 and 1.5 mg/kg of POX. The parameters were evaluated after 24h. The results showed that the decreased glutathione level and catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in tissues of Wistar rat were higher than Norway rat at higher doses of POX. At these concentrations, POX increased superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde level and some serum biochemical indices. In conclusion, POX induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of oxidative stress in POX-treated rats is in the order of brain > liver > heart > kidney>spleen. Wistar rat is found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of POX compared to Norway rat.

  5. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  6. Coffee and caffeine protect against liver injury induced by thioacetamide in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-11-01

    Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05), fibrosis/inflammation scores (p < 0.001), collagen volume fraction (p < 0.01) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) protein expression (p ≤ 0.001) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In addition, conventional coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p < 0.001), but only conventional coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p < 0.001), active metalloproteinase 2 (p ≤ 0.004) and the number of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive preneoplastic lesions (p < 0.05) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In conclusion, conventional coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats.

  7. Comparative power spectrum analysis of EEG activity in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar rats in kainate model of temporal model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Kortenska, Lidia; Marinov, Pencho; Boyanov, Kiril

    2016-06-01

    Recently, we have reported that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibit higher susceptibility than Wistar rats in kainate (KA) model of epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to compare the baseline of EEG signals in SHRs and Wistar rats using Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) during the three phases of KA model (acute, latent and chronic). The SHRs showed higher baseline relative power of delta waves in the left frontal cortex and lower gamma-HF waves in the left frontal and left/right parietal cortex, respectively, compared to Wistar rats. During the acute phase, both absolute and relative power of fast EEG bands (gamma-HF) was lower in the left/right frontal and the left/right parietal cortex in SHRs compared to Wistar rats. During the latent phase, no difference in the power of the investigated bands was detected between the two strains. During the chronic epileptic phase, the SHRs were characterized with higher power of HF oscillations than Wistar rats both in the frontal and parietal cortex without brain lateralization while theta, alpha and beta bands were with diminished power in the left parietal cortex of SHRs compared to normotensive Wistar rats. Taken together, the presented results suggest that the increased delta waves and lower gamma-HF waves in the frontal/parietal cortex are associated with a higher seizure susceptibility of SHRs compared to Wistar rats while fastest oscillations has a critical role in seizure generation and propagation of hypertensive rats.

  8. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint).

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M V Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications.

  9. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Bedwal, S; Prasad, S; Nair, N; Saini, M R; Bedwal, R S

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H(2) O(2) with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H(2) O(2) produced in two organs whereas significant (P<0.01/0.001) increase in catalase activity in 4-weeks experiments indicate for increased oxidative stress due to phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells in testes and damaged spermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  10. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M. V. Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications. PMID:21647314

  11. Anticancer effects on leiomyosarcoma-bearing Wistar rats after electromagnetic radiation of resonant radiofrequencies.

    PubMed

    Avdikos, Antonios; Karkabounas, Spyridon; Metsios, Apostolos; Kostoula, Olga; Havelas, Konstantinos; Binolis, Jayne; Verginadis, Ioannis; Hatziaivazis, George; Simos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of a resonant low intensity static electromagnetic field (EMF), causing no thermal effects, on Wistar rats have been investigated. Sarcoma cell lines were isolated from leiomyosarcoma tumors induced in Wistar rats by the subcutaneous (s.c) injection of 3,4-benzopyrene. Furthermore, smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated from the aorta of Wistar rats and cultivated. Either leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC) or SMC were used to record a number of characteristic resonant radiofrequencies, in order to determine the specific electromagnetic fingerprint spectrum for each cell line. These spectra were used to compose an appropriate algorithm, which transforms the recorded radiofrequencies to emitted ones. The isolated LSC were cultured and then exposed to a resonant low intensity radiofrequency EMF (RF-EMF), at frequencies between 10 kHz to 120 kHz of the radiowave spectrum. The exposure lasted 45 consecutive minutes daily, for two consecutive days. Three months old female Wistar rats were inoculated with exposed and non-exposed to EMF LSC (4 x 10(6) LCS for animal). Inoculated with non-exposed to EMF cells animals were then randomly separated into three Groups. The first Group was sham exposed to the resonant EMF (control Group-CG), the second Group after the inoculation of LSC and appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to a non-resonant EMF radiation pattern, for 5 h per day till death of all animals (experimental control Group-ECG). The third Group of animals after inoculation of LSC and the appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to the resonant EMF radiation for 5 h per day, for a maximum of 60 days (experimental Group-I, EG-I). A fourth Group of animals was inoculated with LSC exposed to EMF irradiation and were not further exposed to irradiation (experimental Group-II, EG-II). Tumor induction was 100% in all Groups studied and all tumors were histologically identified as leiomyosarcomas. In the case of the EG-I, a

  12. Intermittent access to beer promotes binge-like drinking in adolescent but not adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Monds, Lauren; Gunasekaran, Nathan; Dawson, Bronwyn; McGregor, Iain S

    2009-06-01

    Teenagers are more likely than adults to engage in binge drinking and could be more vulnerable to long-term brain changes following alcohol abuse. We investigated the possibility of excessive adolescent drinking in a rodent model in which beer (4.44% ethanol vol/vol) is presented to adult and adolescent male Wistar rats. Experiment 1 tracked ad libitum beer and water consumption in group-housed rats from postnatal day (PND) 28-96. Rats consumed an average of 7.8 g/kg/day of ethanol during adolescence (PND 34-55) and this gradually declined to a lower level of intake in adulthood (PND 56-93) of 3.9 g/kg/day. In Experiment 2, beer was made available to both adolescent (PND 29+) and adult (PND 57+) rats for 2h each day in a custom-built "lickometer" apparatus over 75 days. Access to beer was provided either 1 day out of every 3 ("intermittent" groups) or every day ("daily" groups). Relative to body weight, adolescent rats consumed more beer than adult rats in these limited access sessions. Adolescents with intermittent access consumed more than adolescents with daily access, a "binge"-like effect that was not observed in adult groups and that disappeared in adulthood. After 3 months of daily or intermittent alcohol consumption, the preference for beer versus sucrose was assessed. Rats previously kept under an intermittent schedule displayed a higher preference for beer relative to 3% sucrose, but only when testing occurred after 2 days of abstinence. In Experiment 3, adolescent (PND 30-37) and adult (PND 58-65) rats were given 20-min access to beer and their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were assessed. Adolescent groups consumed more alcohol than adults and showed higher BACS that were typical of human "binge" drinking (>80 mg/dL). Despite this, the correlation between BAC and beer intake was similar in both age groups. Together these results show that the intermittent presentation of alcohol itself appears to have subtle long-lasting effects on the motivation

  13. Inhaled environmental combustion particles cause myocardial injury in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Moyer, Carolyn F; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Costa, Daniel L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C; Nyska, Abraham

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, experimental evidence demonstrating causality and pathogenesis of particulate matter (PM)-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We hypothesized that protracted, repeated inhalation by rats of oil combustion-derived, fugitive emission PM (EPM), similar in metal composition to selected sources of urban air PM, causes exposure duration- and dose-dependent myocardial injury in susceptible rat strains. Zinc was the only primary water-leachable/bioavailable element of this EPM. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed nose-only to EPM (2, 5, or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day for 4 consecutive days or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 4 or 16 consecutive weeks). Two days following the last EPM exposure, cardiac and pulmonary tissues were examined histologically. The results showed that particle-laden alveolar macrophages were the only pulmonary lesions observed in all three rat strains. However, WKY rats exposed to EPM (10 mg/m(3) 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 16 weeks) demonstrated cardiac lesions with inflammation and degeneration. To further characterize the nature of EPM-associated lesions, more rigorous histopathological and histochemical techniques were employed for WKY and SD rats. We examined the hearts for myocardial degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium deposits, apoptosis, and the presence of mast cells. Decreased numbers of granulated mast cells, and multifocal myocardial degeneration, chronic-active inflammation, and fibrosis were present in 5 of 6 WKY rats exposed to EPM for 16 weeks. None of these lesions were present in WKY exposed to clean air. EPM-related cardiac lesions were indistinguishable from air-exposed controls in SD and SH rats. This study demonstrates that long-term inhalation exposures to environmentally relevant PM containing

  14. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats.

  15. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  16. Effects of Sterculia setigera Del. Stem Bark Extract on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaruwa, Moses Z.; Ibok, Nne. I.; Ibok, Ibokabasi U.; Onyenonachi, Emmanuel C.; Danchal, C.; Ahmed, Aisha G.; Ahmed, Maryam U.; Sudi, Ismaila Y.

    2016-01-01

    Africa is rich in a wide range of flora that are exploited as herbal medicines and remedies. Several diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery and jaundice have been successfully managed using herbal medicines. Herbal decoctions or concoctions have been used as pain killers, antibiotics, and hematinics. This study evaluated the hematopoietic and biochemical properties of the stem bark of Sterculia setigera Del. in Wistar rats. Results showed that S. setigera decoction has copiously high tannin and cardiac glycoside levels. Ingestion of the decoction by rats over a 16-day period significantly (P < 0.05) increased the body weights of rats by 22.4% in the S. setigera-treated group. Hematological profiles showed raised levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelets, while biochemical parameters showed lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and slight increase in albumin and TP levels. We posit that the results justify the use of the stem bark of S. setigera as a hematinic by traditional medical practitioners and show its relative safety. Further experiments are needed to evaluate its safety. PMID:27980418

  17. [Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: a 52-week dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yukio; Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Inoue, Tohru; Kanno, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A 52-week study of oral-repeated-dose toxicity for the extraction powder of Gymnema sylvestre (GS), Indian-native genus, Metaplexis japonica, was conducted in both genders of Wistar rats. The rats were administered a graded dose of GS at 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00% of basal powder diet, along with a group fed solely with the basal powder diet without GS, for 52 weeks. General conditions were recorded daily. Body weights and food consumptions were recorded weekly up to 12 weeks, and thereafter at longer intervals. At 26 weeks, for an intermediate examination, and 52 weeks, for the final examination, animals were subjected to hematology, serum chemistry, and pathological examination. None of the animals died in the period up to 52 weeks. No exposure-related changes in body-weight, in the food consumption, in the hematological examinations, or in the serum biochemical examinations were recognized. No histopathological alterations were seen. Thus, it was concluded that there was no toxic effect in rats treated with GS at up to 1.00% in the diet for 52 weeks. The no-observable-effect level from this study is 1.00% GS, i.e., 504 mg/kg/day for male and 563 mg/kg/day for female as mean daily intake, for 52 weeks.

  18. A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats*, **

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Rodrigo de las Heras; Alves, Edson Marcelino; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino dos Santos; Guardia, Renan Cenize; Buzo, Henrique Vivi; de Faria, Carolina Arruda; Yamashita, Camila; Cavazzana, Manzelio; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day) every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm). RESULTS: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times) lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. CONCLUSIONS: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD. PMID:24626269

  19. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P < 0.05) in red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, blood platelets count and neutrophils in animals treated with Red Bull and Power Horse and these changes were time dependant. Insignificant changes were recorded in rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  20. Tamarix gallica ameliorates thioacetamide-induced hepatic oxidative stress and hyperproliferative response in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Sultana, Sarwat

    2006-04-01

    Tamarix gallica, a hepatic stimulant and tonic, was examined for its ability to inhibit thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity and early tumor promotion response in male Wistar rats. TAA (6.6 mmol/kg body wt. i.p) enhanced lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content, glutathione S-transferase and xanthine oxidase with reduction in the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and caused depletion in the level of hepatic glutathione content. A marked increase in liver damage markers was also observed. TAA treatment also enhanced tumor promotion markers, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H] thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Pretreatment of rats orally with Tamarix gallica extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) prevented TAA-promoted oxidative stress and toxicity. Prophylaxis with Tamarix gallica significantly reduced the susceptibility of the hepatic microsomal membrane for iron-ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, glutathione S-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities. There was also reversal of the elevated levels of liver marker parameters and tumor promotion markers. Our data suggests that Tamarix gallica is a potent chemopreventive agent and may suppress TAA-mediated hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity, and tumor promotion response in rats.

  1. Metabolic effects of glycerol supplementation and aerobic physical training on Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lobato, Raquel Vieira; Araújo, Ticiana Vasques; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gomes, Núbia Ferreira; Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rogatto, Gustavo Puggina; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Pereira, Luciano José

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of oral glycerol supplementation on trained rats fed a normal diet. Wistar rats were distributed among 6 groups in a completely randomized 2 × 3 factorial design. The animals were subjected to 6 weeks of aerobic training. In the last 4 weeks, the animals' diet was supplemented with saline, glucose, or glycerol. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Student-Newmann-Keuls test, with values for P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. The change in body mass was lower in the trained groups, and their food and water consumption were higher. Glycerol supplementation resulted in an increase in the levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) and total cholesterol, as well as in the area and diameter of adipocytes. When associated with training, these parameters were similar to those of other trained groups. Levels of low-density lipoprotein + very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the trained animals that received glycerol compared with the non-trained ones. Glycerol consumption caused a reduction in food intake and increased the villous:crypt (V:C) ratio. No changes in glycemia, high density lipoproteins, or density of adipocytes were observed. Supplementation with glycerol together with aerobic physical training promoted beneficial metabolic effects. However, in non-trained rats glycerol increased the diameter and area of adipocytes, as well as the levels of TAG and total cholesterol.

  2. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  3. SUBCHRONIC MANCOZEB TREATEMENT INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY VIA OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

    PubMed

    Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in group treated with 1200 and 800 mg/kg/day. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity underwent a significant (p < 0.05) increase in both groups. The obtained observations clearly reveal hepatotoxic effects of mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms.

  4. Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, Devendra K; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-04-01

    Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks in age weighing between 120-150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD(50)) and carbofuran (50% LD(50)) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD(50) of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms of serum lipid parameters such as high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Treatment with individual doses of carbofuran (50% LD(50)) and cartap (50 % LD(50)) caused significant alterations in the levels of serum lipid parameters. The pesticides treatment resulted in marked decrease in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein where as that of other lipids got significantly elevated. Further, the rats exhibited relatively higher impact of pesticides when treated with the compounds in combination (25 % LD(50) of each). The results indicated that these compounds when used together may exert enhanced effect on the levels of serum lipids in rat.

  5. The effects of the hydroalcohol extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on experimentally nephrolithiasic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Aghdam, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This research evaluated the possible therapeutic potential of Rosa canina (RC) as a preventive agent in experimentally induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis with ethylene glycol (1% EG) in rats. In this experiment, 50 Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups (n = 10). These groups received tap drinking water (group I), 1% EG (group II), 250 mg/kg RC + 1% EG (group III), 500 mg/kg RC + 1% EG (group IV), or 2.5 g/kg potassium citrate + 1% EG (group V) for a period of 30 days. Blood and urine were collected for biochemical analysis, and the liver and kidneys were prepared for total lipid peroxides, calcium content and histological evaluation. The extract was analysed for total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, citric acid and radical scavenger activity. The supplementation of the hydromethanol RC extract contributed to reducing the kidney and liver lipid peroxides to optimum levels in rats that had been treated with EG-induced CaOx lithiasis. The extract also decreased renal and urinary calcium contents, decreased the size and number of CaOx calculi in the kidneys, and significantly increased citrate excretion without changing the volume, pH, or urinary concentrations of oxalate in comparison with the control group. According to these results, RC can be useful as a preventive agent against the formation of CaOx kidney stones.

  6. Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Lelkes, P. I.; Hillard, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many humans with IDDM eventually lose the capacity to secrete epinephrine from their adrenal medullae. The mechanism for this pathological change is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality is attributable to neuropathic changes in the greater splanchnic nerves or in the chromaffin cells that they innervate. To study this hypothesis, we isolated rat adrenal glands, perfused them ex vivo, and measured the epinephrine content of the perfusate under various conditions of stimulation. We used transmural electrical stimulation (20-80 V, at 10 Hz) to induce epinephrine secretion indirectly by selectively activating residual splanchnic nerve terminals within the isolated glands. Under these conditions, epinephrine secretion was severely attenuated in glands from female BB-Wistar rats with diabetes of 4 mo duration compared with their age-matched, nondiabetic controls. These perfused diabetic adrenal medullae also demonstrated decreased catecholamine release in response to direct chromaffin cell depolarization with 20 mM K+, evidence that a functional alteration exists within the chromaffin cells themselves. Nonetheless, total catecholamine content of adrenal medullae from these diabetic rats was not significantly different from controls, indicating that the secretory defect was not simply attributable to a difference in the amount of catecholamines stored and available for release. Herein, we also provide histological evidence of degenerative changes within the cholinergic nerve terminals that innervate these glands.

  7. Neonatal isoflavone exposure interferes with the reproductive system of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dennis R; Soukup, Sebastian T; Kurrat, Anne; Liu, Xin; Schmicke, Marion; Xie, Ming-Yong; Kulling, Sabine E; Diel, Patrick

    2016-11-16

    There is increasing concern about possible adverse effects of soy based infant formulas (SBIF) due to their high amount of isoflavones (ISO). The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of neonatal exposure to ISO on reproductive system of female Wistar rats. Animals were exposed to an ISO depleted diet or a diet enriched with an ISO extract (IRD; 508mg ISO/kg) during embryogenesis and adolescence. Pups of each group were fed daily by pipette with ISO-suspension (ISO+; 32mg ISO/kg bw) or placebo from postnatal day (PND) 1 until PND23 resulting in plasma concentrations similar to levels reported in infants fed SBIF. The visceral fat mass was reduced by long-term IRD. Vaginal epithelial height was increased at PND23 and vaginal opening was precocious in ISO+ groups. Later in life, more often irregular estrus cycles were observed in rats of ISO+ groups. In addition, FSH levels and uterine epithelial heights were increased at PND80 in ISO+ groups. In summary, the results indicate that neonatal ISO intake, resulting in plasma concentrations achievable through SBIF, has an estrogenic effect on prepubertal rats and influences female reproductive tract later in life.

  8. Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100–3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia. PMID:26504473

  9. Evaluating the Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin against the Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Lokendra; Gohel, Darpesh; Patel, Manish; Marvania, Tulsi; Balakrishnan, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The current study deals with the effect of a dietary flavanoid quercetin on fibrotic lung tissue in rats. Bleomycin was administered by single intratracheal instillation to Wistar rats to induce lung fibrosis. The pathologies associated with this included significantly reduced antioxidant capacity, ultimately leading to protracted inflammation of the lung tissue. The hallmark of this induced fibrosis condition was an excessive collagen deposition in peribronchial and perialveolar regions of the lung. Oral quercetin treatment over a period of twenty days resulted in significant reversal of the pathologies. The antioxidant defense in lung tissue was revived. Moreover, activity of the collagenase MMP-7, which was high in fibrotic tissue, was seen restored after quercetin administration. Trichome staining of lung tissue sections showed high collagen deposition in fibrotic rats, which may be a direct result of increased mobilization of collagen by MMP-7. This was appreciably reduced in quercetin treated animals. These results point towards an important protective role of quercetin against idiopathic lung fibrosis, which remains a widely prevalent yet incurable condition in the present times. PMID:24396596

  10. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Soghra; Shahi, Mehran; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex. Results: Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ. Conclusion: It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound. PMID:25859305

  11. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries of L-NAME-treated Wistar and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Matsuda, Kyoko; Kawata, Kyoko; Negishi, Maki; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Shimamur, Keiichi; Sunano, Satoru

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate whether the elevated blood pressure induced by chronic treatment with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) contributes to an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR), the effects of chronic treatment of Wistar rats with L-NAME on systolic blood pressure, pulmonary arterial blood pressure and EDR of the pulmonary arteries were studied and compared with those of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). While the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of Wistar rats was increased above that of controls by chronic treatment with L-NAME, it was still significantly lower than that of SHRSP. Chronic treatment with L-NAME did not affect pulmonary arterial blood pressure. On the other hand, the pulmonary arterial blood pressure of SHRSP was slightly but significantly higher than that of the control normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). EDR in response to acetylcholine in the pulmonary artery of L-NAME-treated rats was significantly smaller than that in control Wistar rats. The EDR markedly increased in the presence of L-arginine and completely disappeared in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine. Indomethacin hardly affected EDR. In preparations from SHRSP, the EDR was not different from that in those from WKY. Relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was identical in all preparations. Elevation of SBP and the impairment of EDR observed in L-NAME-treated rats recovered two weeks following cessation of treatment. These results suggest that the impaired EDR in the pulmonary artery of L-NAME-treated rats is not due to an L-NAME-induced increase in blood pressure but due to the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by the drug remaining in the endothelium.

  12. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) supports intravenous self-administration in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Aarde, S. M.; Angrish, D.; Barlow, D.J.; Wright, M. J.; Vandewater, S. A.; Creehan, K.M.; Houseknecht, K. L.; Dickerson, T. J.; Taffe, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recreational use of the drug 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone; 4-MMC) became increasingly popular in the United Kingdom in recent years, spurred in part by the fact it was not criminalized until April of 2010. Although several fatalities have been associated with consumption of 4-MMC and cautions for recreational users about its addictive potential have appeared on Internet forums, very little information about abuse liability for this drug is available. This study was conducted to determine if 4-MMC serves as a reinforcer in a traditional intravenous self-administration model. Groups of male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer 4-MMC in one hour sessions. Per infusion doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg were consistently self-administered resulting in greater than 80% discrimination for the drug-paired lever and mean intakes of about 2–3 mg/kg/hr. Dose-substitution studies after acquisition demonstrated that the number of responses and/or the total amount of drug self-administered varied as a function of dose. In addition, radiotelemetry devices were employed to show that self-administered 4-MMC was capable of increasing locomotor activity (Wistar) and decreasing body temperature (Sprague-Dawley). Pharmacokinetic studies found the T1/2 of 4-MMC was about an hour in vivo in rat plasma and 90 minutes using in vitro liver microsomal assays. This study provides evidence of stimulant-typical abuse liability for 4-MMC in the traditional preclinical self-administration model. PMID:23363010

  13. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Richa; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Banerjee, Saumen; Bhattacharjee, Chira R; Raul, Prasanta; Borah, Kusum; Singh, Lokendra; Veer, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Anemia is a frequent problem in both the primary and secondary health care programs. In contrast, most areas of northeast India are vulnerable to iron toxicity. In the present study, we documented the effect of administration of iron rich water on hemolytic anemia in a Wistar rats' animal model. Hemolytic anemia was induced by phenyl hydrazine through intraperitoneal route and diagnosed by the lowering of blood hemoglobin. After inducing the hemolytic anemia, 24 Wistar rats (n = 6 in four groups) were randomly assigned to 1 mg/l, 5 mg/l, and 10 mg/l ferric oxide iron along with 1 mg/ml ascorbic acid administered through drinking water; a control group was treated with iron-free water. The hematological and biochemical parameters, iron levels in liver, spleen, and kidney were estimated after 30 d of treatment. In the group treated with 5 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, a significant increase of serum iron and ferritin, and a decrease of TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were observed without changes in other biochemical parameters and histopathological findings. However, in the group treated with 10 mg/l iron and ascorbic acid, hematological changes with significantly higher values for white blood cell count, serum glutamic phospho transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, splenic, and liver iron content, indicate potential toxicity at this supplementation level. Data suggest that the optimum concentration of iron (5 mg/l) and ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.

  14. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  15. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  16. Role of vitamin E in mitigating methomyl induced acute toxicity in blood of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Garg, Dharm Paul; Kiran, Ravi; Bansal, Anil K; Malhotra, Anshoo; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective potential of vitamin E, if any, in attenuating the toxic effects induced by acute methomyl treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing between 230 and 250 g, received either a single oral dose of 9 mg/kg of methomyl, vitamin E alone injected intraperitoneally on alternate days (4 injections) at 50 mg/kg body for 1 week prior to methomyl treatment, or both methomyl plus vitamin E given in a similar manner. The effects of different treatments were studied on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes, which included superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase and various hematological parameters, including total leucocytes count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC), hemoglobin, platelets counts, red cell counts, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Acute 24-h treatment to rats resulted in a significant increase in the LPO. GSH levels and the activities of catalase, GST, and GSHPx were found to be significantly decreased following methomyl treatment. A significant elevation in the activity of SOD and in TLC was also observed after 24 h of methomyl treatment. Further, a significant increase in the neutrophils and eosinophil counts was also observed. However, lymphocytes showed a significant decrease following methomyl treatment. SEMs showed significant morphological changes following methomyl treatment. Vitamin E pretreatment to methomyl-treated rats effectively normalized the levels of LPO and GSH. Vitamin E could also significantly elevate the activity of catalase, increase platelets counts and TLC, and normalized the activities of SOD and GSHPx. Vitamin E pretreatment improved the morphology of the red blood cells. The study concludes that vitamin E affords protection in methomyl-induced toxicity in the rat.

  17. Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidacloprid-induced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lonare, Milindmitra; Kumar, Manoj; Raut, Sachin; More, Amar; Doltade, Sagar; Badgujar, Prarabdh; Telang, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of imidacloprid (IM) on male reproductive system and ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, IM (45 and 90 mg/kg, body weight) and CMN (100 mg/kg, body weight) were administered orally to the rats either alone or in combinations for a period of 28 days. At the end of experiment, male reproductive toxicity parameters (total sperm count and sperm abnormalities), testosterone level, steroidal enzymatic activity [3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD], and oxidative stress indicators were estimated in testis and plasma. IM treatments resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, live sperm count, and increase (p < 0.05) in sperm abnormalities. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase-x, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymatic activity along with testosterone concentration in testis and plasma were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IM-treated rats. IM exposure resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in LPO and decrease (p < 0.05) in GSH level along with decreased activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST. IM-treated rats showed histopathological alterations in testis and epididymis. However, the reproductive toxicity parameters, oxidative stress indicators, and histopathological changes were minimized and functional restorations were noticed by co-administration of CMN in IM-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that IM-induced male reproductive toxic effects could be ameliorated by CMN supplementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1250-1263, 2016.

  18. Liver iron overload induced by tamoxifen in diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jatobá, Carlos André Nunes; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; de Paiva Rodrigues, Sarah Jane; de Almeida Câmara, Maria Margareth; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Freire-Neto, Francisco; da Rocha, Luiz Reginaldo Menezes; da Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Brandão-Neto, José; de Carvalho Formiga, Maria Célia; de Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2008-04-01

    Tamoxifen (TX), a drug used in the treatment of breast cancer, may cause hepatic changes in some patients. The consequences of its use on the liver tissues of rats with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between plasma hepatic enzyme levels and the presence of iron overload in the hepatic tissue of female Wistar rats with or without streptozotocin-induced DM and using TX. Female rats were studied in control groups: C-0 (non-drug users), C-V (sorbitol vehicle only) and C-TX (using TX). DM (diabetic non-drug users) and DM-TX (diabetics using TX) were the test groups. Sixty days after induced DM, blood samples were collected for glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin measures. Hepatic fragments were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Perls. The hepatic iron content was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. AST, ALT and ALP levels were significantly elevated in the DM and DM-TX groups, with unchanged bilirubin levels. Liver iron overload using Perls stain and atomic absorption spectrometry were observed exclusively in groups C-TX and DM-TX. There was positive correlation between AST, ALT and ALP levels and microscopic hepatic siderosis intensity in group DM-TX. In conclusion, TX administration is associated with liver siderosis in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In addition, TX induced liver iron overload with unaltered hepatic function in non-diabetic rats and may be a useful tool for investigating the biological control of iron metabolism.

  19. Effects of honey HMF on enzyme activities and serum biochemical parameters of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Özkök, Duran; Silici, Sibel

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a by-product of thermal degradation of glucose and fructose. In this study, the effects of high HMF content of honey on biochemical parameters of rats were investigated. Experiments were conducted with 40 Wistar albino male rats, each weighing 250-350 g and covered a period of 5 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups. The first group was served as control group. HMF was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 200 mg/kg rat b.w. to the animals in group 2. Group 3 was fed with honey that contains 10 mg HMF/kg honey. In group 4 and 5, there were honeys that contain significantly high HMF content due to long storage period (181 mg HMF/kg honey) and heat process (140 mg HMF/kg honey). At the end of the feeding process, biochemical blood parameters of rats were investigated. It was observed that there were no differences among the glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, Na, GGT, and ALP parameters of the groups. On the other hand, significant differences were observed among the cholesterol, LDL, BUN, creatinine, Ca, P, Mg, K, Cl, total bilirubin, LDH, CPK, AST, ALT, total protein, and pseudocholinesterase values of the rats. The highest adverse effects were obtained from group HMF, and it was followed by groups SH (stored honey) and HH (heated honey). It can be concluded that high HMF content of honey may affect the human health adversely; thus, HMF in honey must be controlled by beekeepers.

  20. [Age-related changes in activity of cerebellum Purkinje cells, shape of the complex spike, and locomotion of wistar rats under effect of ethanol].

    PubMed

    Karelina, T V

    2012-01-01

    The work deals with study of peculiarities of effect of ethanol upon the Purkinje cell activity, shape of the complex spike, and locomotion of rats at different stages of ontogenesis, such as the stage of the morphofunstional maturation of the cerebellar cortex, the mature stage, and in the process of aging. The experiments were carried out on three age groups of Wistar rats: rat pups (2 weeks), adult rats (3-6 months), and senile animals (22-26 months). The administration of ethanol has been established to produce an increase in frequency of simple spikes, a decrease in frequency of complex spikes, a shortening of duration of depression of simple spikes, a decrease in the total duration of the complex spike, the number and frequency of its impulses as well as reduction of the motor activity of animals of all age groups. The change of the majority of the studied parameters occurred by the common temporal scheme. The earliest responding were the rat pups, later--the adult rats, and the last--the animals of the senior group. The stronger effect of ethanol was observed in adult rats. Their differences of all studied parameters, as compared with rat pups and senile animals, were characterized on the whole by the longer period of time and by the higher percent of changes relative to the initial values. Analysis of the obtained results has shown that the most pronounced changes in parameters of the cerebellum Purkinje cell activity and of the complex spike shape corresponded to the more significant decrease in the locomotion level, i. e., were recorded in adult rats. Thus, the work has demonstrated different sensitivity to administration of ethanol in the Wistar rats at different stages of ontogenetic development.

  1. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin enhances sleep continuity in fear-conditioned Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Benjamin M; Gajewski, Nicholas D; Mann, Graziella L; Kubin, Leszek; Morrison, Adrian R; Ross, Richard J

    2014-03-03

    Fragmentation of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is well described in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and likely has significant functional consequences. Fear-conditioned rodents may offer an attractive model of the changes in sleep that characterize PTSD. Following fear conditioning (FC), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a strain known to be particularly stress-sensitive, have increased REMS fragmentation that can be quantified as a shift in the distribution of REMS episodes towards the more frequent occurrence of sequential REMS (inter-REMS episode interval≤3 min) vs. single REMS (interval>3 min). The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin has demonstrated efficacy in normalizing sleep in PTSD. To determine the utility of fear-conditioned WKY rats as a model of sleep disturbances typical of PTSD and as a platform for the development of new treatments, we tested the hypothesis that prazosin would reduce REMS fragmentation in fear-conditioned WKY rats. Sleep parameters and freezing (a standard measure of anxiety in rodents) were quantified at baseline and on Days 1, 7, and 14 following FC, with either prazosin (0.01mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle injections administered prior to testing in a between-group design. Fear conditioning was achieved by pairing tones with a mild electric foot shock (1.0mA, 0.5s). One, 7, and 14 days following FC, prazosin or vehicle was injected, the tone was presented, freezing was measured, and then sleep was recorded from 11 AM to 3 PM. WKY rats given prazosin, compared to those given vehicle, had a lower amount of seq-REMS relative to total REMS time 14 days after FC. They also had a shorter non-REMS latency and fewer non-REMS arousals at baseline and on Days 1 and 7 after FC. Thus, in FC rats, prazosin reduced both REMS fragmentation and non-REMS discontinuity.

  2. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model.

  3. Platelets of the Wistar Furth rat have reduced levels of alpha-granule proteins. An animal model resembling gray platelet syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C W; Hutson, N K; Steward, S A; Saito, N; Cramer, E M

    1991-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar Furth (WF) strain have hereditary macrothrombocytopenia (large mean platelet volume [MPV] with increased platelet size heterogeneity and reduced platelet count). Ultrastructural studies suggest that this anomaly results from erratic subdivision of megakaryocyte cytoplasm into platelets. In this study, we have examined protein profiles of platelets of WF rats for biochemical abnormalities associated with this anomaly. Marked decreases in protein bands with an Mr of 185, 57, 53, 16, 13, and 8 kd were observed in one-dimensional reduced SDS-PAGE gels in WF platelets compared with platelets of Wistar, Long Evans, and Sprague-Dawley rats. These proteins were released into the supernatant when washed platelets were treated with thrombin suggesting that they were alpha-granule proteins. These abnormalities were not present in offspring of crosses between Wistar Furth and Wistar rats; however, they were present in platelets of offspring with large MPV derived from backcrosses of (WF X Wistar) F1 males to WF females, but not in backcross offspring with normal platelet size. Immunoblotting confirmed decreased levels of thrombospondin, fibrinogen, and platelet factor 4 in WF platelets. Electron microscopic examination revealed that platelet alpha granules were usually smaller in Wistar Furth than in Wistar rats. In addition, immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that the surface connected canalicular system of the large Wistar Furth platelets, contained dense material composed of alpha-granule proteins, not present in Wistar platelets. From these results, we conclude that the Wistar Furth rat platelet phenotype of large mean platelet volume and decreased levels of alpha-granule proteins represents an animal model resembling gray platelet syndrome. The autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of the large MPV phenotype and platelet alpha-granule protein deficiencies suggests that a component common to both formation of platelet alpha granules, and

  4. Reproductive senescence, fertility and reproductive tumour profile in ageing female Han Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchard, Terri L; Klein, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A study using vehicle administration in 104 female rats investigated reproductive aging in Han Wistar rats as a useful tool to interprete carcinogenicity studies where hormonal patterns are perturbated. From 16 weeks of age oestrous cycles were monitored every 6 weeks to investigate reproductive ageing. A subset of 20 females was used to assess fertility at 21 months of age. The animals were necropsied after 106-107 weeks on study and female reproductive organs, mammary glands and pituitary glands were examined for hyperplasias and/or tumours. The majority of rats had regular oestrous cycles up to 6 months of age. After this age, there was a rapid decline in the number of rats with regular oestrous cycles and an increase in irregular cycles and cycles in persistent di-oestrus with an occasional pro-oestrus. By the end of the study, the majority of animals were acyclic and the few remaining cyclic animals had irregular cycles. In the fertility assessment, 19/20 animals mated but only four animals became pregnant. These pregnant animals had normal numbers of corpora lutea of pregnancy but had high pre-implantation losses and could not sustain a viable pregnancy. 65 animals (62.5%) showed adenomas and/or pituitary hyperplasia in the pituitary gland at necropsy. The pituitary tumours were likely to be prolactin secreting that give rise to pseudopregnancy and mammary tumours, demonstrated by the fact that 43/65 (66%) of the affected animals had histopathological signs of these conditions. Multiple corpora lutea were found in 61% of all animals at time of termination. Only one uterine tumour was seen in this study probably due to lack of persistent oestrus seen in these animals.

  5. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of clerodendrum capitatum in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Idoh, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Potchoo, Yao; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity of C. capitatum in Wistar rats. Methods In acute toxicity tests, a single administration of the hydroethanolic C. capitatum leaf extract (5 g/kg) was given orally to 5 female rats. The general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days post treatment. On the 15th day, the rats were weighed and euthanized for necropsy. In sub-chronic toxicity tests, the extract (4, 8 and 16 g/kg/day) was given orally to both male and female rats for 28 days. The animal body weight was recorded throughout the experiment, while hematological and biochemical parameters of blood and relative organs weights were evaluated on the 29th day. Results Clerodendrum Capitatum did not cause any death or any hazardous symptoms of acute toxicity, showing an LD50 higher than 5 g/kg. Sub-chronic administration of C. capitatum resulted in no noticeable changes in weight gain and water or food consumption. White blood cells and hemoglobin increased while urea concentration, liver enzymes, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations significantly decreased in treated animals. No changes in macroscopical aspect of organs were observed in the animals. Conclusion These results showed that acute or sub-chronic oral administration of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum capitatum may be considered as relatively free of toxicity. PMID:27642406

  6. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  7. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  8. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  9. Clastogenic and toxicological assessment of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut bark extracts in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Owumi, Solomon E; Fatoki, John O; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to environmental toxicants have been associated with the onset of skin lesions-including cancers. Identification and reduction of exposure to such compounds is an important public health goal. We examined the effect of cashew shell oil (CSO), used in skin tattooing for its potential to induce skin transformation in rats. Corn oil and CSO (25, 50, and 100%) were topically applied to depilated sections of Wistar' rat skin (groups: I-IV) for six weeks. Effect of treatments on serum transaminases activity, histological changes in hepatocytes and induction of micronuclei in the bone marrow were examined. In addition, CSO-induced hepatocyte proliferation was also quantified. All animals survived the course of the study. Reduced percentage change in body weight and physical trauma were observed in CSO-treated rat. The effects were more prominent in Group IV (100% CSO). Relative liver weights and number of hepatocytes (cells/mm(2)) increased significantly in groups II-IV relative to control (p < 0.05). Serum transaminases activities were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected in treated groups. Hepatic histopathology revealed moderate sinusoidal congestion (group II), in addition to portal congestion in (group III), with mononuclear cellular infiltration (group IV) animals. In addition, CSO induced significant micronuclei formation of polychromatic erythrocyte (mPCEs) in the rat bone marrow (p < 0.05) when compared with control. Topical application of CSO disrupted skin cells integrity resulting in physical trauma. In addition, CSO appears to be clastogenic and induces hepatocyte proliferation. Occupational exposure to CSO especially for engraving tattoos in humans should be discouraged and further studies need to be conducted.

  10. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p < .05) in the levels of germinal epithelial diameter in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. There was no significant change (p < .05) in cross-sectional diameter of all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Group D rats showed a significant decrease (p ˂ .05) in lumen diameter compared with group B rats. There was an uneven distribution of germinal epithelial cells in groups B, C and D. However, there was degeneration of the epithelia cells in group D when compared to the control and group B rats. Sera levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are markers of reactive oxygen species, significantly increased (MDA) and decreased (SOD), respectively, in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Also sera levels of gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) significantly decreased (p < .05) in groups C and D compared with the control group. The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased

  11. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuihua; Ji, Guang; Liu, Jianwen

    2006-07-01

    Puerarin is a major isoflavonoid compound isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely for various medicinal purposes. It has been used for centuries in China to counteract alcohol intoxication. However, the effects of puerarin on chemical-induced liver fibrosis have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of puerarin on liver fibrosis in Wistar rats induced by alcohol plus carbon tetrachloride administration. Liver fibrosis was produced in rats by treatment with a mixture (50% alcohol, 8 g/kg per day; corn oil, 2 g/kg per day; pyrazole, 24 mg/kg per day; ig) once a day and by intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 ml/kg of a 25% solution of carbon tetrachloride in olive oil twice a week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, treatment with puerarin (0.4 and 0.8 g/kg ig, daily for 4 weeks) was conducted to examine its therapeutic effects. At the same time, the model group and treatment group continued to receive the chemical mixture, while the control group received saline instead of the chemical mixture. Upon pathological examination, the puerarin-treated rats significantly reversed the symptoms of liver fibrosis and other hepatic lesions. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as indexes of hepatic cell disruption, were reduced with puerarin treatment, whereas no significant effect was discovered in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities. A significant increase in apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) was found by flow cytometric analysis of the hepatic tissues. And the expression of bcl-2 mRNA was down-regulated after puerarin administration. Consequently, all these results showed that puerarin could effectively reverse chemical-induced liver fibrosis in experimental rats, via the recovery of hepatic injury as well as the induction of apoptosis in activated HSC.

  12. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  13. In vitro callus and in vivo leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre stimulate β-cells regeneration and anti-diabetic activity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V

    2010-11-01

    A methanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf and callus showed anti-diabetic activities through regenerating β-cells. Optimum callus was developed under stress conditions of blue light with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/l) and KN (0.5 mg/l), which induced maximum biomass of green compact callus at 45 days, as determined by growth curve analysis. Leaf and optimum callus extracts contains gymnemic acid, which was analyzed using TLC, HPTLC and HPLC methods. The research reported here deals with leaf and callus extracts of G. sylvestre, which significantly increase the weight of the whole body, liver, pancreas and liver glycogen content in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Wistar rats). The gymnemic acid of leaf and callus extracts significantly increases the regeneration of β-cells in treated rats, when compared with the standard diabetic rats. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

  14. A subtoxic interactive toxicity study of ethanol and chromium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Mehta, K; Krishnan, S; Rao, C V

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactive toxicity of ethanol with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7-chromium). Young, male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups of five or six animals each and were dosed, through water, with 10% ethanol (vol./vol.) or 25 ppm chromium or were dosed with a combination of ethanol+chromium at the same concentrations for a period of 22 weeks ad libitum and were maintained on normal diet. Control animals were maintained on a normal diet and water for the same period. The serum succinate dehydrogenase and liver total triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the three treated groups. The serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly reduced in ethanol-treated rats, and there was no significant change in the acid phosphatase activity. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels in the three treated groups were significantly increased. The liver glycogen significantly decreased in both the ethanol-treated and the chromium-treated rats. There was a significant increase in liver total cholesterol levels in chromium-treated rats. Total glutathione levels were significantly decreased in the livers of ethanol-treated and ethanol+chromium-treated rats. To further substantiate these findings, a histological examination of the liver and kidneys was undertaken. The livers of alcohol-treated animals showed altered hepatic architecture in the centrilobular and periportal areas, with increased sinusoidal space (space of Disse), vacuolation, and necrosis of hepatocytes. Similar changes were observed in a histological examination of the livers of chromium-treated rats, except that the damage to the hepatocytes was more confined to the periportal area. Moreover, histological examination of the livers of ethanol+chromium-treated rats revealed uniform damage in the centrilobular and periportal areas, as was observed in the groups treated either with ethanol or chromium. The histological examination of the

  15. [Chronic administration of estrogen receptors antagonist reduces degree of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension caused by chronic injections of estrogen in ovariectomised female Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Iu O; Artem'eva, M M; Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2013-01-01

    As we showed previously, administration of estradiol in different doses (5 and 15 mcg per day for 21 day) initiates the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in ovariectomised female Wistar rats. The aim of current study was to analyze the involvement of antagonist of estrogen receptors type a- and beta- ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) in development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Ovariectomised female rats were separated into 5 groups received subcutaneously for 1 month : 1. Estrogen 15 mcg per day. 2. Estrogen 60 mcg per day 3. Antagonist of estrogen receptors type alpha- and beta- fulvestrant 150 mcg per day. 4. Estrogen 15 mcg/d + fulvestrant 150 mcg/d. 5. Propylenglycol as a control group. PAH was induced by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Rats were housed in a hypobaric chamber at simulated altitude of 5000 m, 10 h a day, 2 wk (O2 concentration reduced to 10%). We suppose that the development of pulmonary hypertension in ovariectomised female Wistar rats caused by administration of estrogen (15 mcg and 60 mcg per day for 1 month) is mediated by estrogen receptors type alpha- and beta-.

  16. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  17. Effects of risperidone treatment on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide in appetite regulation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kursungoz, Canan; Ak, Mehmet; Yanik, Tulin

    2015-01-30

    Although the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs has been successful in the treatment of schizophrenia, they can cause some complications in the long-term use, including weight gain. Patients using these drugs tend to disrupt treatment primarily due to side effects. The atypical antipsychotic mechanism of action regulates a number of highly disrupted neurotransmitter pathways in the brains of psychotic patients but may also cause impairment of neurohormonal pathways in different brain areas. In this study, we investigated the circulating levels of hypothalamic neurohormones, which are related to appetite regulation; neuropeptide Y (NPY); alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH); cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART); agouti-related peptide (AgRP); and leptin in male Wistar rats, which were treated with risperidone, a serotonin antagonist, for four weeks. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of these candidate genes in the hypothalamus were also analyzed. We hypothesized that risperidone treatment might alter both hypothalamic and circulating levels of neuropeptides through serotonergic antagonism, resulting in weight gain. Gene expression studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), AgRP, and NPY decreased as well as their plasma levels, except for NPY. Unexpectedly, CART mRNA levels increased when their plasma levels decreased. Because POMC neurons express the serotonin receptor (5HT2C), the serotonergic antagonism of risperidone on POMC neurons may cause an increase in appetite and thus increase food consumption even in a short-term trial in rats.

  18. Spontaneous infarcted adenoma of the mammary gland in a Wistar Hannover GALAS rat

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kohei; Toyoda, Takeshi; Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Sone, Mizuki; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous massive infarction of mammary gland tumors has been reported to occur infrequently in humans. A subcutaneous mass (18 × 17 × 10 mm) was observed in the right axilla extending to the chest region of a 110-week-old female Wistar Hannover GALAS rat. Histopathologically, a well-circumscribed mass with lobular structures was present in the subcutis. Most of the mass was occupied by extensive coagulative necrosis of neoplastic cells with relatively uniform acinar and ductal structures. Although each necrotic acinar structure was separated by reticular fibers, periacinar stromal collagen fibers were not abundant. Considering the site of occurrence and histological features, the necrotic tissue was diagnosed as adenoma of the mammary gland. The necrotic region lacked hemorrhage and obvious inflammatory cell infiltration, indicating the necrosis was caused by infarction. Although multiple necrosis and focal infarction are occasionally observed in large-sized tumors in rodents, especially in adenocarcinomas, the present case was characteristic, with the massive infarction involving most parts of the tumor despite the relatively small size and low atypia of neoplastic cells. This is a rare case of spontaneous infarcted adenoma of the mammary gland in rats histologically resembling human cases. PMID:28190925

  19. Possible migration and histopathological analysis of injections of polymethylmethacrylate in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Neves, Rodrigo d'Eça; Herdt, Marcello Alberton; Wohlgemuth, Felipe Barbieri; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Antonio Accioli; Bastos, José Caldeira Ferreira; d'Acampora, Armando José

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the possible migration of polymethylmethacrylate after injections in various corporal compartments of Wistar rats. Methods. The experimental work consisted in the injection of PMMA in corporal compartments for later histopathological analysis of the locations of implants and of distant filtering organs. The dose applied in each implant was of 0.2 mL. The animals were divided into groups according to the location of the implant realized: group GB had intradermic injections in the glabella. Group SD had subdermal injections in dorsal subcutaneous tissue cells. Group IP had intraperitoneal injections in the abdomen. Group PD had intramuscular injections in the right rear leg. The rats were sacrificed 30 days after realization of the implants and tissue samples from the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney, and locations of implantation were removed for histopathological analysis. Results. Characteristic microspheres that were compatible with the presence of PMMA in any of the histological slides analyzed were not observed. One animal had an amorphous exogenous substance, with a histiocytic reaction. Twelve of the 16 lungs analyzed had locations of intraalveolar hemorrhaging. Two animals had nonspecific spleen alterations. Conclusion. The histopathological analysis of this study found no PMMA microspheres in any of the tissues analyzed.

  20. Impact of 4-epi-oxytetracycline on the gut microbiota and blood metabolomics of Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongxing; Xiao, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Zhenmei

    2016-01-01

    The impact of 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-EOTC), one of the main oxytetracycline (OTC) metabolites, on the gut microbiota and physiological metabolism of Wistar rats was analyzed to explore the dynamic alterations apparent after repeated oral exposure (0.5, 5.0 or 50.0 mg/kg bw) for 15 days as shown by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis. Both principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed consistently altered patterns with distinct differences in the treated groups versus the control groups. 4-EOTC treatment at 5.0 or 50.0 mg/kg increased the relative abundance of the Actinobacteria, specifically Bifidobacteriaceae, and improved the synthesis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC), as shown by the lipid biomarkers LysoPC(16:0), LysoPC(18:3), LysoPC(20:3), and LysoPC(20:4). The metabolomic analysis of urine samples also identified four other decreased metabolites: diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, triacylglycerol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Notably, the significant changes observed in these biomarkers demonstrated the ongoing disorder induced by 4-EOTC. Blood and urine analysis revealed that residual 4-EOTC accumulated in the rats, even two weeks after oral 4-EOTC administration, ceased. Thus, through thorough analysis, it can be concluded that the alteration of the gut microbiota and disorders in blood metabolomics are correlated with 4-EOTC treatment. PMID:26976662

  1. Differences between dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine: behavioral changes and oxidative damage in brain of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    da-Rosa, Dayane D; Valvassori, Samira S; Steckert, Amanda V; Arent, Camila O; Ferreira, Camila L; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Varela, Roger B; Mariot, Edemilson; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Andersen, Monica L; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    In this study methamphetamine (m-AMPH) and dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH) were compared to determine the potency of the two drugs on behavior and oxidative damage in brain of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were given single (acute administration) or repeated (chronic administration, 14 days) intraperitoneal injections of saline (0.9% NaCl), d-AMPH (2 mg/kg) or m-AMPH (0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg). Locomotor activity was evaluated in open-field apparatus 2 h after the last drug injection. Additionally, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl formation were measured in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and striatum. In both experiments, d-AMPH and m-AMPH (all doses administered) increased the locomotor activity of animals, meantime, no significant difference between d-AMPH and m-AMPH was observed. d-AMPH and m-AMPH increased lipid and protein damage, but m-AMPH was more potent than d-AMPH, however, this effect varies depending on the brain region and the experimental protocol. The results of this study show that d-AMPH and m-AMPH have similar behavioral effects, which previous studies had already reported. On the other hand, this study demonstrated that the m-AMPH induces oxidative damage greater than d-AMPH, showing neurochemical differences previously unknown.

  2. Modafinil effects on behavior and oxidative damage parameters in brain of wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ornell, Felipe; Valvassori, Samira S; Steckert, Amanda V; Deroza, Pedro F; Resende, Wilson R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João

    2014-01-01

    The effects of modafinil (MD) on behavioral and oxidative damage to protein and lipid in the brain of rats were evaluated. Wistar rats were given a single administration by gavage of water or MD (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg). Behavioral parameters were evaluated in open-field apparatus 1, 2, and 3 h after drug administration. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl formation were measured in the brain. MD increased locomotor activity at the highest dose 1 and 3 h after administration. MD administration at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased visits to the center of open-field 1 h after administration; however, 3 h after administration, all administered doses of MD increased visits to the open-field center. MD 300 mg/kg increased lipid damage in the amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum. Besides, MD increased protein damage in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus; however, this effect varies depending on the dose administered. In contrast, the administration of MD 75 and 300 mg/kg decreased the protein damage in the striatum. This study demonstrated that the MD administration induces behavioral changes, which was depending on the dose used. In addition, the effects of MD on oxidative damage parameters seemed to be in specific brain region and doses.

  3. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model. PMID:23864853

  4. Allopregnanolone preferentially induces energy‐rich food intake in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Ellinor; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Haage, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an increasing problem and identification of the driving forces for overeating of energy‐rich food is important. Previous studies show that the stress and sex steroid allopregnanolone has a hyperphagic effect on both bland food and palatable food. If allopregnanolone induces a preference for more palatable or for more energy‐rich food is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of allopregnanolone on food preference. Male Wistar rats were subjected to two different food preference tests: a choice between standard chow and cookies (which have a higher energy content and also are more palatable than chow), and a choice between a low caloric sucrose solution and standard chow (which has a higher energy content and is less palatable than sucrose). Food intake was measured for 1 h after acute subcutaneous injections of allopregnanolone. In the choice between cookies and chow allopregnanolone significantly increased only the intake of cookies. When the standard chow was the item present with the highest caloric load, the chow intake was increased and allopregnanolone had no effect on intake of the 10% sucrose solution. The increased energy intakes induced by the high allopregnanolone dose compared to vehicle were very similar in the two tests, 120% increase for cookies and 150% increase for chow. It appears that in allopregnanolone‐induced hyperphagia, rats choose the food with the highest energy content regardless of its palatability. PMID:25501437

  5. Phoenix dactylifera L. sap enhances wound healing in Wistar rats: Phytochemical and histological assessment.

    PubMed

    Abdennabi, Raed; Bardaa, Sana; Mehdi, Meriem; Rateb, Mostafa E; Raab, Andrea; Alenezi, Faizah N; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2016-07-01

    The sap of the date palm "Lagmi" is a clear liquid, rich in sugars and minerals, with a pleasant flavour. Folk remedies based on the use of "Lagmi" for wound healing are still practiced. However, no studies investigated the relevance of "Lagmi" for wound healing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the in vivo healing properties of "lagmi" on mechanically wounded wistar rats. Injured rats were divided into three groups: a first group treated by "lagmi", a second reference group processed by CICAFLORA(®) and a third untreated control group. On the 12th day of the experiment, total healing in the first group was reached, while healing was incomplete in the other groups. The sap seems to accelerate cell proliferation and contribute to faster healing with a gain of more than 30% as compared to CICAFLORA(®). Chemical Analysis of "Lagmi" showed important radical scavenging activity and high total antioxidant capacity. Features reported to help healing process and/or provides a favourable environment for tissue healing in wound sites. Extensive characterization of "Lagmi" phenolic and flavonoid compounds by High Resolution LC-MS (LC-HRESIMS) analysis indicates "Lagmi" is an important source of known anti-inflammatory compounds as well as promising wound healing candidates.

  6. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, Renganathan; Priya, D Kalpana Deepa; Gunassekaran, G R; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the liver in Asian countries. For more than a decade natural dietary agents including fruits, vegetables and spices have drawn a great deal of attention in the prevention of diseases, preferably cancer. Ursolic acid is a natural triterpenoid widely found in food, medicinal herbs, apple peel and other products it has been extensively studied for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Antioxidant status was assessed by alterations in level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Damage to plasma membranes was assessed by levels of membrane and tissue ATPases. Liver tissue was homogenized and utilized for estimation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and glycoproteins. Anticoagulated blood was utilized for erythrocyte membrane isolation. Oral administration of UA 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls at a significance of p< 0.05. Activities of membrane and tissue ATPases returned to normal after UA administration. Levels of glycoproteins were also restored after treatment. Histopathological observations were recorded. The findings from the above study suggest the effectiveness of UA in reducing the oxidative stress mediated changes in liver of rats. Since UA has been found to be a potent antioxidant, it can be suggested as an excellent chemopreventive agent in overcoming diseases like cancer which are mediated by free radicals.

  7. Modafinil Effects on Behavior and Oxidative Damage Parameters in Brain of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Valvassori, Samira S.; Steckert, Amanda V.; Deroza, Pedro F.; Resende, Wilson R.; Varela, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of modafinil (MD) on behavioral and oxidative damage to protein and lipid in the brain of rats were evaluated. Wistar rats were given a single administration by gavage of water or MD (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg). Behavioral parameters were evaluated in open-field apparatus 1, 2, and 3 h after drug administration. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl formation were measured in the brain. MD increased locomotor activity at the highest dose 1 and 3 h after administration. MD administration at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased visits to the center of open-field 1 h after administration; however, 3 h after administration, all administered doses of MD increased visits to the open-field center. MD 300 mg/kg increased lipid damage in the amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum. Besides, MD increased protein damage in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus; however, this effect varies depending on the dose administered. In contrast, the administration of MD 75 and 300 mg/kg decreased the protein damage in the striatum. This study demonstrated that the MD administration induces behavioral changes, which was depending on the dose used. In addition, the effects of MD on oxidative damage parameters seemed to be in specific brain region and doses. PMID:25431526

  8. Effect of dolomite oral exposure in Wistar rats during organogenesis period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bellma, Addis; Tillán, Juana; Gabilondo, Tatiana; Guerra, Isbel; Ocanto, Zuleira; Couret, Micaela; González, Ricardo

    2008-09-01

    The potential of oral exposure to dolomite, a natural product that contains calcium and magnesium, to initiate teratogenesis was analyzed in Wistar rats. Animals received dolomite oral dosages of 500 and 1500mg/kg during the period of gestation from day 6-15 post conceptionem (p.c.). Maternal, embryo and fetal toxicity were evaluated. Dolomite exposure did not produce maternal toxicity assessed by clinical observations, body weight gain, hematology parameters and relative organs weight. Signs of embryo-fetal toxicity were not observed. Skeletal malformations and visceral variations were similar in control and dolomite-treated groups. On the other hand, slight increase was observed in fetal body weight in the dolomite-treated group. Treatment with dolomite resulted in significantly decreased incidences of unossified xiphisternum, incomplete ossification of xiphisternum and sternebrae. These effects could be caused by a beneficial influence of calcium and magnesium salts present in dolomite on ossification process. In conclusion, in this study we found that the oral exposure to rats of up to 1500mg/kg of dolomite during organogenesis did not induce significant maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity.

  9. Chronic social isolation suppresses proplastic response and promotes proapoptotic signalling in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Djordjevic, Jelena; Radojcic, Marija B

    2010-08-15

    Successful adaptation to stress involves synergized actions of glucocorticoids and catecholamines at several levels of the CNS, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Inside the PFC, hormonal signals trigger concerted actions of transcriptional factors, such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), culminating in a balanced, proadaptive expression of their common genes, such as proplastic NCAM and/or apoptotic Bax and Bcl-2. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic stress may compromise the balance between GR and NFkappaB signals and lead to an altered/maladaptive expression of their cognate genes in the PFC. Our results obtained with Wistar rats exposed to chronic social isolation indicated alterations of the GR relative to the NFkappaB, in favor of the GR, in both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear compartments of the PFC. Although these alterations did not affect the induction of proplastic NCAM gene, they decreased the NCAM sialylation necessary for plastic response and caused marked relocation of the mitochondrial membrane antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein to its cytoplasmic form. Moreover, the compromised PSA-NCAM plastic response found under chronic stress was sustained after exposure of animals to the subsequent acute stress, whereas the proapoptotic signals were further emphasized. It is concluded that chronic social isolation of Wistar animals leads to a maladaptive response of the PFC, considering the diminishment of its plastic potential and potentiating of apoptosis. Such conditions in the PFC are likely to compromise its ability to interact with other CNS structures, such as the hippocampus, which is necessary for successful adaptation to stress.

  10. Auditory processing assessment suggests that Wistar audiogenic rat neural networks are prone to entrainment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hyorrana Priscila Pereira; Carvalho, Vinícius Rezende; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; Almeida, Ana Flávia Santos; Mendes, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra

    2017-04-07

    Epilepsy is a neurological disease related to the occurrence of pathological oscillatory activity, but the basic physiological mechanisms of seizure remain to be understood. Our working hypothesis is that specific sensory processing circuits may present abnormally enhanced predisposition for coordinated firing in the dysfunctional brain. Such facilitated entrainment could share a similar mechanistic process as those expediting the propagation of epileptiform activity throughout the brain. To test this hypothesis, we employed the Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR) reflex animal model, which is characterized by having seizures triggered reliably by sound. Sound stimulation was modulated in amplitude to produce an auditory steady-state-evoked response (ASSR; -53.71Hz) that covers bottom-up and top-down processing in a time scale compatible with the dynamics of the epileptic condition. Data from inferior colliculus (IC) c-Fos immunohistochemistry and electrographic recordings were gathered for both the control Wistar group and WARs. Under 85-dB SLP auditory stimulation, compared to controls, the WARs presented higher number of Fos-positive cells (at IC and auditory temporal lobe) and a significant increase in ASSR-normalized energy. Similarly, the 110-dB SLP sound stimulation also statistically increased ASSR-normalized energy during ictal and post-ictal periods. However, at the transition from the physiological to pathological state (pre-ictal period), the WAR ASSR analysis demonstrated a decline in normalized energy and a significant increase in circular variance values compared to that of controls. These results indicate an enhanced coordinated firing state for WARs, except immediately before seizure onset (suggesting pre-ictal neuronal desynchronization with external sensory drive). These results suggest a competing myriad of interferences among different networks that after seizure onset converge to a massive oscillatory circuit.

  11. Muscle-specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Annesofie T; Jensen, Bente R; Uhlendorf, Toni L; Cohen, Randy W; Baan, Guus C; Maas, Huub

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO), and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic and normally developed Han-Wistar rats. In addition, the extent of epimuscular myofascial force transmission between synergistic GA, SO, and PL, as well as between the calf muscles and antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA), was investigated. Active length-force curves of spastic GA and PL were narrower with a reduced maximal active force. In contrast, active length-force characteristics of spastic SO were similar to those of controls. In reference position (90° ankle and knee angle), higher resistance to ankle dorsiflexion and increased passive stiffness was found for the spastic calf muscle group. At optimum length, passive stiffness and passive force of spastic GA were decreased, whereas those of spastic SO were increased. No mechanical interaction between the calf muscles and TA was found. As GA was lengthened, force from SO and PL declined despite a constant muscle-tendon unit length of SO and PL. However, the extent of this interaction was not different in spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes observed for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate that altered mechanics in spastic rats cannot be attributed to differences in mechanical interaction, but originate from individual muscular structures.

  12. Somatic Antigens of Tropical Liver Flukes Ameliorate Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Umar, Sadiq; Abidi, Syed M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminths polarize immune response of their vertebrate hosts towards anti-inflammatory Th2 type and therefore it is hypothesized that they may suppress the inflammatory conditions in autoimmune disorders. The present study was undertaken to investigate in vivo immunomodulatory and therapeutic potential of somatic antigens (Ag) of liver infecting digenetic trematodes [Fasciola gigantica (Fg) and Gigantocotyle explanatum (Ge)] in collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) Wistar rats. The CIA rats were administered subcutaneously with different doses (50 μg, 100 μg and 150 μg) of somatic antigens of Fg and Ge, daily for 21 days, the time period required to establish infection in natural host (Bubalus bubalis). Thereafter, the control, diseased and treated rats were compared for different parameters viz. hind paw thickness; serum interleukins, IL-4 and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ); expression level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -9, -13 and nitric oxide (NO) in knee joints and patellar morphology. The CIA rats treated with different antigens, Fg-Ag and Ge-Ag, show significant amelioration of the disease by down regulation of serum TNF-α and IFN-γ (p< 0.05) and upregulation of IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines (p< 0.05); inhibition (p< 0.05) of MMPs (-2,-9,-13) and NO in knee joints and improved patellar morphology with decreased synovial hypertrophy and reduced infiltration of ploymorphonuclear cells. The activity of pro as well as active MMPs (-2 and -9) and active MMP-13 in knee joints of CIA rats was very high compared to the control and treatment groups, suggesting the extent of collagen degradation in CIA rats. Interestingly, the highest dose (150 μg) of Ge-Ag almost wiped out MMP-13 expression. The overall findings suggest that the somatic proteins of Ge-Ag appeared to be therapeutically more effective than Fg-Ag, reflecting interspecific molecular differences which could contribute to the ability of these worms to

  13. Age-Dependent Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Activity and LDL Oxidation in Wistar Rats during Their Entire Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dileep

    2014-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL bound enzyme which plays a key role in the protection of LDL and HDL from oxidation by hydrolyzing activated phospholipids and lipid peroxide products. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis by oxidation of LDL. This study was conducted to determine age-dependent changes in plasma PON1 arylesterase activity and LDL oxidation in rats during their entire lifespan. 48 Wistar strain rats were grouped in six different age groups (1, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months). We observe a significant (P < 0.001) age-dependent decrease in plasma PON1 arylesterase activity correlating with increase in susceptibility of LDL oxidation and increase in plasma MDA level concomitantly with a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in plasma radical scavenging activity after 8 months. The reduction of PON1 and free radical scavenging activity with age could have a considerable impact on the increased incidence of atherosclerosis with age. Our observation of a significant decline in PON1 activity which correlates with increased LDL oxidation after 8 months of age is an interesting observation and needs further investigation. PMID:24971380

  14. Alteration of cyclosporine (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity by gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Morphake, P; Bariety, J; Darlametsos, I; Tsipas, G; Gkikas, G; Hornysh, A; Papanikolaou, N

    1994-01-01

    Administration of cyclosporine (CsA), 37.4 microM (45 mg)/Kg, per day for 7 days, to Wistar rats, induced decreased creatinine clearance (Ccr) and body weight loss (BWL), but it did not induce proteinuria. These changes were associated with enhanced urinary thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and diminished 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (6kPGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) excretions. The augmentation in TXB2 and the decrease in PGs highly diminished the ratios of 6kPGF1 alpha/TXB2 and PGE2/TXB2. In microscopic sections all of the kidneys were affected to variable degrees. When CsA was administered to animals fed for 70 days, prior to the experiment, on standard chow (SC) containing evening primrose oil (EPO) or fish oil (FO), 1% and 10% respectively (EPO contained 9% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and FO 5.6% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)), the nephrotoxic effect of CsA was partially prevented. These changes were accompanied by increased ratios of urinary 6kPGF1 alpha/TXB2 and PGE2/TXB2 excretions. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed that rats' kidneys fed on SC containing EPO or FO were not always affected and the lesions were of minor importance. In conclusion, these results suggest that EPO (GLA) and FO (EPA) could play a beneficial role in the development or the modulation of the renal syndrome induced by CsA.

  15. Sleep deprivation alters energy homeostasis through non-compensatory alterations in hypothalamic insulin receptors in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Danilo Alves; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    Studies have shown a gradual reduction of sleep time in the general population, accompanied by increased food intake, representing a risk for developing obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) exhibit feeding and metabolic alterations, both of which are regulated by the communication between peripheral signals and the hypothalamus. This study aimed to investigate the daily change of 96 h of PSD-induced food intake, body weight, blood glucose, plasma insulin and leptin concentrations and the expression of their receptors in the hypothalamus of Wistar rats. Food intake was assessed during the light and dark phases and was progressively increased in sleep-deprived animals, during the light phase. PSD produced body weight loss, particularly on the first day, and decreased plasma insulin and leptin levels, without change in blood glucose levels. Reduced leptin levels were compensated by increased expression of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus, whereas no compensations occurred in insulin receptors. The present results on body weight loss and increased food intake replicate previous studies from our group. The fact that reduced insulin levels did not lead to compensatory changes in hypothalamic insulin receptors, suggests that this hormone may be, at least in part, responsible for PSD-induced dysregulation in energy metabolism.

  16. Disposition and metabolic profiling of [14C]-decabromodiphenyl ether in pregnant Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Riu, Anne; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Debrauwer, Laurent; Garcia, Aurélie; Canlet, Cécile; Jouanin, Isabelle; Zalko, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Fully brominated diphenyl ether, decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants worldwide. Little data is available about the metabolic fate of DBDE in animal models and nothing at all about the extent of foetal exposure. In this work, pregnant Wistar rats were force-fed with 99.8% pure [14C]-DBDE over 96 h at a late stage of gestation (days 16 to 19). More than 19% of the administered dose was recovered in tissues and carcasses, demonstrating efficient absorption of DBDE despite its high molecular weight and low solubility. The highest concentrations of DBDE residues were found in endocrine glands (adrenals, ovaries) and in the liver, with lower values recorded for fat. In all tissue extracts, most of the radioactivity was associated with unchanged DBDE. The use of high-grade purity [14C]-DBDE allowed quantification of several metabolites present both in maternal tissues and in foetuses. These biotransformation products accounted for 9-27% of the extractable radioactivity in tissues and 14% of that in foetuses. Three nona-BDEs and one octa-BDE were identified by LC-APPI/MS. The unequivocal characterisation of a hydroxylated octa-BDE isolated from liver was confirmed by NMR. In rat, the main metabolic pathways of DBDE are debromination and oxidation. DBDE, and very likely most of its metabolites, are able to cross the placental barrier in rat. Metabolic profiles, obtained in vivo for the first time, demonstrated the presence of DBDE and major biotransformation products in endocrine glands as well as in foetuses. The biological activity of these metabolites still needs to be assessed in order to better understand the potential toxicity of DBDE.

  17. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  18. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, I C; de Oliveira, C; Vercelino, R; Souza, A; Laste, G; Medeiros, L F; Scarabelot, V L; Nunes, E A; Kuo, J; Fregni, F; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that food craving-an intense desire to consume a specific food (particularly foods high in sugar and fat)-can lead to obesity. This behavior has also been associated with abuse of other substances, such as drugs. Both drugs and food cause dependence by acting on brain circuitry involved in reward, motivation, and decision-making processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be activated following evocation and is implicated in alterations in food behavior and craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulates brain activity significantly, has emerged as a promising treatment to inhibit craving. This technique is considered safe and inexpensive; however, there is scant research using animal models. Such studies could help elucidate the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of eating disorders, including food craving. The aim of our study was to evaluate palatable food consumption in rats receiving tDCS treatment (anode right/cathode left). Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomized by weight and divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control, with no stimulation; sham, receiving daily 30 s tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days; and tDCS, receiving daily 20 min tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days. All rats were evaluated for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. A palatable food consumption test was performed at baseline and on treatment completion (24 h after the last tDCS session) under fasting and feeding conditions and showed that tDCS decreased food craving, thus corroborating human studies. This result confirms the important role of the prefrontal cortex in food behavior, which can be modulated by noninvasive brain stimulation.

  19. Pharmacological dose of {alpha}-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Maria Carolina M O; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Matsubara, Luiz S; Correa, Camila R; Pereira, Elenize J; Moreira, Priscila L; Carvalho, Flavio A; Burini, Caio H; Padovani, Carlos R; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Ferreira, Ana Lucia A

    2011-10-01

    The effect of pharmacological dose of α-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (α-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or α-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg α-tocopherol/[kg body wt/day]) (E) by gavage for a 7-week period. Rats underwent echocardiogram and were analyzed for cardiomyocyte histology and cardiac α-tocopherol absorption at the end of the study period. As compared to the C group, α-tocopherol-supplemented group showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower body weight (E, 412.8 g vs C, 480.3 g) and total cardiac weight (E, 0.94 g vs C, 1.08 g); cardiomyocyte histological impairment; smaller left ventricle (LV) (LV end-diastolic diameter (E, 7.22 mm vs C, 7.37 mm), lower LV systolic [left ventricle fractional shortening (E, 47.6% vs C, 53.6%) and ejection fraction ratio (E, 85.4 vs C, 89.9)] and diastolic [early peak velocities of diastolic transmitral flow (E, 64.6 cm/sec vs C, 75.1 cm/sec)] function. The α-tocopherol uptake in target tissue was confirmed by determination of α-tocopherol concentration medians in cardiac tissue (E, 109.91 nmol/kg vs C, 52.09 nmol/kg). The current study indicates that pharmacological dose of α-tocopherol supplementation can induce cardiotoxicity in healthy rats.

  20. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, W. L. N. V. Vara; Srilatha, Ch.; Sailaja, N.; Raju, N. K. B.; Jayasree, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage. PMID:27956790

  1. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, F A; Mattar, R; Facincani, I; Defino, H L A; Ramalho, L N Z; Jorgetti, V; Volpon, J B; de Paula, F J A

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility.

  2. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  3. Anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker (Asphodelaceae) stem at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight was investigated for anabolic and androgenic effects in male Wistar rats. Sixty male rats were grouped into four (A-D) consisting of 15 each. Group A (control) was orally treated with 0.5 mL of distilled water for 14 days while groups B, C and D were treated like the control except they received 0.5 mL containing 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. All the doses of the extract increased (P <0.05) the testicular-body weight ratio as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, glycogen, sialic acid, protein, and cholesterol content of the testes except the single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight which compared well (P>0.05) with the controls for glycogen and cholesterol. The testicular and serum testosterone concentration were increased except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the tissue and serum hormone did not manifest until after the first and seven daily doses respectively. Testicular acid phosphatase activity, serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone concentrations also increased at all the doses except in the 100 mg/kg body weight where the effect on the enzyme and the hormone did not manifest until after seven days. The increases were most pronounced in the 50 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The results indicate anabolic and androgenic activities of Bulbine natalensis stem in male rat testes with the 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the highest anabolizing and androgenic activities. These activities further support the folkloric use of the plant most especially at 50 mg/kg body weight in the management of male sexual dysfunction in South Africa.

  4. Dose-Dependent Effect of Deltamethrin in Testis, Liver, and Kidney of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir; Jan, Mysra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, household pest control, protection of foodstuff, and disease vector control. Although initially thought to be least toxic, a number of recent reports showed its toxic effects in mammalian and non-mammalian animal species. The current study was performed to assess the dose-dependent deltamethrin toxicity on testes, liver, and kidney of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rats were divided in four groups of 6 each. Group A served as normal control. Group B, C, and D were administered with different doses (2 or 3 or 6 mg/kg corresponding to 1/30th or 1/20th or 1/10th of LD50, respectively) of deltamethrin for 28 days. Results: Deltamethrin exposure caused a significant reduction in weight of reproductive organs, decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), and luteinizing hormones (LH) in testis. Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were decreased in testis, liver and kidney of exposed rats. Deltamethrin exposure significantly increased sperm abnormalities in testis. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in testis, liver and kidney. Deltamethrin also caused histological alterations in testes, liver, and kidney. Conclusions: The results indicated that deltamethrin at a dose of 6 mg/kg exerts significant harmful effects on testes, liver and kidney as compare to 2 mg and 3 mg/kg. The study concluded that the system toxicity induced by deltamethrin was dose dependent. PMID:25253921

  5. Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Leo T M; van de Kuil, Ton; Leonards, Pim E G; Slob, Wout; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Litens, Sabina; Herlin, Maria; Håkansson, Helen; Cantón, Rocío F; van den Berg, Martin; Visser, Theo J; van Loveren, Henk; Vos, Josephus G; Piersma, Aldert H

    2009-02-25

    The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/day (mkd) in parental rats during 10 (males) or 2 (females) weeks premating, during gestation and lactation, and in their F1 offspring from weaning until final necropsy. Effects were assessed in F1 animals. Livers of these animals showed increased HBCD concentrations, in a dose-dependent way. The trabecular bone mineral density of the tibia was dose-dependently decreased in females (BenchMark Dose Lower confidence bound, BMDL=0.056 mkd). The IgG response after immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was increased in males (BMDL=0.46 mkd). Further sensitive effects were decreased weight of the testis (BMDL=1.5 mkd), increased fraction of neutrophilic granulocytes (BMDL=7.7 mkd), decreased concentration of apolar retinoids in female livers (BMDL=1.3 mkd), and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase in females (BMDL=8.6 mkd). CYP19/aromatase activity in the ovary was correlated to the concentration of gamma-HBCD in the liver. A developmental origin of these effects is considered, and this is also true for sensitive effects observed in neurobehavioural testing in littermates from the same experiment, i.e. in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials and in a catalepsy test [Lilienthal, H., Van der Ven, L.T.M., Piersma, A.H., Vos, J.G. Neurobehavioral effects of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in rats after pre- and postnatal exposure, in press]. The low BMDLs of these effects may raise concern for human health, particularly when based on body burdens of HBCD, which leads to critical margins of exposure particularly for the occupational setting.

  6. [Twenty-eight-day repeated dose toxicity test for tetrachlorvinphos in Wistar rat].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Suzuki, S; Takada, K; Sai, K; Kamata, E; Umemura, T; Kaneko, T; Kurokawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    A 28-day oral toxicity test of tetrachlorvinphos (TCV) was conducted in male and female Slc: Wistar rats by gavage at dose levels of 0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg/day. The male and female rats showed dose-related inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity. At a dose of 1000 mg/kg, body weight gain was decreased in males, and there were 6 deaths in females. Adrenal gland, liver, kidney and thyroid gland weights were increased. The adrenal lesions were characterized by vacuolization and swelling of the cortex cells. The hepatic lesions consisted of vacuolization and necrosis of the hepatocytes. The renal lesions consisted of regeneration and necrosis of the tubular epithelial cells. These lesions were mostly observed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. After a 14-day recovery period in the 1000 mg/kg group, the changes of cholinesterase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen in serum were restored or showed a tendency toward recovery. However, the lesions in the kidney and adrenal remained. More than 14 days are therefore considered to be needed for recovery. At doses of more than 10 mg/kg, significant inhibition of the serum cholinesterase activity in both sexes, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity in males, and lesions of the adrenal gland in females were observed. Target organs for TCV-treated rats were the adrenal, liver and kidney. It was concluded that the NOEL under this experimental condition is less than 10 mg/kg/day.

  7. Pamidronate for the treatment of osteoporosis secondary to chronic cholestatic liver disease in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, F.A.; Mattar, R.; Facincani, I.; Defino, H.L.A.; Ramalho, L.N.Z.; Jorgetti, V.; Volpon, J.B.; de Paula, F.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major complication of chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD). We evaluated the efficacy of using disodium pamidronate (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for the prevention (Pr) or treatment (Tr) of cholestasis-induced osteoporosis in male Wistar rats: sham-operated (Sham = 12); bile duct-ligated (Bi = 15); bile duct-ligated animals previously treated with pamidronate before and 1 month after surgery (Pr = 9); bile duct-ligated animals treated with pamidronate 1 month after surgery (Tr = 9). Rats were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and GH receptor was determined in the proximal growth plate cartilage of the left tibia. Histomorphometric analysis was performed in the right tibia and the right femur was used for biomechanical analysis. Bone material volume over tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly affected by CCLD (Sham = 18.1 ± 3.2 vs Bi = 10.6 ± 2.2%) and pamidronate successfully increased bone volume. However, pamidronate administered in a preventive regimen presented no additional benefit on bone volume compared to secondary treatment (BV/TV: Pr = 39.4 ± 12.0; Tr = 41.2 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the force on the momentum of fracture was significantly reduced in Pr rats (Sham = 116.6 ± 23.0; Bi = 94.6 ± 33.8; Pr = 82.9 ± 22.8; Tr = 92.5 ± 29.5 N; P < 0.05, Sham vs Pr). Thus, CCLD had a significant impact on bone histomorphometric parameters and pamidronate was highly effective in increasing bone mass in CCLD; however, preventive therapy with pamidronate has no advantage regarding bone fragility. PMID:22983176

  8. The influence of intrauterine exposure to immunosuppressive treatment on changes in the immune system in juvenile Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Wojciuk, Bartosz; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Roszkowska, Paulina; Krasnodębska-Szponder, Barbara; Paczkowska, Edyta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Machaliński, Bogusław; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Background In our study, we assessed the impact of immunosuppressive drug combinations on changes in the immune system of juvenile Wistar rats exposed to these drugs during pregnancy. We primarily concentrated on changes in two organs of the immune system – the thymus and the spleen. Methods The study was conducted on 40 (32+8) female Wistar rats administered full and half dose of drugs, respectively, subjected to regimens commonly used in therapy of human kidney transplant recipients ([1] cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone; [2] tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone; [3] cyclosporine A, everolimus, and prednisone). The animals received drugs by oral gavage 2 weeks before pregnancy and during 3 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the weight of the thymus and spleen, but changes were found in the results of blood hematology, cytometry from the spleen, and a histologic examination of the examined immune organs of juvenile Wistar rats. In the cytokine assay, changes in the level of interleukine 17 (IL-17) after increasing amounts of concanavaline A were dose-dependent; the increase of IL-17 was blocked after administration of higher doses of immunosuppressive drugs. However, after a reduction of doses, its increase resumed. Conclusion Qualitative, quantitative, and morphological changes in the immune system of infant rats born to pharmacologically immunosuppressed females were observed. Thymus structure, spleen composition, and splenocyte IL-17 production were mostly affected in a drug regimen–dependent manner. PMID:27471376

  9. Oxidative stress responses in Wistar rats on subacute exposure to pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Ali; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmed; Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Akhtar, Bushra; Saleem, Ammara

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution has been a major concern for agrarian societies like Pakistan. Pharmaceutical industries are amongst the foremost contributor to industrial waste. Present study addresses the generation of oxidative stress caused by 2 months exposure to pharmaceutical wastewater in rats and their response to oral treatment with vitamin E, a potent antioxidant. The rats were randomized into five groups (n = 5) named as negative control, pharmaceutical wastewater (PEW) 100 %, PEW 10 %, PEW 1 %, and PEW 100 % + vitamin E. Oxidative damage in rats was evaluated by estimation of the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the liver, kidney, and blood/plasma. Exposure to pharmaceutical wastewater significantly decreased the activities of T-SOD and CAT and concentration of H2O2 in the liver and kidney and blood/plasma. Exposure to 100 % pharmaceutical wastewater exhibited a maximum decline in T-SOD activity, and activity was reduced to only 63.57 U/mL, 32.65, and 43.57 U/mg of protein in the plasma, kidney, and liver, respectively. Exposure to wastewater minimized activity CAT to 89.25 U/g of hemoglobin, 54.36, and 62.95 U/mg of protein in the blood, kidney, and liver, respectively. Treatment with vitamin E significantly increased the activity of T-SOD and CAT. However, increase in concentration of H2O2 was also observed in vitamin E exposed rats. Histopathology of the kidney revealed coagulative necrosis of renal epithelial cells and peritubular congestion. Endocardium showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and cellular breakdown in some areas. Lung sections exhibited atelectasis and emphysema of alveoli suggesting decline in lung function. The anatomy of the liver was also compromised due to severe degeneration and cellular swelling. The present study concluded that pharmaceutical wastewater induced severe oxidative stress in Wistar rats and ensued in histopathological lesions

  10. Preventive effect of phytic acid on lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Brindha, E; Rajasekapandiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats subcutaneously injected with ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for two days showed a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats, but the activities of glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were decreased significantly in the lysosomal fraction of the heart. Pretreatment with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 56 d positively altered activities of lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, phytic acid possesses a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  11. Pharmacological validation of the free-exploratory paradigm in male Wistar rats: A proposed test of trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Thiago Henrique; Goes, Tiago Costa; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2015-08-01

    The free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety for both mice and rats. However, its pharmacological validation has only been carried out for the mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to pharmacologically validate FEP for Wistar rats, by testing the effects of clinically established anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, in four different experiments. In all experiments, male Wistar rats were first tested in FEP to be categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low). Then, only medium trait anxiety rats were selected to be tested again in FEP, two weeks later, after being pharmacologically treated, according to each experiment as follows: Experiment I: 0.5mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) or vehicle; Experiment II: 20mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or vehicle; Experiment III: 5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX5) or vehicle: and Experiment IV: 0.5mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX0.5) or vehicle. As a group, the results showed that PTZ and FLX5 increased levels of trait anxiety and reduced locomotor activity, whereas DZP and FLX0.5 decreased levels of trait anxiety, without impairing locomotor activity. These results demonstrate that FEP for rats is able to predict clinical anxiolytic and anxiogenic activities of different drugs, including fluoxetine, which is believed to present a dual effect on anxiety. Therefore, this paradigm can be proposed as an effective method for testing potential trait anxiety-reducing drugs, in rats.

  12. Neuropeptide Y suppresses ethanol drinking in ethanol-abstinent, but not non-ethanol-abstinent, Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Stewart, Robert B; Badia-Elder, Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on two-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exposure, cycles of ethanol abstinence, or both. Ethanol-drinking Wistar rats were given 6 weeks of access to 15% (vol/vol) ethanol and water followed by either: two cycles of 1 week ethanol vapor exposure and 2 weeks with no ethanol; two cycles of 1 week ethanol bottle availability and 2 weeks with no ethanol; or 2 weeks of ethanol vapor exposure. Rats were infused intracerebroventricularly with one of four NPY doses (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 microg) following the ethanol exposure patterns described above, and tested for ethanol drinking and feeding in a two-bottle choice situation. NPY dose dependently increased food intake regardless of ethanol exposure history, but suppressed ethanol drinking only in rats that underwent cycles of ethanol access and ethanol abstinence. These results support the notion that dysregulation of brain NPY systems during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure is important in the motivational drive for subsequent relapse to ethanol drinking.

  13. Geraniol attenuates 2-acetylaminofluorene induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the liver of wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Syed Kazim; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    2-Acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), is a well-known liver toxicant, generally used to induce tumors in laboratory animals. Geraniol (GE), a monoterpene found in essential oils of herbs and fruits, has been known to possess preventive efficacy against chemically induced toxicities. The present study was designed to analyze the protective effect of GE against 2-AAF induced oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperproliferation and apoptotic tissue damage in the liver of female Wistar rats. 2-AAF (0.02% w/w in diet) was administered and subjected to partial hepatectomy, as a mitogenic stimulus for the induction of hyperproliferation of liver tissue. GE was pre-treated orally at two different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt.) dissolved in corn oil. GE pre-treatment significantly ameliorated 2-AAF induced oxidative damage by diminishing tissue lipid peroxidation accompanied by the increase in enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione content. The level of serum toxicity markers (AST, ALT, LDH) was found to be decreased. Pre-treatment with GE downregulated the expression of caspase-3,9, COX-2, NFkB, PCNA, iNOS, VEGF and significantly decreased disintegration of DNA. Histological findings further revealed that GE significantly restores the architecture of liver tissue. In the light of the above observations it may be concluded that GE may be used as preventive agent against 2-AAF induced oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperproliferation and apoptotic damage.

  14. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window.

  15. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  16. Endothelial, renal and hepatic variables in Wistar rats treated with Vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Bruniera, Felipe R; Ferreira, Felipe M; Savioli, Luiz R M; Bacci, Marcelo R; Feder, David; Pereira, Edimar C; Pedreira, Mavilde L G; Peterlini, Maria A S; Perazzo, Fábio F; Azzalis, Ligia A; Rosa, Paulo C P; Junqueira, Virginia B C; Sato, Monica A; Fonseca, Fernando L A

    2014-12-01

    Vancomycin (VCM) is indicated in combat against Gram-positive infections, but it is not considered a first-choice drug because of its adverse effects. It is believed that oxidative stress is the primary mechanism of endothelial injury and the consequent VCM toxicity, which varies from phlebitis to nephrotoxicity. Moreover, dose recommendations, dilution, rates and types of infusion are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different VCM dilutions in endothelial, liver and kidney injuries by biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis. Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to femoral vein cannulation for drug administration. Control groups received 0.9 ml of saline and the others received VCM (10mg/Kg/day) at dilutions of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/mL for 3 and 7 days. Homocysteine, hs-CRP, AST, ALT, GGT, urea, creatinine, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol were analyzed. Kidney, liver and cannulated femoral vein fragments were collected.This study showed alterations in ALT which featured hepatotoxicity. However, drug dilutions were not able to show changes in other biochemical parameters. In contrast, kidney and endothelium pathological changes were observed. More studies are needed to characterize VCM induced kidney and endothelium toxicity and biochemical markers able to show such morphological modifications.

  17. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru . E-mail: xrwang@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-01-15

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  18. Annona montana fruit and leaves improve the glycemic and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Soares de Souza, Maricelma da Silva; dos Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf; Farinazzi-Machado, Flávia Maria Vasques; Araújo, Adriano Cressoni; Meneguim, Carla Omete; Pascoal Silveira, Eliane; de Souza Oliveira, Natalia; da Silva, Beatriz Clivati; Barbosa, Sara da Silva; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; Gonçalves, Priscilla Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Species of the family Annonaceae has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant in tropical regions of South and North America and in Africa. Annona montana is known popularly as false graviola and originates from tropical America and can be cultivated throughout Brazil. There are no studies in the literature that associate A. montana with the metabolic profile of animals. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the consumption of pulp and leaves of this plant on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. The animals, which were treated for 40 days, were divided into two control groups--treated with water via gavage and ad libitum, respectively, and two treated groups--one treated with leaf juice and the other with pulp juice of the fruit. Glycemia, lipids, and body weight were found to decrease and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels to increase in the animals treated with leaf juice. The group treated with pulp juice showed a reduction in lipids and augmented HDL-c. The use of A. montana may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and may thus contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Ameliorative Potential of Psidium guajava on Hemato-biochemical Alterations in Arsenic-exposed Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Tandan, Neeraj; Roy, Manju; Roy, Sushovan

    2012-05-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effects of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) when administered in combination with sodium arsenite @ 20 ppm in drinking water with the aim of achieving normalization of altered biochemical, hematological parameters suggestive of hepatic damage and depletion of inorganic arsenic following chronic arsenic exposure. Thirty adult Wistar rats were given 20 ppm arsenic for eight weeks along with hydro alcoholic leaf extract of P. guajava at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight wt. (orally) (once daily for eight weeks). Arsenic exposure led to significant depletion of hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBC) and packed cell volume (PCV) but elevated leucocyte count (TLC). There was a significant increase (P<0.01/P<0.05) in serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphotase (ALP), acid phosphotase (ACP) and blood glucose whereas decrease in total protein level in arsenic-exposed untreated animals. The changes were accompanied by a significant elevation in blood and soft-tissue arsenic concentration. Co-administration of P. guajava was most effective not only in reducing arsenic-induced hematological and biochemical alterations but also in depleting arsenic from blood and soft tissues following arsenic exposure. We thus recommend combined leaf extract of P. guajava for achieving optimum effects of chelation therapy.

  20. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Odilon A.; Sanches, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Ícaro E.F.; Silva, Márcio L.A.; Vinhólis, Adriana H.C.; Felix, Mireille A.P.; Santos, Raquel A.; Cecchi, Andréa O.

    2012-01-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa (“ipê roxo”) on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg−1 of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg−1 dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects. PMID:22888300

  1. Genotoxic effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC.) Standl. (Lamiales, Bignoniaceae) extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Odilon A; Sanches, Júlio C M; Silva, Icaro E F; Silva, Márcio L A; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Felix, Mireille A P; Santos, Raquel A; Cecchi, Andréa O

    2012-04-01

    Tabebuia sp. is native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America. Although the biological and pharmacological effects of bark extracts have been intensely studied, little is known on the extract obtained from the flower. Herein, the genotoxic potential of a flower extract from T. impetiginosa ("ipê roxo") on the blood and liver cells of Wistar rats was evaluated. Experimental procedures involved only male animals. Graduated concentrations of the extract, viz., 100, 300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of body weight, were gavage-administered and 24 h latter cells were collected and processed for analysis. With the exception of the 100 mg kg(-1) dose, a significant increase in DNA damage was noted, when compared with a negative control group. Although the genotoxic potential of this extract was higher in liver cells, the response in both tissues was related to dose-dependency. Even though DNA damage can be corrected before conversion into mutations, further study is recommended to arrive at a better understanding of incurred biological effects.

  2. Structural Changes in Large Intestinal Aggregated Lymphoid Follicles in Wistar Rats During Postnatal Ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, E A

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative evaluation of aggregated lymphoid follicles in various compartments of the large intestine was carried out in Wistar rats of different age: newborn (3-4 days), prepubertal (20-30 days), adult (2-3 months), and old (16-18 months). No aggregated lymphoid tissue was detected in the large intestinal mucosa of newborn animals. The cecum of prepubertal, adult, and old animals contained solitary patches with 7-9 follicles. Higher percentage of aggregated lymphoid tissue, associated with colonic mucosa, was explained by enlargement of the lymphoid patch area and of the number of solitary lymphoid follicles during the postnatal ontogenesis. The mean area of a patch in the distal part of the colon in prepubertal, adult, and old animals was 3.2, 2.5, and 2.2 times larger than in the medial part of the intestine, the number of follicles per patch was 2.8, 2.8, and 2.5 times higher, respectively. The differences were significant only for the two younger groups.

  3. In vitro and in vivo vasodilator activity of racemic tramadol and its enantiomers in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Pontes, Luana Braga; Antunes, Fernanda; Trachez, Margarete Manhães; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2006-01-13

    Tramadol ((+/-)-tramadol) is an analgesic agent formulated as a racemic mixture (1:1) of (-)- and (+)-tramadol, which differ in their potency to bind to mu-opioid receptors and to inhibit monoamine-reuptake. We investigated the stereoselectivity of in vitro tramadol-induced vasodilatation of aortic rings and its effect on the arterial blood pressure measured in conscious Wistar rats. (+)-Tramadol, but not (-)-tramadol, produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of aorta precontracted with phenylephrine. The concentration-response curve was significantly altered by the removal of endothelium. Vascular relaxation was also inhibited by pre-incubation of endothelium-intact aorta with naloxone, suggesting the involvement of opioid receptors. The vasodilatation produced by tramadol was stereoselective, and the (+)-tramadol-induced vasodilatation was mediated by mu-opioid receptors and partially dependent on endothelium integrity. The hypotensive response induced by (+)-tramadol was also observed after bolus injection of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg. The results indicate that only high doses of tramadol cause cardiac depression and hypotension, indicating that it can be used safely.

  4. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Pere; Nicolau, Cristina; Gamundí, Antoni; Fiol, Maria A; Tresguerres, Jesús A F; Akaârir, Mourad; Rial, Rubén V

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties.

  5. Daily NO rhythms in peripheral clocks in aging male Wistar rats: protective effects of exogenous melatonin.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Ch; Jagota, Anita

    2016-11-01

    In mammals suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), acts as a light entrainable master clock and by generation of temporal oscillations regulates the peripheral organs acting as autonomous clocks resulting in overt behavioral and physiological rhythms. SCN also controls synthesis and release of melatonin (hormonal message for darkness) from pineal. Nitric Oxide (NO) acts as an important neurotransmitter in generating the phase shifts of circadian rhythms and participates in sleep-wake processes, maintenance of vascular tone as well as signalling and regulating inflammatory processes. Aging is associated with disruption of circadian timing system and decline in endogenous melatonin leading to several physiological disorders. Here we report the effect of aging on NO daily rhythms in various peripheral clocks such as kidney, intestine, liver, heart, lungs and testis. NO levels were measured at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0, 6, 12 and 18 in these tissues using Griess assay in male Wistar rats. Aging resulted in alteration of NO levels as well as phase of NO in both 12 and 24 months groups. Correlation analysis demonstrated loss of stoichiometric interaction between the various peripheral clocks with aging. Age induced alterations in NO daily rhythms were found to be most significant in liver and, interestingly least in lungs. Neurohormone melatonin, an endogenous synchroniser and an antiaging agent decreases with aging. We report further differential restoration with exogenous melatonin administration of age induced alterations in NO daily rhythms and mean levels in kidney, intestine and liver and the stoichiometric interactions between the various peripheral clocks.

  6. Effects of hydroxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on sperm health and testes of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, N K; Awasthi, K K; John, P J

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for various applications including biomedical purposes. Owing to their remarkable physical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, CNTs have become an area of intense research and industrial activity in recent years. Therefore, toxicity and risk assessment studies are becoming increasingly important. The present study was designed to assess the effects of hydroxyl-functionalized multiwalled CNTs (OH-f MWCNTs) on sperm health and testes of adult Wistar rats. Animals were treated with different doses of OH-f MWCNTs (0.4, 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) along with a control group receiving only vehicle. Assessments after 15 alternate intraperitoneal doses revealed dose-related adverse effects on many endpoints tested. Results of the study showed significant impairment of sperm health at 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg. Histology of testes demonstrated degeneration of germinal epithelium and loss of germ cells in the treatment groups. The exposure resulted in increased oxidative stress in testes in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of the study demonstrate that CNTs are potentially harmful for male reproductive health.

  7. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  8. Comparing the Behavioural Effects of Exogenous Growth Hormone and Melatonin in Young and Old Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nicolau, Cristina; Gamundí, Antoni; Fiol, Maria A.; Tresguerres, Jesús A. F.; Akaârir, Mourad; Rial, Rubén V.

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin are two hormones with quite different physiological effects. Curiously, their secretion shows parallel and severe age-related reductions. This has promoted many reports for studying the therapeutic supplementation of both hormones in an attempt to avoid or delay the physical, physiological, and psychological decay observed in aged humans and in experimental animals. Interestingly, the effects of the external administration of low doses of GH and of melatonin were surprisingly similar, as both hormones caused significant improvements in the functional capabilities of aged subjects. The present report aims at discerning the eventual difference between cognitive and motor effects of the two hormones when administered to young and aged Wistar rats. The effects were tested in the radial maze, a test highly sensitive to the age-related impairments in working memory and also in the rotarod test, for evaluating the motor coordination. The results showed that both hormones caused clear improvements in both tasks. However, while GH improved the cognitive capacity and, most importantly, the physical stamina, the effects of melatonin should be attributed to its antioxidant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties. PMID:28050228

  9. Dietary restriction protects against chronic-ethanol-induced changes in exploratory behavior in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lucas S N M; Gualberto, Felipe A S; Pereira, Silvia R C; Barros, Paula A; Franco, Glaura C; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2006-03-17

    Chronic ethanol intake causes various types of neural damage and behavioral impairments, probably acting through oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, while dietary restriction is considered by some authors to protect the central nervous system from these kinds of damage. In the present study, a factorial experimental design was used to investigate the effects of chronic ethanol and dietary restriction treatments, associated or not, on Wistar rats' exploratory behavior, spatial memory aspects and cortical and hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Dietary restriction lasted for the whole experiment, while ethanol treatment lasted for only 3 weeks. Despite the short ethanol treatment duration, for two behavior categories assessed, moving and rearing, an interaction was observed between the effects of chronic ethanol and dietary restriction. There were no significant differences in AChE activities among the groups. Cerebellar neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOs) activity was measured as a first step to assess oxidative stress. Dietary restriction significantly reduced NO formation. The present results indicate that dietary restriction might exert a protective effect against chronic-ethanol-induced changes in exploratory behavior. It is hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying this protection can involve prevention of oxidative stress.

  10. Drug metabolism: Comparison of biodistribution profile of holmium in three different compositions in healthy Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Coutinho, Cristal; Vidal, Lluis Pascual; Pinto, Suyene Rocha; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Radioisotope holmium is a candidate to be used in cancer treatment and diagnosis. There are different holmium salts and they present distinct solubility and consequently different biodistribution profiles. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the biodistribution profiles of two holmium salts (chloride and sulfate) and holmium nanoparticles (oxide) through an in vivo biodistribution assay using animal model. Samples were labeled with technetium-99m and administered in Wistar rats by retro-orbital route. Holmium chloride is highly soluble in water and it was quickly filtered by the kidneys while holmium sulfate that presents lower solubility in water was mainly found in the liver and the spleen. However, both the salts showed a similar biodistribution profile. On the other hand, holmium oxide showed a very different biodistribution profile since it seemed to interact with all organs. Due to its particle size range (approximately 100nm) it was not intensively filtered by the kidneys being found in high quantities in many organs, for this reason its use as a nanoradiopharmaceutical could be promising in the oncology field.

  11. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  12. Evaluation of Toxicity Effects of Asafetida on Biochemical, Hematological, and Histological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Mirjalily, Aghdas; Rezvani, Mohammd Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Asafetida is traditionally used in folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of asafetida in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In chronic study, animals were administered with various doses of asafetida (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 6 weeks. At end of experiment, the effects of asafetida on hematological, renal, and hepatic markers and histological parameters were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen up to 72 h of the administration of asafetida. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed within 24 h. In the chronic study, the asafetida intake has changed the hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), and platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in treated animals. The plasma level of urea and creatinine were not altered by the administration of asafetida throughout the study. Histopathology study indicates hepatotoxicity, but no signs of prominent pathological changes in kidney. Conclusions: Asafetida did not show any acute toxicity, but chronic administration could have undesirable effects on hepatocytes and hematological factors. PMID:26862262

  13. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  14. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC) is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA) and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC) and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK), and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups), ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg), HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg), or HNK (1,590 mg/kg) for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial pressure (MAP) reduction

  15. A two generation reproductive toxicity study with curcumin, turmeric yellow, in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ganiger, S; Malleshappa, H N; Krishnappa, H; Rajashekhar, Geetha; Ramakrishna Rao, V; Sullivan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive toxicity of curcumin, turmeric yellow, in Wistar rats was studied in order to generate additional relevant toxicity information for the use of curcumin in humans by oral administration. The two generation reproduction study was designed and conducted in accordance with OECD Guideline No. 416 [OECD, 1983. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, Guideline No. 416. Two Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study, adopted on 26th May 1983] and in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices (OECD, 1997 Principles of Good Laboratory Practice for the Testing of Chemicals. OECD, C(97)186/Final). The curcumin, mixed in the experimental diet at the concentrations of 1500, 3000 and 10,000 ppm was fed to three groups of rats, i.e., low, mid and high dose groups, and studied for two successive generations. A concurrent control group received experimental diet without the curcumin mixture. There were no treatment related adverse toxicological effects in the parental animals. No gross or microscopic changes were observed in any of the organs. None of the reproductive parameters were affected and there were no effects on the offspring other than a small reduction in pre-weaning body weight gain of the F2 pups at the highest dose level. It was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for reproductive toxicity of curcumin, fed in the diet for two successive generations to rats in this study was 10,000 ppm, which is equivalent to 847 and 959 mg/kg bodyweight (bw) per day for male rats and 1043 and 1076 for females for F0 and F1 generations, respectively. This study was the final toxicology study on curcumin reviewed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) at the 61st Meeting, 2003. The JECFA group considered that the small body weight reduction in the F2 pups of the highest dose group prevented this from being regarded as a no adverse effect level, and so allocated an ADI for curcumin of 0-3 mg/kg bw based on the intake of 250-320 mg

  16. Effects of a mixture of pesticides on the adult female reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Pascotto, Viviane M; Guerra, Marina T; Franci, Janete Aparecida Anselmo; de Camargo, João Lauro V; Kempinas, Wilma G; Franchi, Carla A S

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian federal government Agency for Health Surveillance detected pesticide residues in fresh food available for consumers all over the country. The current study investigated the effects of a mixture of some of those pesticides (dichlorvos, dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan, and permethrin) on the reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (WT), and Lewis (LEW) rats. Female rats from each strain were randomized into three experimental groups and were fed a control diet or diets added with pesticides mixture at their respective no-observed-effect level (NOEL)/no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) (low dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (0.23), dicofol (0.5), dieldrin (0.025), endosulfan (0.7), permethrin (5), or lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL)/lowest-effect level (LEL)/ lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) (toxically effective dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (2.3), dicofol (2.1), dieldrin (0.05), endosulfan (3.8), and permethrin (25) as reported in the literature. Euthanasia was performed between wk 10 and 12, during the estrous stage. Decreased body weights gain (SD and WT) and increased liver weights (SD, WT, and LEW) were observed in each strain fed the pesticides mixture at the higher levels. At that dose level, rat strains also varied in their responses regarding the estrous cycle, hormonal levels, and number of developing ovarian follicles. The studied mixture of pesticides was found to interfere with the female reproductive system when individual pesticides were mixed above a certain level, indicating a threshold exists for each of the strains studied.

  17. Temporal relationship between diet-induced steatosis and onset of insulin/leptin resistance in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Song, Haiyan; Ge, Yingli; Ji, Guang; Yao, Zemin

    2015-01-01

    Rats fed with high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet are known to manifest metabolic syndrome including hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The aim of the current study is to determine the temporal relationships between the development of hepatic steatosis and the onset of insulin and leptin resistance in hypothalamus and liver in male Wistar rats (six weeks of age) fed chow or HFHS diet for up to 8 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose, lipids/lipoproteins, insulin and leptin levels were quantified, histopathologic score of hepatic steatosis and inflammation were assessed, and the responses of common checkpoints of insulin and leptin signalling responsible for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis were analyzed. In addition, acute insulin or leptin administration was performed at different stages of HFHS dieting to determine the responsiveness of the respective signalling pathways. Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and increased homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance occurred 1-week after HFHS dieting, coinciding with upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 in both hypothalamus and liver. However, hepatosteatosis, accompanied with increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, did not manifest until 4- to 8-week after HFHS dieting. Lowered insulin sensitivity (shown by decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B phosphorylation) occurred approximately 2 weeks prior to leptin resistance (shown by impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation) in both the liver and hypothalamus. Acute insulin/leptin administration also demonstrated the impaired insulin or leptin signalling transduction. These data suggest that lowered insulin sensitivity and leptin resistance occurred at least 2-3 weeks earlier than the manifestation of hepatosteatosis in rats fed HFHS diet.

  18. The efficacy of antioxidant therapy against oxidative stress and androgen rise in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naghii, M R; Jafari, M; Mofid, M; Eskandari, E; Hedayati, M; Khalagie, K

    2015-07-01

    Administration of natural antioxidants has been used to protect against nephrolithiasis. Urolithiasis was induced by ethylene glycol (EG) in Wistar rats. For 4 weeks, group 1 (control) was fed with a standard commercial diet. Group 2 received the same diet with 0.75% of EG. Group 3 received EG plus the diet and water added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice as the dietary source of citrate (EG + AX). Group 4 same as group 3 with no EG in water. For 8 weeks, group 5 was fed the standard diet with EG in water for the first 28 days, followed by no EG. Group 6 received the diet with EG for the first 28 days, followed by discontinuation of EG and addition of antioxidant nutrients. Group 7 were provided the diet with antioxidant nutrients for 8 weeks. Group 8 received the diet with antioxidant nutrients for 4 weeks, followed by antioxidant nutrients with EG for the next 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected and kidneys were removed. The size and the mean number of crystal deposits in EG-treated groups was significantly higher than the EG-treated groups, added with antioxidant nutrients and lime juice. After 4 weeks, the mean concentration of malondialdehyde in group 2 was higher than the group 3, and significantly lower in group 4; and in groups 7 after 8 weeks, as well. After 8 weeks, supplementation developed less mean number of deposits in group 6 as compared to group 5; and in group 8, the crystal deposits was substantially less than either group 2 or group 5 (EG-treated rats). Elevated concentration of androgens (as promoters of the formation of renal calculi) as a result of EG consumption decreased following antioxidant supplementations. Results showed a beneficial effect of antioxidant and provided superior renal protection on treating and preventing stone deposition in the rat kidney.

  19. Chronic stress induces structural alterations in splenic lymphoid tissue that are associated with changes in corticosterone levels in wistar-kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  20. Effect of venlafaxine on bone loss associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the effects of venlafaxine, an antidepressant drug with immunoregulatory properties on the inflammatory response and bone loss associated with experimental periodontal disease (EPD). Materials and Methods Wistar rats were subjected to a ligature placement around the second upper left molar. The treated groups received orally venlafaxine (10 or 50 mg/kg) one hour before the experimental periodontal disease induction and daily for 10 days. Vehicle-treated experimental periodontal disease and a sham-operated (SO) controls were included. Bone loss was analyzed morphometrically and histopathological analysis was based on cell influx, alveolar bone, and cementum integrity. Lipid peroxidation quantification and immunohistochemistry to TNF-α and iNOS were performed. Results Experimental periodontal disease rats showed an intense bone loss compared to SO ones (SO = 1.61 ± 1.36; EPD = 4.47 ± 1.98 mm, p < 0.001) and evidenced increased cellular infiltration and immunoreactivity for TNF-α and iNOS. Venlafaxine treatment while at low dose (10 mg/kg) afforded no significant protection against bone loss (3.25 ± 1.26 mm), a high dose (50 mg/kg) caused significantly enhanced bone loss (6.81 ± 3.31 mm, p < 0.05). Venlafaxine effectively decreased the lipid peroxidation but showed no significant change in TNF-α or iNOS immunoreactivity. Conclusion The increased bone loss associated with high dose venlafaxine may possibly be a result of synaptic inhibition of serotonin uptake. PMID:20546603

  1. Anxiolytic-like effect of ethanolic extract of Argemone mexicana and its alkaloids in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Arcos-Martínez, Aideé Itzel; Muñoz-Muñiz, Omar David; Domínguez-Ortiz, Miguel Ángel; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Alcántara-López, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Argemone mexicana is a Papaveracea plant; some reports have shown their antibacterial, anti-cancer, sedative and probably anti-anxiety properties. From their aerial parts, flavonoids and alkaloids have been isolated, which are intrinsically related to some actions on the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects of the plant, using its ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract obtained from fresh leaves. Material and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out together with evaluation of antioxidant capacity and the enrichment of alkaloids present in the extract. Subsequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to female Wistar rats, which were exposed to elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Picrotoxin (1 mg/kg), a non-competitive gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) chloride channel antagonist, was used in experimental procedures to evaluate if this receptor is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of A. mexicana. To discard motor effects associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated by the locomotor activity test. Results: Only the ethanolic extract at 200 mg/kg and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg) produced anxiolytic-like effects similarly to diazepam 2 mg/kg on EPM test, without affecting locomotor activity. Meanwhile, the administration of picrotoxin blocked anti-anxiety effect of alkaloid-enriched extract of the plant. Conclusion: These results showed that A. mexicana is a potential anxiolytic agent and we suggest that this effect is mediated by the GABAA receptor. These effects are related to the presence of alkaloids. PMID:27516989

  2. High-Fat Diet Increased Renal and Hepatic Oxidative Stress Induced by Vanadium of Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Cui, R Y; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Xuan, Y; Su, Z W

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effect of vanadium (V) in high-fat diet on the liver and kidney of rats in a 5-week trial. Seventy-two female Wistar rats (BW = 95 ± 5 g) were randomly allotted into eight groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV obtained low-fat diet containing 0, 3, 15, and 30 mg/kg V, and V, VI, VII, and VIII groups received the respective vanadium doses with high-fat diet, respectively. There were lesions in the liver and kidney of V, VI, VII, and VIII groups, granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration were observed in the renal tubular and glomerulus epithelial cells, and hepatocytes showed granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration. Supplemented high-fat diet with vanadium was shown to decrease (P < 0.05) activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione-S transferase, and NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and increase malondialdehyde content in the liver and kidney. The relative expression of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and NQO1 mRNA was downregulated by V addition and high-fat diet, and the effect of V was more pronounced in high-fat diet (interaction, P < 0.05), with VIII group having the lowest mRNA expression of Nrf-2 and NQO1 in the liver and kidney. In conclusion, it suggested that dietary vanadium ranging from 15 to 30 mg/kg could lead to oxidative damage and vanadium accumulation in the liver and kidney, which caused renal and hepatic toxicity. The high-fat diet enhanced vanadium-induced hepatic and renal damage, and the mechanism was related to the modulation of the hepatic and renal mRNA expression of Nrf-2 and NQO1.

  3. Physical exercise versus fluoxetine: antagonistic effects on cortical spreading depression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Heloísa; Lima Barreto-Silva, Nathália; Elizabete Dos Santos, Gracyelle; de Santana Santos, Amanda; Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Mariana; Amâncio-Dos-Santos, Ângela

    2015-09-05

    The antidepressant fluoxetine and physical exercise exert similar effects on the serotoninergic system by increasing brain serotonin availability, and both show antagonistic action on cortical excitability. Here we provide the first assessment of the interaction of the two together on cortical spreading depression (CSD) in young adult rats. Wistar rats (40-60 days of life) received fluoxetine (10mg/kg/d, orogastrically) or an equivalent volume of water. Half of the animals from each condition were assigned to perform physical exercise in a treadmill, and the other half formed the sedentary (non-treadmill) control groups. Body parameters (Lee index and thoracic and abdominal circumferences) and the velocity of CSD propagation were investigated. Fluoxetine+exercise animals had less weight gain (78.68±3.19g) than either the fluoxetine-only (93.34±4.77g) or exercise-only group (97.04±3.48g), but body parameters did not differ among them. The velocity of CSD propagation was reduced in the fluoxetine-only and exercise-only groups compared to sedentary water controls (3.24±0.39mm/min). For the fluoxetine+exercise group, CSD velocity values were significantly lower (2.92±0.22mm/min) than for fluoxetine only (3.03±0.35mm/min); however, they were similar to values for the exercise-only group (2.96±0.23mm/min). These findings confirm the similar effects of fluoxetine and exercise and suggest a greater effect of physical exercise in reducing brain excitability.

  4. Jodina rhombifolia leaves lyophilized aqueous extract decreases ethanol intake and preference in adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Roberto Teves, Mauricio; Wendel, Graciela Haydée; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2015-11-04

    The leaves of Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) are utilized as anti-alcoholic in Argentine folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-alcohol properties in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 29; 83-105 g of weight). We utilized the "self-administration model", which ethanol was offered in the standard home-cage through two-bottle free-choice regimen between an ethanolic solution (20% in tap water, v/v) and tap water with unlimited access for 24h per day for 10 consecutive days. The results obtained show that repeated administration of J. rhombifolia lyophilized extract, markedly reduced ethanol voluntary intake on dose dependent bases. The magnitude in reduction of daily ethanol intake was approximately 29%, 44% and 68%, for the rat groups treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of extract, respectively. Ethanol preference (proportion of ethanol intake versus total fluid intake) was significantly reduced: 21.37% ± 0.79 (0 mg/kg); 15.83% ± 0.93 (62.5 mg/kg); 15.22% ± 1.30 (125 mg/kg) and 9.38% ± 0.57 (250 mg/kg). Daily food intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the group treated with 250 mg/kg of JRLE in comparison with vehicle-dose group; the reduction in ethanol intake was associated with a compensatory increase in food intake, probably because in the control group animals a part of the total caloric intake was supplied by ethanol. Treatment was very well tolerated by all animals and without apparent side-effects. These results contribute to the scientific validation of the antialcoholic indication of this botanic species in Argentine folk medicine.

  5. Aging process alters hippocampal and cortical secretase activities of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Karine; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Schallenberger, Bruna; Meireles, Louisiana; Basso, Carla; Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Bernardi, Lisiane; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2017-01-15

    A growing body of evidence has demonstrated amyloid plaques in aged brain; however, little attention has been given to amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing machinery during the healthy aging process. The amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways, represented respectively by β- and α-secretases (BACE and TACE), are responsible for APP cleavage. Our working hypothesis is that the normal aging process could imbalance amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways specifically BACE and TACE activities. Besides, although it has been showed that exercise can modulate secretase activities in Alzheimer Disease models the relationship between exercise effects and APP processing during healthy aging process is rarely studied. Our aim was to investigate the aging process and the exercise effects on cortical and hippocampal BACE and TACE activities and aversive memory performance. Young adult and aged Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise protocol (20min/day for 2 weeks) and to inhibitory avoidance task. Biochemical parameters were evaluated 1h and 18h after the last exercise session in order to verify transitory and delayed exercise effects. Aged rats exhibited impaired aversive memory and diminished cortical TACE activity. Moreover, an imbalance between TACE and BACE activities in favor of BACE activity was observed in aged brain. Moderate treadmill exercise was unable to alter secretase activities in any brain areas or time points evaluated. Our results suggest that aging-related aversive memory decline is partly linked to decreased cortical TACE activity. Additionally, an imbalance between secretase activities can be related to the higher vulnerability to neurodegenerative diseases induced by aging.

  6. Effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, R.I.; Coradini, J.G.; Silva, L.I.; Bertolini, G.R.F.; Brancalhão, R.M.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.C.

    2014-01-01

    A sprained ankle is a common musculoskeletal sports injury and it is often treated by immobilization of the joint. Despite the beneficial effects of this therapeutic measure, the high prevalence of residual symptoms affects the quality of life, and remobilization of the joint can reverse this situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of immobilization and remobilization on the ankle joint of Wistar rats. Eighteen male rats had their right hindlimb immobilized for 15 days, and were divided into the following groups: G1, immobilized; G2, remobilized freely for 14 days; and G3, remobilized by swimming and jumping in water for 14 days, performed on alternate days, with progression of time and a series of exercises. The contralateral limb was the control. After the experimental period, the ankle joints were processed for microscopic analysis. Histomorphometry did not show any significant differences between the control and immobilized/remobilized groups and members, in terms of number of chondrocytes and thickness of the articular cartilage of the tibia and talus. Morphological analysis of animals from G1 showed significant degenerative lesions in the talus, such as exposure of the subchondral bone, flocculation, and cracks between the anterior and mid-regions of the articular cartilage and the synovial membrane. Remobilization by therapeutic exercise in water led to recovery in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the ankle joint when compared with free remobilization, and it was shown to be an effective therapeutic measure in the recovery of the ankle joint. PMID:25140815

  7. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  8. LED therapy or cryotherapy between exercise intervals in Wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and ergogenic effects.

    PubMed

    da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Milanez, Vinícius Flávio; Corrêa, Julio Cesar Molina; de Andrade Alves, Rubens Igor; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test, between two bouts of exercise, the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy and cryotherapy regarding muscle damage, inflammation, and performance. Male Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, passive recovery (PR), cryotherapy (Cryo), and LED therapy. The animals were submitted to 45 min of swimming exercise followed by 25 min of recovery and then a second bout of either 45 min of exercise (muscle damage analysis) or time to exhaustion (performance). During the rest intervals, the rats were kept in passive rest (PR), submitted to cold water immersion (10 min, 10 °C) or LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) of the gastrocnemius muscle. Blood samples were collected to analyze creatine kinase activity (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte counts. The soleus muscles were evaluated histologically. Time to exhaustion was recorded during the second bout of exercise. After a second bout of 45 min, the results demonstrated leukocytosis in the PR and Cryo groups. Neutrophil counts were increased in all test groups. CK levels were increased in the Cryo group. CRP was increased in PR animals. The PR group presented a high frequency of necrosis, but the LED group had fewer necrotic areas. Edema formation was prevented, and fewer areas of inflammatory cells were observed in the LED group. The time to exhaustion was greater in both the LED and Cryo groups, without differences in CK levels. CRP was decreased in LED animals. We conclude that LED therapy and cryotherapy can improve performance, although LED therapy is more efficient in preventing muscle damage and local and systemic inflammation.

  9. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats.

  10. Disruption of estrogen homeostasis as a mechanism for uterine toxicity in Wistar Han rats treated with tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J Michael; Coulter, Sherry J; Knudsen, Gabriel A; Dunnick, June K; Kissling, Grace E; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2016-05-01

    Chronic oral treatment of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to female Wistar Han rats resulted in increased incidence of cell proliferation at 250mg/kg and tumor formation in the uterus at higher doses. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that disruption of estrogen homeostasis was a major mode-of-action for the observed effects. Biological changes were assessed in serum, liver, and the proximal (nearest the cervix) and distal (nearest the ovaries) sections of the uterine horn of Wistar Han rats 24h following administration of the last of five daily oral doses of 250mg/kg. Expression of genes associated with receptors, biosynthesis, and metabolism of estrogen was altered in the liver and uterus. TBBPA treatment also resulted in changes in expression of genes associated with cell division and growth. Changes were also observed in the concentration of thyroxine in serum and in expression of genes in the liver and uterus associated with thyroid hormone receptors. Differential expression of some genes was tissue-dependent or specific to tissue location in the uterus. The biological responses observed in the present study support the hypothesis that perturbation of estrogen homeostasis is a major mode-of-action for TBBPA-mediated cell proliferation and tumorigenesis previously observed in the uterus of TBBPA-treated Wistar Han rats.

  11. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  12. Protective and ameliorative effect of sea buckthorn leaf extract supplementation on lead induced hemato-biochemical alterations in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Rizwana; Raghuwanshi, Pratiksha; Rastogi, Ankur; Koul, Aditi Lal; Khajuria, Pallavi; Ganai, Aafreen Wahid; Kour, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the protective and ameliorative effect of aqueous sea buckthorn leaf extract (SLE) on hemato-biochemical profile in lead intoxicated Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted for 60 days. 36 adult male Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 177.8±12.6 g were divided into five groups and were subjected to various daily oral treatment regimens. Group I served as a negative control receiving only feed and water, Group II (positive control for lead) received lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water, and Group III (positive control for SLE) received SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. Animals in Group IV received a combination of lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water for the first 45 days and SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. throughout the experimental period of 60-day, and in Group V for the last 15 days of the trial after the administration of lead acetate until the first 45 days of the trial to study the protective and ameliorating effects of SLE, respectively. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital fossa of each rat on 0th, 45th, and 60th day of the experiment for hemato-biochemical analysis including hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) lower levels of serum total proteins and albumin, and a significantly (p<0.01) higher serum cholesterol, urea and creatinine levels were observed in Group II (lead intoxicated group) in comparison to Group I (negative control). Administration of SLE at 100 mg/kg body wt. to lead intoxicated Wistar rats resulted in normalization of almost all the biochemical parameters studied in both the treatment Groups, i.e., IV and V (protective and ameliorative). However, the effects were more pronounced in the protective group. No effects of SLE supplementation were observed on Hb levels. PCV levels improved in protective groups, but no effect was observed in ameliorative group

  13. A postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to identify active principles of Erythrina lysistemon (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Mvondo, M A; Njamen, D; Fomum, S Tanee; Wandji, J; Vollmer, Günter

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether the two major compounds of Erythrina lysistemon are active principles accounting for Erythrina estrogenic effects, we used a postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to evaluate their effects on some menopausal problems. Ovariectomized rats were orally treated either with compound 1 or compound 2 at 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 28 days. Estradiol valerate served as the reference substance. As results, compounds 1 and 2 displayed estrogen-like effects on the uterus and the vagina, and reduced atherogenic risks by decreasing the two assessed atherogenic parameters, the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and the atherogenic index of plasma.

  14. Anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in male Wistar rats submitted to early weaning.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Lisboa, Patrícia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Silva, Juliana Oliveira; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Manhães, Alex C

    2014-01-30

    The most frequently used animal models of early weaning (EW) in rodents, maternal deprivation and pharmacological inhibition of lactation, present confounding factors, such as high stress or drug side effects, that can mask or interact with the effects of milk deprivation per se. Given these limitations, the development of new models of EW may provide useful information regarding the impact of a shortened period of breastfeeding on the endocrine and nervous systems, both during development and at adulthood. Using a model of EW in which lactating Wistar rat dams are wrapped with a bandage to block access to milk during the last three days of lactation, we have recently shown that the adult offspring presented higher body mass, hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, leptin as well as insulin resistance, and higher adrenal catecholamine content at adulthood. Here, we used this EW model, which involves no pharmacological treatment or maternal separation, to analyze anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in the adult male offspring. To that end, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze, in the hole board arena and in the radial arm water maze. Except for an increased number of rearing events (a measure of vertical activity), no other behavioral differences were observed between EW and control animals. The contrasting behavioral results between the three EW models may be associated with differences in HPA axis function in the offspring at weaning, since it has been observed that bandaging does not affect corticosteronemia while maternal separation and pharmacological EW increase it.

  15. Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-24

    The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentrations in brain areas critically involved in depression, such as prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus. Significantly increased immobility in the FST was observed in socially-isolated, adolescent WKY with a concomitant increase in corticosterone levels over and above the FST-induced stress. WKY also demonstrated a significantly increased release and utilization of dopamine, as manifested by levels of metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in nucleus accumbens, indicating that the large dopamine storage pool evident during adolescence induces greater dopamine release when stimulated. The serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid was also significantly increased in nucleus accumbens, indicating increased utilization of serotonin, along with norepinephrine levels which were also signficantly elevated in socially-isolated adolescent WKY. Differences in neurochemistry suggest that social or environmental stimuli during critical periods of brain and behavioural development can determine the developmental trajectories of implicated pathways.

  16. Effect of Bacopa Monniera on Cold Stress Induced Neurodegeneration in Hippocampus of Wistar Rats: A Histomorphometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathi, P; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bacopa monniera/ Brahmi,is used over centuries in Ayurvedic medicine for memory development, learning, concentration and other mental illnesses such as nervousness and poor cognition. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi, BM) on cold stress induced histological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Total 24 male rats divided into four groups were used (n=6) for this study. Group I was control in which rats were kept under ideal laboratory conditions, Group II was given 40 mg/kg of BM extract, Group III was cold water swim stress in which rats were forced to swim in the cold water maintained at 18±2oC till it started to sink for a period of one month and Group IV in which cold water swim stress given for a month followed by oral administration of BM extracts 40mg/kg treatment for a month. The whole study was carried out for a period of 60 d. The animals were sacrificed next day and their brains dissected out for histomorphometric analysis. The diameter, packing density and total number of neurons were calculated from stained histological section by using micrometry in the CA-1 region of the hippocampus. Statistical Analysis: The analysis and plotting of graphs were carried out using Sigma Plot 12 (Systat Software Inc., USA). Values are expressed as Mean ± SEM (n = 6). One way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keul’s multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant. Results: The results showed that there is no significant difference in the diameter of the cells between the groups but total number of the cells in Group II was statistically significant when compared with the others groups. Student–Newman–Keuls method showed that Group II and Group IV are statistically significant when compared to Group III (p<0.05). Conclusion: Results indicates that when BM extracts administered orally

  17. Species Specific Behavioural Patterns (Digging and Swimming) and Reaction to Novel Objects in Wild Type, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stryjek, Rafał; Modlińska, Klaudia; Pisula, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to analyse species-specific forms of behaviour (digging and swimming) and response to novelty in laboratory rats and their wild type counterparts at a very early stage of laboratorization. Three behavioural phenomena were taken into account: burrowing, spontaneous swimming, and neophobic behaviour. Principal Findings Wild-type rats and three strains of laboratory rats were involved in experiments: Warsaw-Wild-Captive-Pisula-Stryjek (WWCPS), Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, and Brown Norway rats were compared in spontaneous swimming test, while WWCPS and Wistar rats were studied in burrowing and neophobia experiments. Wild rats were found to be faster at building tunnels than Wistar rats and at constructing more complex burrow systems. The experiment on neophobia showed that Wistar rats exhibited less neophobic responses and were more often trapped. WWCPS rats showed highly neophobic behaviour and were rarely trapped in this experiment. The experiment on swimming showed that WWCPS rats showed more complex water tank related activity than their laboratory counterparts. They swam and explored under surface environment. Conclusions The three experiments showed profound behavioural differences in quasi-natural forms of behaviour between wild type rats (WWCPS) and three laboratory strains frequently used in behavioural studies. PMID:22815778

  18. Exposure to Palladium Nanoparticles Affects Serum Levels of Cytokines in Female Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Corbi, Maddalena; Leso, Veruscka; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Leopold, Kerstin; Schindl, Roland; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Information currently available on the impact of palladium on the immune system mainly derives from studies assessing the biological effects of palladium salts. However, in the last years, there has been a notable increase in occupational and environmental levels of fine and ultrafine palladium particles released from automobile catalytic converters, which may play a role in palladium sensitization. In this context, the evaluation of the possible effects exerted by palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the immune system is essential to comprehensively assess palladium immunotoxic potential. Aim Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Pd-NPs on the immune system of female Wistar rats exposed to this xenobiotic for 14 days, by assessing possible quantitative changes in a number of cytokines: IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, INF-γ and TNF-α. Methods Twenty rats were randomly divided into four exposure groups and one of control. Animals were given a single tail vein injection of vehicle (control group) and different concentrations of Pd-NPs (0.012, 0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg). A multiplex biometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate cytokine serum levels. Results The mean serum concentrations of all cytokines decreased after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg of Pd-NPs, whereas exceeded the control levels at higher exposure doses. The highest concentration of Pd-NPs (12 μg/kg) induced a significant increase of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF and INF-γ compared to controls. Discussion and Conclusions These results demonstrated that Pd-NP exposure can affect the immune response of rats inducing a stimulatory action that becomes significant at the highest administered dose. Our findings did not show an imbalance between cytokines produced by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells 1 and 2, thus suggesting a generalized stimulation of the immune system with a simultaneous activation and polarization of the

  19. Evaluation of wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirapara, Hiren N.; Ghori, Vishal M.; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs. EWs were evaluated for wound contraction on 3rd, 7th, and 11th day and for reepithelization on 11th day. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) as well as dead space wounds (DW) in the same animal which received the above agents orally for 11 days. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology of granulation tissue. Results: EWs showed significantly increased wound closure in the treatment group as compared to the diabetic as well as active control groups at 3rd (P < 0.001) and 11th (P < 0.05) post-wounding day and to the only diabetic control group at 7th (P < 0.01) post-wounding day. IWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength in the treatment as compared to diabetic (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.01) groups. DWs showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in the treatment as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.001) groups. Wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content also significantly increased in the active control group compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Granulation tissue dry weight was significantly increased in treatment and active control groups as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cow urine ark increases granulation tissue formation as well as collagen content. Wound contraction was also significantly

  20. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A. Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-04-15

    Male Wistar rats have been shown to be the most sensitive sex, strain and species to ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity in subchronic studies. A chronic toxicity and dosimetry study was therefore conducted in male Wistar rats administered ethylene glycol via the diet at 0, 50, 150, 300, or 400 mg/kg/day for up to twelve months. Subgroups of animals were included for metabolite analysis and renal clearance studies to provide a quantitative basis for extrapolating dose-response relationships from this sensitive animal model in human health risk assessments. Mortality occurred in 5 of 20 rats at 300 mg/kg/day (days 111-221) and 4 of 20 rats at 400 mg/kg/day (days 43-193), with remaining rats at this dose euthanized early (day 203) due to excessive weight loss. Increased water consumption and urine volume with decreased specific gravity occurred at 300 mg/kg/day presumably due to osmotic diuresis. Calculi (calcium oxalate crystals) occurred in the bladder or renal pelvis at {>=} 300 mg/kg/day. Rats dying early at {>=} 300 mg/kg/day had transitional cell hyperplasia with inflammation and hemorrhage of the bladder wall. Crystal nephropathy (basophilic foci, tubule or pelvic dilatation, birefringent crystals in the pelvic fornix, or transitional cell hyperplasia) affected most rats at 300 mg/kg/day, all at 400 mg/kg/day, but none at {<=} 150 mg/kg/day. No significant differences in kidney oxalate levels, the metabolite responsible for renal toxicity, were observed among control, 50 and 150 mg/kg/day groups. At 300 and 400 mg/kg/day, oxalate levels increased proportionally with the nephrotoxicity score supporting the oxalate crystal-induced nephrotoxicity mode of action. No treatment-related effects on the renal clearance of intravenously infused {sup 3}H-inulin, a marker for glomerular filtration, and {sup 14}C-oxalic acid were observed in rats surviving 12 months of exposure to ethylene glycol up to 300 mg/kg/day. In studies with naive male Wistar and F344 rats (a

  1. Differences in Monoamine Oxidase Activity in the Brain of Wistar and August Rats with High and Low Locomotor Activity: A Cytochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2016-06-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was quantitatively assessed by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampal CA3 field) of rats of August line and Wistar population with high and low locomotor activity in the open fi eld test. Monoamine oxidase activity (substrate tryptamine) predominated in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low locomotor activity. In August rats, enzyme activity (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) predominated in the hippocampus of animals with high motor activity. Comparison of August rats with low locomotor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (i.e. animals demonstrating maximum differences in motor function) revealed significantly higher activity of the enzyme (substrates tryptamine and serotonin) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. The study demonstrates clear-cut morphochemical specificity of monoaminergic metabolism based on the differences in the cytochemical parameter "monoamine oxidase activity", in the studied brain structures, responsible for the formation and realization of goal-directed behavior in Wistar and August rats.

  2. Response to novelty in the laboratory Wistar rat, wild-captive WWCPS rat, and the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Pisula, Wojciech; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Stryjek, Rafał; Nałęcz-Tolak, Aleksandra; Grabiec, Marta; Djavadian, Rouzanna L

    2012-10-01

    Behavior of the laboratory gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), Warsaw Wild Captive Pisula Stryjek rats (WWCPS) and laboratory rats (Wistar) has been registered in the period of familiarization with a new environment and consecutive confrontation with a novel, innocuous object placed in that familiarized environment. In the new environment the sequence of anxiety, investigation, and habituation was shortest in the opossum, longer in the laboratory rat and longest in the WWCPS rat. When placed in it, gray short-tailed opossums investigated the new environment with the shortest delay and most intensity. In reaction to novel objects, opossums and laboratory rats prolonged the time spent in the proximity of the new object, while the WWCPS rat did not show that reaction. Both opossums and laboratory rats increased the number of contacts with the new object, whereas WWCPS rats reduced those contacts. Behavior of all three species and lines grouped in different clusters. Some other quantitative and qualitative differences in behavior of the investigated animals are also described, showing a higher level of anxiety in both lines of rats than in the opossum. Behavioral differences between species and lines of animals used in this study may be attributed to different ecological adaptations of rats and opossums and to the effect of domestication in the laboratory rats. These behavioral differences make comparisons of opossums vs rat, and wild rat vs laboratory rat interesting models for studying the brain mechanisms of anxiety and neotic motivations.

  3. Mandibular Branch of the Facial Nerve in Wistar Rats: New Experimental Model to Assess Facial Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies. PMID:25992106

  4. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Lalitha, Gurusamy; Shirony, Nicholson Puthanveedu; Baskaran, Rathinasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane. PMID:23569870

  5. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  6. Sinusoidal 50 Hz, 500 {micro}T magnetic field has no acute effect on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of male and female Wistar rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Twenty rats were kept in metabolic cages under 9:15 h light:dark conditions. The urine of the animals was collected twice per day for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of aMT6s in the rat urine was measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay. The rats were exposed to 5 and 500 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of urinary aMT6s did not show significant changes during or after magnetic field exposure.

  7. Avoidance perseveration during extinction training in Wistar-Kyoto rats: an interaction of innate vulnerability and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Minor, Thomas R; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Given that avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats may be a good model of anxiety vulnerability for their hypersensitivity to stress and trait behavioral inhibition. Here, we examined the influence of strain and shock intensity on avoidance acquisition and extinction. Accordingly, we trained WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in lever-press avoidance using either 1.0-mA or 2.0-mA foot-shock. After extinction, neuronal activation was visualized by c-Fos for overall activity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuron in brain areas linked to anxiety (medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). Consistent with earlier work, WKY rats acquired lever-press avoidance faster and to a greater extent than SD rats. However, the intensity of foot shock did not differentially affect acquisition. Although there were no differences during extinction in SD rats, avoidance responses of WKY rats trained with the higher foot shock perseverated during extinction compared to those WKY rats trained with lower foot shock intensity or SD rats. WKY rats trained with 2.0-mA shock exhibited less GABAergic activation in the basolateral amygdala after extinction. These findings suggest that inhibitory modulation in amygdala is important to ensure successful extinction learning. Deficits in avoidance extinction secondary to lower GABAergic activation in baslolateral amygdala may contribute to anxiety vulnerability in this animal model of inhibited temperament.

  8. Nutraceutical inherent of Spinacia oleracea Linn. methanolic leaf extract ameliorates isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats via mitigating inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vutharadhi, Shivaranjani; Jolapuram, Umamaheswari; Kodidhela, Lakshmi Devi

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the principal cause of death in both developed and developing countries. The present study was intended to appraise the nutraceutical inherent of HPLC standardized Spinacia oleracea methanolic leaf extract (SoLE) in isoproterenol (ISO) induced male albino Wistar rats via activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathway that drives myocardial necrosis. Biochemical analysis of ISO injected rats showed significant alterations in the activities of homocysteine, paraoxonase, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 which were further confirmed by the histopathological examination. In addition, it also flaunted a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in ISO administered rats when compared with normal control rats. Pretreatment with SoLE (100, 200, and 300mg/kg bw) along with positive control gallic acid, significantly prevented all the adverse effects in ISO administered rats in a dose dependent manner. These results also reiterated the expected amelioration of myocardial necrosis in ISO induced MI rats conveying anti-atherogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities of SoLE.

  9. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm(2)). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p < 0.001), brain (p < 0.004) and spleen (p < 0.006) in samples from rats exposed to microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  10. Acute and Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of the Aerial Extract of Monsonia angustifolia E. Mey. ex. A. Rich in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The acute and subacute toxicity profile of the aerial extract of Monsonia angustifolia in Wistar rats was evaluated. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 420 guideline was adopted in the acute toxicity testing with a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg (b.w.). For the 28-day daily oral dosing, the extract was administered at 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg b.w.; 1% ethanol in sterile distilled water was used as control. Clinical toxicity signs were subsequently evaluated. At a single dose of 5000 mg/kg b.w. the extract elicited no treatment-related signs of toxicity in the animals during the 14 days of experimental period. In the subacute toxicity, there was no significant difference in hematological, renal, and liver function indices. However, dose-dependent significant increases were observed on the plasma concentrations of white blood cell and platelet counts of the treated animals compared to the control group. While cage observations revealed no treatment-facilitated signs of toxicity, histopathological examinations of the kidneys and liver also showed no obvious lesions and morphological changes. These results suggest that the extract may be labelled and classified as safe and practically nontoxic within the doses and period of investigation in this study. PMID:27672399

  11. A novel anticancer diarylurea derivative HL-40 as a multi-kinases inhibitor with good pharmacokinetics in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Yin; Zhao, Cui-Rong; Wang, Rui-Qi; Li, Wen-Bao; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2015-02-01

    HL-40, N-(4-(1-(4-chlorine indazole)) phenyl)-N-(4-chloro-3-three fluorine methyl phenyl) urea, is a novel diarylurea derivative. In this study, we investigated the kinases activities and binding constants, pharmacokinetics of HL-40, and then evaluated its anticancer efficacy by both in vitro and in vivo methods. Enzyme activities assays in vitro were employed to identify eight candidate kinase targets. The competition binding assays against eight candidate kinases suggested that HL-40 showed strong affinity to c-Kit, PDGFRβ and FLT3. The pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats showed that HL-40 could maintain high compound concentration and long residence time in the blood circulation. HL-40 possessed strong inhibition activities against 12 human cancer cells. Meanwhile, HL-40 effectively delayed the growth of cancer xenografts without significant toxicity to mice. Based on these in vitro and in vivo results, we suggested that HL-40 might be developed as a potential multi-kinases inhibitor for cancer treatment.

  12. Telmisartan inhibits hyperalgesia and inflammatory progression in a diabetic neuropathic pain model of Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohammed M.; Arrejaie, Aws S.; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M.; AlSharari, Shakir D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential therapeutic value of telmisartan (TMT) against diabetic neuropathy (DN) and associated pain in Wistar rats. Methods: Peripheral DN was induced by a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (55 mg/kg), and 3 weeks later TMT treatment was started (5 and 10 mg/kg/day), and continued for 4 weeks. Mechanical nociceptive threshold, motor coordination, and thermal nociceptive threshold tests were performed before and after TMT treatment. In serum, glucose, pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 were assessed. Nerve growth factor (NGF) levels and histopathological changes were estimated in the sciatic nerve. This study was conducted at the Experimental Animal Care Center, Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2013 and May 2014. Results: We observed a significant reduction in mechanical nociceptive threshold, motor coordination, and thermal nociceptive threshold in diabetic animals. The TMT treatment significantly enhanced the reduced mechanical nociceptive threshold. The untreated diabetic animals revealed a significant decrease in sciatic NGF, which was markedly attenuated by TMT. The elevated serum levels of cytokines in diabetic animals were inhibited by the TMT treatments. Histopathological evaluation showed obvious nerve degeneration in the diabetic group that was eliminated in the TMT treated diabetic groups. Conclusion: Telmisartan has a potential neuro-protective effect on peripheral DN; this is mediated through its anti-inflammatory effects and its dual properties as an angiotensin receptor blocker, and a partial peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-g ligand. PMID:25864063

  13. Whey protein isolate and glycomacropeptide decrease weight gain and alter body composition in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Royle, Peter J; McIntosh, Graeme H; Clifton, Peter M

    2008-07-01

    The effect of feed protein type on body composition and growth has been examined. Evidence exists that whey protein concentrate is effective at limiting body fat expansion. The presence of caseinomacropeptide, a mixture of glycosylated and non-glycosylated carbohydrate residues, in particular glycomacropeptide (GMP) in whey protein concentrate may be important for this effect. The influence of whey protein isolate (WPI) and GMP on weight gain and body composition was examined by feeding Wistar rats ad libitum for 7 weeks with five semi-purified American Institute of Nutrition-based diets differing in protein type: (1) casein; (2) barbequed beef; (3) control WPI (no GMP); (4) WPI+GMP at 100 g/kg; (5) WPI+GMP at 200 g/kg. Body composition was assessed, and plasma samples were assayed for TAG, insulin and glucose. Body-weight gain was lower (- 21 %) on the control WPI diet relative to casein, with a non-significant influence associated with GMP inclusion (- 30 %), the effect being equivalent at both levels of GMP addition. Renal and carcass fat mass were reduced in the highest GMP diet when compared with WPI (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin was lowered by GMP at the highest addition compared with WPI alone (- 53 %; P < 0.01). Plasma TAG in the WPI+GMP (200 g/kg) group were lower (- 27 %; P < 0.05) than the casein and beef groups. In conclusion, GMP appears to have a significant additional influence when combined with WPI on fat accumulation. WPI alone appears to have the predominant influence accounting for 70 % of the overall effect on body-weight gain. Mechanisms for this effect have not been identified but food intake was not responsible.

  14. Ameliorative effect of Apodytes dimidiata on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Divya, Menon Kunnathully; Lincy, Lawrence; Raghavamenon, Achuthan Chathrattil; Babu, Thekkekara Devassy

    2016-10-01

    Context Nutraceuticals possessing antioxidant potential have been used to alleviate side effects exerted by many chemotherapeutics, including cisplatin. Since Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex Arn. (Icacinaceae) shows antioxidant potential, it may possess significant chemoprotective effects. Objectives The study investigated whether A. dimidiata could attenuate cisplatin-induced renal damage. Materials and methods Nephrotoxicity was induced by cisplatin (single i.p., 16 mg/kg b wt.) in Wistar rats. Methanolic leaf extract of A. dimidiata (AMF) was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg b. wt. orally for 5 consecutive days before/after cisplatin administration. Blood and renal parameters were analysed. Total phenolic and flavonoid content in AMF and its NO scavenging effect was determined. Results Significant protective effect of AMF on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was observed in pre-treated animals. The reduction of urea, creatinine and lipid peroxidation was 58.31%, 42.19% and 60%, respectively, and the increase in haemoglobin and leucocyte count was 28.25% and 42.91%, respectively. The increase calculated for GSH, GPx, SOD and catalase was 35.64%, 18.14%, 74.42% and 35.46%, respectively. Tissue architecture of kidney was almost normal in AMF treated animals. The results were comparable to the standard drug, silymarin. AMF contained high level of polyphenols and flavonoids and was found to scavenge NO radicals (IC50 121.8 μg/mL). Discussion and conclusion AMF can effectively counteract cisplatin mediated renal acute toxicity possibly by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Accordingly, the study suggests that AMF can ameliorate free radical-induced damage associated with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  15. Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of Cynodon dactylon decoction in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Alireza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Zarei, Batool; Aghaee, Azita

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of Cynodon dactylon aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg C. dactylon, lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to C. dactylon 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg C. dactylon reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water. PMID:28348973

  16. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class.

    PubMed

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered orally to treat bacterial infections not necessarily related to the gastrointestinal system. This has adverse effects on the commensal gut microbial community, as it disrupts the intricate balance between specific bacterial groups within this ecosystem, potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (housed in pairs with 6 cages per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity and an increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was observed for all three antibiotics. Additionally, the relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was increased in the CTX group and both Lactobacillaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae were increased in the VAN group compared to the CON group. No changes in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Intestinal permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced changes in microbiota may be linked to alterations in intestinal permeability, although the specific interactions remain to be elucidated as changes in permeability did

  17. Experimental demonstration of pathogenic potential of Anisakis physeteris and Anisakis paggiae in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Romero, María Carmen; Valero, Adela; Navarro, María Concepción; Hierro, Ignacio; Barón, Sergio David; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2014-12-01

    Anisakis morphotype I is the principal etiologic agent of human anisakiasis, with differences in pathogenicity found between the Anisakis simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii species; however, the role of morphotype II larvae in this illness is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to verify the ability of morphotype II larvae to invade tissues via the experimental infection of Wistar rats, an animal model which simulates infection in humans. In the in vivo assay, 7.1% (4/56 L3 morphotype II) showed pathogenic potential, defined as the capacity of the larvae to cause lesions, attach to the gastrointestinal wall or penetrate it. Two of these larvae, one of A. physeteris and one of A. paggiae, penetrated the stomach wall and were found within the abdominal cavity, with the first one producing a small lesion with blood vessel breakage. The majority of the L3 larvae of morphotype II were found in the intestine (51.8%; 29/56) with the caecum being the least frequent location (8.9%; 5/56). In contrast, 44.0% (11/25) of the morphotype I larvae demonstrated pathogenic potential. Isoenzyme electrophoresis, PCR-RFLP of ITS1-5.8 s-ITS2 and PCR-sequencing of the cox2 mitochondrial gene were used to identify these larvae as A. physeteris (42.9%), A. paggiae (30.3%) and A. brevispiculata (1.8%). Although the morphotype II larvae of A. physeteris and A. paggiae have lower pathogenic potential than morphotype I larvae of A. simplex s.s. (93 and 91% lower, respectively), they may still be implicated in human anisakiasis, as they are capable of attaching to and penetrating the gastrointestinal wall of animals, demonstrating a similar pathogenicity to that of A. pegreffii. The techniques used for the identification of species reveal a great genetic heterogeneity of A. paggiae and A. physeteris, suggesting the existence of sibling species.

  18. Regulation of intracellular calcium by bupivacaine isomers in cardiac myocytes from Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Núbia G B; Sudo, Roberto T; Aguiar, Marli I S; Trachez, Margarete M; Masuda, Masako O; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2006-03-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of a racemic mixture of bupivacaine (RS(+/-)bupivacaine) and its isomers (S(-)bupivacaine and R(+)bupivacaine) on the Ca2+ handling by ventricular myocytes from Wistar rats. Single ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated and loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura 2-am to estimate intracellular Ca2+ concentration during contraction and relaxation cycles. S(-)bupivacaine (10 muM) significantly increased peak amplitude and the rate of increase of Ca2+ transients in 155% +/- 54% (P < 0.05) and 194% +/- 94% (P < 0.01) of control. However, exposure to R(+)bupivacaine had no effect on either peak amplitude or rate of increase at any concentration tested. Saponin-skinned ventricular fibers were used to investigate the effect of bupivacaine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and on the Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile system. S(-), R(+), and RS(+/-)bupivacaine induced Ca2+ release from SR (P < 0.01). In SR-disrupted skinned ventricular cells, bupivacaine and its isomers (5 mM) increased the sensitivity of contractile system to Ca(2+). S(-), RS(+/-), and R(+)bupivacaine significantly increased pCa50 from 5.8 +/- 0.1, 5.8 +/- 0.1, and 5.8 +/- 0.1, to 6.1 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.05), 6.0 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.05), and 6.1 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.05). Ca2+ release from SR through RyR2 activation could explain the increase of Ca2+ transients in cardiac cells. Increased intracellular Ca2+ in cardiac myocytes display a stereoselectivity to S(-)bupivacaine.

  19. Effects of leflunomide on inflamation and fibrosis in bleomycine induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Guzel, Aygul; Duran, Latif; Tutuncu, Serife; Guzel, Ahmet; Gunaydın, Mithat; Salis, Osman; Okuyucu, Ali; Selcuk, Mustafa Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Purposes Pulmonary fibrosis is a rare and progressive lung disease with a high mortality rate. The treatment regimens still fail to recover the disease. Leflunomide (LEF) is an immunomodulatory agent with antiproliferative activity that is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential therapeutic efficacy of LEF in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods A total of 21 male, adult wistar albino rats were used. The animals were divided into three groups as control, BLM and BLM plus LEF groups (n=7). In BLM group, mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of BLM (2.5 U/kg). Control group received the same volume of saline instead of BLM. In LEF group, in addition to BLM, LEF (10 mg/kg, daily) was administrated by oral gavage. The effect of LEF on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was studied by measurements of serum clara cell protein-16 (CC-16), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels and lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB by immunhistochemical examinations. Results LEF significantly increased the level of CC-16 and decreased the level of AOPP (P=0.042 and P=0.003 respectively). Lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB significantly decreased in LEF group compared to BLM group by immunhistochemical examinations (P<0.001). Conclusions LEF reduces oxidative stress factors, alveolar inflammation and attenuates lung injury and fibrosis. PMID:24255778

  20. Electrophysiological, vasoactive, and gastromodulatory effects of stevia in healthy Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yesmine, Saquiba; Connolly, Kylie; Hill, Nicholas; Coulson, Fiona R; Fenning, Andrew S

    2013-07-01

    Antihypertensive and antidiabetic effects of stevia, Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae), have been demonstrated in several human and animal models. The current study aims to define stevia's role in modifying the electrophysiological and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes, blood vessels, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Tissues from thoracic aorta, mesenteric arteries, ileum, and left ventricular papillary muscles were excised from 8-week-old healthy Wistar rats. The effects of stevia (1 × 10-9 M to 1 × 10-4 M) were measured on these tissues. Stevia's effects in the presence of verapamil, 4-AP, and L-NAME were also assessed. In cardiomyocytes, stevia attenuated the force of contraction, decreased the average peak amplitude, and shortened the repolarisation phase of action potential - repolarisation phase of action potential20 by 25 %, repolarisation phase of action potential50 by 34 %, and repolarisation phase of action potential90 by 36 %. Stevia caused relaxation of aortic tissues which was significantly potentiated in the presence of verapamil. In mesenteric arteries, incubation with L-NAME failed to block stevia-induced relaxation indicating the mechanism of action may not be fully via nitric oxide-dependent pathways. Stevia concentration-dependently reduced electrical field stimulated and carbachol-induced contractions in the isolated ileum. This study is the first to show the effectiveness of stevia in reducing cardiac action potential duration at 20 %, 50 %, and 90 % of repolarisation. Stevia also showed beneficial modulatory effects on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tissues via calcium channel antagonism, activation of the M2 muscarinic receptor function, and enhanced nitric oxide release.

  1. Responses of estrogen sensitive tissues in female Wistar rats to pre- and postnatal isoflavone exposure.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, T; Ledwig, C; Kulling, S; Molzberger, A; Möller, F J; Zierau, O; Vollmer, G; Moors, S; Degen, G H; Diel, P

    2009-12-15

    Effects of isoflavones on estrogen sensitive tissues are discussed controversially. This study was designed to investigate tissue specific effects of an isoflavone exposure through different periods of life in female Wistar rats and to compare the effects of genistein (GEN) to those of mixed dietary isoflavones, GEN and daidzein (DAI). One group received an isoflavone-free diet (IDD), another was fed an isoflavone-rich diet (IRD) and the third group an IDD supplemented with GEN (GEN(d)) prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and up to weaning. The offspring were kept on the respective diets during growth, puberty and adulthood. The weight of the uterus, the height of the uterine and vaginal epithelium, the bone mineral density of the tibia, and the expression of the estrogen sensitive gene CaBP9K in the liver were determined. At d21, the uterine weight, the uterine epithelium and the expression of CaBP9K in the liver were significantly stimulated in GEN(d) animals compared to IDD and IRD. Interestingly, bone mineral density was increased in GEN(d) and in IRD animals. Around puberty (d50) neither uterine wet weights nor trabecular bone density differed significantly among the isoflavone groups and the IDD control. At d80 no significant differences in uterine weight were observed among IDD, GEN(d) and IRD animals. However, bone mineral density was increased in GEN(d) and IRD animals. In summary, our results demonstrate that lifelong dietary exposure to isoflavones can affect estrogen sensitive tissues, apparently in a tissue selective manner. With respect to health risk and benefit our data indicate that an increased bone mineral density can be achieved by lifelong exposure to an IRD, which, in contrast to GEN supplementation, does not seem to stimulate the proliferation of the uterine epithelium.

  2. Early social and physical deprivation leads to reduced social motivation in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Matti; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R

    2005-01-30

    Behavioural abnormalities in adulthood may have their origin in a disturbed interaction with the environment during postnatal development. We tested the consequences for adult social motivation of early deprivation (ED) of rat pups from mothers and littermates relative to nonhandled (NH) pups. Early deprivation was performed at room or warm ambient temperatures, cold-ED and warm-ED, respectively, and during either the dark or light phase of the daily cycle. In adulthood, rats that were unrelated and unfamiliar but of the same treatment group were introduced in pairs to an open field for a 30-min test. Social behaviour in home base and exploration modes was assessed using algorithmic analysis of the XY locations of the two rats. Findings revealed that Cold-ED induced a preference for a separate home base, which limited significantly the episodes of social interactions, in comparison to NH. Warm-ED had no comparable effect on the rats' social behaviour. These findings indicate that ED under ambient conditions that constitute severe thermal stress for rat pups leads to development of reduced social motivation in adulthood.

  3. Curative Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Crinum Giganteum on NMDA-Receptor Antagonist-Induced Schizophrenic Wistar Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Finbarrs-Bello, Elizabeth; Obikili, Emmanuel Nebeuwa; Anayochukwu, Esom Emmanuel; Godson, Anyanwu Emeka

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study evaluated the curative potential of Crinum giganteum in the treatment of schizophrenia using an NMDA-receptor antagonist-induced schizophrenic Wistar rat model. METHODS: Twenty-five adult Wistar rats of both sexes of average weights 180 g were divided into two groups: control and schizophrenic rat models. The controls received 0.1 ml of 0. 9% saline, while schizophrenia was induced in models using 25 mg/kg of ketamine hydrochloride (i.p.) for 7 days. On the 8 day models were divided into group’s k1, k2, k3 and k4 of 5 rats each. K1 and the controls were sacrificed then, groups k2 and k3 were treated with 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg aqueous leaf extract of Crinum giganteum while, k4 (standard) received 25 mg/kg of chlorpromazine orally for 28 days. Amygdala were harvested, processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H &E) stain, Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) marker was also used to monitor the curative effect on the amygdala. RESULTS: Degenerative changes and increased NSE immunoreactivity were observed in the untreated models. Extract-treated models showed normal amygdala and negative NSE immunoreactivity while chlorpromazine treated models revealed decreased NSE immunoreactivity. CONCLUSION: Crinum giganteum extracts exhibits better curative effect than the standard antipsychotic agent. PMID:27703552

  4. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats.

  5. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  6. The effects of captopril on cardiac regression, blood pressure and bradykinin components in diabetic Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J N; Kesavarao, U

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT), total urinary kallikrein, total plasma kininogen and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MABP was significantly raised (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats compared to the respective controls. The LVWT was also significantly (P<0.01) increased in diabetic WKY rats than that of control WKY rats. The mean total urinary kallikrein level and the mean total plasma kininogen level were higher (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats, when these rats were treated with captopril (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) against the mean value obtained from control WKY rats. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that diabetes induced in these rats can cause hypertension, increased LVWT and changes in the BK-forming components. Captopril treatment caused reduction in MABP, regression of LVWT and alterations in bradykinin (BK)-forming components. The possible significance of these observations is discussed.

  7. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  8. Effect of Preservation Methods of Oil Palm Sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the Reproductive Indices of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01–11.71%), protein (1.56–1.95%), ash (0.22–0.35%), moisture (92.55–98.24%), and alcohol (0.26–3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×106), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals. PMID:25101691

  9. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  10. Dietary prevention of hormone refractory prostate cancer in Lobund-Wistar rats: a review of studies in a relevant animal model.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Morris; Suckow, Mark A

    2006-12-01

    Lobund-Wistar (LW) rats, which have high testosterone levels, are predisposed to develop hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) spontaneously and by methylnitrosourea (MNU) induction, and the development of HRPC progresses through 2 stages. This paper reviews several studies in which LW rats were placed on soy-containing diets and were evaluated for development of either spontaneous or MNU-induced prostate cancer. The premalignant, testosterone-dependent stage is inhibited by testosterone deprivation. In the absence of testosterone deprivation, tumorigenesis progresses spontaneously to the testosterone-independent refractory stage. In LW rats: moderate caloric restriction prevented development of spontaneous prostate cancer; dietary 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide prevented MNU-induced prostate cancer; and dietary supplementation with soy protein isolate with high isoflavones prevented spontaneous and induced tumors and led to moderate reduction of serum testosterone. In rats 12 mo of age and younger, changing from the control diet to the soy+isoflavone diet significantly prevented progression of spontaneous tumors to the refractory stage of disease. Tumors that developed spontaneously and after MNU induction showed similar developmental stages and morphology, but MNU-induced tumors had shorter latency periods before development. The accumulated data indicate that soy-based diets are effective in the prevention of prostate cancer.

  11. Differential performance of Wistar Han and Sprague Dawley rats in behavioral tests: differences in baseline behavior and reactivity to positive control agents.

    PubMed

    Zmarowski, Amy; Beekhuijzen, Manon; Lensen, Joost; Emmen, Harry

    2012-09-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing assesses potentially adverse effects on the developing nervous system. The present DNT study was conducted to generate historical data with the Wistar Han (WH) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rat strains, commonly used in Europe and the US, respectively. Potential differences between these strains in DNT endpoints have not been extensively investigated. Motor activity, startle response, learning and memory testing, and neurological (quantitative and qualitative) examinations were conducted using three groups of control, prenatally exposed (to Methylazoxymethanol [MAM] on gestation Day 15) and acutely treated (with IDPN, MK-801 or Chlorpromazine) animals for each strain. The positive controls produced clear effects in most endpoints investigated, with limited functional differences in baseline behavior and positive control sensitivity. However, SD rats were considerably more susceptible to MAM-induced learning and memory impairments and neurological damage. These data highlight differential sensitivity between the strains, which may require risk assessment consideration for developmental neurotoxicants.

  12. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  13. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Govatati, Suresh; Matha, Sumanth Kumar; Korla, Swapna Vahini; Malempati, Sravanthi; Pasupuleti, Sreenivasa Rao; Bhanoori, Manjula; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2017-05-01

    The present study principally sought to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in alcohol receiving rats. MtDNA was isolated from hepatic tissues of albino wistar rats after alcohol treatment with and without GTE supplementation. Entire displacement loop (D-loop) of mtDNA was screened by PCR-Sanger's sequencing method. In addition, mtDNA deletions and antioxidant activity were measured in hepatic tissue of all rats. Results showed increased frequency of D-loop mutations in alcoholic rats (ALC). DNA mfold analysis predicted higher free energy for 15507C and 16116C alleles compared to their corresponding wild alleles which represents less stable secondary structures with negative impact on overall mtDNA function. Interestingly, D-loop mutations observed in ALC rats were successfully restored on GTE supplementation. MtDNA deletions were observed in ALC rats, but intact native mtDNA was found in ALC + GTE group suggesting alcohol induced oxidative damage of mtDNA and ameliorative effect of GTE. Furthermore, markedly decreased activities of glutathione peroxidise, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content were identified in ALC rats; however, GTE supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) restored these levels close to normal. In conclusion, green tea could be used as an effective nutraceutical against alcohol induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

  14. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink.

  15. Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raju Suresh; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P. Gopalakrishna; Mailankot, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) with the brain is a serious concern of our society. Objective We evaluated the effect of RF-EMR from mobile phones on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. Materials and methods Healthy male albino Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 50 missed calls (within 1 hour) per day for 4 weeks, keeping a GSM (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone) in the cage. After the experimental period, passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology were studied. Results Passive avoidance behaviour was significantly affected in mobile phone RF-EMR-exposed rats demonstrated as shorter entrance latency to the dark compartment when compared to the control rats. Marked morphological changes were also observed in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats. Conclusion Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. PMID:20095879

  16. Mechanistic investigations on the etiology of Risperdal(®) Consta(®)-induced bone changes in female Wistar Hannover rats.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Eric J; Roosen, Wendy; Vinken, Petra; Vandenberghe, John; Sterkens, Patrick; Lammens, Lieve

    2012-09-28

    RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) is a long-acting, intramuscular formulation of risperidone microspheres for the biweekly treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In a 24-month carcinogenicity study male and female Wistar Hannover rats received RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®) by intramuscular injection at dosages of 5 or 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Bone changes described as "osteodystrophy" were observed by routine microscopic examination at 40 mg/kg in the sternum of female rats after 12 months, and in the sternum and stifle joint of both male and female rats after 24 months of treatment, respectively. To investigate the etiology of these bone changes, a 12-month mechanistic study was conducted in female Wistar Hannover rats at dosages of 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In addition to routine parameters, this study included bone markers, hormone measurements, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone density measurements. It revealed a treatment-related reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone density of the femur and tibia at 20 and 40 mg/kg, which was evident in the tibia from Week 13 of treatment onwards. There was no convincing evidence for any of the modes of action known to underlie trabecular bone loss in rats including renal, nutritional, or hepatic osteodystrophy, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism or glucocorticoid excess. It is hypothetized that prolonged hyperprolactinemia accompanied by an increase in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels and a slight hypoestrogenic state could have caused the reduced trabecular bone density in RISPERDAL(®) CONSTA(®)-treated rats. The relevance of this finding in terms of human risk is unknown.

  17. A new experimental inbred Wistar rat varicocele model: anatomy of the left spermatic vein and the effect on histology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Gao, X; Liu, X; Wang, K; Pang, J; Zhou, J

    2008-02-01

    Because of venous anatomical differences between rats and humans and the personal interpretation of these differences, there is neither consistent animal prototype nor consistent results in the study of varicocele. We established a new substrain of Wistar inbred rats, of which the left testis vein has no significant branches to the common iliac vein up pampiniform plexus, but instead enters the left renal vein directly (similar to humans) and used them to create experimental varicocele model by partial ligation of the left renal vein. One month later, the predominant lesion of the left testis in induced group was spermatogenic arrest at the spermatid and preliminary spermatocyte phases, and considerable interstitial and Sertoli cell vacuolation. The right testis also showed spermatogenic arrest. Most important, the characteristics of the lesions differed in both testes, with the left testis having more severe lesions. Allowing for the unique anatomy of the left spermatic vein, the standard of the surgical procedure, the high rate of varicocele induction, and identical histological alteration as occurs in humans, we believe that this inbred Wistar rat substrain is suitable for the creation of an experimental varicocele model, which has promise for practical application in humans.

  18. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  19. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Andrographolide and Standardized Extract of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) with Nabumetone in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Balap, Aishwarya; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae) and Andrographolide (AN) with nabumetone (NAB) in wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were studied after co-administration of APE and AN with NAB in Wistar rats. In pharmacokinetic studies, significant decrease in Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ of 6-MNA after co-administration with pure AN and APE has been observed. Tmax of 6-MNA has been increased to 2 h from 1.5 h in AN + NAB treated group. Changes in mean residential time, clearance and volume of distribution of 6-MNA in APE + NAB treated group and AN + NAB treated group indicated interference of other components of APE other than AN. In pharmacodynamic study, significant decrease in antiarthritic activity of NAB on concomitant administration with APE and AN has been observed. The study concludes that NAB exhibits pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with APE and AN in rats thus alarms the concomitant use of herbal preparations containing APE and AN with NAB. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism and predict the herb-drug interaction in humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The new compound, LASSBio 294, increases the contractility of intact and saponin-skinned cardiac muscle from Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sudo, R T; Zapata-Sudo, G; Barreiro, E J

    2001-10-01

    1. A new compound designated as LASSBio 294 (L-294), 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone, was synthesized as an alternative therapeutic for cardiac dysfunction. 2. L-294 increased in a dose-dependent manner the spontaneous contractions of isolated hearts from Wistar rats with maximal effect (128.0+/-0.7% of control) observed at 25 microM. 3. The positive inotropic effect of L-294 was also observed in electrically stimulated cardiac tissues from Wistar rats. The maximal increment of twitches, at 200 microM, was 163.1+/-18.4% for atrial, 153.5+/-28.5% for papillary and 201.5+/-18.5% for ventricular muscles. 4. In saponin skinned ventricular cells: (a) L-294 present in the period of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) loading with Ca(2+) shifted the dose and caffeine-induced contracture curve; (b) L-294 (100 microM) increased 40% the Ca(2+) uptake into SR; (c) L-294 did not significantly alter the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca(2+) in SR-disrupted skinned ventricular cells. 5. Retrograde perfusion of the isolated heart from Wistar rats with L-294 (100 microM) did not cause any significant change in rhythm, heart rate (control, 220+/-14.7 b.p.m.; 246+/-24.6 b.p.m. for L-294), PR interval (control, 66.0+/-2.4 ms; 64.0+/-2.3 ms for L-294) or QRS duration (control, 28.8+/-3.4 ms; 32.0+/-2.0 ms for L-294). 6. These results suggest a novel mechanism for a positive cardioinotropic effect through an interaction with the Ca(2+) uptake/release process of the SR. The effect of L-294 could be explained by a pronounced increased accumulation of Ca(2+) into the SR.

  1. Hydrodynamics-based delivery of the viral interleukin-10 gene suppresses experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, N; Maruyama, H; Kuroda, T; Kameda, S; Iino, N; Kawachi, H; Nishikawa, Y; Hanawa, H; Tahara, H; Miyazaki, J; Gejyo, F

    2003-08-01

    Gene therapy is expected to revolutionize the treatment of kidney diseases. Viral interleukin (vIL)-10 has a variety of immunomodulatory properties. We examined the applicability of vIL-10 gene transfer to the treatment of rats with crescentic glomerulonephritis, a T helper 1 (Th 1) predominant disease. To produce the disease, Wistar-Kyoto rats were injected with a rabbit polyclonal anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antibody. After 3 h, a large volume of plasmid DNA expressing vIL-10 (pCAGGS-vIL-10) solution was rapidly injected into the tail vein. pCAGGS solution was similarly injected into control rats (pCAGGS rats). We confirmed the presence of vector-derived vIL-10 mainly in the liver and observed high serum vIL-10 levels in pCAGGS-vIL-10-injected rats. Compared with the pCAGGS rats, the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats showed significant therapeutic effects: reduced frequency of crescent formation, decrease in the number of total cells, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells in the glomeruli, decrease in urine protein, and attenuation of kidney dysfunction. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed that this model was Th1-predominant in the glomeruli and that the ratio of the transcripts of CD4, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 to the transcripts of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the glomeruli were all significantly lower in the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats than in the pCAGGS rats. These results demonstrate that pCAGGS-vIL-10 gene transfer by hydrodynamics-based transfection suppresses crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  2. Genotoxicity assessment of cerium oxide nanoparticles in female Wistar rats after acute oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Monika; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-12-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs; nanoceria) have demonstrated excellent potential for commercial use in various arenas, such as in biomedical industry in cosmetics and as a fuel additive. However, limited knowledge exists regarding their potential toxicity. In this study, acute oral toxicity of CeO2 NPs and their microparticles (MPs; bulk) was carried out in female albino Wistar rats. The CeO2 NPs and CeO2 MPs were characterized utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for the size, distribution and surface charge respectively. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using micronucleus test (MNT), comet and chromosomal aberration (CA) assays. Results revealed that at high dose (1000mg/kg bw) CeO2 NPs induced significant DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and liver cells, micronucleus formation in bone marrow and blood cells and total cytogenetic changes in bone marrow. However, significant genotoxicity was not observed at 500 and 100mg/kg bw of CeO2 NPs. The findings from biochemical assays depicted significant alterations in ALP and LDH activity in serum and GSH content in liver, kidneys and brain only at the high dose of CeO2 NPs. Tissue biodistribution of both particles was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Bioaccumulation of nanoceria in all tissues was significant and dose-, time- and organ-dependent. Moreover, CeO2 NPs exhibited higher tissue distribution along with greater clearance in large fractions through urine and feces than CeO2 bulk, whereas, maximum amount of micro-sized CeO2 got excreted in feces. The histopathological examination documented alterations in the liver due to exposure with CeO2 NPs only. Hence, the results suggest that bioaccumulation of CeO2 NPs may induce genotoxic effects. However, further research on long term fate and adverse effects of CeO2 NPs is warranted.

  3. Parameters of Microcirculation in the Broad Ligament of the Uterus in Wistar Rats after Injection of Autologous Biomedical Cell Product.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Lykov, A P; Shurlygina, A V; Starkova, E V; Poveshchenko, O V; Bondarenko, N A; Kim, I I; Tenditnik, M V; Borodin, Yu I; Konenkov, V I

    2015-10-01

    We studied the effects of autologous biomedical cell product (bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and their conditioned media) on the parameters of the microcirculatory bed in the broad ligament of the uterus of normal Wistar rats were studied. The parameters of microcirculation and lymph drainage in the broad ligament changed in opposite directions in response to injection of autologous biomedical cell product via different routes. This fact should be taken into consideration when prescribing cell therapy for inflammatory degenerative processes in the pelvic organs.

  4. Toxicokinetic aspects of thiocyanate after oral exposure to cyanide in female Wistar rats in different physiological states.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Altamir Benedito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2014-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) is an ion that has been well studied in toxicology and has been associated with several intoxication episodes: the ingestion of contaminated foods and water, chemical war, suicides, homicides, occupational exposures and the use of certain medicines. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicokinetic parameters of thiocyante (SCN), the main metabolite of CN, after oral administration of potassium cyanide (KCN) to female rats at diestrus, gestational and lactational periods. Female Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups: virgins in the diestrus phase of the estrus cycle, females at the 14th day of gestation and females at the 14th day of lactation. Each group of rats received 3.0 mg of potassium cyanide per kilogram (KCN/kg body weight) by gavage, and blood was collected at several time points. We also collected amniotic fluid from pregnant rats and milk from the nursing rats to analyze thiocyanate concentration. The results showed that SCN levels were significantly increased in serum, milk and amniotic fluid after administration of KCN. In conclusion, the results of the present study evidence that the metabolism of CN varies greatly considering the physiologic state of the female rat, being females at estrus probably more exposed by these substances than at gestation and lactation because in these states there are other compartments, fetus and milk, which may capture these substances, as demonstrated by the V(d) values.

  5. Antilipoperoxidative and antioxidant effects of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, T; Quine, S Darlin

    2006-01-01

    Our study evaluates the preventive effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide (SACS) on lipid peroxidative products and enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in rats. The male Wistar rats were rendered myocardial infarction by ISO (150 mg kg(-1), once a day for two days). The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were increased in hearts from ISO-treated rats, whereas the content of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants were declined in rats administered ISO. Oral pretreatment with SACS (40 mg kg(-1) and 80 mg kg(-1) daily for a period of 35 days) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the lipid peroxidative products and significantly (p < 0.05) increased antioxidants in ISO-induced rats. Oral administration of SACS (40 mg kg(-1) and 80 mg kg(-1)) did not show any significant effect in normal rats. Thus, the present study shows that SACS exhibits antilipoperoxidative and antioxidant effects in experimental myocardial infarction.

  6. Effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on prevention