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Sample records for development architectural design

  1. Development of Design Expertise by Architecture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatayo, Adedapo Adewunmi; Ezema, Isidore; Opoko, Akunnaya

    2017-01-01

    What constitutes design ability and design expertise in architecture? Which categories of design expertise can be identified amongst architecture students? And which input factors differentiate one level of expertise from another? These questions were addressed in a survey of architecture students in Nigeria. Based on the results, students were…

  2. Urban landscape architecture design under the view of sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, WeiLin

    2017-08-01

    The concept of sustainable development in modern city landscape design advocates landscape architecture, which is the main development direction in the field of landscape design. They are also effective measures to promote the sustainable development of city garden. Based on this, combined with the connotation of sustainable development and sustainable design, this paper analyzes and discusses the design of urban landscape under the concept of sustainable development.

  3. Software architecture design domain

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Software architectures can provide a basis for the capture and subsequent reuse of design knowledge. The goal of software architecture is to allow the design of a system to take place at a higher level of abstraction; a level concerned with components, connections, constraints, rationale. This architectural view of software adds a new layer of abstraction to the traditional design phase of software development. It has resulted in a flurry of activity towards techniques, tools, and architectural design languages developed specifically to assist with this activity. An analysis of architectural descriptions, even though they differ in notation, shows a common set of key constructs that are present across widely varying domains. These common aspects form a core set of constructs that should belong to any ADL in order to for the language to offer the ability to specify software systems at the architectural level. This analysis also revealed a second set of constructs which served to expand the first set thereby improving the syntax and semantics. These constructs are classified according to whether they provide representation and analysis support for architectures belonging to many varying application domains (domain-independent construct class) or to a particular application domain (domain-dependent constructs). This paper presents the constructs of these two classes, their placement in the architecture design domain and shows how they may be used to classify, select, and analyze proclaimed architectural design languages (ADLs).

  4. An Interactive Design Space Supporting Development of Vehicle Architecture Concept Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Denver, Colorado, USA IMECE2011-64510 AN INTERACTIVE DESIGN SPACE SUPPORTING DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ARCHITECTURE CONCEPT MODELS Gary Osborne...early in the development cycle. Optimization taking place later in the cycle usually occurs at the detail design level, and tends to result in...architecture changes may be imposed, but such modifications are equivalent to a huge optimization cycle covering almost the entire design process, and

  5. New concept of aging care architecture landscape design based on sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    As the aging problem becoming serious in China, Aging care is now one of the top issuer in front of all of us. Lots of private and public aging care architecture and facilities have been built. At present, we only pay attention to the architecture design and interior design scientific, ecological and sustainable design on aged care architecture landscape. Based on the social economy, population resources, mutual coordination and development of the environment, taking the elderly as the special group, this paper follows the principles of the sustainable development, conducts the comprehensive design planning of aged care landscape architecture and makes a deeper understanding and exploration through changing the form of architectural space, ecological landscape planting, new materials and technology, ecological energy utilization.

  6. Design and Development of a CIM Architecture for Food Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    to support the IDEFIX Model Pro Software of D. Appleton, Inc., which requires a VGA monitor. This task, completed in the quarter ending April, 1990...architecture that covered both civilian and military product manufacture. This architecture, defined in IDEFIX modeling language, became the basis for...its extension, IDEFIX , is a methodology for modeling data entities and their relation- i ships. An entity is represented by a box labeled by a noun

  7. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: Architecture, Mission Design, and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Curt

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation represents an overview progress report about the system design and technology development of two interferometer concepts studied for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project. The two concepts are a structurally-connected interferometer (SCI) intended to fulfill minimum TPF science goals and a formation-flying interferometer (FFI) intended to fulfill full science goals. Described are major trades, analyses, and technology experiments completed. Near term plans are also described. This paper covers progress since August 2003

  8. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: Architecture, Mission Design, and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Curt

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation represents an overview progress report about the system design and technology development of two interferometer concepts studied for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project. The two concepts are a structurally-connected interferometer (SCI) intended to fulfill minimum TPF science goals and a formation-flying interferometer (FFI) intended to fulfill full science goals. Described are major trades, analyses, and technology experiments completed. Near term plans are also described. This paper covers progress since August 2003

  9. Architecture as Design Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  10. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: Architecture, Mission Design and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Curt; Lay, Oliver; Aung, MiMi; Gunter, Steven M.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Blackwood, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This overview paper is a progress report about the system design and technology development of two interferometer concepts studied for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project. The two concepts are a structurally-connected interferometer (SCI) intended to fulfill minimum TPF science goals and a formation-flying interferometer (FFI) intended to fulfill full science goals. Described are major trades, analyses, and technology experiments completed. Near term plans are also described. This paper covers progress since August 2003 and serves as an update to a paper presented at that month's SPIE conference, 'Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets.

  11. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: Architecture, Mission Design and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Curt; Lay, Oliver; Aung, MiMi; Gunter, Steven M.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Blackwood, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This overview paper is a progress report about the system design and technology development of two interferometer concepts studied for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project. The two concepts are a structurally-connected interferometer (SCI) intended to fulfill minimum TPF science goals and a formation-flying interferometer (FFI) intended to fulfill full science goals. Described are major trades, analyses, and technology experiments completed. Near term plans are also described. This paper covers progress since August 2003 and serves as an update to a paper presented at that month's SPIE conference, 'Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets.

  12. An Interactive Design Space Supporting Development of Vehicle Architecture Concept Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    ponents that are not designed to carry structural loads in the assembly, such as seats and other trim items. However, these inertial items have an...Denver, Colorado, USA IMECE2011-64510 AN INTERACTIVE DESIGN SPACE SUPPORTING DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ARCHITECTURE CONCEPT MODELS Gary Osborne...early in the development cycle. Optimization taking place later in the cycle usually occurs at the detail design level, and tends to result in

  13. Architecture, Design, and Development of an HTML/JavaScript Web-Based Group Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need for virtual workspaces and describes the architecture, design, and development of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (GSWeb), an HTML/JavaScript Web-based Group Support System (GSS). GSWeb, an application interface similar to a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is currently used by teams around the world and relies on user…

  14. Architecture, Design, and Development of an HTML/JavaScript Web-Based Group Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need for virtual workspaces and describes the architecture, design, and development of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (GSWeb), an HTML/JavaScript Web-based Group Support System (GSS). GSWeb, an application interface similar to a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is currently used by teams around the world and relies on user…

  15. Development and Application of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Kroo, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    Collaborative optimization is a design architecture applicable in any multidisciplinary analysis environment but specifically intended for large-scale distributed analysis applications. In this approach, a complex problem is hierarchically de- composed along disciplinary boundaries into a number of subproblems which are brought into multidisciplinary agreement by a system-level coordination process. When applied to problems in a multidisciplinary design environment, this scheme has several advantages over traditional solution strategies. These advantageous features include reducing the amount of information transferred between disciplines, the removal of large iteration-loops, allowing the use of different subspace optimizers among the various analysis groups, an analysis framework which is easily parallelized and can operate on heterogenous equipment, and a structural framework that is well-suited for conventional disciplinary organizations. In this article, the collaborative architecture is developed and its mathematical foundation is presented. An example application is also presented which highlights the potential of this method for use in large-scale design applications.

  16. Conceptual architectural/acoustical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. Harold

    2004-05-01

    The thinking which characterizes acoustics as a branch of physics and engineering has difficulty with the architectural design process-the process that generates a room concept in the imagination and experience of the architect. The architect has learned to ``sense'' the visual properties of a room as the design develops in the interaction between mind and media. Phrases such as ``wanting to be'' express the architectural intention but too often such intentions are dismissed as arbitrary; acoustics may then be about fixing the design with acoustical add-ons. Occasionally there is a true meeting of minds-a creative and receptive architect and an acoustician able to communicate at the level of the architectural intention. There is evidently an auditory dimension of wanting to be which is one with the visual. This paper explores the idea in several examples and concludes with suggestions for the training of acousticians.

  17. Design and development of a multi-architecture, fully implicit, charge and energy conserving particle-in-cell framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Joshua; Knoll, Dana; McPherson, Allen; Taitano, William; Chacon, Luis; Chen, Guangye; Pakin, Scott

    2013-10-01

    As computer architectures become increasingly heterogeneous the need for algorithms and applications that can utilize these new architectures grows more pressing. CoCoPIC is a fully implicit charge and energy conserving particle-in-cell framework developed as part of the Computational Co-Design for Multi-Scale Applications in the Natural Sciences (CoCoMANS) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. CoCoMANS is a multi-disciplinary computational co-design effort with the goal of developing new algorithms for emerging architectures using multi-scale applications. This poster will present the co-design process evolved within CoCoMANS, and details regarding the design and development of multi-architecture framework for a plasma application. This framework utilizes multiple abstraction layers in order to maximize code reuse between architectures, while providing low level abstractions to incorporate architecture specific operation optimizations such as vectorizations or hardware fused multiply-add. CoCoPIC's target problems include 1D3V slow shocks, and 2D3V magnetic island coalescence. Results of the multi-core development and optimization process will be presented.

  18. Evaluating architectural design review.

    PubMed

    Stamps, A E

    2000-02-01

    Architectural design review is a method of environmental management which is widely used by governmental agencies in both the United States and in Great Britain. Because design review is a governmental function, there is a major need to assess how well it works. Research covering over 29,000 respondents and 5,600 environmental scenes suggests that scientific protocols can be adapted to provide an accurate and efficient design review protocol. The protocol uses preference experiments to find the standardized mean difference [formula: see text] between a proposed project and a random sample of existing projects. Values of d will indicate whether the project will increase, maintain, or diminish the aesthetic merit of the sampled area. The protocol is illustrated by applying it to the case of design review for a single residence. Implications for further implementations are discussed.

  19. 1993 architectural design awards.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    The 10th annual architectural design awards sponsored by Contemporary Long Term Care salute nursing homes and retirement communities that combine a flair for innovative living environments with a sensitivity to the needs of aging residents. These facilities represent the very best in elderly housing that prolongs independence while enhancing efficient operation. The 1993 winners are: King Health Center, U.S. Soldiers' and Airmen's Home, Washington, DC; The Terrace of Los Gatos, Los Gatos, CA; Walker Elder Suites, Edina, MN; The Jefferson, Ballston, VA; The Forum at Rancho San Antonio, Cupertino, CA.

  20. Architecture, Design, Implementatio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    of data on its inputs and produces streams of data on its outputs.” Dean and Cordy [6] present a visual formalism defined as a context- free...cles represent tasks, arrows represent streams. The plus sign is the BNF symbol for “one or more.” 4 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2 4 341 3 15 1 3...guages of Program Design. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley. [6] T. R. Dean, J. R. Cordy . "A Syntactic Theory of Software Architecture." IEEE Trans. on

  1. Situating universal design architecture: designing with whom?

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To respond to growing calls for a theoretical unpacking of Universal Design (UD), a disparate movement cohering around attempts to design spaces and technologies that seek to allow use by all people (to the fullest extent possible). The on-going embedding of UD into architectural practice and pedagogy represents an opportune juncture at which to draw learning from other distinct-but-related transformatory architectural movements. Sociological-theoretical commentary. UD has to date, and necessarily, been dominated by the practice contexts from which it emerged. Appealing as a short-hand for description of "designing-for-all", in most cases UD has come to stand in as a term to signal a general intent in this direction and as an umbrella term for the range of technical design resources that have been developed under these auspices. There remains a fundamental ambivalence vis-à-vis the question of users' power/capacity to influence decision-making in the design process in UD; technically-oriented typologies of bodies predominate in influential UD architectural accounts. UD represents rich technical and pedagogical resources for those architects committed to transforming the existing built environment so as to be less hostile to a wide range of users. However, within UD, unpacking the social role of the professional architect vis-à-vis a variety of publics is an important, but hitherto underdeveloped, challenge; issues concerning professional-citizen power relations continue to animate parallel architectural politics, and UD can both contribute and draw much from these on-going explorations. Implications for Rehabilitation Universal Design (UD) architecture shares a close affinity with rehabilitation practice, with the creation of built environments that allow use by individuals with a wide range of capacities a priority for both. While an effective communicative "bridge" between professions, UD's deployment typically leaves unspoken the capacity of users to

  2. Developing a New Framework for Integration and Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) in Nigerian Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwakonye, Obioha; Alagbe, Oluwole; Oluwatayo, Adedapo; Alagbe, Taiye; Alalade, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    As a result of globalization of digital technology, intellectual discourse on what constitutes the basic body of architectural knowledge to be imparted to future professionals has been on the increase. This digital revolution has brought to the fore the need to review the already overloaded architectural education curriculum of Nigerian schools of…

  3. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  4. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  5. Situating universal design architecture: designing with whom?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To respond to growing calls for a theoretical unpacking of Universal Design (UD), a disparate movement cohering around attempts to design spaces and technologies that seek to allow use by all people (to the fullest extent possible). The on-going embedding of UD into architectural practice and pedagogy represents an opportune juncture at which to draw learning from other distinct-but-related transformatory architectural movements. Methods: Sociological-theoretical commentary. Results: UD has to date, and necessarily, been dominated by the practice contexts from which it emerged. Appealing as a short-hand for description of “designing-for-all”, in most cases UD has come to stand in as a term to signal a general intent in this direction and as an umbrella term for the range of technical design resources that have been developed under these auspices. There remains a fundamental ambivalence vis-à-vis the question of users’ power/capacity to influence decision-making in the design process in UD; technically-oriented typologies of bodies predominate in influential UD architectural accounts. Conclusions: UD represents rich technical and pedagogical resources for those architects committed to transforming the existing built environment so as to be less hostile to a wide range of users. However, within UD, unpacking the social role of the professional architect vis-à-vis a variety of publics is an important, but hitherto underdeveloped, challenge; issues concerning professional-citizen power relations continue to animate parallel architectural politics, and UD can both contribute and draw much from these on-going explorations. Implications for RehabilitationUniversal Design (UD) architecture shares a close affinity with rehabilitation practice, with the creation of built environments that allow use by individuals with a wide range of capacities a priority for both.While an effective communicative “bridge” between professions, UD’s deployment

  6. Development of Multi-Legged Walking Robot Using Reconfigurable Modular Design and Biomimetic Control Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuedong; Sun, Yi; Huang, Qingjiu; Jia, Wenchuan; Pu, Huayan

    This paper focuses on the design of a modular multi-legged walking robot MiniQuad-I, which can be reconfigured into variety configurations, including quadruped and hexapod configurations for different tasks by changing the layout of modules. Critical design considerations when taking the adaptability, maintainability and extensibility in count simultaneously are discussed and then detailed designs of each module are presented. The biomimetic control architecture of MiniQuad-I is proposed, which can improve the capability of agility and independence of the robot. Simulations and experiments on crawling, object picking and obstacle avoiding are performed to verify functions of the MiniQuad-I.

  7. Review of architecture and interior designs in Italian kindergartens and their relationship with motor development.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Silvia; Clavica, Fulgenzio; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The construction of a school is the first pedagogical act. Its form, the relationship with nature, light, materials and colours provides important educational inputs for children. Different social, philosophical, pedagogical and architectural theories on the spaces built for and around the child have led to the construction of different kindergartens based on fantasy, over-design, sobriety, philosophical theories, and so on. Kindergartens with a surplus of architecture and furniture may reduce the child's imagination, because they are perceived as a too elaborate toy that gets boring. Furniture should provide children with metamorphic forms which adapt to their needs and preferences. The planning and design of buildings and spaces dedicated to children should consider the child at the center of the space built. The aim that architects should have in planning a kindergarten is the well being of the child, because his/her childhood will be the basis of the maturity as adult of tomorrow.

  8. Development and Optimization of Tailored Composite TBC Design Architectures for Improved Erosion Durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Schreiber, Jeremy M.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Eden, Timothy J.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2017-08-01

    Rare-earth pyrochlores, RE2Zr2O7, have been identified as potential thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials due to their attractive thermal properties and CMAS resistance. However, they possess a low fracture toughness which results in poor erosion durability/foreign object damage resistance. This research focuses on the development of tailored composite air plasma spray (APS) TBC design architectures utilizing a t' Low-k secondary toughening phase (ZrO2-2Y2O3-1Gd2O3-1Yb2O3; mol.%) to enhance the erosion durability of a hyper-stoichiometric pyrochlore, NZO (ZrO2-25Nd2O3-5Y2O3-5Yb2O3; mol.%). In this study, composite coatings have been deposited with 30, 50, and 70% (wt.%) t' Low-k toughening phase in a horizontally aligned lamellar morphology which enhances the toughening response of the coating. The coatings were characterized via SEM and XRD and were tested for erosion durability before and after isothermal heat treatment at 1100 °C. Analysis with mixing laws indicated improved erosion performance; however, a lack of long-term thermal stability was shown via isothermal heat treatments at 1316 °C. An impact stress analysis was performed using finite element analysis of a coating cross section, representing the first microstructurally realistic study of mechanical properties of TBCs with the results correlating well with observed behavior.

  9. Development and Optimization of Tailored Composite TBC Design Architectures for Improved Erosion Durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Schreiber, Jeremy M.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Eden, Timothy J.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2017-05-01

    Rare-earth pyrochlores, RE2Zr2O7, have been identified as potential thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials due to their attractive thermal properties and CMAS resistance. However, they possess a low fracture toughness which results in poor erosion durability/foreign object damage resistance. This research focuses on the development of tailored composite air plasma spray (APS) TBC design architectures utilizing a t' Low-k secondary toughening phase (ZrO2-2Y2O3-1Gd2O3-1Yb2O3; mol.%) to enhance the erosion durability of a hyper-stoichiometric pyrochlore, NZO (ZrO2-25Nd2O3-5Y2O3-5Yb2O3; mol.%). In this study, composite coatings have been deposited with 30, 50, and 70% (wt.%) t' Low-k toughening phase in a horizontally aligned lamellar morphology which enhances the toughening response of the coating. The coatings were characterized via SEM and XRD and were tested for erosion durability before and after isothermal heat treatment at 1100 °C. Analysis with mixing laws indicated improved erosion performance; however, a lack of long-term thermal stability was shown via isothermal heat treatments at 1316 °C. An impact stress analysis was performed using finite element analysis of a coating cross section, representing the first microstructurally realistic study of mechanical properties of TBCs with the results correlating well with observed behavior.

  10. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture development is conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this presentation characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  11. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles.

  12. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  13. The Role of Sketch in Architecture Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanjin; Ning, Wen

    2017-06-01

    With the continuous development of computer technology, we rely more and more on the computer and pay more and more attention to the final design results, so that we ignore the importance of the sketch. However, the sketch is the most basic and effective way of architecture design. Based on the study of the sketch of Tjibao Cultural Center of sketch, the paper explores the role of sketch in architecture design .

  14. Effective software design and development for the new graph architecture HPC machines.

    SciTech Connect

    Dechev, Damian

    2012-03-01

    Software applications need to change and adapt as modern architectures evolve. Nowadays advancement in chip design translates to increased parallelism. Exploiting such parallelism is a major challenge in modern software engineering. Multicore processors are about to introduce a significant change in the way we design and use fundamental data structures. In this work we describe the design and programming principles of a software library of highly concurrent scalable and nonblocking data containers. In this project we have created algorithms and data structures for handling fundamental computations in massively multithreaded contexts, and we have incorporated these into a usable library with familiar look and feel. In this work we demonstrate the first design and implementation of a wait-free hash table. Our multiprocessor data structure design allows a large number of threads to concurrently insert, remove, and retrieve information. Non-blocking designs alleviate the problems traditionally associated with the use of mutual exclusion, such as bottlenecks and thread-safety. Lock-freedom provides the ability to share data without some of the drawbacks associated with locks, however, these designs remain susceptible to starvation. Furthermore, wait-freedom provides all of the benefits of lock-free synchronization with the added assurance that every thread makes progress in a finite number of steps. This implies deadlock-freedom, livelock-freedom, starvation-freedom, freedom from priority inversion, and thread-safety. The challenges of providing the desirable progress and correctness guarantees of wait-free objects makes their design and implementation difficult. There are few wait-free data structures described in the literature. Using only standard atomic operations provided by the hardware, our design is portable; therefore, it is applicable to a variety of data-intensive applications including the domains of embedded systems and supercomputers.Our experimental

  15. Lighting in Architectural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    The primary function of this book is to treat the topic of lighting design in such a manner as to bridge the gap between architects and illuminating engineers. The work is divided into three parts: Part I, Principles of Design, offers information and analysis of how natural and artificial lighting affects building design, how illumination levels…

  16. Lighting in Architectural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    The primary function of this book is to treat the topic of lighting design in such a manner as to bridge the gap between architects and illuminating engineers. The work is divided into three parts: Part I, Principles of Design, offers information and analysis of how natural and artificial lighting affects building design, how illumination levels…

  17. Software design by reusing architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay; Nii, H. Penny

    1992-01-01

    Abstraction fosters reuse by providing a class of artifacts that can be instantiated or customized to produce a set of artifacts meeting different specific requirements. It is proposed that significant leverage can be obtained by abstracting software system designs and the design process. The result of such an abstraction is a generic architecture and a set of knowledge-based, customization tools that can be used to instantiate the generic architecture. An approach for designing software systems based on the above idea are described. The approach is illustrated through an implemented example, and the advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  18. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development, DR-5. Volume 2: Design options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of Task 2 is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This includes: (1) the establishment of option categories that are most likely to influence Space Station Data System (SSDS) definition; (2) the identification of preferred options in each category; and (3) the characterization of these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost and risk. This volume contains the options development for the design category. This category comprises alternative structures, configurations and techniques that can be used to develop designs that are responsive to the SSDS requirements. The specific areas discussed are software, including data base management and distributed operating systems; system architecture, including fault tolerance and system growth/automation/autonomy and system interfaces; time management; and system security/privacy. Also discussed are space communications and local area networking.

  19. Parallel machine architecture and compiler design facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David J.; Yew, Pen-Chung; Padua, David; Sameh, Ahmed; Veidenbaum, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to provide an integrated simulation environment for studying and evaluating various issues in designing parallel systems, including machine architectures, parallelizing compiler techniques, and parallel algorithms. The status of Delta project (which objective is to provide a facility to allow rapid prototyping of parallelized compilers that can target toward different machine architectures) is summarized. Included are the surveys of the program manipulation tools developed, the environmental software supporting Delta, and the compiler research projects in which Delta has played a role.

  20. Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational design.

    PubMed

    Menges, Achim

    2012-03-01

    Design computation has profound impact on architectural design methods. This paper explains how computational design enables the development of biomimetic design processes specific to architecture, and how they need to be significantly different from established biomimetic processes in engineering disciplines. The paper first explains the fundamental difference between computer-aided and computational design in architecture, as the understanding of this distinction is of critical importance for the research presented. Thereafter, the conceptual relation and possible transfer of principles from natural morphogenesis to design computation are introduced and the related developments of generative, feature-based, constraint-based, process-based and feedback-based computational design methods are presented. This morphogenetic design research is then related to exploratory evolutionary computation, followed by the presentation of two case studies focusing on the exemplary development of spatial envelope morphologies and urban block morphologies.

  1. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  2. Energy Conservation through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a teaching unit designed to create in students an awareness of and an appreciation for the possibilities for energy conservation as they relate to architecture. It is noted that the unit can be adapted for use in many industrial programs and with different teaching methods due to the variety of activities that can be used. (Editor/TA)

  3. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  4. Architecture for distributed design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlrath, Michael B.; Boning, Duane S.; Troxel, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a flexible, distributed system architecture capable of supporting collaborative design and fabrication of semi-conductor devices and integrated circuits. Such capabilities are of particular importance in the development of new technologies, where both equipment and expertise are limited. Distributed fabrication enables direct, remote, physical experimentation in the development of leading edge technology, where the necessary manufacturing resources are new, expensive, and scarce. Computational resources, software, processing equipment, and people may all be widely distributed; their effective integration is essential in order to achieve the realization of new technologies for specific product requirements. Our architecture leverages is essential in order to achieve the realization of new technologies for specific product requirements. Our architecture leverages current vendor and consortia developments to define software interfaces and infrastructure based on existing and merging networking, CIM, and CAD standards. Process engineers and product designers access processing and simulation results through a common interface and collaborate across the distributed manufacturing environment.

  5. Network architecture functional description and design

    SciTech Connect

    Stans, L.; Bencoe, M.; Brown, D.; Kelly, S.; Pierson, L.; Schaldach, C.

    1989-05-25

    This report provides a top level functional description and design for the development and implementation of the central network to support the next generation of SNL, Albuquerque supercomputer in a UNIX{reg sign} environment. It describes the network functions and provides an architecture and topology.

  6. Designing Software Architecture to Achieve Business Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-19

    the requirements that drive the design of the architecture. • Quality attribute requirements • Business requirements for the developing organization...Quality attribute requirements are, typically, not well specified. • The system shall be modular • The system shall be secure Business requirements for

  7. Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Terry T-K; Sorensen, Dina; Davis, Steven; Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Celentano, Joseph; Callahan, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new tool, Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture, to provide practitioners in architecture and public health with a practical set of spatially organized and theory-based strategies for making school environments more conducive to learning about and practicing healthy eating by optimizing physical resources and learning spaces. The design guidelines, developed through multidisciplinary collaboration, cover 10 domains of the school food environment (eg, cafeteria, kitchen, garden) and 5 core healthy eating design principles. A school redesign project in Dillwyn, Virginia, used the tool to improve the schools’ ability to adopt a healthy nutrition curriculum and promote healthy eating. The new tool, now in a pilot version, is expected to evolve as its components are tested and evaluated through public health and design research. PMID:23449281

  8. Healthy eating design guidelines for school architecture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Sorensen, Dina; Davis, Steven; Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Celentano, Joseph; Callahan, Kelly; Trowbridge, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new tool, Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture, to provide practitioners in architecture and public health with a practical set of spatially organized and theory-based strategies for making school environments more conducive to learning about and practicing healthy eating by optimizing physical resources and learning spaces. The design guidelines, developed through multidisciplinary collaboration, cover 10 domains of the school food environment (eg, cafeteria, kitchen, garden) and 5 core healthy eating design principles. A school redesign project in Dillwyn, Virginia, used the tool to improve the schools' ability to adopt a healthy nutrition curriculum and promote healthy eating. The new tool, now in a pilot version, is expected to evolve as its components are tested and evaluated through public health and design research.

  9. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  10. Design Novel 3D Nano Architectures for Developing Ultra Fast Thermal Energy Storage Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    structural, bonding and energetic characteristics of the junctions and verify their stability. In the 2nd and 3rd year of the grant we design novel...We applied a multi-scale computational approach as can be seen in the figure. Both quantum chemical accurate calculations and Molecular Dynamics...rules for connecting polygons The key point is how to create a chemically stable junction in a way that all BN and SiC atoms will be of sp2

  11. Architecture and data processing alternatives for Tse computer. Volume 1: Tse logic design concepts and the development of image processing machine architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, D. A.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Golay transform processors are presented with emphasis on the skeletonizing algorithm. Conventional logic control units developed for the Golay transform processors are described. One is a unique microprogrammable control unit that uses a microprocessor to control the Tse computer. The remaining control units are based on programmable logic arrays. Performance criteria are established and utilized to compare the various Golay transform machines developed. A critique of Tse logic is presented, and recommendations for additional research are included.

  12. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  13. ArchE - An Architecture Design Assistant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    X, Module X 3 Author / Presenter, Date if Needed What is ArchE? ArchE is a software architecture design assistant, which: • Takes quality and...functional requirements as input • Elicits key quality attribute information to refine quality requirements • Elicits key architectural information...Derives candidate architectures • Evaluates whether quality requirements are satisfied • Identifies tradeoffs • Suggests alternative architectures ArchE is

  14. Design and Development of a Run-Time Monitor for Multi-Core Architectures in Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mikyung; Kang, Dong-In; Crago, Stephen P.; Park, Gyung-Leen; Lee, Junghoon

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new information technology trend that moves computing and data away from desktops and portable PCs into large data centers. The basic principle of cloud computing is to deliver applications as services over the Internet as well as infrastructure. A cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources. The large-scale distributed applications on a cloud require adaptive service-based software, which has the capability of monitoring system status changes, analyzing the monitored information, and adapting its service configuration while considering tradeoffs among multiple QoS features simultaneously. In this paper, we design and develop a Run-Time Monitor (RTM) which is a system software to monitor the application behavior at run-time, analyze the collected information, and optimize cloud computing resources for multi-core architectures. RTM monitors application software through library instrumentation as well as underlying hardware through a performance counter optimizing its computing configuration based on the analyzed data. PMID:22163811

  15. Design and development of a run-time monitor for multi-core architectures in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mikyung; Kang, Dong-In; Crago, Stephen P; Park, Gyung-Leen; Lee, Junghoon

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new information technology trend that moves computing and data away from desktops and portable PCs into large data centers. The basic principle of cloud computing is to deliver applications as services over the Internet as well as infrastructure. A cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources. The large-scale distributed applications on a cloud require adaptive service-based software, which has the capability of monitoring system status changes, analyzing the monitored information, and adapting its service configuration while considering tradeoffs among multiple QoS features simultaneously. In this paper, we design and develop a Run-Time Monitor (RTM) which is a system software to monitor the application behavior at run-time, analyze the collected information, and optimize cloud computing resources for multi-core architectures. RTM monitors application software through library instrumentation as well as underlying hardware through a performance counter optimizing its computing configuration based on the analyzed data.

  16. The architectural design of networks of protein domain architectures.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2013-08-23

    Protein domain architectures (PDAs), in which single domains are linked to form multiple-domain proteins, are a major molecular form used by evolution for the diversification of protein functions. However, the design principles of PDAs remain largely uninvestigated. In this study, we constructed networks to connect domain architectures that had grown out from the same single domain for every single domain in the Pfam-A database and found that there are three main distinctive types of these networks, which suggests that evolution can exploit PDAs in three different ways. Further analysis showed that these three different types of PDA networks are each adopted by different types of protein domains, although many networks exhibit the characteristics of more than one of the three types. Our results shed light on nature's blueprint for protein architecture and provide a framework for understanding architectural design from a network perspective.

  17. Reflective Subjects in Kant and Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawes, Peg

    2007-01-01

    In architectural design education, students develop drawing, conceptual, and critical skills which are informed by their ability to reflect upon the production of ideas in design processes and in the urban, environmental, social, historical, and cultural context that define architecture and the built environment. Reflective actions and thinking…

  18. Reflective Subjects in Kant and Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawes, Peg

    2007-01-01

    In architectural design education, students develop drawing, conceptual, and critical skills which are informed by their ability to reflect upon the production of ideas in design processes and in the urban, environmental, social, historical, and cultural context that define architecture and the built environment. Reflective actions and thinking…

  19. [The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings].

    PubMed

    Dunet, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings. In addition to certain "classic" creations, the Dunet architectural office has designed several units for difficult patients as well as a specially adapted hospitalisation unit. These creations which are demanding in terms of the organisation of care require close consultation with the nursing teams. Testimony of an architect who is particularly engaged in the universe of psychiatry.

  20. Teaching Creative Thinking through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Kijeong; Cotner, Teresa L.

    2010-01-01

    Art and art education are open to broader definitions in the twenty-first century. It is time that teachers seriously think about including built environment design in K-12 art education. The term "built environment" includes interior design, architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning. Due to increased exposure to built environment…

  1. Teaching Creative Thinking through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Kijeong; Cotner, Teresa L.

    2010-01-01

    Art and art education are open to broader definitions in the twenty-first century. It is time that teachers seriously think about including built environment design in K-12 art education. The term "built environment" includes interior design, architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning. Due to increased exposure to built environment…

  2. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In preparation for human exploration to Mars, there is a need to define the development and test program that will validate deep space operations and systems. In that context, a Proving Grounds CisLunar habitat spacecraft is being defined as the next step towards this goal. This spacecraft will operate differently from the ISS or other spacecraft in human history. The performance envelope of this spacecraft (mass, volume, power, specifications, etc.) is being defined by the Future Capabilities Study Team. This team has recognized the need for a human-centered approach for the internal architecture of this spacecraft and has commissioned a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Study Team to develop a NASA reference configuration, providing the Agency with a "smart buyer" approach for future acquisition. THE CISLUNAR HABITAT INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE STUDY: Overall, the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study will address the most significant questions and risks in the current CisLunar architecture, habitation, and operations concept development. This effort is achieved through definition of design criteria, evaluation criteria and process, design of the CisLunar Habitat Phase-1 internal architecture, and the development and fabrication of internal architecture concepts combined with rigorous and methodical Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) evaluations and testing of the conceptual innovations in a controlled test environment. The vision of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to design, build, and test a CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture that will be used for habitation (e.g. habitability and human factors) evaluations. The evaluations will mature CisLunar habitat evaluation tools, guidelines, and standards, and will interface with other projects such as the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program integrated Power, Avionics, Software (iPAS), and Logistics for integrated human-in-the-loop testing. The mission of the Cis

  3. Role of System Architecture in Architecture in Developing New Drafting Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorguç, Arzu Gönenç

    In this study, the impact of information technologies in architectural design process is discussed. In this discussion, first the differences/nuances between the concept of software engineering and system architecture are clarified. Then, the design process in engineering, and design process in architecture has been compared by considering 3-D models as the center of design process over which the other disciplines involve the design. It is pointed out that in many high-end engineering applications, 3-D solid models and consequently digital mock-up concept has become a common practice. But, architecture as one of the important customers of CAD systems employing these tools has not started to use these 3-D models. It is shown that the reason of this time lag between architecture and engineering lies behind the tradition of design attitude. Therefore, it is proposed a new design scheme a meta-model to develop an integrated design model being centered on 3-D model. It is also proposed a system architecture to achieve the transformation of architectural design process by replacing 2-D thinking with 3-D thinking. It is stated that in the proposed system architecture, the CAD systems are included and adapted for 3-D architectural design in order to provide interfaces for integration of all possible disciplines to design process. It is also shown that such a change will allow to elaborate the intelligent or smart building concept in future.

  4. A "Language Lab" for Architectural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Arch; And Others

    This paper discusses a "language lab" strategy in which traditional studio learning may be supplemented by language lessons using computer graphics techniques to teach architectural grammar, a body of elements and principles that govern the design of buildings belonging to a particular architectural theory or style. Two methods of…

  5. A "Language Lab" for Architectural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Arch; And Others

    This paper discusses a "language lab" strategy in which traditional studio learning may be supplemented by language lessons using computer graphics techniques to teach architectural grammar, a body of elements and principles that govern the design of buildings belonging to a particular architectural theory or style. Two methods of…

  6. Developing a Distributed Computing Architecture at Arizona State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armann, Neil; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Development of Arizona State University's computing architecture, designed to ensure that all new distributed computing pieces will work together, is described. Aspects discussed include the business rationale, the general architectural approach, characteristics and objectives of the architecture, specific services, and impact on the university…

  7. Developing a Distributed Computing Architecture at Arizona State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armann, Neil; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Development of Arizona State University's computing architecture, designed to ensure that all new distributed computing pieces will work together, is described. Aspects discussed include the business rationale, the general architectural approach, characteristics and objectives of the architecture, specific services, and impact on the university…

  8. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  9. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  10. Expanding color design methods for architecture and allied disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Harold E.

    2002-06-01

    The color design processes of visual artists, architects, designers, and theoreticians included in this presentation reflect the practical role of color in architecture. What the color design professional brings to the architectural design team is an expertise and rich sensibility made up of a broad awareness and a finely tuned visual perception. This includes a knowledge of design and its history, expertise with industrial color materials and their methods of application, an awareness of design context and cultural identity, a background in physiology and psychology as it relates to human welfare, and an ability to problem-solve and respond creatively to design concepts with innovative ideas. The broadening of the definition of the colorists's role in architectural design provides architects, artists and designers with significant opportunities for continued professional and educational development.

  11. Three Program Architecture for Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Olson, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation, I would like to review historical perspective on the program architecture used to build design optimization capabilities based on mathematical programming and other numerical search techniques. It is rather straightforward to classify the program architecture in three categories as shown above. However, the relative importance of each of the three approaches has not been static, instead dynamically changing as the capabilities of available computational resource increases. For example, we considered that the direct coupling architecture would never be used for practical problems, but availability of such computer systems as multi-processor. In this presentation, I would like to review the roles of three architecture from historical as well as current and future perspective. There may also be some possibility for emergence of hybrid architecture. I hope to provide some seeds for active discussion where we are heading to in the very dynamic environment for high speed computing and communication.

  12. Nanomagnet Logic: Architectures, design, and benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Steven J.

    Nanomagnet Logic (NML) is an emerging technology being studied as a possible replacement or supplementary device for Complimentary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Field-Effect Transistors (FET) by the year 2020. NML devices offer numerous potential advantages including: low energy operation, steady state non-volatility, radiation hardness and a clear path to fabrication and integration with CMOS. However, maintaining both low-energy operation and non-volatility while scaling from the device to the architectural level is non-trivial as (i) nearest neighbor interactions within NML circuits complicate the modeling of ensemble nanomagnet behavior and (ii) the energy intensive clock structures required for re-evaluation and NML's relatively high latency challenge its ability to offer system-level performance wins against other emerging nanotechnologies. Thus, further research efforts are required to model more complex circuits while also identifying circuit design techniques that balance low-energy operation with steady state non-volatility. In addition, further work is needed to design and model low-power on-chip clocks while simultaneously identifying application spaces where NML systems (including clock overhead) offer sufficient energy savings to merit their inclusion in future processors. This dissertation presents research advancing the understanding and modeling of NML at all levels including devices, circuits, and line clock structures while also benchmarking NML against both scaled CMOS and tunneling FETs (TFET) devices. This is accomplished through the development of design tools and methodologies for (i) quantifying both energy and stability in NML circuits and (ii) evaluating line-clocked NML system performance. The application of these newly developed tools improves the understanding of ideal design criteria (i.e., magnet size, clock wire geometry, etc.) for NML architectures. Finally, the system-level performance evaluation tool offers the ability to

  13. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  14. Medical Data Architecture Project Capabilities and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middour, C.; Krihak, M.; Lindsey, A.; Marker, N.; Wolfe, S.; Winther, S.; Ronzano, K.; Bolles, D.; Toscano, W.; Shaw, T.

    2017-01-01

    Mission constraints will challenge the delivery of medical care on a long-term, deep space exploration mission. This type of mission will be restricted in the availability of medical knowledge, skills, procedures and resources to prevent, diagnose, and treat in-flight medical events. Challenges to providing medical care are anticipated, including resource and resupply constraints, delayed communications and no ability for medical evacuation. The Medical Data Architecture (MDA) project will enable medical care capability in this constrained environment. The first version of the system, called "Test Bed 1," includes capabilities for automated data collection, data storage and data retrieval to provide information to the Crew Medical Officer (CMO). Test Bed 1 seeks to establish a data architecture foundation and develop a scalable data management system through modular design and standardized interfaces. In addition, it will demonstrate to stakeholders the potential for an improved, automated, flow of data to and from the medical system over the current methods employed on the International Space Station (ISS). It integrates a set of external devices, software and processes, and a Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan (SOAP) note commonly used by clinicians. Medical data like electrocardiogram plots, heart rate, skin temperature, respiration rate, medications taken, and more are collected from devices and stored in the Electronic Medical Records (EMR) system, and reported to crew and clinician. Devices integrated include the Astroskin biosensor vest and IMED CARDIAX electrocardiogram (ECG) device with INEED MD ECG Glove, and the NASA-developed Medical Dose Tracker application. The system is designed to be operated as a standalone system, and can be deployed in a variety of environments, from a laptop to a data center. The system is primarily composed of open-source software tools, and is designed to be modular, so new capabilities can be added. The software

  15. Energy principles in architectural design

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, E.

    1981-01-01

    A foundation of basic information pertaining to design and energy use in buildings is presented with emphasis on principles and concepts rather than applications of particular solution. Energy impacts of landforms and topography, vegetation, wind and ventilation, and sun on planning and designing the site are discused. General design considerations involving passive heating, cooling, and lighting systems are detailed. For the design of active building systems, heating, cooling, lighting, and HVAC systems are described. (MCW)

  16. The Influence of Study and Travel Abroad on the Personal and Professional Development of Students in Architecture Design Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Lyle D.

    2011-01-01

    International travel has significant implications on the study of architecture. This study analyzed ways in which undergraduate and graduate students benefited from the experience of international travel and study abroad. Taken from the perspective of 15 individuals who were currently or had been architecture students at the University of Miami…

  17. Energy Conscious Design in Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villecco, Marguerite

    1977-01-01

    Major findings are summarized of an investigation of energy design teaching in schools of architecture, which led to recommendations described in this article addressed to theoretical and inspirational models of design teaching, rather than to technical courses. Available from: ACSA, 1735 New York Ave., Washington, D.C. 20006. (Author/LBH)

  18. Architecture & Design Arts Occupations, 1940-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Harry Hillman

    Using data from federal government records and professional membership organizations, this study examines trends in demographics, education, employment, and earnings of architects and individuals in design arts occupations between 1940-1990. Findings indicate that: (1) participation in architecture and design occupations has increased slightly as…

  19. Energy Conscious Design in Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villecco, Marguerite

    1977-01-01

    Major findings are summarized of an investigation of energy design teaching in schools of architecture, which led to recommendations described in this article addressed to theoretical and inspirational models of design teaching, rather than to technical courses. Available from: ACSA, 1735 New York Ave., Washington, D.C. 20006. (Author/LBH)

  20. Thermal design trades for SAFIR architecture concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Paine, Christopher G.; Bradford, Charles M.; Dragovan, Mark; Nash, Al E.; Dooley, Jennifer A.; Lawrence, Charles R.

    2004-10-01

    SAFIR is a 10-meter, 4 K space telescope optimized for wavelengths between 20 microns and 1 mm. The combination of aperture diameter and telescope temperature will provide a raw sensitivity improvement of more than a factor of 1000 over presently-planned missions. The sensitivity will be comparable to that of the JWST and ALMA, but at the critical far infrared wavelengths, where much of the universe's radiative energy has emerged since the origin of stars and galaxies. We examine several of the critical technologies for SAFIR which enable the large cold aperture, and present results of studies examining the spacecraft thermal architecture. Both the method by which the aperture is filled, and the overall optical design for the telescope can impact the potential scientific return of SAFIR. Thermal architecture that goes far beyond the sunshades developed for the James Webb Space Telescope will be necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity of SAFIR. By optimizing a combination of active and passive cooling at critical points within the observatory, a significant reduction of the required level of active cooling can be obtained.

  1. Thermal design trades for SAFIR architecture concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Paine, Christopher; Bradford, Matt; Dragovan, Mark; Nash, Al; Dooley, Jennifer; Lawrence, Charles

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR is a IO-meter, 4 K space telescope optimized for wavelengths between 20 microns and 1 mm. The combination of aperture diameter and telescope temperature will provide a raw sensitivity improvement of more than a factor of 1000 over presently-planned missions. The sensitivity will be comparable to that of the JWST and ALMA, but at the critical far-IR wavelengths where much of the universe's radiative energy has emerged since the origin of stars and galaxies. We examine several of the critical technologies for SAFIR which enable the large cold aperture, and present results of studies examining the telescope optics and the spacecraft thermal architecture. Both the method by which the aperture is filled, and the overall optical design for the telescope can impact the potential scientific return of SAFIR. Thermal architecture that goes far beyond the sunshades developed for the James Webb Space Telescope will be necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity of SAFIR. By combining active and passive cooling at critical points within the observatory, a significant reduction of the required level of active cooling can be obtained.

  2. Thermal design trades for SAFIR architecture concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Paine, Christopher; Bradford, Matt; Dragovan, Mark; Nash, Al; Dooley, Jennifer; Lawrence, Charles

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR is a IO-meter, 4 K space telescope optimized for wavelengths between 20 microns and 1 mm. The combination of aperture diameter and telescope temperature will provide a raw sensitivity improvement of more than a factor of 1000 over presently-planned missions. The sensitivity will be comparable to that of the JWST and ALMA, but at the critical far-IR wavelengths where much of the universe's radiative energy has emerged since the origin of stars and galaxies. We examine several of the critical technologies for SAFIR which enable the large cold aperture, and present results of studies examining the telescope optics and the spacecraft thermal architecture. Both the method by which the aperture is filled, and the overall optical design for the telescope can impact the potential scientific return of SAFIR. Thermal architecture that goes far beyond the sunshades developed for the James Webb Space Telescope will be necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity of SAFIR. By combining active and passive cooling at critical points within the observatory, a significant reduction of the required level of active cooling can be obtained.

  3. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  4. Enterprise Information Architecture for Mission Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept of an information architecture to assist in mission development. The integrate information architecture will create a unified view of the information using metadata and the values (i.e., taxonomy).

  5. A supportive architecture for CFD-based design optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Su, Zeya; Bi, Zhuming; Tian, Chao; Ren, Zhiming; Gong, Guanghong

    2014-03-01

    Multi-disciplinary design optimisation (MDO) is one of critical methodologies to the implementation of enterprise systems (ES). MDO requiring the analysis of fluid dynamics raises a special challenge due to its extremely intensive computation. The rapid development of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique has caused a rise of its applications in various fields. Especially for the exterior designs of vehicles, CFD has become one of the three main design tools comparable to analytical approaches and wind tunnel experiments. CFD-based design optimisation is an effective way to achieve the desired performance under the given constraints. However, due to the complexity of CFD, integrating with CFD analysis in an intelligent optimisation algorithm is not straightforward. It is a challenge to solve a CFD-based design problem, which is usually with high dimensions, and multiple objectives and constraints. It is desirable to have an integrated architecture for CFD-based design optimisation. However, our review on existing works has found that very few researchers have studied on the assistive tools to facilitate CFD-based design optimisation. In the paper, a multi-layer architecture and a general procedure are proposed to integrate different CFD toolsets with intelligent optimisation algorithms, parallel computing technique and other techniques for efficient computation. In the proposed architecture, the integration is performed either at the code level or data level to fully utilise the capabilities of different assistive tools. Two intelligent algorithms are developed and embedded with parallel computing. These algorithms, together with the supportive architecture, lay a solid foundation for various applications of CFD-based design optimisation. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and algorithms, the case studies on aerodynamic shape design of a hypersonic cruising vehicle are provided, and the result has shown that the proposed architecture

  6. Collaboration within Student Design Teams Participating in Architectural Design Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbil, Livanur; Dogan, Fehmi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates design collaboration with reference to convergent and divergent idea generation processes in architectural design teams entering a design competition. Study of design teams offer a unique opportunity to investigate how creativity is fostered through collaborative work. While views of creativity often relate creativity to…

  7. Software Engineering in Practice: Design and Architectures of FLOSS Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capiluppi, Andrea; Knowles, Thomas

    Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) practitioners and developers are typically also users of their own systems: as a result, traditional software engineering (SE) processes (e.g., the requirements and design phases), take less time to articulate and negotiate among FLOSS developers. Design and requirements are kept more as informal knowledge, rather than formally described and assessed. This paper attempts to recover the SE concepts of software design and architectures from three FLOSS case studies, sharing the same application domain (i.e., Instant Messaging). Its first objective is to determine whether a common architecture emerges from the three systems, which can be used as shared knowledge for future applications. The second objective is to determine whether these architectures evolve or decay during the evolution of these systems. The results of this study are encouraging: albeit no explicit effort was done by FLOSS developers to define a high-level view of the architecture, a common shared architecture could be distilled for the Instant Messaging application domain. It was also found that, for two of the three systems, the architecture becomes better organised, and the components better specified, as long as the system evolves in time.

  8. Architectural Drafting. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1779.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Thomas

    This teaching guide is designed to aid high school vocational education teachers in teaching a course in architectural drafting for students who plan to become architects, interior designers and decorators, architectural draftspersons, landscape engineers, building contractors, building estimators, real estate persons or appraisers, and others.…

  9. Design Considerations. An Interior Architectural Design Approach to Interiors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, William C.

    1971-01-01

    The State University Construction Fund, utilizing the nation's top professional talents, must design by contract, within fixed budgets and strict time schedules, quality architecture for 32 campuses in New York State. (Author)

  10. Computational architecture for integrated controls and structures design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Park, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate the development of control structure interaction (CSI) design methodology, a computational architecture for interdisciplinary design of active structures is presented. The emphasis of the computational procedure is to exploit existing sparse matrix structural analysis techniques, in-core data transfer with control synthesis programs, and versatility in the optimization methodology to avoid unnecessary structural or control calculations. The architecture is designed such that all required structure, control and optimization analyses are performed within one program. Hence, the optimization strategy is not unduly constrained by cold starts of existing structural analysis and control synthesis packages.

  11. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  12. Design and Analysis of Architectures for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Sixto, S. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of Health Usage and Monitoring Systems for structural health monitoring. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1. Reference HUMS architecture: We developed a high-level architecture for health monitoring and usage systems (HUMS). The proposed reference architecture is shown. It is compatible with the Generic Open Architecture (GOA) proposed as a standard for avionics systems. 2. HUMS kernel: One of the critical layers of HUMS reference architecture is the HUMS kernel. We developed a detailed design of a kernel to implement the high level architecture.3. Prototype implementation of HUMS kernel: We have implemented a preliminary version of the HUMS kernel on a Unix platform.We have implemented both a centralized system version and a distributed version. 4. SCRAMNet and HUMS: SCRAMNet (Shared Common Random Access Memory Network) is a system that is found to be suitable to implement HUMS. For this reason, we have conducted a simulation study to determine its stability in handling the input data rates in HUMS. 5. Architectural specification.

  13. COG Software Architecture Design Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R M; Lent, E M

    2009-09-21

    This COG Software Architecture Design Description Document describes the organization and functionality of the COG Multiparticle Monte Carlo Transport Code for radiation shielding and criticality calculations, at a level of detail suitable for guiding a new code developer in the maintenance and enhancement of COG. The intended audience also includes managers and scientists and engineers who wish to have a general knowledge of how the code works. This Document is not intended for end-users. This document covers the software implemented in the standard COG Version 10, as released through RSICC and IAEA. Software resources provided by other institutions will not be covered. This document presents the routines grouped by modules and in the order of the three processing phases. Some routines are used in multiple phases. The routine description is presented once - the first time the routine is referenced. Since this is presented at the level of detail for guiding a new code developer, only the routines invoked by another routine that are significant for the processing phase that is being detailed are presented. An index to all routines detailed is included. Tables for the primary data structures are also presented.

  14. Specification, Design, and Analysis of Advanced HUMS Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of domain-specific architectures for HUMS. In particular, we looked at using scenario-based approach for the design and designed a language for describing such architectures. The language is now being used in all aspects of our HUMS design. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1) We have employed scenarios in the development of HUMS in three main areas. They are: (a) To improve reusability by using scenarios as a library indexing tool and as a domain analysis tool; (b) To improve maintainability by recording design rationales from two perspectives - problem domain and solution domain; (c) To evaluate the software architecture. 2) We have defined a new architectural language called HADL or HUMS Architectural Definition Language. It is a customized version of xArch/xADL. It is based on XML and, hence, is easily portable from domain to domain, application to application, and machine to machine. Specifications written in HADL can be easily read and parsed using the currently available XML parsers. Thus, there is no need to develop a plethora of software to support HADL. 3) We have developed an automated design process that involves two main techniques: (a) Selection of solutions from a large space of designs; (b) Synthesis of designs. However, the automation process is not an absolute Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach though it uses a knowledge-based system that epitomizes a specific HUMS domain. The process uses a database of solutions as an aid to solve the problems rather than creating a new design in the literal sense. Since searching is adopted as the main technique, the challenges involved are: (a) To minimize the effort in searching the database where a very large number of possibilities exist; (b) To develop representations that could conveniently allow us to depict design knowledge evolved over many years; (c) To capture the required information that aid the

  15. Specification, Design, and Analysis of Advanced HUMS Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of domain-specific architectures for HUMS. In particular, we looked at using scenario-based approach for the design and designed a language for describing such architectures. The language is now being used in all aspects of our HUMS design. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1) We have employed scenarios in the development of HUMS in three main areas. They are: (a) To improve reusability by using scenarios as a library indexing tool and as a domain analysis tool; (b) To improve maintainability by recording design rationales from two perspectives - problem domain and solution domain; (c) To evaluate the software architecture. 2) We have defined a new architectural language called HADL or HUMS Architectural Definition Language. It is a customized version of xArch/xADL. It is based on XML and, hence, is easily portable from domain to domain, application to application, and machine to machine. Specifications written in HADL can be easily read and parsed using the currently available XML parsers. Thus, there is no need to develop a plethora of software to support HADL. 3) We have developed an automated design process that involves two main techniques: (a) Selection of solutions from a large space of designs; (b) Synthesis of designs. However, the automation process is not an absolute Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach though it uses a knowledge-based system that epitomizes a specific HUMS domain. The process uses a database of solutions as an aid to solve the problems rather than creating a new design in the literal sense. Since searching is adopted as the main technique, the challenges involved are: (a) To minimize the effort in searching the database where a very large number of possibilities exist; (b) To develop representations that could conveniently allow us to depict design knowledge evolved over many years; (c) To capture the required information that aid the

  16. Development of energy efficient modular architectural textile structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, F.K.; Harris, J.A.; Messinger, A.

    1983-05-01

    This research program was aimed at the development of energy efficient architecture using textile structures. Design concepts for modular units were developed using cell structures. Roof and wall panels were constructed and evaluated to demonstrate the design concept. Test results indicated tubular fiberglass cell structures could provide thermal insulation R-value well above 2.4. Exploratory study was also carried out to demonstrate the possibility of forming complex shapes for structural architectural applications.

  17. Biomorphic architectures for autonomous Nanosat designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasslacher, Brosl; Tilden, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Modern space tool design is the science of making a machine both massively complex while at the same time extremely robust and dependable. We propose a novel nonlinear control technique that produces capable, self-organizing, micron-scale space machines at low cost and in large numbers by parallel silicon assembly. Experiments using biomorphic architectures (with ideal space attributes) have produced a wide spectrum of survival-oriented machines that are reliably domesticated for work applications in specific environments. In particular, several one-chip satellite prototypes show interesting control properties that can be turned into numerous application-specific machines for autonomous, disposable space tasks. We believe that the real power of these architectures lies in their potential to self-assemble into larger, robust, loosely coupled structures. Assembly takes place at hierarchical space scales, with different attendant properties, allowing for inexpensive solutions to many daunting work tasks. The nature of biomorphic control, design, engineering options, and applications are discussed.

  18. Architectural Design for European SST System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzmann, Jens; Wagner, Axel; Blanchet, Guillaume; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Dehecq, Bernard; Fernandez Sanchez, Jaime; Garcia Espinosa, Jose Ramon; Agueda Mate, Alberto; Bartsch, Guido; Schildknecht, Thomas; Lindman, Niklas; Fletcher, Emmet; Martin, Luis; Moulin, Serge

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a detailed design, evaluation and trade-off of a potential European Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) system architecture. The results have been produced in study phase 1 of the on-going "CO-II SSA Architectural Design" project performed by the Astrium consortium as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme and are the baseline for further detailing and consolidation in study phase 2. The sensor network is comprised of both ground- and space-based assets and aims at being fully compliant with the ESA SST System Requirements. The proposed ground sensors include a surveillance radar, an optical surveillance system and a tracking network (radar and optical). A space-based telescope system provides significant performance and robustness for the surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO target objects.

  19. Designing an architectural style for Pervasive Healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Rafe, Vahid; Hajvali, Masoumeh

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the Pervasive Healthcare (PH) systems are considered as an important research area. These systems have a dynamic structure and configuration. Therefore, an appropriate method for designing such systems is necessary. The Publish/Subscribe Architecture (pub/sub) is one of the convenient architectures to support such systems. PH systems are safety critical; hence, errors can bring disastrous results. To prevent such problems, a powerful analytical tool is required. So using a proper formal language like graph transformation systems for developing of these systems seems necessary. But even if software engineers use such high level methodologies, errors may occur in the system under design. Hence, it should be investigated automatically and formally that whether this model of system satisfies all their requirements or not. In this paper, a dynamic architectural style for developing PH systems is presented. Then, the behavior of these systems is modeled and evaluated using GROOVE toolset. The results of the analysis show its high reliability.

  20. ELISA, a demonstrator environment for information systems architecture design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panem, Chantal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach of reusability of software engineering technology in the area of ground space system design. System engineers have lots of needs similar to software developers: sharing of a common data base, capitalization of knowledge, definition of a common design process, communication between different technical domains. Moreover system designers need to simulate dynamically their system as early as possible. Software development environments, methods and tools now become operational and widely used. Their architecture is based on a unique object base, a set of common management services and they host a family of tools for each life cycle activity. In late '92, CNES decided to develop a demonstrative software environment supporting some system activities. The design of ground space data processing systems was chosen as the application domain. ELISA (Integrated Software Environment for Architectures Specification) was specified as a 'demonstrator', i.e. a sufficient basis for demonstrations, evaluation and future operational enhancements. A process with three phases was implemented: system requirements definition, design of system architectures models, and selection of physical architectures. Each phase is composed of several activities that can be performed in parallel, with the provision of Commercial Off the Shelves Tools. ELISA has been delivered to CNES in January 94, currently used for demonstrations and evaluations on real projects (e.g. SPOT4 Satellite Control Center). It is on the way of new evolutions.

  1. "Building Dancing": Dance within the Context of Architectural Design Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and technological developments redefine the discipline of architecture substantially. Current day approaches in design pedagogy focus on personal and bodily experiences of the "subject" and the need for investigating new ways and methods to enhance awareness of spatial experiences is inevitable. In order to establish a heuristic…

  2. "Building Dancing": Dance within the Context of Architectural Design Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and technological developments redefine the discipline of architecture substantially. Current day approaches in design pedagogy focus on personal and bodily experiences of the "subject" and the need for investigating new ways and methods to enhance awareness of spatial experiences is inevitable. In order to establish a heuristic…

  3. FRACSAT: Automated design synthesis for future space architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, R.; Uckun, S.; Do, Minh; Shah, J.

    This paper describes the algorithmic basis and development of FRACSAT (FRACtionated Spacecraft Architecture Toolkit), a new approach to conceptual design, cost-benefit analysis, and detailed trade studies for space systems. It provides an automated capability for exploration of candidate spacecraft architectures, leading users to near-optimal solutions with respect to user-defined requirements, risks, and program uncertainties. FRACSAT utilizes a sophisticated planning algorithm (PlanVisioner) to perform a quasi-exhaustive search for candidate architectures, constructing candidates from an extensible model-based representation of space system components and functions. These candidates are then evaluated with emphasis on the business case, computing the expected design utility and system costs as well as risk, presenting the user with a greatly reduced selection of candidates. The user may further refine the search according to cost or benefit uncertainty, adaptability, or other performance metrics as needed.

  4. Architecture for space habitats. Role of architectural design in planning artificial environment for long time manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Vera

    2007-02-01

    The paper discusses concepts about the role of architecture in the design of space habitats and the development of a general evaluation criteria of architectural design contribution. Besides the existing feasibility studies, the general requisites, the development studies, and the critical design review which are mainly based on the experience of human space missions and the standards of the NASA-STD-3000 manual and which analyze and evaluate the relation between man and environment and between man and machine mainly in its functionality, there is very few material about design of comfort and wellbeing of man in space habitat. Architecture for space habitat means the design of an artificial environment with much comfort in an "atmosphere" of wellbeing. These are mainly psychological effects of human factors which are very important in the case of a long time space mission. How can the degree of comfort and "wellbeing atmosphere" in an artificial environment be measured? How can the quality of the architectural contribution in space design be quantified? Definition of a criteria catalogue to reach a larger objectivity in architectural design evaluation. Definition of constant parameters as a result of project necessities to quantify the quality of the design. Architectural design analysis due the application and verification within the parameters and consequently overlapping and evaluating results. Interdisciplinary work between architects, astronautics, engineers, psychologists, etc. All the disciplines needed for planning a high quality habitat for humans in space. Analysis of the principles of well designed artificial environment. Good quality design for space architecture is the result of the interaction and interrelation between many different project necessities (technological, environmental, human factors, transportation, costs, etc.). Each of this necessities is interrelated in the design project and cannot be evaluated on its own. Therefore, the design

  5. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that uses both reliability and performance. A detailed account is given for the testing associated with a subset of the architecture and concludes with general observations of applying the methodology to the architecture.

  6. Nonexpert Evaluations on Architectural Design Creativity across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seung Wan; Lee, Jae Seung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural differences and the nonexpert evaluations of architectural design creativity. In study I, Caucasian Americans (N = 126) and East Asians (N = 137), who did not major in architecture and urban design, evaluated the novelty and appropriateness of 5 unusual architectural shapes, selected by 5…

  7. Architectural Design of a LMS with LTSA-Conformance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Souvik; Dasgupta, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates an approach for architectural design of a Learning Management System (LMS), which is verifiable against the Learning Technology System Architecture (LTSA) conformance rules. We introduce a new method for software architectural design that extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) component diagram with the formal…

  8. Architectural Design of a LMS with LTSA-Conformance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Souvik; Dasgupta, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates an approach for architectural design of a Learning Management System (LMS), which is verifiable against the Learning Technology System Architecture (LTSA) conformance rules. We introduce a new method for software architectural design that extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) component diagram with the formal…

  9. Nonexpert Evaluations on Architectural Design Creativity across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Seung Wan; Lee, Jae Seung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural differences and the nonexpert evaluations of architectural design creativity. In study I, Caucasian Americans (N = 126) and East Asians (N = 137), who did not major in architecture and urban design, evaluated the novelty and appropriateness of 5 unusual architectural shapes, selected by 5…

  10. Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.

    2017-03-01

    Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.

  11. Architecture, Infrastructure, and Broadband Civic Network Design: An Institutional View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Murali; Chango, Mawaki

    Cultural values frame architectures, and architectures motivate infrastructures — by which we mean the foundational telecommunications and Internet access services that software applications depend on. Design is the social process that realizes architectural elements in an infrastructure. This process is often a conflicted one where transformative visions confront the realities of entrenched power, where innovation confronts pressure from institutionalized interests and practices working to resist change and reproduce the status quo in the design outcome. We use this viewpoint to discuss design aspects of the Urban-net, a broadband civic networking case. Civic networks are embodiments of distinctive technological configurations and forms of social order. In choosing some technological configurations over others, designers are favoring some social structural configurations over alternatives. To the extent that a civic network sets out to reconfigure the prevailing social order (as was the case in the Urban-net project considered here), the design process becomes the arena where challengers of the prevailing order encounter its defenders. In this case, the defenders prevailed and the design that emerged was conservative and reproduced the status quo. What steps can stakeholders take so that the project’s future development is in line with the original aim of structural change? We outline two strategies. We argue the importance of articulating cultural desiderata in an architecture that stakeholders can use to open up the infrastructure to new constituents and incremental change. Next, we argue the importance of designing the conditions of design. The climate in which social interactions occur can powerfully shape design outcomes, but this does not usually figure in stakeholders’ design concerns.

  12. Molecularly designed architectures--the metalloligand way.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Girijesh; Gupta, Rajeev

    2013-12-21

    Designed materials offer noteworthy applications which are often architecture dependent. Despite knowing such a fact, one of the major challenges faced by the scientific community is to find ways to predict and, if possible, control the resultant architecture of a network. If such an exercise is fruitful, it creates enormous opportunities to synthesize exotic materials with tailor-made applications. Any network is composed of individual molecules and the transition from a single molecule to a network can be achieved through several routes taking advantage of synthetic chemistry. There exists a molecular building block at the heart of such a transition which mediates such a process from a single molecule to a network. Although a large number of building blocks have created assorted materials, utilization of a well-defined coordination complex as the building block (i.e., metalloligand) is unique for the construction of a designed architecture. A coordination complex as the building block offers structural rigidity that places the auxiliary functional groups to a pre-organized conformation. Such auxiliary functional groups could then coordinate a secondary metal ion or be involved in the self-assembly via weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonds. This review focuses on the recent progress achieved through assorted molecular building blocks towards generating ordered networks. Broadly, two classes of metalloligands will be discussed: those offering hydrogen bond sensitive functional groups and those tendering coordination bond responsive groups. Nevertheless, the result is the construction of networks of a highly-ordered nature in both cases. The present review is expected to provide new strategies for constructing functional materials through metalloligands for challenging and practical applications.

  13. Millimeterwave Space Power Grid architecture development 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Dessanti, Brendan; Shah, Shaan

    This is an update of the Space Power Grid architecture for space-based solar power with an improved design of the collector/converter link, the primary heater and the radiator of the active thermal control system. The Space Power Grid offers an evolutionary approach towards TeraWatt-level Space-based solar power. The use of millimeter wave frequencies (around 220GHz) and Low-Mid Earth Orbits shrinks the size of the space and ground infrastructure to manageable levels. In prior work we showed that using Brayton cycle conversion of solar power allows large economies of scale compared to the linear mass-power relationship of photovoltaic conversion. With high-temperature materials permitting 3600 K temperature in the primary heater, over 80 percent cycle efficiency was shown with a closed helium cycle for the 1GW converter satellite which formed the core element of the architecture. Work done since the last IEEE conference has shown that the use of waveguides incorporated into lighter-than-air antenna platforms, can overcome the difficulties in transmitting millimeter wave power through the moist, dense lower atmosphere. A graphene-based radiator design conservatively meets the mass budget for the waste heat rejection system needed for the compressor inlet temperature. Placing the ultralight Mirasol collectors in lower orbits overcomes the solar beam spot size problem of high-orbit collection. The architecture begins by establishing a power exchange with terrestrial renewable energy plants, creating an early revenue generation approach with low investment. The approach allows for technology development and demonstration of high power millimeter wave technology. A multinational experiment using the International Space Station and another power exchange satellite is proposed to gather required data and experience, thus reducing the technical and policy risks. The full-scale architecture deploys pairs of Mirasol sunlight collectors and Girasol 1 GW converter satellites t

  14. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  15. Design and develop a video conferencing framework for real-time telemedicine applications using secure group-based communication architecture.

    PubMed

    Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2014-10-01

    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.

  16. [Architecture and design of mental health institutions].

    PubMed

    Richter, Dirk; Hoffmann, Holger

    2014-04-01

    The physical environment of mental health institutions is regarded as a therapeutic agent within the treatment. There is only little scientific evidence on the consequences of architecture and design on psychiatric patients available. A systematic review was conducted on studies from adult mental health institutions. 25 studies were included into the review. Pre-post-studies and control group conditions were predominant study designs. Randomized controlled trials were not available. Interventions reached from art installations up to entire ward renovations. Outcome indicators were rather heterogeneous, including psychopathology, behavioural observations and aggression incidents. Overwhelmingly, the studies revealed positive results of interventions into the physical environment. We found positive outcomes independent from the intervention in detail. This result should be interpreted in the light of the generally low study quality and further methodological problems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of…

  18. The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of…

  19. The application of natural ventilation of residential architecture in the integrated design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ji

    2017-04-01

    As one of the important parts in the architecture design, ventilation fully reflects one important factor of energy conservation to some extent. To ensure that decreasing use of energy resources to the maximum extent in architectures and make architectures harmonize with their surroundings, which have become important pursuing gradually for residential architecture, at present, integrated design of residential architecture should not only highlight natural ventilation technique, but also should integrate natural ventilation and main feature of local climate, etc. What’s more, designers shall carry out unified analysis on the base of taking all factors into consideration. This point is more important. By this way, architecture technique can be more comprehensive and complete. With the guidance of sustainable development concept, natural ventilation as one of ecological technologies is applied extensively in many architecture designs owing to its economic effect and health benefit.

  20. The Exploration of Green Architecture Design Integration Teaching Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuang, Liang; Yibin, Han

    2016-01-01

    With the deepening of the concept of green building design, the course of university education gradually exposed many problems in the teaching of architectural design theory; based on the existing mode of teaching and combined with the needs of architectural design practice it proposed the "integrated" method of green building design. It…

  1. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  2. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  3. Use of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture for Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Moore, A. A.; Kroo, I. M.

    1996-01-01

    Collaborative optimization is a new design architecture specifically created for large-scale distributed-analysis applications. In this approach, problem is decomposed into a user-defined number of subspace optimization problems that are driven towards interdisciplinary compatibility and the appropriate solution by a system-level coordination process. This decentralized design strategy allows domain-specific issues to be accommodated by disciplinary analysts, while requiring interdisciplinary decisions to be reached by consensus. The present investigation focuses on application of the collaborative optimization architecture to the multidisciplinary design of a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Vehicle design, trajectory, and cost issues are directly modeled. Posed to suit the collaborative architecture, the design problem is characterized by 5 design variables and 16 constraints. Numerous collaborative solutions are obtained. Comparison of these solutions demonstrates the influence which an priori ascent-abort criterion has on development cost. Similarly, objective-function selection is discussed, demonstrating the difference between minimum weight and minimum cost concepts. The operational advantages of the collaborative optimization

  4. An Information Technology Architecture for Pharmaceutical Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Klingler, Daniel E.; Jaffe, Marvin E.

    1990-01-01

    Rationale for and development of an information technology architecture are presented. The architectural approach described produces a technology environment that is integrating, flexible, robust, productive, and future-oriented. Issues accompanying architecture development and potential impediments to success are discussed.

  5. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás.; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, Peter

    2016-07-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class telescope, provided by European industry, to realize zodiacal background limited performance, and high spatial resolution. The instrument SAFARI is a cryogenic grating-based point source spectrometer working in the wavelength domain 34 to 230 μm, providing spectral resolving power from 300 to at least 2000. The instrument shall provide low and high resolution spectroscopy in four spectral bands. Low Resolution mode is the native instrument mode, while the high Resolution mode is achieved by means of a Martin-Pupplet interferometer. The optical system is all-reflective and consists of three main modules; an input optics module, followed by the Band and Mode Distributing Optics and the grating Modules. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled linear arrays of very sensitive TES detectors. The work presented in this paper describes the optical design architecture and design concept compatible with the current instrument performance and volume design drivers.

  6. Building Structure Design as an Integral Part of Architecture: A Teaching Model for Students of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay, Ali Ihsan; Ozmen, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the place of structural design within undergraduate architectural education. The role and format of lecture-based structure courses within an education system, organized around the architectural design studio is discussed with its most prominent problems and proposed solutions. The fundamental concept of the current teaching…

  7. Building Structure Design as an Integral Part of Architecture: A Teaching Model for Students of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unay, Ali Ihsan; Ozmen, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the place of structural design within undergraduate architectural education. The role and format of lecture-based structure courses within an education system, organized around the architectural design studio is discussed with its most prominent problems and proposed solutions. The fundamental concept of the current teaching…

  8. Model based design introduction: modeling game controllers to microprocessor architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Patrick; Badawy, Abdel-Hameed

    2017-04-01

    We present an introduction to model based design. Model based design is a visual representation, generally a block diagram, to model and incrementally develop a complex system. Model based design is a commonly used design methodology for digital signal processing, control systems, and embedded systems. Model based design's philosophy is: to solve a problem - a step at a time. The approach can be compared to a series of steps to converge to a solution. A block diagram simulation tool allows a design to be simulated with real world measurement data. For example, if an analog control system is being upgraded to a digital control system, the analog sensor input signals can be recorded. The digital control algorithm can be simulated with the real world sensor data. The output from the simulated digital control system can then be compared to the old analog based control system. Model based design can compared to Agile software develop. The Agile software development goal is to develop working software in incremental steps. Progress is measured in completed and tested code units. Progress is measured in model based design by completed and tested blocks. We present a concept for a video game controller and then use model based design to iterate the design towards a working system. We will also describe a model based design effort to develop an OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture based on the RISC-V.

  9. Developing a taxonomy for mission architecture definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubek, Deborah J.

    1990-01-01

    The Lunar and Mars Exploration Program Office (LMEPO) was tasked to define candidate architectures for the Space Exploration Initiative to submit to NASA senior management and an externally constituted Outreach Synthesis Group. A systematic, structured process for developing, characterizing, and describing the alternate mission architectures, and applying this process to future studies was developed. The work was done in two phases: (1) national needs were identified and categorized into objectives achievable by the Space Exploration Initiative; and (2) a program development process was created which both hierarchically and iteratively describes the program planning process.

  10. Fast underdetermined BSS architecture design methodology for real time applications.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Suresh; Reddy, P Sreenivasa; Acharyya, Amit; Naik, Ganesh R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a high speed architecture design methodology for the Under-determined Blind Source Separation (UBSS) algorithm using our recently proposed high speed Discrete Hilbert Transform (DHT) targeting real time applications. In UBSS algorithm, unlike the typical BSS, the number of sensors are less than the number of the sources, which is of more interest in the real time applications. The DHT architecture has been implemented based on sub matrix multiplication method to compute M point DHT, which uses N point architecture recursively and where M is an integer multiples of N. The DHT architecture and state of the art architecture are coded in VHDL for 16 bit word length and ASIC implementation is carried out using UMC 90 - nm technology @V DD = 1V and @ 1MHZ clock frequency. The proposed architecture implementation and experimental comparison results show that the DHT design is two times faster than state of the art architecture.

  11. Architectural design for a topological cluster state quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, Simon J.; Fowler, Austin G.; Stephens, Ashley M.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    2009-08-01

    The development of a large scale quantum computer is a highly sought after goal of fundamental research and consequently a highly non-trivial problem. Scalability in quantum information processing is not just a problem of qubit manufacturing and control but it crucially depends on the ability to adapt advanced techniques in quantum information theory, such as error correction, to the experimental restrictions of assembling qubit arrays into the millions. In this paper, we introduce a feasible architectural design for large scale quantum computation in optical systems. We combine the recent developments in topological cluster state computation with the photonic module, a simple chip-based device that can be used as a fundamental building block for a large-scale computer. The integration of the topological cluster model with this comparatively simple operational element addresses many significant issues in scalable computing and leads to a promising modular architecture with complete integration of active error correction, exhibiting high fault-tolerant thresholds.

  12. Virtual environment architecture for rapid application development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Southard, David A.; Lee, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the MITRE Virtual Environment Architecture (VEA), a product of nearly two years of investigations and prototypes of virtual environment technology. This paper discusses the requirements for rapid prototyping, and an architecture we are developing to support virtual environment construction. VEA supports rapid application development by providing a variety of pre-built modules that can be reconfigured for each application session. The modules supply interfaces for several types of interactive I/O devices, in addition to large-screen or head-mounted displays.

  13. The SKA1 LOW telescope: system architecture and design performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterson, Mark F.; Labate, Maria Grazia; Schnetler, Hermine; Wagg, Jeff; Turner, Wallace; Dewdney, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The SKA1-LOW radio telescope will be a low-frequency (50-350 MHz) aperture array located in Western Australia. Its scientific objectives will prioritize studies of the Epoch of Reionization and pulsar physics. Development of the telescope has been allocated to consortia responsible for the aperture array front end, timing distribution, signal and data transport, correlation and beamforming signal processors, infrastructure, monitor and control systems, and science data processing. This paper will describe the system architectural design and key performance parameters of the telescope and summarize the high-level sub-system designs of the consortia.

  14. Design of the ARES Mars Airplane and Mission Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Wright, Henry S.; Croom, Mark A.; Levine, Joel S.; Spencer, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Significant technology advances have enabled planetary aircraft to be considered as viable science platforms. Such systems fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Recent efforts have produced mature mission and flight system concepts, ready for flight project implementation. This paper summarizes the development of a Mars airplane mission architecture that balances science, implementation risk and cost. Airplane mission performance, flight system design and technology maturation are described. The design, analysis and testing completed demonstrates the readiness of this science platform for use in a Mars flight project.

  15. Designing Next Generation Massively Multithreaded Architectures for Irregular Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone; Villa, Oreste

    2012-08-31

    Irregular applications, such as data mining or graph-based computations, show unpredictable memory/network access patterns and control structures. Massively multi-threaded architectures with large node count, like the Cray XMT, have been shown to address their requirements better than commodity clusters. In this paper we present the approaches that we are currently pursuing to design future generations of these architectures. First, we introduce the Cray XMT and compare it to other multithreaded architectures. We then propose an evolution of the architecture, integrating multiple cores per node and next generation network interconnect. We advocate the use of hardware support for remote memory reference aggregation to optimize network utilization. For this evaluation we developed a highly parallel, custom simulation infrastructure for multi-threaded systems. Our simulator executes unmodified XMT binaries with very large datasets, capturing effects due to contention and hot-spotting, while predicting execution times with greater than 90% accuracy. We also discuss the FPGA prototyping approach that we are employing to study efficient support for irregular applications in next generation manycore processors.

  16. PathCase-SB architecture and database design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Integration of metabolic pathways resources and regulatory metabolic network models, and deploying new tools on the integrated platform can help perform more effective and more efficient systems biology research on understanding the regulation in metabolic networks. Therefore, the tasks of (a) integrating under a single database environment regulatory metabolic networks and existing models, and (b) building tools to help with modeling and analysis are desirable and intellectually challenging computational tasks. Description PathCase Systems Biology (PathCase-SB) is built and released. The PathCase-SB database provides data and API for multiple user interfaces and software tools. The current PathCase-SB system provides a database-enabled framework and web-based computational tools towards facilitating the development of kinetic models for biological systems. PathCase-SB aims to integrate data of selected biological data sources on the web (currently, BioModels database and KEGG), and to provide more powerful and/or new capabilities via the new web-based integrative framework. This paper describes architecture and database design issues encountered in PathCase-SB's design and implementation, and presents the current design of PathCase-SB's architecture and database. Conclusions PathCase-SB architecture and database provide a highly extensible and scalable environment with easy and fast (real-time) access to the data in the database. PathCase-SB itself is already being used by researchers across the world. PMID:22070889

  17. An OER Architecture Framework: Needs and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Pankaj; Basak, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an open educational resources (OER) architecture framework that would bring significant improvements in a well-structured and systematic way to the educational practices of distance education institutions of India. The OER architecture framework is articulated with six dimensions: pedagogical, technological, managerial,…

  18. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  19. Design and Architecture of Collaborative Online Communities: A Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviv, Reuven; Erlich, Zippy; Ravid, Gilad

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers four aspects of online communities. Design, mechanisms, architecture, and the constructed knowledge. We hypothesize that different designs of communities drive different mechanisms, which give rise to different architectures, which in turn result in different levels of collaborative knowledge construction. To test this chain…

  20. INO340 telescope control system: software architecture and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanmehr, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Asghar

    2014-07-01

    The Iranian National Observatory telescope (INO340) is a 3.4m Alt-Az reflecting optical telescope under design and development. It is f/11 Ritchey-Chretien with a 0.3° field-of-view. INO340 telescope control system utilizes a distributed control system paradigm that includes four major systems: Telescope Control System (TCS), Observation System Supervisor (OSS), Interlock System (ILS) and Observatory Monitoring System (OMS). The control system software also employs 3-tiered hierarchical architecture. In this paper, after presenting the fundamental concepts and operations of the INO340 control system, we propose the distributed control system software architecture including technical and functional architecture, middleware and infrastructure design and finally the software development process.

  1. Evolution and development of inflorescence architectures.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Erasmus, Yvette; Lane, Brendan; Harder, Lawrence D; Coen, Enrico

    2007-06-08

    To understand the constraints on biological diversity, we analyzed how selection and development interact to control the evolution of inflorescences, the branching structures that bear flowers. We show that a single developmental model accounts for the restricted range of inflorescence types observed in nature and that this model is supported by molecular genetic studies. The model predicts associations between inflorescence architecture, climate, and life history, which we validated empirically. Paths, or evolutionary wormholes, link different architectures in a multidimensional fitness space, but the rate of evolution along these paths is constrained by genetic and environmental factors, which explains why some evolutionary transitions are rare between closely related plant taxa.

  2. Applications of an architecture design and assessment system (ADAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, F. Gail; Debrunner, Linda S.; White, Tennis S.

    1988-01-01

    A new Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) tool package is introduced, and a range of possible applications is illustrated. ADAS was used to evaluate the performance of an advanced fault-tolerant computer architecture in a modern flight control application. Bottlenecks were identified and possible solutions suggested. The tool was also used to inject faults into the architecture and evaluate the synchronization algorithm, and improvements are suggested. Finally, ADAS was used as a front end research tool to aid in the design of reconfiguration algorithms in a distributed array architecture.

  3. Applications of an architecture design and assessment system (ADAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, F. Gail; Debrunner, Linda S.; White, Tennis S.

    1988-01-01

    A new Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) tool package is introduced, and a range of possible applications is illustrated. ADAS was used to evaluate the performance of an advanced fault-tolerant computer architecture in a modern flight control application. Bottlenecks were identified and possible solutions suggested. The tool was also used to inject faults into the architecture and evaluate the synchronization algorithm, and improvements are suggested. Finally, ADAS was used as a front end research tool to aid in the design of reconfiguration algorithms in a distributed array architecture.

  4. Architecture independent environment for developing engineering software on MIMD computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valimohamed, Karim A.; Lopez, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Engineers are constantly faced with solving problems of increasing complexity and detail. Multiple Instruction stream Multiple Data stream (MIMD) computers have been developed to overcome the performance limitations of serial computers. The hardware architectures of MIMD computers vary considerably and are much more sophisticated than serial computers. Developing large scale software for a variety of MIMD computers is difficult and expensive. There is a need to provide tools that facilitate programming these machines. First, the issues that must be considered to develop those tools are examined. The two main areas of concern were architecture independence and data management. Architecture independent software facilitates software portability and improves the longevity and utility of the software product. It provides some form of insurance for the investment of time and effort that goes into developing the software. The management of data is a crucial aspect of solving large engineering problems. It must be considered in light of the new hardware organizations that are available. Second, the functional design and implementation of a software environment that facilitates developing architecture independent software for large engineering applications are described. The topics of discussion include: a description of the model that supports the development of architecture independent software; identifying and exploiting concurrency within the application program; data coherence; engineering data base and memory management.

  5. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Beaty, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 2007 Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration including how Constellation systems can be used. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  6. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  7. Designing Domain-Specific HUMS Architectures: An Automated Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Agarwal, Neha; Kumar, Pramod; Sundaram, Parthiban

    2004-01-01

    The HUMS automation system automates the design of HUMS architectures. The automated design process involves selection of solutions from a large space of designs as well as pure synthesis of designs. Hence the whole objective is to efficiently search for or synthesize designs or parts of designs in the database and to integrate them to form the entire system design. The automation system adopts two approaches in order to produce the designs: (a) Bottom-up approach and (b) Top down approach. Both the approaches are endowed with a Suite of quantitative and quantitative techniques that enable a) the selection of matching component instances, b) the determination of design parameters, c) the evaluation of candidate designs at component-level and at system-level, d) the performance of cost-benefit analyses, e) the performance of trade-off analyses, etc. In short, the automation system attempts to capitalize on the knowledge developed from years of experience in engineering, system design and operation of the HUMS systems in order to economically produce the most optimal and domain-specific designs.

  8. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  9. Architectural Design and the Learning Environment: A Framework for School Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for studying how instructional space, teaching and learning are related in practice. It is argued that a school's physical design can contribute to the quality of the learning environment, but several non-architectural factors also determine how well a given facility serves as a setting for teaching…

  10. Architectural Design and the Learning Environment: A Framework for School Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gislason, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for studying how instructional space, teaching and learning are related in practice. It is argued that a school's physical design can contribute to the quality of the learning environment, but several non-architectural factors also determine how well a given facility serves as a setting for teaching…

  11. Design technologies for DSP algorithm implementation on heterogeneous architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, John; Yi, Ying; Woods, Roger F.; Walke, Richard L.; Reilly, Darren; Colgan, Kevin

    2003-12-01

    Computationally intensive digital signal processing (DSP) systems sometimes have real time requirements beyond that which programmable processor platform solutions, consisting of RISC and DSP processors, can achieve. The addition of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) components to these platforms provides a configurable hardware resource where increased parallelism levels allow very large computational rates. Techniques to implement circuit architectures from signal flow graph (SFG) algorithm expression can produce highly efficient processor implementations. Applying folding transformations produces implementations where hardware resource usage is reduced at the possible expense of throughput. In this paper a new development methodology is presented which analyses the SFG algorithm to suggest appropriate folding techniques. By characterizing different folding techniques, a template circuit architecture can be created early in the design process which does not alter throughout the remainder of the implementation process. Retiming techniques applied to the algorithm SFG produces the properly timed implementation from the template. By applying this methodology, architectural exploration can be quickly and efficiently performed to generate a set of implementations (an 'implementation space") to best meet the constraints of the system. When applied to a Normalised Lattice Filter design example, the results demonstrate high savings on FPGA resource usage, with little reduction in real time performance, demonstrating the implementation advantage of employing this methodology.

  12. Undergraduate courses for enhancing design ability in naval architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu-Yeul; Ku, Namkug; Cha, Ju-Hwan

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lectures in undergraduate engineering courses typically focus on teaching major technical knowledge-based theories in a limited time. Therefore, most lectures do not allow the students to gain understanding of how the theories are applied, especially in Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering departments. Shipyards require students to acquire practical ship design skills in undergraduate courses. To meet this requirement, two lectures are organized by the authors; namely, "Planning Procedure of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering" (PNAOE) and "Innovative Ship Design" (ISD). The concept of project-based and collaborative learning is applied in these two lectures. In the PNAOE lecture, sophomores receive instruction in the designing and building of model ships, and the students' work is evaluated in a model ship contest. This curriculum enables students to understand the concepts of ship design and production. In the ISD lecture, seniors learn how to develop their creative ideas about ship design and communicate with members of group. They are encouraged to cooperate with others and understand the ship design process. In the capstone design course, students receive guidance to facilitate understanding of how the knowledge from their sophomore or junior classes, such as fluid mechanics, statics, and dynamics, can be applied to practical ship design. Students are also encouraged to compete in the ship design contest organized by the Society of Naval Architects of Korea. Moreover, the effectiveness of project-based and collaborative learning for enhancing interest in the shipbuilding Industry and understanding the ship design process is demonstrated by citing the PNAOE and ISD lectures as examples.

  13. Hydroxyapatite implants with designed internal architecture.

    PubMed

    Chu, T M; Halloran, J W; Hollister, S J; Feinberg, S E

    2001-06-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used as a bone graft material in the clinics for decades. Traditionally, the pores in these HAs are either obtained from the coralline exoskeletal patterns or from the embedded organic particles in the starting HA powder. Both processes offer very limited control on the pore structure. A new method for manufacturing porous HA with designed pore channels has been developed. This method is essentially a lost-mold technique with negative molds made with Stereolithography and a highly loaded curable HA suspension as the ceramic carrier. Implants with designed channels and connection patterns were first generated from a Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) software and Computer Tomography (CT) data. The negative images of the designs were used to build the molds on a stereolithography apparatus with epoxy resins. A 40 vol% HA suspension in propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate (PNPGDA) and iso-bornyl acrylate (IBA) was formulated. HA suspension was cast into the epoxy molds and cured into solid at 85 degrees C. The molds and acrylate binders were removed by pyrolysis, followed by HA green body sintering. With this method, implants with six different channel designs were built successfully and the designed channels were reproduced in the sintered HA implants. The channels created in the sintered HA implants were between 366 microm and 968 microm in diameter with standard deviations of 50 microm or less. The porosity created by the channels were between 26% and 52%. The results show that HA implants with designed connection pattern and well controlled channel size can be built with the technique developed in this study. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  14. Rotational Critique System as a Method of Culture Change in an Architecture Design Studio: Urban Design Studio as Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasli, Mukaddes; Hassanpour, Badiossadat

    2017-01-01

    In this century, all educational efforts strive to achieve quality assurance standards. Therefore, it will be naive to deny the existence of problems in architectural education. The current design studio critique method has been developed upon generations of students and educators. Architectural education is changing towards educating critical…

  15. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  16. Writing as a Tool in Teaching Sketching: Implications for Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soygenis, Sema; Soygenis, Murat; Erktin, Emine

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the process of a study designed to develop university students' sketching skills in schools of architecture. Acknowledging the relationship between cognition and writing, it aims to investigate the role of writing in learning sketching among architecture students and to examine how students regulate their thoughts by writing…

  17. Using AOSD and MDD to Enhance the Architectural Design Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Mónica; Fuentes, Lidia; Fernández, Luis; Valenzuela, Juan A.

    This paper describes an MDD process that enhances the architectural design phase by closing the gap between ADLs and the notations used at the detailed design phase. We have defined model-to-model transformation rules to automatically generate either aspect-oriented or object-oriented UML 2.0 models from high-level architectural specifications specified using AO-ADL. These rules have been integrated in the AO-ADL Tool Suite, providing support to automatically generate a skeleton of the detailed design that preserves the crosscutting and the non-crosscutting functionalities identified at the architecture level.

  18. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  19. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K

    2015-08-01

    Intravascular device-related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis-associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens-related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms.

  20. A Design for Secure Discovery Services in the EPCglobal Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantero, José J.; Guijarro, Miguel A.; Plaza, Antonio; Arrebola, Guillermo; Baños, Janie

    The EPCglobal Network architecture defines a functional component, named Discovery Service (DS), whose role is to enable the gathering of complete information from multiple information providers across an object's lifecycle. The DS has great potential for improving business processes and providing new services to customers. However, at present, despite the progress in ratification of EPCglobal standards for other interfaces such as the EPC Information Service (EPCIS) or Object Naming Service (ONS), a technical standard for DS interfaces is still under development. In this early stage of the standardisation process, this chapter presents an analysis of potential models for DS design. We present a detailed design based on a model providing greater security. We have both implemented and deployed Discovery Service modules based on our selected model. Finally, we present solutions implemented to provide secure communications between different entities and fine-grained access control to DS records in a design that is scalable.

  1. PROBA Avionics architecture development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellab, Karim; Teston, Frederic; Ekholm, Sten; Bernaerts, Dirk

    2002-07-01

    PROBA (PROject for On-Board Autonomy), is an ESA project dedicated to in-orbit demonstration based on a small spacecraft platform and advanced on-board function to support autonomy. This paper will present the Avionics and Software architecture, the development and validation plan adopted. The satellite was launched in October 2001, the payload instruments data already provided have demonstrated the capability of the sophisticated Attitude Control Subsystem (ACNS) and associated Avionics.

  2. SDOE 650: System Architecture and Design

    SciTech Connect

    George, Colin B

    2014-07-01

    The proposed system is a test system that verifies the cables functionality in the expected environments defined in the ES. Verification methods include test, inspect, demonstrate, and analyze. Since we are defining the architecture for a test system we will focus on the customer expectations and requirements that will be satisfied or verified via testing

  3. Combat Systems Vision 2030 Combat System Architecture: Design Principles and Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    infrastructure to support it. Currently, industry activity in the area of information system development is high. In essence, corporations have automated their...lifecycle costs , etc., and distributes or allocates them to the subsystems of the functional architecture. At this point, the functional architecture... cost , etc., to the combat system elements. The third step in developing a feasibility design is that of tradeoff and optimization. The best design is

  4. Designed three-dimensional freestanding single-crystal carbon architectures.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Moon, Youngkwon; Shin, Ha-Chul; Ahn, Sung-Joon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Lee, Changgu; Ahn, Joung Real

    2014-11-25

    Single-crystal carbon nanomaterials have led to great advances in nanotechnology. The first single-crystal carbon nanomaterial, fullerene, was fabricated in a zero-dimensional form. One-dimensional carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional graphene have since followed and continue to provide further impetus to this field. In this study, we fabricated designed three-dimensional (3D) single-crystal carbon architectures by using silicon carbide templates. For this method, a designed 3D SiC structure was transformed into a 3D freestanding single-crystal carbon structure that retained the original SiC structure by performing a simple single-step thermal process. The SiC structure inside the 3D carbon structure is self-etched, which results in a 3D freestanding carbon structure. The 3D carbon structure is a single crystal with the same hexagonal close-packed structure as graphene. The size of the carbon structures can be controlled from the nanoscale to the microscale, and arrays of these structures can be scaled up to the wafer scale. The 3D freestanding carbon structures were found to be mechanically stable even after repeated loading. The relationship between the reversible mechanical deformation of a carbon structure and its electrical conductance was also investigated. Our method of fabricating designed 3D freestanding single-crystal graphene architectures opens up prospects in the field of single-crystal carbon nanomaterials and paves the way for the development of 3D single-crystal carbon devices.

  5. From Smart-Eco Building to High-Performance Architecture: Optimization of Energy Consumption in Architecture of Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavinejad, M.; Bitaab, N.

    2017-08-01

    Search for high-performance architecture and dreams of future architecture resulted in attempts towards meeting energy efficient architecture and planning in different aspects. Recent trends as a mean to meet future legacy in architecture are based on the idea of innovative technologies for resource efficient buildings, performative design, bio-inspired technologies etc. while there are meaningful differences between architecture of developed and developing countries. Significance of issue might be understood when the emerging cities are found interested in Dubaization and other related booming development doctrines. This paper is to analyze the level of developing countries’ success to achieve smart-eco buildings’ goals and objectives. Emerging cities of West of Asia are selected as case studies of the paper. The results of the paper show that the concept of high-performance architecture and smart-eco buildings are different in developing countries in comparison with developed countries. The paper is to mention five essential issues in order to improve future architecture of developing countries: 1- Integrated Strategies for Energy Efficiency, 2- Contextual Solutions, 3- Embedded and Initial Energy Assessment, 4- Staff and Occupancy Wellbeing, 5- Life-Cycle Monitoring.

  6. Science Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) Architecture and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trase, Kathryn K.; Barch, Rachel A.; Chaney, Ryan E.; Coulter, Rachel A.; Gao, Hui; Huynh, David P.; Iaconis, Nicholas A.; MacMillan, Todd S.; Pitner, Gregory M.; Schwab, Devin T.

    2011-01-01

    Considered both a stepping-stone to deep space and a key to unlocking the mysteries of planetary formation, the Moon offers a unique opportunity for scientific study. Robotic precursor missions are being developed to improve technology and enable new approaches to exploration. Robots, lunar landers, and satellites play significant roles in advancing science and technologies, offering close range and in-situ observations. Science and exploration data gathered from these nodes and a lunar science satellite is intended to support future human expeditions and facilitate future utilization of lunar resources. To attain a global view of lunar science, the nodes will be distributed over the lunar surface, including locations on the far side of the Moon. Given that nodes on the lunar far side do not have direct line-of-sight for Earth communications, the planned presence of such nodes creates the need for a lunar communications relay satellite. Since the communications relay capability would only be required for a small portion of the satellite s orbit, it may be possible to include communication relay components on a science spacecraft. Furthermore, an integrated satellite has the potential to reduce lunar surface mission costs. A SCience Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) is proposed to accomplish scientific goals while also supporting the communications needs of landers on the far side of the Moon. User needs and design drivers for the system were derived from the anticipated needs of future robotic and lander missions. Based on these drivers and user requirements, accommodations for communications payload aboard a science spacecraft were developed. A team of interns identified and compared possible SCHOLR architectures. The final SCHOLR architecture was analyzed in terms of orbiter lifetime, lunar surface coverage, size, mass, power, and communications data rates. This paper presents the driving requirements, operational concept, and architecture views for SCHOLR

  7. System Architecture for a Military Weapon System Development Process to Integrate Design and the Manufacturing Process for Use by a Government Technical Development Agency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Melanie and Gianna, God bless you and thank you for your sacrifices and patience. Finding a balance between being a husband, a father, a graduate...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports...considerations are given minimal attention or simply “left out” when the main objective is to simply prove that a new design concept is feasible from an

  8. Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Study: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Study seeks to update its long term goals and objective for human exploration missions; flight and surface systems for human missions and supporting infrastructure; operational concept for human and robotic exploration of Mars; key challenges including risk and cost drivers; and, its development schedule options. It additionally seeks to assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies and develop and understanding of methods for reducing the cost/risk of human Mars missions through investment in research, technology development, and synergy with other exploration plans. Recommendations are made regarding conjunction class (long-stay) missions which are seen as providing the best balance of cost, risk, and performance. Additionally, this study reviews entry, descent, and landing challenges; in-space transportation systems; launch vehicle and Orion assessments; risk and risk mitigation; key driving requirements and challenges; and, lunar linkages.

  9. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  10. New Course Design: Classification Schemes and Information Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    2002-01-01

    Describes a course developed at St. John's University (New York) in the Division of Library and Information Science that relates traditional classification schemes to information architecture and Web sites. Highlights include functional aspects of information architecture, that is, the way content is structured; assignments; student reactions; and…

  11. Dismantling the Built Drawing: Working with Mood in Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Randall

    2010-01-01

    From the late Middle Ages onward an emphasis on the rational and the technical aspects of design and design drawing gained hold of architectural practice. In this transformation, the phenomenon of mood has been frequently overlooked or seen as something to be added on to a design; yet the fundamental grounding of mood, as described in Martin…

  12. Dismantling the Built Drawing: Working with Mood in Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Randall

    2010-01-01

    From the late Middle Ages onward an emphasis on the rational and the technical aspects of design and design drawing gained hold of architectural practice. In this transformation, the phenomenon of mood has been frequently overlooked or seen as something to be added on to a design; yet the fundamental grounding of mood, as described in Martin…

  13. Human friendly architectural design for a small Martian base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, J.; Kozicka, J.

    2011-12-01

    The manned mission to Mars is expected to last almost three years. A human factor must be taken seriously into account in such a long-term mission. A big comfortable habitat can help to overcome sociopsychological problems, that occur in ICEs (Isolated and Confined Environments). Authors have come forward to this issue and have developed a Martian base design as a human friendly habitat. The project is based on researches of extreme conditions on Mars, architecture in ICEs and contemporary building technologies. The base consists of five modules: a Central Module (CM), an Agriculture Dome (AD), a Residential Dome (RD), a Laboratory Dome (LD) and a Garage (G). Each element has its own functional purpose. The CM is a metal capsule similar to the Reference Mission module (RM, NASA, 1997). Domes are inflatable multilayer structures, which interiors are "open planned". Interiors can be arranged and divided into rooms by using modular partition walls designed by authors.

  14. 77 FR 3070 - Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... and 1726 RIN 0572-AC20 Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction... construction, procurement, engineering services and architectural services for transactions above the...--ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 0 1. The authority citation...

  15. Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 2: Army fault tolerant architecture design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) hardware architecture and components and the operating system. The architectural and operational theory of the AFTA Fault Tolerant Data Bus is discussed. The test and maintenance strategy developed for use in fielded AFTA installations is presented. An approach to be used in reducing the probability of AFTA failure due to common mode faults is described. Analytical models for AFTA performance, reliability, availability, life cycle cost, weight, power, and volume are developed. An approach is presented for using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to describe and design AFTA's developmental hardware. A plan is described for verifying and validating key AFTA concepts during the Dem/Val phase. Analytical models and partial mission requirements are used to generate AFTA configurations for the TF/TA/NOE and Ground Vehicle missions.

  16. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; Bartlett, Roscoe; Collins, Benjamin; Pawlowski, Roger; Schmidt, Rodney; Summers, Randall

    2016-12-01

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). CASL was established for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both software and numerical perspectives, along with the goals and constraints that drove major design decisions, and their implications. We explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the use of VERA tools for a variety of challenging applications within the nuclear industry.

  17. An Update on Design Tools for Optimization of CMC 3D Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.; DiCarlo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe and up-date progress for NASA's efforts to develop 3D architectural design tools for CMC in general and for SIC/SiC composites in particular. Describe past and current sequential work efforts aimed at: Understanding key fiber and tow physical characteristics in conventional 2D and 3D woven architectures as revealed by microstructures in the literature. Developing an Excel program for down-selecting and predicting key geometric properties and resulting key fiber-controlled properties for various conventional 3D architectures. Developing a software tool for accurately visualizing all the key geometric details of conventional 3D architectures. Validating tools by visualizing and predicting the Internal geometry and key mechanical properties of a NASA SIC/SIC panel with a 3D orthogonal architecture. Applying the predictive and visualization tools toward advanced 3D orthogonal SiC/SIC composites, and combining them into a user-friendly software program.

  18. Design and evaluation of cellular power converter architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreault, David John

    Power electronic technology plays an important role in many energy conversion and storage applications, including machine drives, power supplies, frequency changers and UPS systems. Increases in performance and reductions in cost have been achieved through the development of higher performance power semiconductor devices and integrated control devices with increased functionality. Manufacturing techniques, however, have changed little. High power is typically achieved by paralleling multiple die in a sing!e package, producing the physical equivalent of a single large device. Consequently, both the device package and the converter in which the device is used continue to require large, complex mechanical structures, and relatively sophisticated heat transfer systems. An alternative to this approach is the use of a cellular power converter architecture, which is based upon the parallel connection of a large number of quasi-autonomous converters, called cells, each of which is designed for a fraction of the system rating. The cell rating is chosen such that single-die devices in inexpensive packages can be used, and the cell fabricated with an automated assembly process. The use of quasi-autonomous cells means that system performance is not compromised by the failure of a cell. This thesis explores the design of cellular converter architectures with the objective of achieving improvements in performance, reliability, and cost over conventional converter designs. New approaches are developed and experimentally verified for highly distributed control of cellular converters, including methods for ripple cancellation and current-sharing control. The performance of these techniques are quantified, and their dynamics are analyzed. Cell topologies suitable to the cellular architecture are investigated, and their use for systems in the 5-500 kVA range is explored. The design, construction, and experimental evaluation of a 6 kW cellular switched-mode rectifier is also addressed

  19. Reducing Development and Operations Costs using NASA's "GMSEC" Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan; Bristow, John; Crouse, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the role of Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) in reducing development and operation costs in handling the massive data from NASA missions. The goals of GMSEC systems architecture development are to (1) Simplify integration and development, (2)Facilitate technology infusion over time, (3) Support evolving operational concepts, and (4) All for mix of heritage, COTS and new components. First 3 missions (i.e., Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM), Small Explorer (SMEX) missions - SWAS, TRACE, SAMPEX, and ST5 3-Satellite Constellation System) each selected a different telemetry and command system. These results show that GMSEC's message-bus component-based framework architecture is well proven and provides significant benefits over traditional flight and ground data system designs. The missions benefit through increased set of product options, enhanced automation, lower cost and new mission-enabling operations concept options .

  20. Inclusive design in architectural practice: Experiential learning of disability in architectural education.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Kerry; Calder, Allyson; Mulligan, Hilda

    2017-08-31

    The built environment can facilitate or impede an individual's ability to participate in society. This is particularly so for people with disability. Architects are well placed to be advocates for design that enhances societal equality. This qualitative study explored architectural design students' perceptions of inclusive design, their reflections resulting from an experiential learning module and the subsequent influence of these on their design practice. Twenty four architectural design students participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data were analyzed thematically. Three themes were evident: 1) Inclusive design was perceived as challenging, 2) Appreciation for the opportunity to learn about the perspectives of people with disabilities, and 3) Change of attitude toward inclusive design. Experiential learning had fostered reflection, changes in attitude and the realization that inclusive design, should begin at the start of the design process. For equitable access for all people to become reality, experiential learning, coupled with positive examples of inclusive design should be embedded in architectural education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Motivation for Creativity in Architectural Design and Engineering Design Students: Implications for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported here dealt with the study of motivation for creativity. The goals were to assess motivation for creativity in architectural design and engineering design students based on the Cognitive Orientation theory which defines motivation as a function of a set of belief types, themes, and groupings identified as relevant for the…

  2. Motivation for Creativity in Architectural Design and Engineering Design Students: Implications for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported here dealt with the study of motivation for creativity. The goals were to assess motivation for creativity in architectural design and engineering design students based on the Cognitive Orientation theory which defines motivation as a function of a set of belief types, themes, and groupings identified as relevant for the…

  3. Development of enterprise architecture in university using TOGAF as framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, Endang; Supriadi, Hari

    2017-06-01

    The university of XYZ is located in Bandung, West Java. It has an infrastructure of technology information (IT) which is managed independently. Currently, the IT at the University of XYZ employs a complex conventional management pattern that does not result in a fully integrated IT infrastructure. This is not adaptive in addressing solutions to changing business needs and applications. In addition, it impedes the innovative development of sustainable IT services and also contributes to an unnecessary high workload for managers. This research aims to establish the concept of IS/IT strategic planning. This is used in the development of the IS/IT and in designing the information technology infrastructure based on the framework of The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) and Architecture Development Method (ADM). A case study will be done at the University of XYZ using the concept of qualitative research through review of literatures and interviews. This study generates the following stages:(1) forming a design using TOGAF and the ADM around nine functional areas of business and propose 12 application candidates to be developed at XYZ University; (2) generating 11 principles of the development of information technology architecture; (3) creating a portfolio for future applications (McFarlan Grid), generating 6 applications in the strategic quadrant (SIAKAD-T, E-LIBRARY, SIPADU-T, DSS, SIPPM-T, KMS), 2 quadrant application operations (PMS-T, CRM), 4 quadrant application supports (MNC-T, NOPEC-T, EMAIL-SYSTEM, SSO); and (4) modelling the enterprise architecture of this study which could be a reference in making a blueprint for the development of information systems and information technology at the University of XYZ.

  4. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  5. All-Electric Concepts for Architecture. NECA Electrical Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Electrical Contractors Association, Washington, DC.

    In this monograph dealing with the suitability of electrically powered systems to emerging architectural trends, emphasis is upon the relationship of mechanical systems to overall building design. Topics discussed are--(1) All Electric Systems are Right for the Times, (2) Electric Systems Enlarge Freedom of Design, (3) Approaching the Question:…

  6. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that used both reliability and performance tools. An account is given of the motivation for the final design and problems associated with both reliability and performance modeling. The appendices contain a listing of the code for both the reliability and performance model used in the design.

  7. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  8. The architecture of safety: hospital design.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anjali; Rashid, Mahbub

    2007-12-01

    This paper reviews recent research literature reporting the effects of hospital design on patient safety. Features of hospital design that are linked to patient safety in the literature include noise, air quality, lighting conditions, patient room design, unit layout, and several other interior design features. Some of these features act as latent conditions for adverse events, and impact safety outcomes directly and indirectly by impacting staff working conditions. Others act as barriers to adverse events by providing hospital staff with opportunities for preventing accidents before they occur. Although the evidence linking hospital design to patient safety is growing, much is left to be done in this area of research. Nevertheless, the evidence reported in the literature may already be sufficient to have a positive impact on hospital design.

  9. Architectural design of an Algol interpreter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    The design of a syntax-directed interpreter for a subset of Algol is described. It is a conceptual design with sufficient details and completeness but as much independence of implementation as possible. The design includes a detailed description of a scanner, an analyzer described in the Floyd-Evans productions, a hash-coded symbol table, and an executor. Interpretation of sample programs is also provided to show how the interpreter functions.

  10. The Case for Architectural-Design Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    A well-publicized design competition is especially beneficial for universities. It allows them to enhance fund raising and stimulate design consciousness among students, the faculty, and even members of the surrounding community. Yet universities rarely conduct competitions, and instead select architects for major projects through a multistep,…

  11. Learning By Design: 1997 School Architecture Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a detailed list of awards for elementary and secondary school facility designs across the United States. Awardees include entire new facilities, additions, new construction, renovations, and projects in progress. Each entry contains name and location of the school, design architects, and a description of the facility. (GR)

  12. Learning By Design: 1998 School Architecture Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents a detailed list of awards for elementary and secondary school facility designs across the United States. Awardees include entire new facilities, additions, new construction, renovations, and projects in progress. Each entry contains name and location of the school, design architects, and a description of the facility. (GR)

  13. Learning By Design: 1996 School Architecture Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents a detailed list of awards for elementary and secondary school facility designs across the United States. Awardees include entire new facilities, additions, new construction, renovations, and projects in progress. Each entry contains name and location of the school, design architects, and a description of the facility. (GR)

  14. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  15. The Case for Architectural-Design Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    A well-publicized design competition is especially beneficial for universities. It allows them to enhance fund raising and stimulate design consciousness among students, the faculty, and even members of the surrounding community. Yet universities rarely conduct competitions, and instead select architects for major projects through a multistep,…

  16. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  17. Automated Work Package: Conceptual Design and Data Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Al Rashdan, Ahmad; Oxstrand, Johanna; Agarwal, Vivek

    2016-05-26

    frontend aspects of the AWP, the backend data architecture was researched and developed in this effort. The backend design involved data architecture aspects. It was realized through this effort that the key aspects of this design are hierarchy, data configuration and live information, data templates and instances, the flow of work package execution, the introduction of properties, and the means to interface the backend to the frontend. After the backend design was developed, a data structure was built to reflect the developed data architecture. The data structure was developed to accommodate the fifty functionalities identified by the envisioned scenario development. The data structure was evaluated by incorporating an example work order from the nuclear power industry. The implementation resulted in several optimization iterations of the data structure. In addition, the rearrangement of the work order information to fit the data structure highlighted several possibilities for improvement in the current work order design, and significantly reduced the size of the work order.

  18. Architectural design and the collaborative research environment.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Roger N

    2006-10-20

    Given that science is a collaborative endeavor, architects are striving to design new research buildings that not only provide a more pleasant work space but also facilitate interactions among researchers.

  19. System design document U-AVLIS control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Viebeck, P.G.

    1994-02-16

    This document describes the architecture of the integrated control system for the U-AVLIS process. It includes an overview of the major control system components and their interfaces to one another. Separate documents are utilized to fully describe each component mentioned herein. The purpose of this document is to introduce the reader to the integrated U-AVLIS control system. It describes the philosophy of the control system architecture and how all of the control system components are integrated. While the other System Design Documents describe in detail the design of individual control system components, this document puts those components into their correct context within the entire integrated control system.

  20. Architecture and development of olivocerebellar circuit topography

    PubMed Central

    Reeber, Stacey L.; White, Joshua J.; George-Jones, Nicholas A.; Sillitoe, Roy V.

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum has a simple tri-laminar structure that is comprised of relatively few cell types. Yet, its internal micro-circuitry is anatomically, biochemically, and functionally complex. The most striking feature of cerebellar circuit complexity is its compartmentalized topography. Each cell type within the cerebellar cortex is organized into an exquisite map; molecular expression patterns, dendrite projections, and axon terminal fields divide the medial-lateral axis of the cerebellum into topographic sagittal zones. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that establish zones and highlight how gene expression and neural activity contribute to cerebellar pattern formation. We focus on the olivocerebellar system because its developmental mechanisms are becoming clear, its topographic termination patterns are very precise, and its contribution to zonal function is debated. This review deconstructs the architecture and development of the olivocerebellar pathway to provide an update on how brain circuit maps form and function. PMID:23293588

  1. SpaceWire model development technology for satellite architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Leemaster, Jacob Edward; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2011-09-01

    Packet switched data communications networks that use distributed processing architectures have the potential to simplify the design and development of new, increasingly more sophisticated satellite payloads. In addition, the use of reconfigurable logic may reduce the amount of redundant hardware required in space-based applications without sacrificing reliability. These concepts were studied using software modeling and simulation, and the results are presented in this report. Models of the commercially available, packet switched data interconnect SpaceWire protocol were developed and used to create network simulations of data networks containing reconfigurable logic with traffic flows for timing system distribution.

  2. Design Methodology for Multiple Microcomputer Architectures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    multimicro design knowledge is true both in industry and in university environments. In the industrial environment, it reduces productivity and increases...Real-Time Processor Problems," Proc. of ELECTRO-81 Tercer Seminario de Ingenieria Electronica, Nov. 9-13, 1981. 14 1981 "D Flip/Flop Substracts

  3. Demo III processing architecture trades and preliminary design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothard, Benny M.; Cory, Phil; Peterman, Pete

    1999-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary of the methodology, metrics, analysis, and trade study efforts for the preliminary design o the Vetronics Processing Architecture (PA) system based on the Demo III Experimental Unmanned Ground Vehicle (XUV) program requirements. We will document and describe both the provided and analytically derived system requirements expressed by the proposal. Our experience based on previous mobility and Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Targeting, Acquisition systems designed and implemented for Demo II Semi-Autonomous Surrogate Vehicle and Mobile Detection, Assessment and Response System will be used to describe lessons learned as applied to the XUV in PA architecture, Single Board Computers, Card Cage Buses, Real-Time and Non Real-Time processor and Card Cage to Card Cage Communications, and Imaging and Radar pre-processors selection and choices. We have selected an initial architecture methodology.

  4. Neural architecture design based on extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Crespo, Andrés; García-Laencina, Pedro J; Sancho-Gómez, José-Luis

    2013-12-01

    Selection of the optimal neural architecture to solve a pattern classification problem entails to choose the relevant input units, the number of hidden neurons and its corresponding interconnection weights. This problem has been widely studied in many research works but their solutions usually involve excessive computational cost in most of the problems and they do not provide a unique solution. This paper proposes a new technique to efficiently design the MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) architecture for classification using the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) algorithm. The proposed method provides a high generalization capability and a unique solution for the architecture design. Moreover, the selected final network only retains those input connections that are relevant for the classification task. Experimental results show these advantages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-12-08

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford.

  6. How Juries Assess Universal Design in Norwegian Architectural School Competitions.

    PubMed

    Houck, Leif D

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how architectural school competition juries assess Universal Design. The method used is a case study of 18 recent architectural school competitions in Norway. The results show that most competition briefs ask for Universal Designed buildings. In 8 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is mentioned as an assessment criterion. In 11 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is commented on by the juries in the jury reports, but only in 3 of the cases, do the juries assess this aspect consistently on every competition project. The overall impression is that some amount of uncertainty looms concerning how Universal Design should be assessed in the competition stage. Based on the findings, future juries should concentrate on orientation and overview prior to technicalities and details.

  7. Design, Analysis and User Acceptance of Architectural Design Education in Learning System Based on Knowledge Management Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Lin, Yu-An; Wen, Ming-Hui; Perng, Yeng-Hong; Hsu, I-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to develop an architectural design knowledge management learning system with corresponding learning activities to help the students have meaningful learning and improve their design capability in their learning process. Firstly, the system can help the students to obtain and share useful knowledge. Secondly,…

  8. Design, Analysis and User Acceptance of Architectural Design Education in Learning System Based on Knowledge Management Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Lin, Yu-An; Wen, Ming-Hui; Perng, Yeng-Hong; Hsu, I-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to develop an architectural design knowledge management learning system with corresponding learning activities to help the students have meaningful learning and improve their design capability in their learning process. Firstly, the system can help the students to obtain and share useful knowledge. Secondly,…

  9. Mass growth in space vehicle and exploration architecture development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert W.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wagner, John

    2010-04-01

    Inert or dry mass in aerospace systems has historically grown during aerospace vehicle development because of a number of factors: changing requirements, uncertainty in the performance of the initial technology selection, addition of redundancy, errors in the original design, as well as uncertain masses and loads. In the case of exploration architectures for lunar missions, compounding effects of a multi-staged mission design makes mass-efficient vehicles a necessity for achieving the total delta-V performance required to reach the lunar surface and return to Earth. Current standards and guidelines for mass growth risk mitigation are compared, including the industry and NASA standard methods for risk management and mitigation through the application of mass margin. Historical mass growth trends are analyzed, and average levels of growth are compared to the standard margin allocation levels. Analysis of the available historical data shows that the mean inert mass growth is 28%, and 30% of historical programs experience inert mass growth in excess of the allowable growth and margin recommended level of 32.5%. As an illustrative example of the mass growth of lunar exploration architectures the mass growth sensitivity of the Apollo architecture is calculated. Results show that a kilogram of mass growth on the lunar ascent stage is compounded over 800 times in gross mass.

  10. Research on Information-Based Teaching in Reform and Practice of Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Li-Jun; Xiao, Zhe-Tao

    2017-01-01

    In China, with the development of the era, the Architectural Design (AD) education has been given the requirement that students should master creative thinking mode and design method. The teaching target of integrating the Information-Based Teaching (IBT) into Creative Thinking (CT) mode is analyzed, and the Teaching Mode (TM) of integrating the…

  11. Natural Genomic Design in Sinorhizobium meliloti: Novel Genomic Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xianwu; Flores, Margarita; Mavingui, Patrick; Fuentes, Sara Isabel; Hernández, Georgina; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Sinorhizobium meliloti, the symbiont of alfalfa, was reported in 2001 by an international consortium of laboratories. The genome comprises a chromosome of 3.65 megabases (Mb) and two megaplasmids, pSymA and pSymB, of 1.35 Mb and 1.68 Mb, respectively. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the whole genome, we designed a pathway of consecutive rearrangements leading to novel genomic architectures. In a first step we obtained derivative strains containing two replicons; in a second step we obtained a strain containing the genetic information in one single replicon of 6.68 MB. From this last architecture we isolated revertants containing two replicons, and from these we could return to the original architecture showing the three replicons. We found that the relative frequency of excision of cointegrated replicons is higher at the site used for the cointegration than at other sites. This might conciliate two apparently opposed facts: the highly dynamic state of genomic architecture in S. meliloti and the common observation that different isolates and derived cellular clones of S. meliloti usually present the architecture of one chromosome and two distinct megaplasmids. Different aspects that must be considered to obtain full advantage of the strategy of natural genomic design are discussed. PMID:12902376

  12. Natural genomic design in Sinorhizobium meliloti: novel genomic architectures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xianwu; Flores, Margarita; Mavingui, Patrick; Fuentes, Sara Isabel; Hernández, Georgina; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    2003-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Sinorhizobium meliloti, the symbiont of alfalfa, was reported in 2001 by an international consortium of laboratories. The genome comprises a chromosome of 3.65 megabases (Mb) and two megaplasmids, pSymA and pSymB, of 1.35 Mb and 1.68 Mb, respectively. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the whole genome, we designed a pathway of consecutive rearrangements leading to novel genomic architectures. In a first step we obtained derivative strains containing two replicons; in a second step we obtained a strain containing the genetic information in one single replicon of 6.68 MB. From this last architecture we isolated revertants containing two replicons, and from these we could return to the original architecture showing the three replicons. We found that the relative frequency of excision of cointegrated replicons is higher at the site used for the cointegration than at other sites. This might conciliate two apparently opposed facts: the highly dynamic state of genomic architecture in S. meliloti and the common observation that different isolates and derived cellular clones of S. meliloti usually present the architecture of one chromosome and two distinct megaplasmids. Different aspects that must be considered to obtain full advantage of the strategy of natural genomic design are discussed.

  13. Computer-Aided Design of Organic Host Architectures for Selective Chemosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Selective organic hosts provide the foundation for the development of many types of sensors. The deliberate design of host molecules with predetermined selectivity, however, remains a challenge in supramolecular chemistry. To address this issue we have developed a de novo structure-based design approach for the unbiased construction of complementary host architectures. This chapter summarizes recent progress including improvements on a computer software program, HostDesigner, specifically tailored to discover host architectures for small guest molecules. HostDesigner is capable of generating and evaluating millions of candidate structures in minutes on a desktop personal computer, allowing a user to rapidly identify three-dimensional architectures that are structurally organized for binding a targeted guest species. The efficacy of this computational methodology is illustrated with a search for cation hosts containing aliphatic ether oxygen groups and anion hosts containing urea groups.

  14. Designing polyethylenes of complex chain architectures via Pd-diimine-catalyzed "living" ethylene polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhibin; Xu, Lixin; Dong, Zhongmin; Xiang, Peng

    2013-07-18

    Polymer chain architecture is a critically important chain parameter governing intrinsically the properties and applications of polymers. The rapid developments in "living"/controlled polymerization techniques, particularly the controlled radical polymerization techniques, in the past two decades have enabled the precision synthesis of novel polymers having a great variety of complex yet well-defined chain architectures from various monomer stocks. For polyolefins synthesized via catalytic coordination polymerization, the design of complex chain architectures, however, has only started recently because of the relatively limited advancements in the catalytic "living" olefin polymerization technique. In this regard, the versatile Pd-diimine catalysts have provided some unprecedented opportunities, due to their outstanding features, in rendering successfully a novel class of polyethylenes of various new complex chain architectures through the "living" ethylene polymerization protocol. The complex chain architectures designed to date have included hyperbranched, hybrid hyperbranched-linear, block, gradient and block-gradient, star, telechelic, graft and comb, and surface-tethered polymer brushes. This Feature Article attempts to summarize the recent developments achieved in the area, with an emphasis on the synthetic strategies for the architectural design. These developments demonstrate the great potential for further advancements of this new exciting research area.

  15. Using an Architectural Metaphor for Information Design in Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboard, Donn R.; Lee, Doris

    2001-01-01

    Uses Frank Lloyd Wright's (1867-1959) organic architecture as a metaphor to define the relationship between a part and a whole, whether the focus is on a building and its surroundings or information delivered via hypertext. Reviews effective strategies for designing text information via hypertext and incorporates three levels of information…

  16. The Integration of Interior Architecture Education with Digital Design Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazicioglu, Deniz Ayse

    2011-01-01

    It is inevitable that as a result of progress in technology and the changes in the ways with which design is conceived, interior architecture schools should be updated according to these requirements and that new educational processes should be tried out. It is for this reason that the scope and aim of this study have been determined as being the…

  17. Using an Architectural Metaphor for Information Design in Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboard, Donn R.; Lee, Doris

    2001-01-01

    Uses Frank Lloyd Wright's (1867-1959) organic architecture as a metaphor to define the relationship between a part and a whole, whether the focus is on a building and its surroundings or information delivered via hypertext. Reviews effective strategies for designing text information via hypertext and incorporates three levels of information…

  18. SHELTER THROUGH ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, THE SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS INFLUENCE ON FORM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    FALLOUT PROTECTION CAN BE PROVIDED BY CAREFUL ARRANGEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS WITHOUT SPECIFIC FACILITIES FOR THEIR PURPOSE AND WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH NORMAL SPACE USE. CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATION ARE DISCUSSED AND ILLUSTRATED PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDING DESIGN WITH RESPECT TO DISTANCE, GEOMETRY, AND TIME ARE GIVEN. (JT)

  19. Development and Plasticity of Cortical Processing Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Wolf

    1995-11-01

    One of the basic functions of the cerebral cortex is the analysis and representation of relations among the components of sensory and motor patterns. It is proposed that the cortex applies two complementary strategies to cope with the combinatorial problem posed by the astronomical number of possible relations: (i) the analysis and representation of frequently occurring, behaviorally relevant relations by groups of cells with fixed but broadly tuned response properties; and (ii) the dynamic association of these cells into functionally coherent assemblies. Feedforward connections and reciprocal associative connections, respectively, are thought to underlie these two operations. The architectures of both types of connections are susceptible to experience-dependent modifications during development, but they become fixed in the adult. As development proceeds, feedforward connections also appear to lose much of their functional plasticity, whereas the synapses of the associative connections retain a high susceptibility to use-dependent modifications. The reduced plasticity of feedforward connections is probably responsible for the invariance of cognitive categories acquired early in development. The persistent adaptivity of reciprocal connections is a likely substrate for the ability to generate representations for new perceptual objects and motor patterns throughout life.

  20. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  1. Research and design of circulation course resources architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiangong; Feng, Wenquan; Zhang, Jizhong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a new concept that is Circulation Course Resources (CCR) is introduced, which means the course resources circulating from the students listening in classroom lecture, camera shooting, video coding, video storage, video server to the students learning from VOD. The creating course video system and network-teaching system as parts of CCR architecture are presented separately. To connect the two systems, a middle system defined as Bridge System is designed and modeled with UML. The core application design of the Bridge System is expressed by the classes design and main database design. The functions of Bridge System include making the course videos flowing from one system to another automatically and converting the important data of the two systems into uniform format. The CCR architecture has been put into action and achieved satisfied results.

  2. Integrity Constraint Monitoring in Software Development: Proposed Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.

    1997-01-01

    In the development of complex software systems, designers are required to obtain from many sources and manage vast amounts of knowledge of the system being built and communicate this information to personnel with a variety of backgrounds. Knowledge concerning the properties of the system, including the structure of, relationships between and limitations of the data objects in the system, becomes increasingly more vital as the complexity of the system and the number of knowledge sources increases. Ensuring that violations of these properties do not occur becomes steadily more challenging. One approach toward managing the enforcement or system properties, called context monitoring, uses a centralized repository of integrity constraints and a constraint satisfiability mechanism for dynamic verification of property enforcement during program execution. The focus of this paper is to describe possible software architectures that define a mechanism for dynamically checking the satisfiability of a set of constraints on a program. The next section describes the context monitoring approach in general. Section 3 gives an overview of the work currently being done toward the addition of an integrity constraint satisfiability mechanism to a high-level program language, SequenceL, and demonstrates how this model is being examined to develop a general software architecture. Section 4 describes possible architectures for a general constraint satisfiability mechanism, as well as an alternative approach that, uses embedded database queries in lieu of an external monitor. The paper concludes with a brief summary outlining the, current state of the research and future work.

  3. EuroSkyWay Multipurpose Terminal: architecture and design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancarelli, C.; Macchia, G.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the architecture of the EuroSkyWay Multipurpose Terminal, aimed to satisfy the need of the Provider and Gateway Terminal of the EuroSkyWay system. First, an overview of the EuroSkyWay system is shown, with a short description of the proprietary EuroSkyWay protocol layer and of the terminals. The extension of the OMT methodology that has been used to design the system is described. Then, the architecture of the Multipurpose Terminal described in terms of configurations, hardware and software.

  4. Development of an unmanned maritime system reference architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Christiane N.; Cramer, Megan A.; Stack, Jason R.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of operations (CONOPS) for unmanned maritime systems (UMS) continues to envision systems that are multi-mission, re-configurable and capable of acceptable performance over a wide range of environmental and contextual variability. Key enablers for these concepts of operation are an autonomy module which can execute different mission directives and a mission payload consisting of re-configurable sensor or effector suites. This level of modularity in mission payloads enables affordability, flexibility (i.e., more capability with future platforms) and scalability (i.e., force multiplication). The modularity in autonomy facilitates rapid technology integration, prototyping, testing and leveraging of state-of-the-art advances in autonomy research. Capability drivers imply a requirement to maintain an open architecture design for both research and acquisition programs. As the maritime platforms become more stable in their design (e.g. unmanned surface vehicles, unmanned underwater vehicles) future developments are able to focus on more capable sensors and more robust autonomy algorithms. To respond to Fleet needs, given an evolving threat, programs will want to interchange the latest sensor or a new and improved algorithm in a cost effective and efficient manner. In order to make this possible, the programs need a reference architecture that will define for technology providers where their piece fits and how to successfully integrate. With these concerns in mind, the US Navy established the Unmanned Maritime Systems Reference Architecture (UMS-RA) Working Group in August 2011. This group consists of Department of Defense and industry participants working the problem of defining reference architecture for autonomous operations of maritime systems. This paper summarizes its efforts to date.

  5. Tipster Text Phase 2 Architecture Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-21

    Ralph Weischedel, and Remi Zajac 1.0 GOALS The TIPSTER Program aims to push the technology for access to information in large (multi-GB) text...collections, in particular for the analysts in Government agencies. Technology is being developed for document detection (" information retrieval") and for...level security • enhance detection and extraction through the exchange of information , and through easier access to linguistic annotations 249

  6. System design in an evolving system-of-systems architecture and concept of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovekamp, Roger N., Jr.

    Proposals for space exploration architectures have increased in complexity and scope. Constituent systems (e.g., rovers, habitats, in-situ resource utilization facilities, transfer vehicles, etc) must meet the needs of these architectures by performing in multiple operational environments and across multiple phases of the architecture's evolution. This thesis proposes an approach for using system-of-systems engineering principles in conjunction with system design methods (e.g., Multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms, etc) to create system design options that perform effectively at both the system and system-of-systems levels, across multiple concepts of operations, and over multiple architectural phases. The framework is presented by way of an application problem that investigates the design of power systems within a power sharing architecture for use in a human Lunar Surface Exploration Campaign. A computer model has been developed that uses candidate power grid distribution solutions for a notional lunar base. The agent-based model utilizes virtual control agents to manage the interactions of various exploration and infrastructure agents. The philosophy behind the model is based both on lunar power supply strategies proposed in literature, as well as on the author's own approaches for power distribution strategies of future lunar bases. In addition to proposing a framework for system design, further implications of system-of-systems engineering principles are briefly explored, specifically as they relate to producing more robust cross-cultural system-of-systems architecture solutions.

  7. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  8. Architectural Design for a Mars Communications and Navigation Orbital Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceasrone R. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Bell, D. J.; Roncoli, R. B.; Nelson, K.

    1999-01-01

    The planet Mars has become the focus of an intensive series of missions that span decades of time, a wide array of international agencies and an evolution from robotics to humans. The number of missions to Mars at any one time, and over a period of time, is unprecedented in the annals of space exploration. To meet the operational needs of this exploratory fleet will require the implementation of new architectural concepts for communications and navigation. To this end, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has begun to define and develop a Mars communications and navigation orbital infrastructure. This architecture will make extensive use of assets at Mars, as well as use of traditional Earth-based assets, such as the Deep Space Network, DSN. Indeed, the total system can be thought of as an extension of DSN nodes and services to the Mars in-situ region. The concept has been likened to the beginnings of an interplanetary Internet that will bring the exploration of Mars right into our living rooms. The paper will begin with a high-level overview of the concept for the Mars communications and navigation infrastructure. Next, the mission requirements will be presented. These will include the relatively near-term needs of robotic landers, rovers, ascent vehicles, balloons, airplanes, and possibly orbiting, arriving and departing spacecraft. Requirements envisioned for the human exploration of Mars will also be described. The important Mars orbit design trades on telecommunications and navigation capabilities will be summarized, and the baseline infrastructure will be described. A roadmap of NASA's plan to evolve this infrastructure over time will be shown. Finally, launch considerations and delivery to Mars will be briefly treated.

  9. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua J.; Fiore, Brad E.; Erb, Randall M.

    2015-01-01

    Discontinuous fibre composites represent a class of materials that are strong, lightweight and have remarkable fracture toughness. These advantages partially explain the abundance and variety of discontinuous fibre composites that have evolved in the natural world. Many natural structures out-perform the conventional synthetic counterparts due, in part, to the more elaborate reinforcement architectures that occur in natural composites. Here we present an additive manufacturing approach that combines real-time colloidal assembly with existing additive manufacturing technologies to create highly programmable discontinuous fibre composites. This technology, termed as ‘3D magnetic printing', has enabled us to recreate complex bioinspired reinforcement architectures that deliver enhanced material performance compared with monolithic structures. Further, we demonstrate that we can now design and evolve elaborate reinforcement architectures that are not found in nature, demonstrating a high level of possible customization in discontinuous fibre composites with arbitrary geometries. PMID:26494282

  10. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua J.; Fiore, Brad E.; Erb, Randall M.

    2015-10-01

    Discontinuous fibre composites represent a class of materials that are strong, lightweight and have remarkable fracture toughness. These advantages partially explain the abundance and variety of discontinuous fibre composites that have evolved in the natural world. Many natural structures out-perform the conventional synthetic counterparts due, in part, to the more elaborate reinforcement architectures that occur in natural composites. Here we present an additive manufacturing approach that combines real-time colloidal assembly with existing additive manufacturing technologies to create highly programmable discontinuous fibre composites. This technology, termed as `3D magnetic printing', has enabled us to recreate complex bioinspired reinforcement architectures that deliver enhanced material performance compared with monolithic structures. Further, we demonstrate that we can now design and evolve elaborate reinforcement architectures that are not found in nature, demonstrating a high level of possible customization in discontinuous fibre composites with arbitrary geometries.

  11. Minimalist design of water-soluble cross-[beta] architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2010-08-13

    Demonstrated successes of protein design and engineering suggest significant potential to produce diverse protein architectures and assemblies beyond those found in nature. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic protein architecture through the successful design and atomic structures of water-soluble cross-{beta} proteins. The cross-{beta} motif is formed from the lamination of successive {beta}-sheet layers, and it is abundantly observed in the core of insoluble amyloid fibrils associated with protein-misfolding diseases. Despite its prominence, cross-{beta} has been designed only in the context of insoluble aggregates of peptides or proteins. Cross-{beta}'s recalcitrance to protein engineering and conspicuous absence among the known atomic structures of natural proteins thus makes it a challenging target for design in a water-soluble form. Through comparative analysis of the cross-{beta} structures of fibril-forming peptides, we identified rows of hydrophobic residues ('ladders') running across {beta}-strands of each {beta}-sheet layer as a minimal component of the cross-{beta} motif. Grafting a single ladder of hydrophobic residues designed from the Alzheimer's amyloid-{beta} peptide onto a large {beta}-sheet protein formed a dimeric protein with a cross-{beta} architecture that remained water-soluble, as revealed by solution analysis and x-ray crystal structures. These results demonstrate that the cross-{beta} motif is a stable architecture in water-soluble polypeptides and can be readily designed. Our results provide a new route for accessing the cross-{beta} structure and expanding the scope of protein design.

  12. Plasmonic Fiber Optic Refractometric Sensors: From Conventional Architectures to Recent Design Trends.

    PubMed

    Klantsataya, Elizaveta; Jia, Peipei; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M; François, Alexandre

    2016-12-23

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) fiber sensor research has grown since the first demonstration over 20 year ago into a rich and diverse field with a wide range of optical fiber architectures, plasmonic coatings, and excitation and interrogation methods. Yet, the large diversity of SPR fiber sensor designs has made it difficult to understand the advantages of each approach. Here, we review SPR fiber sensor architectures, covering the latest developments from optical fiber geometries to plasmonic coatings. By developing a systematic approach to fiber-based SPR designs, we identify and discuss future research opportunities based on a performance comparison of the different approaches for sensing applications.

  13. Plasmonic Fiber Optic Refractometric Sensors: From Conventional Architectures to Recent Design Trends

    PubMed Central

    Klantsataya, Elizaveta; Jia, Peipei; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M.; François, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) fiber sensor research has grown since the first demonstration over 20 year ago into a rich and diverse field with a wide range of optical fiber architectures, plasmonic coatings, and excitation and interrogation methods. Yet, the large diversity of SPR fiber sensor designs has made it difficult to understand the advantages of each approach. Here, we review SPR fiber sensor architectures, covering the latest developments from optical fiber geometries to plasmonic coatings. By developing a systematic approach to fiber-based SPR designs, we identify and discuss future research opportunities based on a performance comparison of the different approaches for sensing applications. PMID:28025532

  14. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    SciTech Connect

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  15. Evolving concepts of lunar architecture: The potential of subselene development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daga, Andrew W.; Daga, Meryl A.; Wendel, Wendel R.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the superior environmental and operational conditions that are thought to exist in lava tubes, popular visions of permanent settlements built upon the lunar surface may prove to be entirely romantic. The factors that will ultimately come together to determine the design of a lunar base are complex and interrelated, and they call for a radical architectural solution. Whether lunar surface-deployed superstructures can answer these issues is called into question. One particularly troublesome concern in any lunar base design is the need for vast amounts of space, and the ability of man-made structures to provide such volumes in a reliable pressurized habitat is doubtful. An examination of several key environmental design issues suggests that the alternative mode of subselene development may offer the best opportunity for an enduring and humane settlement.

  16. Assessing the Impact of CAAD Design Tool on Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Matarneh, Rana; Fethi, Ihsan

    2017-01-01

    The current concept of architectural design education in most schools of architecture in Jordan is a blend between manual and digital approaches. However, the disconnection between these two methods has resulted in the students' failure to transfer skills learnt through traditional methods to the digital method of CAAD. The objective of this study…

  17. IXV avionics architecture: Design, qualification and mission results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succa, Massimo; Boscolo, Ilario; Drocco, Alessandro; Malucchi, Giovanni; Dussy, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    The paper details the IXV avionics presenting the architecture and the constituting subsystems and equipment. It focuses on the novelties introduced, such as the Ethernet-based protocol for the experiment data acquisition system, and on the synergy with Ariane 5 and Vega equipment, pursued in order to comply with the design-to-cost requirement for the avionics system development. Emphasis is given to the adopted model philosophy in relation to OTS/COTS items heritage and identified activities necessary to extend the qualification level to be compliant with the IXV environment. Associated lessons learned are identified. Then, the paper provides the first results and interpretation from the flight recorders telemetry, covering the behavior of the Data Handling System, the quality of telemetry recording and real-time/delayed transmission, the performance of the batteries and the Power Protection and Distribution Unit, the ground segment coverage during visibility windows and the performance of the GNC sensors (IMU and GPS) and actuators. Finally, some preliminary tracks of the IXV follow on are given, introducing the objectives of the Innovative Space Vehicle and the necessary improvements to be developed in the frame of PRIDE.

  18. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; Bartlett, Roscoe; Collins, Benjamin; Pawlowski, Roger; Schmidt, Rodney; Summers, Randall

    2016-09-08

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first DOE Hub, which was established in July 2010 for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both a software and a numerical perspective, along with the goals and constraints that drove the major design decisions and their implications. As a result, we explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the application of VERA tools for a variety of challenging problems within the nuclear industry.

  19. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; ...

    2016-09-08

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first DOE Hub, which was established in July 2010 for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both amore » software and a numerical perspective, along with the goals and constraints that drove the major design decisions and their implications. As a result, we explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the application of VERA tools for a variety of challenging problems within the nuclear industry.« less

  20. The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA): Design and architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Clarno, Kevin; Sieger, Matt; Bartlett, Roscoe; Collins, Benjamin; Pawlowski, Roger; Schmidt, Rodney; Summers, Randall

    2016-09-08

    VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, is the system of physics capabilities being developed and deployed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first DOE Hub, which was established in July 2010 for the modeling and simulation of commercial nuclear reactors. VERA consists of integrating and interfacing software together with a suite of physics components adapted and/or refactored to simulate relevant physical phenomena in a coupled manner. VERA also includes the software development environment and computational infrastructure needed for these components to be effectively used. We describe the architecture of VERA from both a software and a numerical perspective, along with the goals and constraints that drove the major design decisions and their implications. As a result, we explain why VERA is an environment rather than a framework or toolkit, why these distinctions are relevant (particularly for coupled physics applications), and provide an overview of results that demonstrate the application of VERA tools for a variety of challenging problems within the nuclear industry.

  1. Designing Capital-Intensive Systems with Architectural and Operational Flexibility Using a Screening Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jijun; de Weck, Olivier; de Neufville, Richard; Robinson, Bob; MacGowan, David

    Development of capital intensive systems, such as offshore oil platforms or other industrial infrastructure, generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under various resource, technical, and market uncertainties. It is a very challenging task for development co-owners or joint ventures because important decisions, such as system architectures, have to be made while uncertainty remains high. This paper develops a screening model and a simulation framework to quickly explore the design space for complex engineering systems under uncertainty allowing promising strategies or architectures to be identified. Flexibility in systems’ design and operation is proposed as a proactive means to enable systems to adapt to future uncertainty. Architectural and operational flexibility can improve systems’ lifecycle value by mitigating downside risks and capturing upside opportunities. In order to effectively explore different flexible strategies addressing a view of uncertainty which changes with time, a computational framework based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed in this paper. This framework is applied to study flexible development strategies for a representative offshore petroleum project. The complexity of this problem comes from multi-domain uncertainties, large architectural design space, and structure of flexibility decision rules. The results demonstrate that architectural and operational flexibility can significantly improve projects’ Expected Net Present Value (ENPV), reduce downside risks, and improve upside gains, compared to adopting an inflexible strategy appropriate to the view of uncertainty at the start of the project. In this particular case study, the most flexible strategy improves ENPV by 85% over an inflexible base case.

  2. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  3. Rule-based graph theory to enable exploration of the space system architecture design space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, Dale Curtis

    The primary goal of this research is to improve upon system architecture modeling in order to enable the exploration of design space options. A system architecture is the description of the functional and physical allocation of elements and the relationships, interactions, and interfaces between those elements necessary to satisfy a set of constraints and requirements. The functional allocation defines the functions that each system (element) performs, and the physical allocation defines the systems required to meet those functions. Trading the functionality between systems leads to the architecture-level design space that is available to the system architect. The research presents a methodology that enables the modeling of complex space system architectures using a mathematical framework. To accomplish the goal of improved architecture modeling, the framework meets five goals: technical credibility, adaptability, flexibility, intuitiveness, and exhaustiveness. The framework is technically credible, in that it produces an accurate and complete representation of the system architecture under consideration. The framework is adaptable, in that it provides the ability to create user-specified locations, steady states, and functions. The framework is flexible, in that it allows the user to model system architectures to multiple destinations without changing the underlying framework. The framework is intuitive for user input while still creating a comprehensive mathematical representation that maintains the necessary information to completely model complex system architectures. Finally, the framework is exhaustive, in that it provides the ability to explore the entire system architecture design space. After an extensive search of the literature, graph theory presents a valuable mechanism for representing the flow of information or vehicles within a simple mathematical framework. Graph theory has been used in developing mathematical models of many transportation and

  4. Weaving time into system architecture: satellite cost per operational day and optimal design lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Hastings, Daniel E.; Newman, Dava J.

    2004-03-01

    An augmented perspective on system architecture is proposed (diachronic) that complements the traditional views on system architecture (synchronic). This paper proposes to view in a system architecture the flow of service (or utility) that the system will provide over its design lifetime. It suggests that the design lifetime is a fundamental component of system architecture although one cannot see it or touch it. Consequently, cost, utility, and value per unit time metrics are introduced. A framework is then developed that identifies optimal design lifetimes for complex systems in general, and space systems in particular, based on this augmented perspective of system architecture and on these metrics. It is found that an optimal design lifetime for a satellite exists, even in the case of constant expected revenues per day over the system's lifetime, and that it changes substantially with the expected Time to Obsolescence of the system and the volatility of the market the system is serving in the case of a commercial venture. The analysis thus proves that it is essential for a system architect to match the design lifetime with the dynamical characteristics of the environment the system is/will be operating in. It is also shown that as the uncertainty in the dynamical characteristics of the environment the system is operating in increases, the value of having the option to upgrade, modify, or extend the lifetime of a system at a later point in time increases depending on how events unfold.

  5. The start up as a phase of architectural design process.

    PubMed

    Castro, Iara Sousa; Lima, Francisco de Paula Antunes; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura

    2012-01-01

    Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the "moving phase", which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the "moving phase" or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage not usually included in the design process.

  6. Learning Design and Service-Oriented Architectures: A Mutual Dependency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Patrick; Weller, Martin; Barrett-Baxendale, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at how the concept of reusability has gained currency in e-learning. Initial attention was focused on reuse of content, but recently attention has focused on reusable software tools and reusable activity structures. The former has led to the proposal of service-oriented architectures, and the latter has seen the development of the…

  7. Franz Kafka in the Design Studio: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisarligil, Beyhan Bolak

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the outcomes of taking a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to architectural design and discusses the potentials for imaginative reasoning in design education. This study tests the use of literature as a verbal form of art and design and the contribution it can make to imaginative design processes--which are all too…

  8. Franz Kafka in the Design Studio: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisarligil, Beyhan Bolak

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the outcomes of taking a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to architectural design and discusses the potentials for imaginative reasoning in design education. This study tests the use of literature as a verbal form of art and design and the contribution it can make to imaginative design processes--which are all too…

  9. Anatomy meets architecture: designing new laboratories for new anatomists.

    PubMed

    Trelease, Robert B

    2006-11-01

    General notions of architecture are familiar to anatomists, and they frequently use the word in describing the functional structures of cells, tissues, and whole organisms. Beyond concepts relating to orderly structure, anatomists infrequently encounter the profession of architecture and practicing architects. Significantly, anatomists can work with architects in the design and building of laboratories and classrooms, efforts that can have sustained effects on the practice of anatomy. In this paper, we consider cooperative interactions between anatomists and architects in designing new laboratories that accommodate educational innovations and increasingly valuable dissection resources. We begin by introducing architecture and architects in their roles in design and building. We next consider essential features and technologies for new laboratories that support a combination of classical dissection, prosection, models, and computer-based information. Different working conditions are reviewed for designing renovations of existing facilities, long-term planning for new, same-institution buildings, and extramural planning and construction for new medical schools. Whatever the project, anatomists work with architects in repeated interactive planning meetings that arrive at working laboratory designs by a process similar to successive approximation. In consulting on designs for extramural institutions, anatomists must balance client administration and faculty needs with objective oversight of practice-side design features, constraints, and capacity for innovative uses with new curricula. Architects are the key agents in producing laboratories designed for flexible and innovative anatomical education, although client-favored models for Internet-based technology can limit future use of cadavers in multiyear teaching of medical and health sciences students.

  10. Architectural design of the science complex at Elizabeth City State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Soheila

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overall view of the architectural design process and elements in taking an idea from conception to execution. The project presented is an example for this process. Once the need for a new structure is established, an architect studies the requirements, opinions and limits in creating a structure that people will exist in, move through, and use. Elements in designing a building include factors such as volume and surface, light and form changes of scale and view, movement and stasis. Some of the other factors are functions and physical conditions of construction. Based on experience, intuition, and boundaries, an architect will utilize all elements in creating a new building. In general, the design process begins with studying the spatial needs which develop into an architectural program. A comprehensive and accurate architectural program is essential for having a successful building. The most attractive building which does not meet the functional needs of its users has failed at the primary reason for its existence. To have a good program an architect must have a full understanding of the daily functions that will take place in the building. The architectural program along with site characteristics are among a few of the important guidelines in studying the form, adjacencies, and circulation for the structure itself and also in relation to the adjacent structures. Conceptual studies are part of the schematic design, which is the first milestone in the design process. The other reference points are design development and construction documents. At each milestone, review and coordination with all the consultants is established, and the user is essential in refining the project. In design development phase, conceptual diagrams take shape, and architectural, structural, mechanical, and electrical systems are developed. The final phase construction documents convey all the information required to construct the building. The design process and elements

  11. GridOPTICS(TM): A Design for Plug-and-Play Smart Grid Software Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2012-06-03

    As the smart grid becomes reality, software architectures for integrating legacy systems with new innovative approaches for grid management are needed. These architectures must exhibit flexibility, extensibility, interoperability and scalability. In this position paper, we describe our preliminary work to design such an architecture, known as GridOPTICS, that will enable the deployment and integration of new software tools in smart grid operations. Our preliminary design is based upon use cases from PNNL’s Future Power Grid Initiative, which is a developing a collection of advanced software technologies for smart grid management and control. We describe the motivations for GridOPTICS, and the preliminary design that we are currently prototyping for several distinct use cases.

  12. Design of half and full optical binary adders using the polarization optical processor architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Y. A.; Zaghloul, A. R. M.; Adibi, A.

    2007-09-01

    We recently developed and patented the polarization optical processor (POP) and its architecture. It can be used to implement all types of digital binary devices, current and future. Binary adders are used to add binary numbers, as their names suggest. In this paper, we present the design of half and full optical binary adders using the POP architecture. A clear, simple, and easy-to-follow step-by-step design procedure is provided along with an explanation of the operation of each optical adder as a simulated bullet-train moving at the speed of light on an input-controlled preconfigured railroad system, which simplifies the understanding of the system operation.

  13. Embodiment and enculturation: the future of architectural design.

    PubMed

    Mallgrave, Harry F

    2015-01-01

    A half-century ago the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck encouraged designers to think about "space and time" not as abstractions in themselves but rather as cultural events better approached through the medium of "place and occasion." Van Eyck made this point on the basis of his own travels and through his extensive readings in cultural anthropology, and his prescience is only now acquiring the credibility that it deserves through the work of a multitude of interdisciplinary researchers. Phenomenologists argue that we are embodied organisms-acting-within-environments, and these inhabiting abodes are constructed of both material and cultural dimensions. We are thus preeminently social in our range of self-consciousness, and intensely ceremonial in every facet of our being. Evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists are currently locating the origin and development of our most basic social behaviors far in our pre-human past; neuroscientists are today modeling our social circuits in the deepest reaches of our brains. Architecture would gain much from an updated cultural theory grounded in these new models of human existence.

  14. Embodiment and enculturation: the future of architectural design

    PubMed Central

    Mallgrave, Harry F.

    2015-01-01

    A half-century ago the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck encouraged designers to think about “space and time” not as abstractions in themselves but rather as cultural events better approached through the medium of “place and occasion.” Van Eyck made this point on the basis of his own travels and through his extensive readings in cultural anthropology, and his prescience is only now acquiring the credibility that it deserves through the work of a multitude of interdisciplinary researchers. Phenomenologists argue that we are embodied organisms-acting-within-environments, and these inhabiting abodes are constructed of both material and cultural dimensions. We are thus preeminently social in our range of self-consciousness, and intensely ceremonial in every facet of our being. Evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists are currently locating the origin and development of our most basic social behaviors far in our pre-human past; neuroscientists are today modeling our social circuits in the deepest reaches of our brains. Architecture would gain much from an updated cultural theory grounded in these new models of human existence. PMID:26441773

  15. Designing an artificial pancreas architecture: the AP@home experience.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, Giordano; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Del Favero, Simone; Magni, Lalo; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-12-01

    The latest achievements in sensor technologies for blood glucose level monitoring, pump miniaturization for insulin delivery, and the availability of portable computing devices are paving the way toward the artificial pancreas as a treatment for diabetes patients. This device encompasses a controller unit that oversees the administration of insulin micro-boluses and continuously drives the pump based on blood glucose readings acquired in real time. In order to foster the research on the artificial pancreas and prepare for its adoption as a therapy, the European Union in 2010 funded the AP@home project, following a series of efforts already ongoing in the USA. This paper, authored by members of the AP@home consortium, reports on the technical issues concerning the design and implementation of an architecture supporting the exploitation of an artificial pancreas platform. First a PC-based platform was developed by the authors to prove the effectiveness and reliability of the algorithms responsible for insulin administration. A mobile-based one was then adopted to improve the comfort for the patients. Both platforms were tested on real patients, and a description of the goals, the achievements, and the major shortcomings that emerged during those trials is also reported in the paper.

  16. Using an Integrated Distributed Test Architecture to Develop an Architecture for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Othon, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The creation of a crew-rated spacecraft architecture capable of sending humans to Mars requires the development and integration of multiple vehicle systems and subsystems. Important new technologies will be identified and matured within each technical discipline to support the mission. Architecture maturity also requires coordination with mission operations elements and ground infrastructure. During early architecture formulation, many of these assets will not be co-located and will required integrated, distributed test to show that the technologies and systems are being developed in a coordinated way. When complete, technologies must be shown to function together to achieve mission goals. In this presentation, an architecture will be described that promotes and advances integration of disparate systems within JSC and across NASA centers.

  17. Architecture-Centric Development in Globally Distributed Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Joachim

    In this chapter architecture-centric development is proposed as a means to strengthen the cohesion of distributed teams and to tackle challenges due to geographical and temporal distances and the clash of different cultures. A shared software architecture serves as blueprint for all activities in the development process and ties them together. Architecture-centric development thus provides a plan for task allocation, facilitates the cooperation of globally distributed developers, and enables continuous integration reaching across distributed teams. Advice is also provided for software architects who work with distributed teams in an agile manner.

  18. Evaluation of Computer-Aided System Design Tools for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Battle Management/C3 (Command, Control and Communications) Architecture Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    able to create such annotations as a designer recognizes a technical issue or trade-off, or makes a decision that should be recorded. It is also...complexity, and the interests and technical knowledge of different reviewers, call for a means to easily produce non-standard reports on a system design... technical matters of protection, coordination, and integration of design content. Protection involves shared, but protected access to parts of a system under

  19. Studio Design Work in First Year Architectural Education. Advisory Centre Occasional Papers in University Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Philip George Brian

    A course for first-year architectural students is described. The approach concentrated on developing an understanding of the nature of design activity through exploration of the kind of thinking that may be applied in order to improve the first-year studio work. The course is based on the following premises: (1) it is possible and educationally…

  20. Architectural Design Drives the Biogeography of Indoor Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Timothy K.; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Northcutt, Dale; Kline, Jeff; Moriyama, Maxwell; Brown, G. Z.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Green, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Architectural design has the potential to influence the microbiology of the built environment, with implications for human health and well-being, but the impact of design on the microbial biogeography of buildings remains poorly understood. In this study we combined microbiological data with information on the function, form, and organization of spaces from a classroom and office building to understand how design choices influence the biogeography of the built environment microbiome. Results Sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene from dust samples revealed that indoor bacterial communities were extremely diverse, containing more than 32,750 OTUs (operational taxonomic units, 97% sequence similarity cutoff), but most communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deinococci. Architectural design characteristics related to space type, building arrangement, human use and movement, and ventilation source had a large influence on the structure of bacterial communities. Restrooms contained bacterial communities that were highly distinct from all other rooms, and spaces with high human occupant diversity and a high degree of connectedness to other spaces via ventilation or human movement contained a distinct set of bacterial taxa when compared to spaces with low occupant diversity and low connectedness. Within offices, the source of ventilation air had the greatest effect on bacterial community structure. Conclusions Our study indicates that humans have a guiding impact on the microbial biodiversity in buildings, both indirectly through the effects of architectural design on microbial community structure, and more directly through the effects of human occupancy and use patterns on the microbes found in different spaces and space types. The impact of design decisions in structuring the indoor microbiome offers the possibility to use ecological knowledge to shape our buildings in a way that will select for an indoor microbiome that promotes our

  1. Architectural design drives the biogeography of indoor bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Kembel, Steven W; Meadow, James F; O'Connor, Timothy K; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Northcutt, Dale; Kline, Jeff; Moriyama, Maxwell; Brown, G Z; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Green, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    Architectural design has the potential to influence the microbiology of the built environment, with implications for human health and well-being, but the impact of design on the microbial biogeography of buildings remains poorly understood. In this study we combined microbiological data with information on the function, form, and organization of spaces from a classroom and office building to understand how design choices influence the biogeography of the built environment microbiome. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene from dust samples revealed that indoor bacterial communities were extremely diverse, containing more than 32,750 OTUs (operational taxonomic units, 97% sequence similarity cutoff), but most communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deinococci. Architectural design characteristics related to space type, building arrangement, human use and movement, and ventilation source had a large influence on the structure of bacterial communities. Restrooms contained bacterial communities that were highly distinct from all other rooms, and spaces with high human occupant diversity and a high degree of connectedness to other spaces via ventilation or human movement contained a distinct set of bacterial taxa when compared to spaces with low occupant diversity and low connectedness. Within offices, the source of ventilation air had the greatest effect on bacterial community structure. Our study indicates that humans have a guiding impact on the microbial biodiversity in buildings, both indirectly through the effects of architectural design on microbial community structure, and more directly through the effects of human occupancy and use patterns on the microbes found in different spaces and space types. The impact of design decisions in structuring the indoor microbiome offers the possibility to use ecological knowledge to shape our buildings in a way that will select for an indoor microbiome that promotes our health and well-being.

  2. Architectural design and simulation of a virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, G.; Chu, Y.

    1971-01-01

    Virtual memory is an imaginary main memory with a very large capacity which the programmer has at his disposal. It greatly contributes to the solution of the dynamic storage allocation problem. The architectural design of a virtual memory is presented which implements by hardware the idea of queuing and scheduling the page requests to a paging drum in such a way that the access of the paging drum is increased many times. With the design, an increase of up to 16 times in page transfer rate is achievable when the virtual memory is heavily loaded. This in turn makes feasible a great increase in the system throughput.

  3. The Field Trip as Part of Spatial (Architectural) Design Art Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batic, Janja

    2011-01-01

    Spatial (architectural) design is one of five fields introduced to pupils as part of art education. In planning architectural design tasks, one should take into consideration the particularities of the architectural design process and enable pupils to experience space and relationships within space through their own movement. Furthermore, pupils…

  4. Do Performance-Based Codes Support Universal Design in Architecture?

    PubMed

    Grangaard, Sidse; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    The research project 'An analysis of the accessibility requirements' studies how Danish architectural firms experience the accessibility requirements of the Danish Building Regulations and it examines their opinions on how future regulative models can support innovative and inclusive design - Universal Design (UD). The empirical material consists of input from six workshops to which all 700 Danish Architectural firms were invited, as well as eight group interviews. The analysis shows that the current prescriptive requirements are criticized for being too homogenous and possibilities for differentiation and zoning are required. Therefore, a majority of professionals are interested in a performance-based model because they think that such a model will support 'accessibility zoning', achieving flexibility because of different levels of accessibility in a building due to its performance. The common understanding of accessibility and UD is directly related to buildings like hospitals and care centers. When the objective is both innovative and inclusive architecture, the request of a performance-based model should be followed up by a knowledge enhancement effort in the building sector. Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives is suggested as a tool for such a boost. The research project has been financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency.

  5. Development of three-dimensional nanoengineered architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Naomi

    2003-10-01

    Nanostructured arrays with feature sizes <100 nm are desirable for a wide variety of applications in the fields of optics and electronics. One limitation of traditional lithographic methods is that such small feature sizes are difficult to cost-effectively pattern at high throughputs. Consequently, it is very important to develop novel strategies for rapidly fabricating three-dimensional nanostructured arrays. True engineering of nanoscale architectures also requires the ability to control the material composition and the structural arrangement which, until now, has been limited. This thesis demonstrates two new high-throughput methods of three-dimensional nanostructured synthesis. These techniques yield large-area, array-type nanostructures with 2D and 3D periodicities, with feature sizes <100 nm. Specifically, 2D periodic air-hole arrays and 3D periodic ferroelectric inverse opal films are fabricated. In the first part of the thesis, 2D periodic, nanoporous arrays were fabricated for the first time using conventional, broad-beam ion implantation of heavy ions through self-organized, nanochannel alumina (NCA) templates. The significant features of this technique are that minimum feature sizes of ˜40 nm are achievable in a parallel process over a large area (˜cm 2) using a non-material specific process, with successful nanoscale patterning achieved in both single crystal InP and SrTiO3. In addition, this work represents the first study of the selective etch character of amorphous SrTiO3. The nanoengineering of complex profiles, including membrane structures, is also demonstrated using this novel technique. In the second part of the thesis, the first fabrication of 3D periodic, ferroelectric, BaTiO3 inverse opals, and a simple, adjustable process for the fabrication of large, high-quality, inverse opal ferroelectric films are reported. Highly ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr 0.3TiO3 (BST) inverse opal films were fabricated by spin-coating a sol

  6. A "Knowledge Trading Game" for Collaborative Design Learning in an Architectural Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wan-Ling; Shih, Shen-Guan; Chien, Sheng-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge-sharing and resource exchange are the key to the success of collaborative design learning. In an architectural design studio, design knowledge entails learning efforts that need to accumulate and recombine dispersed and complementary pieces of knowledge. In this research, firstly, "Knowledge Trading Game" is proposed to be a way for…

  7. A "Knowledge Trading Game" for Collaborative Design Learning in an Architectural Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wan-Ling; Shih, Shen-Guan; Chien, Sheng-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge-sharing and resource exchange are the key to the success of collaborative design learning. In an architectural design studio, design knowledge entails learning efforts that need to accumulate and recombine dispersed and complementary pieces of knowledge. In this research, firstly, "Knowledge Trading Game" is proposed to be a way for…

  8. Specification and Design of Electrical Flight System Architectures with SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKelvin, Mark L., Jr.; Jimenez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern space flight systems are required to perform more complex functions than previous generations to support space missions. This demand is driving the trend to deploy more electronics to realize system functionality. The traditional approach for the specification, design, and deployment of electrical system architectures in space flight systems includes the use of informal definitions and descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled but highly interdependent design documents. Traditional methods become inefficient to cope with increasing system complexity, evolving requirements, and the ability to meet project budget and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for more rigorous methods to capture the relevant information about the electrical system architecture as the design evolves. In this work, we propose a model-centric approach to support the specification and design of electrical flight system architectures using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In our approach, we develop a domain specific language for specifying electrical system architectures, and we propose a design flow for the specification and design of electrical interfaces. Our approach is applied to a practical flight system.

  9. Specification and Design of Electrical Flight System Architectures with SysML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKelvin, Mark L., Jr.; Jimenez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern space flight systems are required to perform more complex functions than previous generations to support space missions. This demand is driving the trend to deploy more electronics to realize system functionality. The traditional approach for the specification, design, and deployment of electrical system architectures in space flight systems includes the use of informal definitions and descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled but highly interdependent design documents. Traditional methods become inefficient to cope with increasing system complexity, evolving requirements, and the ability to meet project budget and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for more rigorous methods to capture the relevant information about the electrical system architecture as the design evolves. In this work, we propose a model-centric approach to support the specification and design of electrical flight system architectures using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In our approach, we develop a domain specific language for specifying electrical system architectures, and we propose a design flow for the specification and design of electrical interfaces. Our approach is applied to a practical flight system.

  10. The Specification of a Data Base Machine Architecture Development Facility and a Methodology for Developing Special Purpose Function Architectures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    LIUZ ZII UNCLASSIF71ED RAUC -TR-80-26 N RADC-TR40-256 In-Moure Report July 1980 THE SPECIFICATION OF A DATA BASE MACHINE ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPMENT...ROME AIR DEVELOPME14T CENTER GRIFFISS AFB NY F/6 9/2 THE SPECIFICATION OF A DATA BASE MACHINE ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPME--ETC(U) r UNCLASSIFIED RAUC -TB BR

  11. New paradigms in internal architecture design and freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dongjin

    2012-07-01

    Advanced additive manufacture (AM) techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled internal pore architectures in the field of tissue engineering. In general, these techniques use a hybrid method which combines computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to design and fabricate complicated three-dimensional (3D) scaffold models. The mathematical descriptions of micro-architectures along with the macro-structures of the 3D scaffold models are limited by current CAD technologies as well as by the difficulty of transferring the designed digital models to standard formats for fabrication. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an efficient internal pore architecture design system based on triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) unit cell libraries and associated computational methods to assemble TPMS unit cells into an entire scaffold model. In addition, we have developed a process planning technique based on TPMS internal architecture pattern of unit cells to generate tool paths for freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.

  12. Developing an Agent Systems Reference Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    The notion of a reference architecture has different meanings based on the view- points and concerns of the stakeholders. In this work, a reference...functional concept defined by the ASRM and further elaborating actors and invoca- tion points . The intended audience are high-level practitioners who need...execution. Figure 1(a) displays the temporal view of a scenario demonstrating the invocation points of the agent mobility functional con- cept. The

  13. FPGA wavelet processor design using language for instruction-set architectures (LISA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Vera, Alonzo; Rao, Suhasini; Lenk, Karl; Pattichis, Marios

    2007-04-01

    The design of an microprocessor is a long, tedious, and error-prone task consisting of typically three design phases: architecture exploration, software design (assembler, linker, loader, profiler), architecture implementation (RTL generation for FPGA or cell-based ASIC) and verification. The Language for instruction-set architectures (LISA) allows to model a microprocessor not only from instruction-set but also from architecture description including pipelining behavior that allows a design and development tool consistency over all levels of the design. To explore the capability of the LISA processor design platform a.k.a. CoWare Processor Designer we present in this paper three microprocessor designs that implement a 8/8 wavelet transform processor that is typically used in today's FBI fingerprint compression scheme. We have designed a 3 stage pipelined 16 bit RISC processor (NanoBlaze). Although RISC μPs are usually considered "fast" processors due to design concept like constant instruction word size, deep pipelines and many general purpose registers, it turns out that DSP operations consume essential processing time in a RISC processor. In a second step we have used design principles from programmable digital signal processor (PDSP) to improve the throughput of the DWT processor. A multiply-accumulate operation along with indirect addressing operation were the key to achieve higher throughput. A further improvement is possible with today's FPGA technology. Today's FPGAs offer a large number of embedded array multipliers and it is now feasible to design a "true" vector processor (TVP). A multiplication of two vectors can be done in just one clock cycle with our TVP, a complete scalar product in two clock cycles. Code profiling and Xilinx FPGA ISE synthesis results are provided that demonstrate the essential improvement that a TVP has compared with traditional RISC or PDSP designs.

  14. Exploiting Architectural Style to Develop a Family of Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    constraint manager with the architecture. The library of KLAX components created in the process of including SkyBlue and Amulet is described in Section VII...reused in applications designed in accordance with the C2 software architectural style. The exercises involved the reuse of SkyBlue and Amulet ???s one-way...was the case with both SkyBlue and Amulet . • If the OTS component is implemented in a programming language different from that of other components in

  15. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... architectural quality. Development must maintain a uniformly high standard of architecture, representative of... architectural treatment of new buildings, particularly in terms of massing, facade design (including...

  16. Space Station Freedom vibroacoustic monitoring system design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengel, Robert C., Jr.

    Requirements established by NASA's Man-Systems Division provide for a means to measure and verify vibroacoustic levels that are within specifications and do not exceed crewmember exposure limits in which an astronaut lives and works. Development has been initiated of a vibroacoustic monitoring system (VAMS) and a crew health care subsystem to serve this purpose. VAMS operational and performance requirements, space vehicle requirements, and signal processing requirements are described, as well as the present system concept architecture.

  17. Evaluation of computer-aided system design tools for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Battle Management/C3 (command, control and communications) architecture development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, D.W.; Campbell, K.; Chludzinski, J.; Corcoran, N.; Gonzalez, C.

    1987-10-01

    This IDA paper was prepared at the request of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The paper documents findings of an evaluation on the capabilities of certain computer software/computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools to provide computer-aided graphic design of Battle Management/C3 for the SDIO. Each tool (of the five selected on the basis of the best available at this time), was installed at IDA. After training by vendor tool staff, an IDA team, using a hands-on design experience determined the merits of the tools for SDI application. A comparative summary of the tools is given relative to envisaged SDI requirements and an extensive questionnaire is answered for each.

  18. Designing Crop Simulation Web Service with Service Oriented Architecture Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnachodteeranun, R.; Hung, N. D.; Honda, K.

    2015-12-01

    Crop simulation models are efficient tools for simulating crop growth processes and yield. Running crop models requires data from various sources as well as time-consuming data processing, such as data quality checking and data formatting, before those data can be inputted to the model. It makes the use of crop modeling limited only to crop modelers. We aim to make running crop models convenient for various users so that the utilization of crop models will be expanded, which will directly improve agricultural applications. As the first step, we had developed a prototype that runs DSSAT on Web called as Tomorrow's Rice (v. 1). It predicts rice yields based on a planting date, rice's variety and soil characteristics using DSSAT crop model. A user only needs to select a planting location on the Web GUI then the system queried historical weather data from available sources and expected yield is returned. Currently, we are working on weather data connection via Sensor Observation Service (SOS) interface defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Weather data can be automatically connected to a weather generator for generating weather scenarios for running the crop model. In order to expand these services further, we are designing a web service framework consisting of layers of web services to support compositions and executions for running crop simulations. This framework allows a third party application to call and cascade each service as it needs for data preparation and running DSSAT model using a dynamic web service mechanism. The framework has a module to manage data format conversion, which means users do not need to spend their time curating the data inputs. Dynamic linking of data sources and services are implemented using the Service Component Architecture (SCA). This agriculture web service platform demonstrates interoperability of weather data using SOS interface, convenient connections between weather data sources and weather generator, and connecting

  19. Agile Development and Software Architecture: Understanding Scale and Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    In a Scrum project environment, the architectural runway may be established during Sprint 0. Sprint 0 might have a longer duration than the rest of...architecture In its simplest instantiation, a Scrum development environment consists of: • a single co-located, cross-functional team • with skills...cause analysis: Typical problem 1 Symptom • Scrum teams spend almost all of their time fixing defects, and new feature development is continuously

  20. Vectorized program architectures for supercomputer-aided circuit design

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzoli, V.; Ferlito, M.; Neri, A.

    1986-01-01

    Vector processors (supercomputers) can be effectively employed in MIC or MMIC applications to solve problems of large numerical size such as broad-band nonlinear design or statistical design (yield optimization). In order to fully exploit the capabilities of a vector hardware, any program architecture must be structured accordingly. This paper presents a possible approach to the ''semantic'' vectorization of microwave circuit design software. Speed-up factors of the order of 50 can be obtained on a typical vector processor (Cray X-MP), with respect to the most powerful scaler computers (CDC 7600), with cost reductions of more than one order of magnitude. This could broaden the horizon of microwave CAD techniques to include problems that are practically out of the reach of conventional systems.

  1. Developing traveler information systems using the National ITS Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The document focuses on traveler information systems, a component of ITS. It aims to provide practical help for the transportation community with deploying traveler information systems in an integrated, multimodal environment using the National ITS Architecture. ITS is the application of management strategies and technologies to increase the efficiency and safety of national, regional, and local surface transportation systems. This document covers the basics of traveler information ITS applications (including public-private partnerships), the role the National ITS Architecture can play in traveler information system project development, the development process for a regional architecture, some challenges faced by transportation management agencies, and some best practices and lessons learned for developing and deploying advanced traveler information systems. The regional architecture will indicate how current and future systems in the region may be integrated to obtain the added benefits available through integration of these systems.

  2. Design, Development and Pre-Flight Testing of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (Connect) to Investigate Software Defined Radio Architecture on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    The Communication Navigation and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) is a NASA-sponsored mission, which will investigate the usage of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) as a multi-function communication system for space missions. A softwaredefined radio system is a communication system in which typical components of the system (e.g., modulators) are incorporated into software. The software-defined capability allows flexibility and experimentation in different modulation, coding and other parameters to understand their effects on performance. This flexibility builds inherent redundancy and flexibility into the system for improved operational efficiency, real-time changes to space missions and enhanced reliability/redundancy. The CoNNeCT Project is a collaboration between industrial radio providers and NASA. The industrial radio providers are providing the SDRs and NASA is designing, building and testing the entire flight system. The flight system will be integrated on the Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the International Space Station (ISS) after launch on the H-IIB Transfer Vehicle in 2012. This paper provides an overview of the technology research objectives, payload description, design challenges and pre-flight testing results.

  3. Wayfinding for people with dementia: a review of the role of architectural design.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Gesine

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the available literature on architectural wayfinding design for people with dementia in nursing homes. The results were to be summarized and substantiated through an interdisciplinary interpretation, taking into account changes in the orientation process of people with dementia. Spatial disorientation and declining wayfinding abilities are among the early symptoms of dementia, limiting a person's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) independently and ultimately, perhaps leading to institutionalization. A prerequisite to maintaining residents' quality of life in a nursing home is their ability to orient themselves within their new environment. The available literature on wayfinding design for people with dementia in nursing homes was reviewed. Two aspects of interventions for residents' wayfinding abilities were identified: the design of the floor plan typology and environmental cues. The design of the physical environment plays a major role in supporting the wayfinding abilities of people with dementia. The floor plan design of a nursing home in particular has a significant influence on residents' spatial orientation and wayfinding. Additional interventions such as signage, furnishing, lighting, and colors are additional supporting features but they cannot compensate for an adverse architectural design. For the creation of a supportive, dementia-friendly environment, both aspects of architectural design must be considered. Design guidelines to support the wayfinding abilities of people with dementia were developed to synthesize both.

  4. On the Design of a Comprehensive Authorisation Framework for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    20 4.1 Business Processes Authorisation Architecture (BPAA) ................................. 21 4.2 Design...of the Architecture .................................................................................... 21 4.2.1 System Components... 21 4.2.2 Business Process Definition and Administration ............................. 22

  5. Explorations in Teaching Sustainable Design: A Studio Experience in Interior Design/Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a design studio can be a dynamic medium to explore the creative potential of the complexity of sustainability from its technological to social ends. The study seeks to determine the impact of an interior design/architecture studio experience that was initiated to teach diverse meanings of sustainability and to engage the…

  6. Explorations in Teaching Sustainable Design: A Studio Experience in Interior Design/Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a design studio can be a dynamic medium to explore the creative potential of the complexity of sustainability from its technological to social ends. The study seeks to determine the impact of an interior design/architecture studio experience that was initiated to teach diverse meanings of sustainability and to engage the…

  7. High-Resolution Laser Scanning Reveals Plant Architectures that Reflect Universal Network Design Principles.

    PubMed

    Conn, Adam; Pedmale, Ullas V; Chory, Joanne; Navlakha, Saket

    2017-07-26

    Transport networks serve critical functions in biological and engineered systems, and yet their design requires trade-offs between competing objectives. Due to their sessile lifestyle, plants need to optimize their architecture to efficiently acquire and distribute resources while also minimizing costs in building infrastructure. To understand how plants resolve this design trade-off, we used high-precision three-dimensional laser scanning to map the architectures of tomato, tobacco, or sorghum plants grown in several environmental conditions and through multiple developmental time points, scanning in total 505 architectures from 37 plants. Using a graph-theoretic algorithm that we developed to evaluate design strategies, we find that plant architectures lie along the Pareto front between two simple length-based objectives-minimizing total branch length and minimizing nutrient transport distance-thereby conferring a selective fitness advantage for plant transport processes. The location along the Pareto front can distinguish among species and conditions, suggesting that during evolution, natural selection may employ common network design principles despite different optimization trade-offs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A spatially augmented reality sketching interface for architectural daylighting design.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yu; Yapo, Theodore C; Young, Christopher; Cutler, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of interactive global illumination and spatially augmented reality to architectural daylight modeling that allows designers to explore alternative designs and new technologies for improving the sustainability of their buildings. Images of a model in the real world, captured by a camera above the scene, are processed to construct a virtual 3D model. To achieve interactive rendering rates, we use a hybrid rendering technique, leveraging radiosity to simulate the interreflectance between diffuse patches and shadow volumes to generate per-pixel direct illumination. The rendered images are then projected on the real model by four calibrated projectors to help users study the daylighting illumination. The virtual heliodon is a physical design environment in which multiple designers, a designer and a client, or a teacher and students can gather to experience animated visualizations of the natural illumination within a proposed design by controlling the time of day, season, and climate. Furthermore, participants may interactively redesign the geometry and materials of the space by manipulating physical design elements and see the updated lighting simulation. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  9. A hybrid framework for design and analysis of fault-tolerant architectures for nanoscale molecular crossbar memories.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, P. S.; Gokhale, M.; Bhaduri, D.; Shukla, S. K.; Coker, D.; Taylor, V.

    2005-01-01

    It is anticipated that self assembled ultra-dense nanomemories will be more susceptible to manufacturing defects and transient faults than conventional CMOS-based memories, thus the need exists for fault-tolerant memory architectures. The development of such architectures will require intense analysis in terms of achievable performance measures - power dissipation, area, delay and reliability. In this paper, we propose and develop a hybrid automation framework, called HMAN, that aids the design and analysis of fault-tolerant architectures for nanomemories. Our framework can analyze memory architectures at two different levels of the design abstraction, namely the system and circuit levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such attempt at analyzing memory systems at different levels of abstraction and then correlating the different performance measures to provide the system designers guidelines for designing a robust nanomemory. We also illustrate the application of our framework to self-assembled crossbar architectures by analyzing a hierarchical fault-tolerant crossbar-based memory architecture that we have developed, and comparing this with existing crossbar architectures.

  10. A new architecture for hyperspectral image processing and analysis system: design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianlin; Hu, Xingtang; Zhang, Bing; Ning, Shunian

    2003-09-01

    A new architecture for HIPAS (Hyperspectral Image Processing and Analysis System V2.0) was introduced in this paper which was modified and improved based on the first version of HIPAS V1.0. The comprehensive hyperspectral image analyzing system has been developed under VC++6.0 integrated development environment (IDE) and obtained perfect runtime efficiency and stability. The base architecture was specially designed and implemented to meet the requirements for the rapid preprocessing of imaging spectrometer data and easy prototyping of algorithms. Based on the modularized and object oriented software engineering construction, the architecture is compatible for other UNIX platforms with little modification. The most important components of HIPAS were presented in this paper including tools for input/output, preprocessing, data visualization, information extraction, conventional image analysis, advanced tools, and integrated interface to connect with general spectral databases. Some new methodologies for data analysis and processing were realized and applied to reach some valuable results based on the architecture including mineral identification, agriculture investigation, urban mapping etc. With an open storage architecture, HIPAS is entirely compatible with some advanced special commercial software such as ENVI and ERDAS and even the common image processing system Photoshop. At last, a strict and careful software test was carried out and the results were also analyzed and discussed.

  11. On the design of a generic and scalable multilayer software architecture for data flow management in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Decruyenaere, J; De Turck, F; Vanhastel, S; Vandermeulen, F; Demeester, P; de Moor, G

    2003-01-01

    The current Intensive Care Information Systems (IC-ISs) collect and store monitoring data in on automated way and can replace all paper forms by an electronic equivalent, resulting in a paperless ICU. Future development of IC-ISs will now have to focus on bedside clinical decision support. The current IC-ISs are data-driven systems, with a two-layer software architecture. This software architecture is hardly maintainable and probably not the most optimal architecture to make the transition towards future systems with-decision support. The aim of this research was to address the design of an alternative software architecture based on new paradigms. State-of-the art component, middleware and agent technology were deployed to design and implement a software architecture for ICU data flow management. An advanced multi-layer architecture for efficient data flow management in the ICU has been designed. The architecture is both generic and scalable, which means that it neither depends on a particular ICU nor on the deployed monitoring devices. Automatic device detection and Graphical User Interface generation are taken into account. Furthermore, a demonstrator has been developed as a proof that the proposed conceptual software architecture is feasible in practice. The core of the new architecture consists of Bed Decision Agents (BDAs). The introduction of BDAs, who perform specific dedicated tasks, improves the adaptability and maintainability of the future very complex IC-ISs. A software architecture, based on component, middleware and agent technology, is feasible and offers important advantages over the currently used two-layer software architecture.

  12. Critical early mission design considerations for lunar data systems architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Stephens, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines recent early mission design activites for a lunar data systems architecture. Each major functional element is shown to be strikingly similar when viewed in a common reference system. While this similarity probably deviates with lower levels of decomposition, the sub-functions can always be arranged into similar and dissimilar categories. Similar functions can be implemented as objects - implemented once and reused several times like today's advanced integrated circuits. This approach to mission data systems, applied to other NASA programs, may result in substantial agency implementation and maintenance savings. In today's zero-sum-game budgetary environment, this approach could help to enable a lunar exploration program in the next decade. Several early mission studies leading to such an object-oriented data systems design are recommended.

  13. Critical early mission design considerations for lunar data systems architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Stephens, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines recent early mission design activites for a lunar data systems architecture. Each major functional element is shown to be strikingly similar when viewed in a common reference system. While this similarity probably deviates with lower levels of decomposition, the sub-functions can always be arranged into similar and dissimilar categories. Similar functions can be implemented as objects - implemented once and reused several times like today's advanced integrated circuits. This approach to mission data systems, applied to other NASA programs, may result in substantial agency implementation and maintenance savings. In today's zero-sum-game budgetary environment, this approach could help to enable a lunar exploration program in the next decade. Several early mission studies leading to such an object-oriented data systems design are recommended.

  14. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  15. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  16. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars1 left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper addresses the space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations, and describes how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.

  17. Software development strategies for parallel computer architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Ralf; Cooper, W. Anthony; Beniston, Martin; Gengler, Marc; Merazzi, Silvio

    1991-09-01

    As pragmatic users of high performance supercomputers, we believe that nowadays parallel computer architectures with disturbed memories are not yet mature to be used by a wide range of application engineers. A big effort should be made to bring these very promising computers closer to the users. One major flaw of massively parallel machines is that the programmer has to take care himself of the data flow which is often different on different parallel computers. To overcome this problem, we propose that data structures be standardized. The data base then can become an integrated part of the system and the data flow for a given algorithm can be easily prescribed. Fixing data structures forces the computer manufacturer to rather adapt his machine to user's demands and not, as it happens now, the user has to adapt to the innovative computer science approach of the computer manufacturer. In this paper, we present data standards chosen for our ASTRID programming platform for research scientist and engineers, as well as a plasma physics application which won the Cray Gigaflop Performance Awards 1989 and 1990 and which was succesfully ported on an INTEL iPSC/2 hypercube.

  18. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  19. Architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dvoskin, Joel A; Radomski, Steven J; Bennett, Charles; Olin, Jonathan A; Hawkins, Robert L; Dotson, Linda A; Drewnicky, Irene N

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital. The project combined input from staff at all levels of the client organization, outside consultants, and a team of experienced architects. The design team was able to create a design that maximized patient dignity and privacy on one hand, and the ability of staff to observe all patient activity on the other. The design centers around 24-bed units, broken into smaller living wings of eight beds each. Each eight-bed living wing has its own private bathrooms (two) and showers (two), as well as a small living area solely reserved for these eight patients and their guests. An indoor-outdoor dayroom allows patients to go outside whenever they choose, while allowing staff to continue observing them. The heart of the facility is a large treatment mall, designed to foster the acquisition of social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral skills that will help patients to safely return to their communities.

  20. Overview and Software Architecture of the Copernicus Trajectory Design and Optimization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jacob; Senent, Juan S.; Ocampo, Cesar; Mathur, Ravi; Davis, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    The Copernicus Trajectory Design and Optimization System represents an innovative and comprehensive approach to on-orbit mission design, trajectory analysis and optimization. Copernicus integrates state of the art algorithms in optimization, interactive visualization, spacecraft state propagation, and data input-output interfaces, allowing the analyst to design spacecraft missions to all possible Solar System destinations. All of these features are incorporated within a single architecture that can be used interactively via a comprehensive GUI interface, or passively via external interfaces that execute batch processes. This paper describes the Copernicus software architecture together with the challenges associated with its implementation. Additionally, future development and planned new capabilities are discussed. Key words: Copernicus, Spacecraft Trajectory Optimization Software.

  1. The Architecture of Professional Development: Materials, Messages and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeson, Paul V.

    2002-01-01

    As an aesthetic form, architecture deals with the creation and definition of space expressed in buildings and other physical structures. The Colosseum in Rome, Notre Dame in Paris, and the United States capital in Washington, through their designs define space, capture our imagination, and communicate important cultural and historical messages.…

  2. Bauhaus, Crown Hall, FAU: A Comparative Investigation of the Curriculum Design in Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulrooney, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    One of the central themes addressed by this paper is the design of the curriculum for architectural education using three schools of architecture: the Bauhaus in Dessau, Crown Hall in Chicago and the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism (FAU) in Sao Paulo. It also reflects on the practices in other schools such as Frank Lloyd Wright's Taliesin…

  3. An architecture for designing fuzzy logic controllers using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture for designing fuzzy controllers through a hierarchical process of control rule acquisition and by using special classes of neural network learning techniques. A new method for learning to refine a fuzzy logic controller is introduced. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multi-layer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The model learns by updating its prediction of the plant's behavior and is related to the Sutton's Temporal Difference (TD) method. The method proposed here has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine-tuning it through the process of learning. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  4. Geometric constraints for shape and topology optimization in architectural design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapogny, Charles; Faure, Alexis; Michailidis, Georgios; Allaire, Grégoire; Couvelas, Agnes; Estevez, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    This work proposes a shape and topology optimization framework oriented towards conceptual architectural design. A particular emphasis is put on the possibility for the user to interfere on the optimization process by supplying information about his personal taste. More precisely, we formulate three novel constraints on the geometry of shapes; while the first two are mainly related to aesthetics, the third one may also be used to handle several fabrication issues that are of special interest in the device of civil structures. The common mathematical ingredient to all three models is the signed distance function to a domain, and its sensitivity analysis with respect to perturbations of this domain; in the present work, this material is extended to the case where the ambient space is equipped with an anisotropic metric tensor. Numerical examples are discussed in two and three space dimensions.

  5. Geometric constraints for shape and topology optimization in architectural design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapogny, Charles; Faure, Alexis; Michailidis, Georgios; Allaire, Grégoire; Couvelas, Agnes; Estevez, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    This work proposes a shape and topology optimization framework oriented towards conceptual architectural design. A particular emphasis is put on the possibility for the user to interfere on the optimization process by supplying information about his personal taste. More precisely, we formulate three novel constraints on the geometry of shapes; while the first two are mainly related to aesthetics, the third one may also be used to handle several fabrication issues that are of special interest in the device of civil structures. The common mathematical ingredient to all three models is the signed distance function to a domain, and its sensitivity analysis with respect to perturbations of this domain; in the present work, this material is extended to the case where the ambient space is equipped with an anisotropic metric tensor. Numerical examples are discussed in two and three space dimensions.

  6. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  7. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  8. Functional Architecture of the Retina: Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoon, Mrinalini; Okawa, Haruhisa; Santina, Luca Della; Wong, Rachel O.L.

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function are highly correlated in the vertebrate retina, a sensory tissue that is organized into cell layers with microcircuits working in parallel and together to encode visual information. All vertebrate retinas share a fundamental plan, comprising five major neuronal cell classes with cell body distributions and connectivity arranged in stereotypic patterns. Conserved features in retinal design have enabled detailed analysis and comparisons of structure, connectivity and function across species. Each species, however, can adopt structural and/or functional retinal specializations, implementing variations to the basic design in order to satisfy unique requirements in visual function. Recent advances in molecular tools, imaging and electrophysiological approaches have greatly facilitated identification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that establish the fundamental organization of the retina and the specializations of its microcircuits during development. Here, we review advances in our understanding of how these mechanisms act to shape structure and function at the single cell level, to coordinate the assembly of cell populations, and to define their specific circuitry. We also highlight how structure is rearranged and function is disrupted in disease, and discuss current approaches to re-establish the intricate functional architecture of the retina. PMID:24984227

  9. Approach for Mitigating Pressure Garment Design Risks in a Mobile Lunar Surface Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The stated goals of the 2004 Vision for Space Exploration focus on establishing a human presence throughout the solar system beginning with the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. However, the precise objectives to be accomplished on the lunar surface and the optimal system architecture to achieve those objectives have been a topic of much debate since the inception of the Constellation Program. There are two basic styles of system architectures being traded at the Programmatic level: a traditional large outpost that would focus on techniques for survival off our home planet and a greater depth of exploration within one area, or a mobile approach- akin to a series of nomadic camps- that would allow greater breadth of exploration opportunities. The traditional outpost philosophy is well within the understood pressure garment design space with respect to developing interfaces and operational life cycle models. The mobile outpost, however, combines many unknowns with respect to pressure garment performance and reliability that could dramatically affect the cost and schedule risks associated with the Constellation space suit system. This paper provides an overview of the concepts being traded for a mobile architecture from the operations and hardware implementation perspective, describes the primary risks to the Constellation pressure garment associated with each of the concepts, and summarizes the approach necessary to quantify the pressure garment design risks to enable the Constellation Program to make informed decisions when deciding on an overall lunar surface systems architecture.

  10. Approach for Mitigating Pressure Garment Design Risks in a Mobile Lunar Surface Systems Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The stated goals of the 2004 Vision for Space Exploration focus on establishing a human presence throughout the solar system beginning with the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. However, the precise objectives to be accomplished on the lunar surface and the optimal system architecture to achieve those objectives have been a topic of much debate since the inception of the Constellation Program. There are two basic styles of system architectures being traded at the Programmatic level: a traditional large outpost that would focus on techniques for survival off our home planet and a greater depth of exploration within one area, or a mobile approach- akin to a series of nomadic camps- that would allow greater breadth of exploration opportunities. The traditional outpost philosophy is well within the understood pressure garment design space with respect to developing interfaces and operational life cycle models. The mobile outpost, however, combines many unknowns with respect to pressure garment performance and reliability that could dramatically affect the cost and schedule risks associated with the Constellation space suit system. This paper provides an overview of the concepts being traded for a mobile architecture from the operations and hardware implementation perspective, describes the primary risks to the Constellation pressure garment associated with each of the concepts, and summarizes the approach necessary to quantify the pressure garment design risks to enable the Constellation Program to make informed decisions when deciding on an overall lunar surface systems architecture.

  11. Design of silicon brains in the nano-CMOS era: spiking neurons, learning synapses and neural architecture optimization.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Andrew S; Georgiou, Julius; Andreou, Andreas G

    2013-09-01

    We present a design framework for neuromorphic architectures in the nano-CMOS era. Our approach to the design of spiking neurons and STDP learning circuits relies on parallel computational structures where neurons are abstracted as digital arithmetic logic units and communication processors. Using this approach, we have developed arrays of silicon neurons that scale to millions of neurons in a single state-of-the-art Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). We demonstrate the validity of the design methodology through the implementation of cortical development in a circuit of spiking neurons, STDP synapses, and neural architecture optimization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GNC Architecture Design for ARES Simulation. Revision 3.0. Revision 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the GNC architecture and associated interfaces for all ARES simulations. Establishing a common architecture facilitates development across the ARES simulations and provides an efficient mechanism for creating an end-to-end simulation capability. In general, the GNC architecture is the frame work in which all GNC development takes place, including sensor and effector models. All GNC software applications have a standard location within the architecture making integration easier and, thus more efficient.

  13. Architecture and systems design of a reusable Martian twin rotor tailsitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Lappas, Vaios J.

    2012-11-01

    A rapidly developing field is that of tailsitters, aircraft capable of transitioning between horizontal and vertical flight, a premise that supports a diverse range of applications. Tailsitters can effortlessly land and hover at will, yet can also move at high speed between destinations making them ideal in undertaking 'multiple missions to land at multiple destinations far apart'. This paper considers how the concept of twin helicopter rotor tailsitters, such as QinetiQ's Eye-OnTM, can be adapted for use in a Martian environment. The mission architecture and system requirements for both reusable and single-use tailsitters are considered and 12 disparate subsystems or fields (including propulsion, power and aerodynamics) are designed using a high-level systems approach. The resulting tailsitter is capable of covering 100km and 450km in reusable and single-use architectures respectively. A docking station is also designed utilising a four stage process for deployment of the tailsitter.

  14. Influence of School Architecture and Design on Healthy Eating: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew J.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Tibbits, Melissa; Huang, Terry T.-K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined evidence regarding the influence of school physical environment on healthy-eating outcomes. We applied a systems perspective to examine multiple disciplines’ theoretical frameworks and used a mixed-methods systematic narrative review method, considering both qualitative and quantitative sources (published through March 2014) for inclusion. We developed a causal loop diagram from 102 sources identified. We found evidence of the influence of many aspects of a school’s physical environment on healthy-eating outcomes. The causal loop diagram highlights multilevel and interrelated factors and elucidates the specific roles of design and architecture in encouraging healthy eating within schools. Our review highlighted the gaps in current evidence and identified areas of research needed to refine and expand school architecture and design strategies for addressing healthy eating. PMID:25713964

  15. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

  16. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

  17. Exploration Space Suit Architecture and Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Korona, F. Adam; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars [1] left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will address the space suit system architecture and technologies required based upon human exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) destinations, and describe how they should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program.1, 2, 3 In looking forward to future US space exploration to a space suit architecture with maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, a series of exercises and analyses have provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program (CxP) space suit architecture is postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions4. The destination environmental analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit (LEO). Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and non-environmental design drivers that will become increasingly important the farther away from Earth humans venture. This paper demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, independent of any particular program, and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of need dates for any particular crewed flight program in the future. The approach to space suit design and interface definition discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  18. Architecture-Based Refinements for Secure Computer Systems Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In recent years, security has been a growing concern in software engineering research, especially software architecture research. In IEEE/ANSI 830...1993, security is defined as one of the thirteen non-functional (or quality) requirements ( NFRs ) that must be included in the software requirements... software and thus cannot be presented in software architecture as components or functions offered by the system [2]. The overall software architecture

  19. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B; Wilson, Thomas S; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewicki, James P

    2016-06-15

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. The ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.

  20. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewicki, James P.

    2016-06-15

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. As a result, the ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.

  1. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewicki, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. The ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices. PMID:27301435

  2. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewicki, James P.

    2016-06-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. The ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.

  3. The development of brain network architecture.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Lara M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Dijk, Sarai; Rijks, Yvonne; de Reus, Marcel A; Durston, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Brain connectivity shows protracted development throughout childhood and adolescence, and, as such, the topology of brain networks changes during this period. The complexity of these changes with development is reflected by regional differences in maturation. This study explored age-related changes in network topology and regional developmental patterns during childhood and adolescence. We acquired two sets of Diffusion Weighted Imaging-scans and anatomical T1-weighted scans. The first dataset included 85 typically developing individuals (53 males; 32 females), aged between 7 and 23 years and was acquired on a Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla scanner. A second dataset (N = 38) was acquired on a different (but identical) 1.5 T scanner and was used for independent replication of our results. We reconstructed whole brain networks using tractography. We operationalized fiber tract development as changes in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity with age. Most fibers showed maturational changes in mean and radial diffusivity values throughout childhood and adolescence, likely reflecting increasing white matter integrity. The largest age-related changes were observed in association fibers within and between the frontal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, there was a simultaneous age-related decrease in average path length (P < 0.0001), increase in node strength (P < 0.0001) as well as network clustering (P = 0.001), which may reflect fine-tuning of topological organization. These results suggest a sequential maturational model where connections between unimodal regions strengthen in childhood, followed by connections from these unimodal regions to association regions, while adolescence is characterized by the strengthening of connections between association regions within the frontal and parietal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 37:717-729, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  5. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  6. Green Architecture Approach on Mosque Design in Cipendawa Village, Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purisari, Rahma; Safitri, Ratna; Permanasari, Eka; Hendola, Feby

    2017-06-01

    Climate change has been a global concern as many buildings are constructed and maintained without considering environmental impacts. Global warming, flood and environmental damage have become everyday phenomena. Architecture plays a vital role to in shifting design paradigm green architecture that is sustainable and environmental friendly. This research-based design investigates the implementation of green architectural approach on a mosque design at a waqf land in Cipendawa Village, Cianjur. The site is located on the hill where water catchment is required. Green architecture approach is expected to minimize negative environmental impacts and provide solution for low budget mosque.

  7. Overview of Modular Design Strategy of the Shipping Container Architecture in Cold Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zexin; Mei, Hongyuan; Ni, Ruixian

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the shipping container architecture, as an emerging green building mode, has grown in popularity. In this article, we analyse the advantages of applying shipping container architecture in cold regions, such as shortening the construction cycle, saving construction materials, reducing energy consumption and adapting to diverse sites. Then we analyze the modular design strategy and the modular design strategy in architecture. In the end we introduce the modular design strategy of shipping container architecture in cold regions with the technology roadmap, classification and combination.

  8. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  9. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  10. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan; Hamaoui, Ronald; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith; Rustom, Khalid; Stuby, Rick; Kuran, Mohammad; Mark, Evlyn; Amarin, Ruba; Alatrash, Hussam; Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing

  11. Architectural acoustics to non acousticians: Prediction auralization in design and consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciao, Quinsan

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic theories and principals are not necessarily familiar to most of the parties closely related to architectural acoustic issues. For example, architects involved in building designs, occupant communicates involved in space improvements are often the clients of architectural acoustic consultants. On one hand they are responsible to make knowledgeable decisions, on the other hand they do not have time or interest to be systematically trained in acoustics principals and theories. Properly educating such clients is one of the challenges constantly faced by architectural acoustic consultants. Traditionally, consultants are tormented between two different approaches. One is to deeply educate clients in architectural acoustics. The other is to convince the clients to trust and leave the matter to experts. Neither has been satisfactory. The former is insufficient and inefficient to establish appreciation of practical results, while the lattter is resisted for lack of transparency. Thanks to the latest development of computing technologies, a new approach is available, which is to demonstrate the acoustic effects in audible media through auralization and prediction in conjunction with explanation of simple principles. This paper discusses this approach of client education in practices with case study examples.

  12. Advanced information processing system: The Army Fault-Tolerant Architecture detailed design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clasen, Robert J.; Harris, Chris H.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Nagle, Gail A.; Prizant, Mark J.; Treadwell, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The Army Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) is pursuing programs that would enable effective and efficient management of large amounts of situational data that occurs during tactical rotorcraft missions. The Computer Aided Low Altitude Night Helicopter Flight Program has identified automated Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance, Nap of the Earth (TF/TA, NOE) operation as key enabling technology for advanced tactical rotorcraft to enhance mission survivability and mission effectiveness. The processing of critical information at low altitudes with short reaction times is life-critical and mission-critical necessitating an ultra-reliable/high throughput computing platform for dependable service for flight control, fusion of sensor data, route planning, near-field/far-field navigation, and obstacle avoidance operations. To address these needs the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) is being designed and developed. This computer system is based upon the Fault Tolerant Parallel Processor (FTPP) developed by Charles Stark Draper Labs (CSDL). AFTA is hard real-time, Byzantine, fault-tolerant parallel processor which is programmed in the ADA language. This document describes the results of the Detailed Design (Phase 2 and 3 of a 3-year project) of the AFTA development. This document contains detailed descriptions of the program objectives, the TF/TA NOE application requirements, architecture, hardware design, operating systems design, systems performance measurements and analytical models.

  13. Using Model Based Systems Engineering and the Systems Modeling Language to Develop Space Mission Area Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND THE SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE TO DEVELOP SPACE MISSION AREA ARCHITECTURES by Dustin B. Jepperson September 2013...AND THE SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE TO DEVELOP SPACE MISSION AREA ARCHITECTURES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Dustin B. Jepperson 7. PERFORMING...Application Protocol 233 (AP233), Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF), Space Mission Area System Architecture (MASA), Overhead

  14. Design and construction principles in nature and architecture.

    PubMed

    Knippers, Jan; Speck, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This paper will focus on how the emerging scientific discipline of biomimetics can bring new insights into the field of architecture. An analysis of both architectural and biological methodologies will show important aspects connecting these two. The foundation of this paper is a case study of convertible structures based on elastic plant movements.

  15. Implementing Change in Architectural Design in Elementary School Art Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batic, Janja

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the effects of an action research project that aimed to improve the practice of teaching art in elementary schools in Slovenia. The specific focus was on the planning and execution of art tasks relating to architectural design. The planned improvements were based on the process of architectural design from…

  16. A Knowledge Conversion Model Based on the Cognitive Load Theory for Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Liao, Shin; Wen, Ming-Hui; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The education of architectural design requires balanced curricular arrangements of respectively theoretical knowledge and practical skills to really help students build their knowledge structures, particularly helping them in solving the problems of cognitive load. The purpose of this study is to establish an architectural design knowledge…

  17. Assessment Focus in Studio: What Is Most Prominent in Architecture, Art and Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de La Harpe, Barbara; Peterson, J. Fiona; Frankham, Noel; Zehner, Robert; Neale, Douglas; Musgrave, Elizabeth; McDermott, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    What can be learned about assessment from what educators in the creative practices focus their studio publications on? What should form the focus of assessment in architecture, art and design studios? In this article we draw on 118 journal articles on studio published over the last decade in three disciplines; architecture, art and design to…

  18. Implementing Change in Architectural Design in Elementary School Art Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batic, Janja

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the effects of an action research project that aimed to improve the practice of teaching art in elementary schools in Slovenia. The specific focus was on the planning and execution of art tasks relating to architectural design. The planned improvements were based on the process of architectural design from…

  19. Assessment Focus in Studio: What Is Most Prominent in Architecture, Art and Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de La Harpe, Barbara; Peterson, J. Fiona; Frankham, Noel; Zehner, Robert; Neale, Douglas; Musgrave, Elizabeth; McDermott, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    What can be learned about assessment from what educators in the creative practices focus their studio publications on? What should form the focus of assessment in architecture, art and design studios? In this article we draw on 118 journal articles on studio published over the last decade in three disciplines; architecture, art and design to…

  20. Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

  1. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) evolution for collaborative standards development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles Patrick; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Baldwin, Rusty; Orlovsky, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Tim

    2017-04-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) a technical Open Systems Architecture standard in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a modular decomposition (defining functions and behaviors) and associated key interfaces (physical and logical) for common multi-purpose architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and Communications. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The modular decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender reusable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces. To this end, SOSA will leverage existing standards as much as possible and evolve the SOSA architecture through modification, reuse, and enhancements to achieve C4ISR goals. This paper will present accomplishments over the first year of SOSA initiative.

  2. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B.; ...

    2016-06-15

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designedmore » for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. As a result, the ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.« less

  3. EChO fine guidance sensor design and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottensamer, Roland; Rataj, Miroslaw; Schrader, Jan-Rutger; Ferstl, Roman; Güdel, Manuel; Kerschbaum, Franz; Luntzer, Armin

    2014-08-01

    EChO, the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory, is an M-class candidate in the ESA Comic Vision programme. It will provide high resolution, multi-wavelength spectroscopic observations of exoplanets, measure their atmospheric composition, temperature and albedo. The scientific payload is a spectrometer covering the 0.4-11 micron waveband. High photometric stability over a time scale of about 10 hours is one of the most stringent requirements of the EChO mission. As a result, fine pointing stability relative to the host star is mandatory. This will be achieved through a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), a separate photometric channel that uses a fraction of the target star signal from the optical channel. The main task of the FGS is to ensure the centering, focusing and guiding of the satellite, but it will also provide supplemental high-precision astrometry and photometry of the target to ground for de-trending the spectra and complementary science. In this paper we give an overview of the current architectural design of the FGS subsystem and discuss related requirements as well as the expected performance.

  4. Quality evaluation of health information system's architectures developed using the HIS-DF methodology.

    PubMed

    López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd; Gonzalez, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Requirement analysis, design, implementation, evaluation, use, and maintenance of semantically interoperable Health Information Systems (HIS) have to be based on eHealth standards. HIS-DF is a comprehensive approach for HIS architectural development based on standard information models and vocabulary. The empirical validity of HIS-DF has not been demonstrated so far. Through an empirical experiment, the paper demonstrates that using HIS-DF and HL7 information models, semantic quality of HIS architecture can be improved, compared to architectures developed using traditional RUP process. Semantic quality of the architecture has been measured in terms of model's completeness and validity metrics. The experimental results demonstrated an increased completeness of 14.38% and an increased validity of 16.63% when using the HIS-DF and HL7 information models in a sample HIS development project. Quality assurance of the system architecture in earlier stages of HIS development presumes an increased quality of final HIS systems, which supposes an indirect impact on patient care.

  5. Agile Development and Software Architecture: Understanding Scale and Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    SEIVirtualForum Symptoms of failure  Teams (e.g., Scrum teams, product development teams, component teams, feature teams) spend almost all of...stability to support the next n iterations of development. In a Scrum project environment, the architectural runway may be established during...infrastructure Presentation Layer Common Service Common Service Common Service API APIData Access Layer Domain Layer Scrum Team A Scrum Team B Scrum Team C

  6. The Design of a Fault-Tolerant COTS-Based Bus Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio N.; Alkalai, Leon; Burt, John B.; Tai, Ann T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we report our experiences and findings on the design of a fault-tolerant bus architecture comprised of two COTS buses, the IEEE 1394 and the 12C. This fault-tolerant bus is the backbone system bus for the avionics architecture of the X2000 program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. COTS buses are attractive because of the availability of low cost commercial products. However, they are not specifically designed for highly reliable applications such as long-life deep-space missions. The X2000 design team has devised a multi-level fault tolerance approach to compensate for this shortcoming of COTS buses. First, the approach enhances the fault tolerance capabilities of the IEEE 1394 and 12 C buses by adding a layer of fault handling hardware and software. Second, algorithms are developed to enable the IEEE 1394 and the 12 C buses assist each other to isolate and recovery from faults. Third, the set of IEEE 1394 and 12 C buses is duplicated to further enhance system reliability. The X2000 design team has paid special attention to guarantee that all fault tolerance provisions will not cause the bus design to deviate from the commercial standard specifications. Otherwise, the economic attractiveness of using COTS will be diminished. The hardware and software design of the X2000 fault-tolerant bus are being implemented and flight hardware will be delivered to the ST4 and Europa Orbiter missions.

  7. Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Janek

    The issue of extraterrestrial bases has recently been a very vivid one. There are orbital stations currently existing and humans will travel to Mars around 2030. They will need stations established there, which will provide them the proper living conditions. Firstly, it might be a small module brought from Earth (e.g. NASA Mars Design Reference Mission module (DRM)), in later stages equivalents of Earth houses may be built from local resources. The goal of this paper is to propose an architectural design for an intermediate stage — for a larger habitable unit transported from Earth. It is inspired by terrestrial portable architecture ideas. A pneumatic structure requires small volume during transportation. However, it provides large habitable space after deployment. It is designed for transport by DRM transportation module and its deployment is considerable easy and brief. An architectural solution analogous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. Its form was a result of technical and environmental limitations, and the need for an ergonomic interior. The spatial placement of following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as a garage with a workshop, transportation routes, and a control and communication center. The issues of Life Support System, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least 1.5 year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed in pneumatic modules, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation (e.g. damage of one of the pneumatic modules or a psychological ,,need of a change"). The architectural design focuses on ergonomic and psychological aspects of longer stay in hostile Martian environment. This solution provides Martian crew with a comfortable habitable

  8. A Federated Design for a Neurobiological Simulation Engine: The CBI Federated Software Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Hugo; Coop, Allan D.; Bower, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Simulator interoperability and extensibility has become a growing requirement in computational biology. To address this, we have developed a federated software architecture. It is federated by its union of independent disparate systems under a single cohesive view, provides interoperability through its capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among different independent applications, and supports extensibility by enabling simulator expansion or enhancement without the need for major changes to system infrastructure. Historically, simulator interoperability has relied on development of declarative markup languages such as the neuron modeling language NeuroML, while simulator extension typically occurred through modification of existing functionality. The software architecture we describe here allows for both these approaches. However, it is designed to support alternative paradigms of interoperability and extensibility through the provision of logical relationships and defined application programming interfaces. They allow any appropriately configured component or software application to be incorporated into a simulator. The architecture defines independent functional modules that run stand-alone. They are arranged in logical layers that naturally correspond to the occurrence of high-level data (biological concepts) versus low-level data (numerical values) and distinguish data from control functions. The modular nature of the architecture and its independence from a given technology facilitates communication about similar concepts and functions for both users and developers. It provides several advantages for multiple independent contributions to software development. Importantly, these include: (1) Reduction in complexity of individual simulator components when compared to the complexity of a complete simulator, (2) Documentation of individual components in terms of their inputs and outputs, (3) Easy removal or replacement of unnecessary or

  9. A federated design for a neurobiological simulation engine: the CBI federated software architecture.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Hugo; Coop, Allan D; Bower, James M

    2012-01-01

    Simulator interoperability and extensibility has become a growing requirement in computational biology. To address this, we have developed a federated software architecture. It is federated by its union of independent disparate systems under a single cohesive view, provides interoperability through its capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among different independent applications, and supports extensibility by enabling simulator expansion or enhancement without the need for major changes to system infrastructure. Historically, simulator interoperability has relied on development of declarative markup languages such as the neuron modeling language NeuroML, while simulator extension typically occurred through modification of existing functionality. The software architecture we describe here allows for both these approaches. However, it is designed to support alternative paradigms of interoperability and extensibility through the provision of logical relationships and defined application programming interfaces. They allow any appropriately configured component or software application to be incorporated into a simulator. The architecture defines independent functional modules that run stand-alone. They are arranged in logical layers that naturally correspond to the occurrence of high-level data (biological concepts) versus low-level data (numerical values) and distinguish data from control functions. The modular nature of the architecture and its independence from a given technology facilitates communication about similar concepts and functions for both users and developers. It provides several advantages for multiple independent contributions to software development. Importantly, these include: (1) Reduction in complexity of individual simulator components when compared to the complexity of a complete simulator, (2) Documentation of individual components in terms of their inputs and outputs, (3) Easy removal or replacement of unnecessary or

  10. Minimum guidelines and requirements for accessible design--Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1982-08-04

    The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board hereby revises its "Minimum Guidelines and Requirements for Accessible Design" (guidelines and requirements). These revisions respond to concerns registered by certain Board members and to issues raised in comments submitted during the rulemaking process. The purpose of the revisions is to make the guidelines and requirements more cost effective and consistent with Federal and nationally recognized standards while still providing ready access and use. The guidelines and requirements, as revised, will provide a basis for consistent and improved accessibility standards to be issued under the Architectural Barriers Act by the General Services Administration, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Department of Defense, and the United States Postal Service. For clarity, the guidelines and requirements are published in their entirety with the revisions incorporated.

  11. Software Architecture Design of GIS Web Service Aggregation Based on Service Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Yang, J.; Tan, M.-J.; Gan, Q.

    2011-08-01

    Based on the analysis of research status of domestic and international GIS web service aggregation and development tendency of public platform of GIS web service, the paper designed software architecture of GIS web service aggregation based on GIS web service group. Firstly, using heterogeneous GIS services model, the software architecture converted a variety of heterogeneous services to a unified interface of GIS services, and divided different types of GIS services into different service groups referring to description of GIS services. Secondly, a service aggregation process model was designed. This model completed the task of specific service aggregation instance, by automatically selecting member GIS Web services in the same service group. Dynamic capabilities and automatic adaptation of GIS Web services aggregation process were achieved. Thirdly, this paper designed a service evaluation model of GIS web service aggregation based on service group from three aspects, i.e. GIS Web Service itself, networking conditions and service consumer. This model implemented effective quality evaluation and performance monitoring of GIS web service aggregation. It could be used to guide the execution, monitor and service selection of aggregation process. Therefore, robustness of aggregated GIS web service was improved. Finally, the software architecture has been widely used in public platform of GIS web service and a number of geo-spatial framework constructions for digital city in Sichuan Province, and aggregated various GIS web services such as World Map(National Public Platform of Geo-spatial Service), ArcGIS, SuperMap, MapGIS, NewMap etc. Applications of items showed that this software architecture was practicability.

  12. The design of a CORBA-based PACS in three-tier architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Wu, Lingda; Wei, Yingmei; Xie, Hongwei

    2005-04-01

    In the past the most of the traditional PACS adopt two-tier Client/Server architecture based on DICOM network in china. However, with the developments of PACS that becomes more large-scale and distributed, the traditional PACS architecture has a lot of weaknesses. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a CORBA-based PACS in three-tier architecture which consists of the application-tier, the middle-tier and the DICOM data-tier. In application-tier, the upper applications can use the service offered from the middle-tier through the application interface. In middle-tier, the characteristic service of PACS, which are extracted from the traditional PACS, are wrapped in service components plug in the ORB software bus. For the data exchange in CORBA-based implementation, the middleware uses IIOP to call service components through the ORB then to return the results to the application-tier. The CORBA object services are responsible for the object location, creation, implementation and destruction, etc. In DICOM data-tier, DICOM image modalities and DICOM databases provide DICOM data for the middle-tier through DICOM image access service. Furthermore, a design of DICOM image access service, which accesses DICOM data and shields the middle-tier from the complexities of DICOM data structure and DIMSE protocol, is presented in this paper. After referred to the CIAS (Clinical Image Access Service) specification defined by OMG, a simplified IDL interface of DICOM image access service is also described. The CORBA-based PACS architecture is an open architecture allowing for the scalability and the interconnectivity & interoperability.

  13. Design leadership for a distribution management system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Green, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    Distribution Automation (DA) as a concept has existed for more than a decade. However, it has only been recently through technological advancements and pilot projects by pioneering utilities that it has become an economic practicality. A number of leading utilities have contributed to the evolution of this technology. The performance goals to be achieved in implementing DA technology have been evolved through previous DA projects and have been established for ongoing projects. These goals establish a clear focus for defining implementation plans for DA technology and include the following: (1) Reduced Customer Outages; (2) Commercial Customer Retention Constant Voltage Regulation; (3) Capital Expenditure Reductions; and (4) Personnel Productivity. In the past decade, many Utilities have initiated a number of pilot projects, each designed to improve some aspect of the company`s service to its customers. Each of these projects will impact the way the distribution system is operated and introduce new technology that must be mastered. Without a coordinated effort, these systems will be implemented in scattered locations using equipment, software, communication interfaces, and user interfaces that differ for each application. The distribution dispatchers would be required to interact with each of these {open_quotes}islands of automation{close_quotes} separately, resulting in an increased level of complexity and an increase in the burden of their duties. A Distribution Management System (DMS) architecture is needed to provide the infrastructure for coordinated implementation of DA technology. Using this broad company-wide model for automation, each pilot project can be viewed as part of a broader set of functions that will be supported by the DMS.

  14. On theory integration: Toward developing affective components within cognitive architectures.

    PubMed

    Olds, Justin M; Marewski, Julian N

    2015-01-01

    In The Cognitive-Emotional Brain, Pessoa (2013) suggests that cognition and emotion should not be considered separately. We agree with this and argue that cognitive architectures can provide steady ground for this kind of theory integration and for investigating interactions among underlying cognitive processes. We briefly explore how affective components can be implemented and how neuroimaging measures can help validate models and influence theory development.

  15. Baseband-processed SS-TDMA communication system architecture and design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attwood, S.; Sabourin, D.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture and system design for a commercial satellite communications system planned for the 1990's was developed by Motorola for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The system provides data communications between individual users via trunking and customer premises service terminals utilizing a central switching satellite operating in a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) mode. The major elements of the design incorporating baseband processing include: demand-assigned multiple access reservation protocol, spectral utilization, system synchronization, modulation technique and forward error control implementation. Motorola's baseband processor design, which is being proven in a proof-of-concept advanced technology development, will perform data regeneration and message routing for individual users on-board the spacecraft.

  16. Rational design of α-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L; Bradley, Philip

    2015-12-24

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures--which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks--is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed α-solenoid repeat structures (α-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the amino (N) and carboxy (C) termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed α-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that--to our knowledge--is not yet present in the protein structure database.

  17. Rational design of alpha-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L.; Bradley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials1,2. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks3,4. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures – which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks – is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners5–9, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis10. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed alpha-solenoid11 repeat structures (alpha-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the N- and C-termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering12–20, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed alpha-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that – to our knowledge – is not yet present in the protein structure database21. PMID:26675735

  18. An Architectural Design System Based on Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Stephen L.; Wehrli, Robert

    The recent developments in computer hardware and software are presented to inform architects of this design tool. Technical advancements in equipment include--(1) cathode ray tube displays, (2) light pens, (3) print-out and photo copying attachments, (4) controls for comparison and selection of images, (5) chording keyboards, (6) plotters, and (7)…

  19. Enabling Co-Design of Multi-Layer Exascale Storage Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Carothers, Christopher

    2015-08-31

    Growing demands for computing power in applications such as energy production, climate analysis, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics have propelled computing systems toward the exascale: systems with 1018 floating-point operations per second. These systems, to be designed and constructed over the next decade, will create unprecedented challenges in component counts, power consumption, resource limitations, and system complexity. Data storage and access are an increasingly important and complex component in extreme-scale computing systems, and significant design work is needed to develop successful storage hardware and software architectures at exascale. Co-design of these systems will be necessary to find the best possible design points for exascale systems. The goal of this work has been to enable the exploration and co-design of exascale storage systems by providing a detailed, accurate, and highly parallel simulation of exascale storage and the surrounding environment. Specifically, this simulation has (1) portrayed realistic application checkpointing and analysis workloads, (2) captured the complexity, scale, and multilayer nature of exascale storage hardware and software, and (3) executed in a timeframe that enables “what if'” exploration of design concepts. We developed models of the major hardware and software components in an exascale storage system, as well as the application I/O workloads that drive them. We used our simulation system to investigate critical questions in reliability and concurrency at exascale, helping guide the design of future exascale hardware and software architectures. Additionally, we provided this system to interested vendors and researchers so that others can explore the design space. We validated the capabilities of our simulation environment by configuring the simulation to represent the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Blue Gene/Q system and comparing simulation results for application I/O patterns

  20. Design and reliability analysis of DP-3 dynamic positioning control architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Wan, Lei; Jiang, Da-Peng; Xu, Yu-Ru

    2011-12-01

    As the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas proliferate throughout deepwater area, the requirements on the reliability of dynamic positioning system become increasingly stringent. The control objective ensuring safety operation at deep water will not be met by a single controller for dynamic positioning. In order to increase the availability and reliability of dynamic positioning control system, the triple redundancy hardware and software control architectures were designed and developed according to the safe specifications of DP-3 classification notation for dynamically positioned ships and rigs. The hardware redundant configuration takes the form of triple-redundant hot standby configuration including three identical operator stations and three real-time control computers which connect each other through dual networks. The function of motion control and redundancy management of control computers were implemented by software on the real-time operating system VxWorks. The software realization of task loose synchronization, majority voting and fault detection were presented in details. A hierarchical software architecture was planed during the development of software, consisting of application layer, real-time layer and physical layer. The behavior of the DP-3 dynamic positioning control system was modeled by a Markov model to analyze its reliability. The effects of variation in parameters on the reliability measures were investigated. The time domain dynamic simulation was carried out on a deepwater drilling rig to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture.

  1. Does the architectural design of burn centers comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act?

    PubMed

    Kirby, D L; O'Keefe, J S; Neal, J G; Bentrem, D J; Edlich, R F

    1996-01-01

    Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that hospitals and burn centers be designed and constructed so that all public and common-use areas are accessible. At least 10% of patient bedrooms and toilets must be accessible to persons with mobility disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether four hospitals with burn centers complied with Title III of the ADA. The burn centers agreed to participate in this study only if they were first assured anonymity, because of the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that each hospital comply. With use of the ADA accessibility guidelines, we developed a survey instrument that was validated by a state government building inspector. This tool was used to inspect the burn center facility and common use areas in four hospitals with burn centers. In the four hospitals, numerous architectural barriers to persons with disabilities were noted. No burn center had a designated accessible room for persons with disabilities. The bedrooms, bathrooms, sinks, bathtubs, and toilets were not accessible to persons with disabilities. The common-use areas in the hospitals, in contrast, had few architectural barriers to persons with disabilities. Only one burn center had plans to eliminate architectural barriers in its hospital. Because the four hospitals with burn centers had numerous architectural barriers for persons with disabilities, it can be concluded they do not comply with Title III of the ADA and are subject to severe penalty from the Health Care Financing Administration and the U.S. Department of Justice.

  2. Sense of Place: Understanding Architectural and Landscape Design through a Layering of Visual Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The context-free "object building," the sculptural form, reigned in schools of architecture for decades. As we are finally moving on from 20th century modernism, there is an urgency to re-place buildings within their contexts. All too often, students with a background in the discipline of architecture, struggle to design buildings that…

  3. Mobile Technology and CAD Technology Integration in Teaching Architectural Design Process for Producing Creative Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bin Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustafa, Ramlee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the mobile and CAD technology on teaching architectural design process for Malaysian polytechnic architectural students in producing a creative product. The website is set up based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  4. Development of the network architecture of the Canadian MSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, N. George; Shoamanesh, Alireza; Leung, Victor C. M.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the present concept for the Canadian Mobile Satellite (MSAT) System and the development of the network architecture which will accommodate the planned family of three categories of service: a mobile radio service (MRS), a mobile telephone service (MTS), and a mobile data service (MDS). The MSAT satellite will have cross-strapped L-band and Ku-band transponders to provide communications services between L-band mobile terminals and fixed base stations supporting dispatcher-type MRS, gateway stations supporting MTS interconnections to the public telephone network, data hub stations supporting the MDS, and the network control center. The currently perceived centralized architecture with demand assignment multiple access for the circuit switched MRS, MTS and permanently assigned channels for the packet switched MDS is discussed.

  5. A multiagent architecture for developing medical information retrieval agents.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Steven

    2003-10-01

    Information that is available on the world wide web (WWW) is already more vast than can be comprehensibly studied by individuals and this quantity is increasing at a staggering pace. The quality of service delivered by physicians is dependent on the availability of current information. The agent paradigm offers a means for enabling physicians to filter information and retrieve only information that is relevant to current patient treatments. As with many specialized domains, agent-based information retrieval in medical domains must satisfy several domain-dependent constraints. A multiple agent architecture is developed and described in detail to efficiently provide agent-based information retrieval from the WWW and other explicit information resources. A simulation of the proposed multiple agent architecture shows a 97% decrease in information overload and an 85% increase in information relevancy over existing meta-search tools (with even larger gains over standard search engines).

  6. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  7. Translating Vision into Design: A Method for Conceptual Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks for engineers is the definition of design solutions that will satisfy high-level strategic visions and objectives. Even more challenging is the need to demonstrate how a particular design solution supports the high-level vision. This paper describes a process and set of system engineering tools that have been used at the Johnson Space Center to analyze and decompose high-level objectives for future human missions into design requirements that can be used to develop alternative concepts for vehicles, habitats, and other systems. Analysis and design studies of alternative concepts and approaches are used to develop recommendations for strategic investments in research and technology that support the NASA Integrated Space Plan. In addition to a description of system engineering tools, this paper includes a discussion of collaborative design practices for human exploration mission architecture studies used at the Johnson Space Center.

  8. BH-ShaDe: A Software Tool That Assists Architecture Students in the III-Structured Task of Housing Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millan, Eva; Belmonte, Maria-Victoria; Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Gavilanes, Juan; Perez-de-la-Cruz, Jose-Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present BH-ShaDe, a new software tool to assist architecture students learning the ill-structured domain/task of housing design. The software tool provides students with automatic or interactively generated floor plan schemas for basic houses. The students can then use the generated schemas as initial seeds to develop complete…

  9. Developmental Design of Synthetic Bacterial Architectures by Morphogenetic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pascalie, Jonathan; Potier, Martin; Kowaliw, Taras; Giavitto, Jean-Louis; Michel, Olivier; Spicher, Antoine; Doursat, René

    2016-08-19

    Synthetic biology is an emerging scientific field that promotes the standardized manufacturing of biological components without natural equivalents. Its goal is to create artificial living systems that can meet various needs in health care or energy domains. While most works are focused on the individual bacterium as a chemical reactor, our project, SynBioTIC, addresses a novel and more complex challenge: shape engineering; that is, the redesign of natural morphogenesis toward a new kind of developmental 3D printing. Potential applications include organ growth, natural computing in biocircuits, or future vegetal houses. To create in silico multicellular organisms that exhibit specific shapes, we construe their development as an iterative process combining fundamental collective phenomena such as homeostasis, patterning, segmentation, and limb growth. Our numerical experiments rely on the existing Escherichia coli simulator Gro, a physicochemical computation platform offering reaction-diffusion and collision dynamics solvers. The synthetic bioware of our model executes a set of rules, or genome, in each cell. Cells can differentiate into several predefined types associated with specific actions (divide, emit signal, detect signal, die). Transitions between types are triggered by conditions involving internal and external sensors that detect various protein levels inside and around the cell. Indirect communication between bacteria is relayed by morphogen diffusion and the mechanical constraints of 2D packing. Starting from a single bacterium, the overall architecture emerges in a purely endogenous fashion through a series of developmental stages, inlcuding proliferation, differentiation, morphogen diffusion, and synchronization. The genome can be parametrized to control the growth and features of appendages individually. As exemplified by the L and T shapes that we obtain, certain precursor cells can be inhibited while others can create limbs of varying size

  10. Design of a Holonic Control Architecture for Distributed Sensor Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    architecture holonique pour la gestion des capteurs . Il s’inscrit dans le prolongement de deux documents précédents, détaillant respectivement, la...problématique de la gestion des capteurs militaires et les propriétés du contrôle holo- nique. L’architecture holonique proposée ici constitue une approche...novatrice au problème de la gestion des capteurs , en cela qu’elle supporte l’établissement de liens dynamiques, permettant ainsi au système

  11. Career Development by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sharon L.

    This book is intended to guide the reader in the process of designing his or her career and achieving it. Chapter 1 begins with a look at self: developing areas of self, personality type, self-concept, and self-efficacy, making positive personality changes, sharpening basic skills, and evaluating career potential. Chapter 2 explores developing…

  12. Career Development by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sharon L.

    This book is intended to guide the reader in the process of designing his or her career and achieving it. Chapter 1 begins with a look at self: developing areas of self, personality type, self-concept, and self-efficacy, making positive personality changes, sharpening basic skills, and evaluating career potential. Chapter 2 explores developing…

  13. Application-specific coarse-grained reconfigurable array: architecture and design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Dongpei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Liu, Hengzhu

    2015-06-01

    Coarse-grained reconfigurable arrays (CGRAs) have shown potential for application in embedded systems in recent years. Numerous reconfigurable processing elements (PEs) in CGRAs provide flexibility while maintaining high performance by exploring different levels of parallelism. However, a difference remains between the CGRA and the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Some application domains, such as software-defined radios (SDRs), require flexibility with performance demand increases. More effective CGRA architectures are expected to be developed. Customisation of a CGRA according to its application can improve performance and efficiency. This study proposes an application-specific CGRA architecture template composed of generic PEs (GPEs) and special PEs (SPEs). The hardware of the SPE can be customised to accelerate specific computational patterns. An automatic design methodology that includes pattern identification and application-specific function unit generation is also presented. A mapping algorithm based on ant colony optimisation is provided. Experimental results on the SDR target domain show that compared with other ordinary and application-specific reconfigurable architectures, the CGRA generated by the proposed method performs more efficiently for given applications.

  14. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  15. Electro-Optic Computing Architectures: Volume II. Components and System Design and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the Electro - Optic Computing Architecture (EOCA) program was to develop multi-function electro - optic interfaces and optical...interconnect units to enhance the performance of parallel processor systems and form the building blocks for future electro - optic computing architectures...Specifically, three multi-function interface modules were targeted for development - an Electro - Optic Interface (EOI), an Optical Interconnection Unit

  16. Lifelong Learning in Architectural Design Studio: The Learning Contract Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanpour, B.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Usman, I. M. S.; Johar, S.; Tawil, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Avant-garde educational systems are striving to find lifelong learning methods. Different fields and majors have tested a variety of proposed models and found varying difficulties and strengths. Architecture is one of the most critical areas of education because of its special characteristics, such as learning by doing and complicated evaluation…

  17. Predictors of Future Performance in Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The link between academic performance in secondary education and the subsequent performance of students studying architecture at university level is commonly questioned by educators and admissions tutors. This paper investigates the potential for using measures of cognitive style and spatial ability as predictors of future potential in…

  18. Design of a polymer thermoelectric generator using radial architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Akanksha K.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state heat engines consisting of p-type and n-type semiconductors that convert heat into electricity via the Seebeck effect. Conducting polymers are a viable alternative with intrinsic advantages over their inorganic counterparts, since they are abundant, flexible as thick-films, and have reduced manufacturing costs due to solution processing. Furthermore, polymers have an inherently low thermal conductivity, thus affording them the option of forgoing some heat exchanger costs. Current examples of polymer TE devices have been limited to traditional flat-plate geometries with power densities on the μW/cm2 scale, where their potential is not fully realized. Herein, we report a novel radial device architecture and model the improved performance of polymer-based TEG based on this architecture. Our radial architecture accommodates a fluid as the heat source and can operate under natural convection alone due to heat spreading. Analytical heat transfer and electrical models are presented that optimize the device for maximum power density, and for the first time we obtain the geometry matching condition that maximizes the efficiency. We predict high power densities of ˜1 mW/cm2 using state-of-the-art polymer TEs subjected to a temperature difference of 100 K, which is nearly 1000× higher than polymer flat-plate architectures reported in literature.

  19. A Tool for Managing Software Architecture Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes a tool for managing architectural knowledge and rationale. The tool has been developed to support a framework for capturing and using architectural knowledge to improve the architecture process. This paper describes the main architectural components and features of the tool. The paper also provides examples of using the tool for supporting wellknown architecture design and analysis methods.

  20. 76 FR 28333 - Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards AGENCY: Rural Utilities... forms of contracts promulgated by RUS for construction, procurement, engineering services and... XVII of title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 1724--ELECTRIC ENGINEERING...

  1. Information architecture considerations in designing a comprehensive tuberculosis enterprise system in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gichoya, Judy; Pearce, Chris; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-01-01

    Kenya ranks among the twenty-two countries that collectively contribute about 80% of the world's Tuberculosis cases; with a 50-200 fold increased risk of tuberculosis in HIV infected persons versus non-HIV hosts. Contemporaneously, there is an increase in mobile penetration and its use to support healthcare throughout Africa. Many are skeptical that such m-health solutions are unsustainable and not scalable. We seek to design a scalable, pervasive m-health solution for Tuberculosis care to become a use case for sustainable and scalable health IT in limited resource settings. We combine agile design principles and user-centered design to develop the architecture needed for this initiative. Furthermore, the architecture runs on multiple devices integrated to deliver functionality critical for successful Health IT implementation in limited resource settings. It is anticipated that once fully implemented, the proposed m-health solution will facilitate superior monitoring and management of Tuberculosis and thereby reduce the alarming statistic regarding this disease in this region.

  2. Developing Architectures and Technologies for an Evolvable NASA Space Communication Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Space communications architecture concepts play a key role in the development and deployment of NASA's future exploration and science missions. Once a mission is deployed, the communication link to the user needs to provide maximum information delivery and flexibility to handle the expected large and complex data sets and to enable direct interaction with the spacecraft and experiments. In human and robotic missions, communication systems need to offer maximum reliability with robust two-way links for software uploads and virtual interactions. Identifying the capabilities to cost effectively meet the demanding space communication needs of 21st century missions, proper formulation of the requirements for these missions, and identifying the early technology developments that will be needed can only be resolved with architecture design. This paper will describe the development of evolvable space communication architecture models and the technologies needed to support Earth sensor web and collaborative observation formation missions; robotic scientific missions for detailed investigation of planets, moons, and small bodies in the solar system; human missions for exploration of the Moon, Mars, Ganymede, Callisto, and asteroids; human settlements in space, on the Moon, and on Mars; and great in-space observatories for observing other star systems and the universe. The resulting architectures will enable the reliable, multipoint, high data rate capabilities needed on demand to provide continuous, maximum coverage of areas of concentrated activities, such as in the vicinity of outposts in-space, on the Moon or on Mars.

  3. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal ion sequestering agents. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.P.; Dixon, D.A.; Roundhill, D.M.; Rogers, R.D.; Paine, R.T.; Raymond, K.N.

    1998-12-31

    'The objective of this project is to provide a means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. They propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  4. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal sequestering agents. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.P.; Paine, R.T.; Roundhill, D.M.

    1997-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide the means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. The authors propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The proposed research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low-energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  5. Development of a space universal modular architecture (SUMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Bernie F.

    This concept paper proposes that the space community should develop and implement a universal standard for spacecraft modularity - to improve interoperability of spacecraft components. Pursuing a global industry consensus standard for open and modular spacecraft architecture will encourage trade, remove standards-related market barriers, and in the long run increase both value provided to customers and profitability of the space industrial sector. This concept paper sets out: (1) the goals for a SUMO standard and how it will benefit the space community; (2) background on spacecraft modularity and existing related standards; (3) the proposed technical scope of the current standardization effort; and (4) an approach for creating a SUMO standard.

  6. Designing a Portable Architecture for Intelligent Particle Accelerator Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, William B.; Stern, Carl R.; Luger, George F.; Olsson, Eric T.

    1997-05-01

    We present a portable system for intelligent control of particle accelerators.(Supported by DOE/SBIR Grant DE-FG05-94ER81897) This system is based on a hierarchical distributed architecture. At the lowest level, a physical access layer provides an object-oriented abstraction of the target system. A series of intermediate layers implement general algorithms for control, optimization, data interpretation, and diagnosis. Decision making and planning are organized by knowledge-based components that utilize knowledge acquired from human experts to appropriately direct and configure lower level services. The general nature of the representations and algorithms at lower levels gives this architecture a high degree of potential portability. The knowledge-based decision-making and planning at higher levels gives this system an adaptive real-time capability as well as making it readily configurable to new environments. Significant successes of this work are reported at this conference.

  7. Data Warehouse Design from HL7 Clinical Document Architecture Schema.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a semi-automatic approach to extract clinical information structured in a HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and transform it in a data warehouse dimensional model schema. It is based on a conceptual framework published in a previous work that maps the dimensional model primitives with CDA elements. Its feasibility is demonstrated providing a case study based on the analysis of vital signs gathered during laboratory tests.

  8. RT 24 - Architecture, Modeling & Simulation, and Software Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    focus on tool extensions (UPDM, SysML, SoaML, BPMN ) Leverage “best of breed” architecture methodologies Provide tooling to support the methodology DoDAF...Capability 10 Example: BPMN 11 DoDAF 2.0 MetaModel BPMN MetaModel Mapping SysML to DoDAF 2.0 12 DoDAF V2.0 Models OV-2 SysML Diagrams Requirement

  9. The Design of a Polymorphous Cognitive Agent Architecture (PCAA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    algorithms or particle-swarm methods rather than requiring detailed knowledge engineering. • Scalable - Stigmergic mechanisms scale well to large...Target Problems 15 3 Methods , Assumptions, and Procedures 17 3.1 Cognitive Architecture Requirements 17 3.1.1 Cognitive Layer Requirements 17...Integration 22 3.3.2 Shared Memory 23 3.3.3 Integrated Control 24 3.3.4 Common Language 25 3.3.5 Integration Mechanisms 26 3.3.6

  10. SensoTube: A Scalable Hardware Design Architecture for Wireless Sensors and Actuators Networks Nodes in the Agricultural Domain.

    PubMed

    Piromalis, Dimitrios; Arvanitis, Konstantinos

    2016-08-04

    Wireless Sensor and Actuators Networks (WSANs) constitute one of the most challenging technologies with tremendous socio-economic impact for the next decade. Functionally and energy optimized hardware systems and development tools maybe is the most critical facet of this technology for the achievement of such prospects. Especially, in the area of agriculture, where the hostile operating environment comes to add to the general technological and technical issues, reliable and robust WSAN systems are mandatory. This paper focuses on the hardware design architectures of the WSANs for real-world agricultural applications. It presents the available alternatives in hardware design and identifies their difficulties and problems for real-life implementations. The paper introduces SensoTube, a new WSAN hardware architecture, which is proposed as a solution to the various existing design constraints of WSANs. The establishment of the proposed architecture is based, firstly on an abstraction approach in the functional requirements context, and secondly, on the standardization of the subsystems connectivity, in order to allow for an open, expandable, flexible, reconfigurable, energy optimized, reliable and robust hardware system. The SensoTube implementation reference model together with its encapsulation design and installation are analyzed and presented in details. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, certain use cases have been studied in order to demonstrate the benefits of migrating existing designs based on the available open-source hardware platforms to SensoTube architecture.

  11. SensoTube: A Scalable Hardware Design Architecture for Wireless Sensors and Actuators Networks Nodes in the Agricultural Domain

    PubMed Central

    Piromalis, Dimitrios; Arvanitis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Sensor and Actuators Networks (WSANs) constitute one of the most challenging technologies with tremendous socio-economic impact for the next decade. Functionally and energy optimized hardware systems and development tools maybe is the most critical facet of this technology for the achievement of such prospects. Especially, in the area of agriculture, where the hostile operating environment comes to add to the general technological and technical issues, reliable and robust WSAN systems are mandatory. This paper focuses on the hardware design architectures of the WSANs for real-world agricultural applications. It presents the available alternatives in hardware design and identifies their difficulties and problems for real-life implementations. The paper introduces SensoTube, a new WSAN hardware architecture, which is proposed as a solution to the various existing design constraints of WSANs. The establishment of the proposed architecture is based, firstly on an abstraction approach in the functional requirements context, and secondly, on the standardization of the subsystems connectivity, in order to allow for an open, expandable, flexible, reconfigurable, energy optimized, reliable and robust hardware system. The SensoTube implementation reference model together with its encapsulation design and installation are analyzed and presented in details. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, certain use cases have been studied in order to demonstrate the benefits of migrating existing designs based on the available open-source hardware platforms to SensoTube architecture. PMID:27527180

  12. Architectural Specialization for Inter-Iteration Loop Dependence Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Design Power Constraint High-Performance Architectures Embedded Architectures Design Performance...ZC706 FPGA development board for FPGA prototyping Custom designed FMC mezzanine card for ASIC test chips Cornell University Christopher Batten 46 / 53...E ffic ien cy (T as ks p er Jo ule ) Simple Processor Design Power Constraint High-Performance Architectures Embedded Architectures Design

  13. Developing an integrated photonic system with a simple beamforming architecture for phased-array antennas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weimin; Stead, Michael; Weiss, Steven; Okusaga, Olukayode; Jiang, Lingjun; Anderson, Stephen; Rena Huang, Z

    2017-01-20

    We have designed a simplified true-time-delay beamforming architecture using integrated photonics for phased-array antennas. This architecture can independently control multiple RF beams simultaneously with only a single tuning parameter to steer the beam in each direction for each beam. We have made a proof-of-the-principle demonstration of an X-band, 30×4-elements, fiber-optics-based beamformer for one-dimensional steering in transmission mode. The goal is to develop a semiconductor-based integrated photonic circuit so that a 2D beamforming array for both transmit and receive operations can be made on a single chip. For that, we have designed a Si-based integrated waveguide circuit using two types of "slow-light" waveguide for tunable time delays for two-dimensional steering.

  14. An Empirical Assessment of Metaphor Use in the Design Studio: Analysis, Reflection and Restructuring of Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was concerned with the use of metaphors in architectural design education. Reasoning by means of metaphors helps to understand a design situation in terms of a remote concept normally not associated with it. By juxtaposing the known with the unknown in an unusual way, metaphors can enhance design problem solving. The goal of…

  15. An Empirical Assessment of Metaphor Use in the Design Studio: Analysis, Reflection and Restructuring of Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was concerned with the use of metaphors in architectural design education. Reasoning by means of metaphors helps to understand a design situation in terms of a remote concept normally not associated with it. By juxtaposing the known with the unknown in an unusual way, metaphors can enhance design problem solving. The goal of…

  16. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 1193.23 Section 1193.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... § 1193.23 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility...

  17. Comprehensive Bibliography on Child Care and Preschool Design. Architecture for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T., Comp.

    Excellence in design of child care and other preschool facilities is an emerging issue in the architectural profession. This bibliography is intended to aid architects and other designers, child-care directors, policy makers, and researchers to locate the most up-to-date and best sources of design-relevant information. The bibliography is based on…

  18. The Status of Graphical Presentation in Interior/Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Basa, Inci

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that interior/architectural design education favours a dominance of final presentation over the design process in the studio environment, particularly in the evaluation of a project. It suggests that the appeal of design juries for pleasant drawings, which may shift the emphasis from the project itself to its representation,…

  19. Methods that May Stimulate Creativity and Their Use in Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K.; Bianchi, Giovana; Teixeira de Paiva, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    The architectural design process is based on a creative phase where creativity is highly valued. Although the literature on creativity is rich in ways to stimulate the decision-making process, these tools are rarely formally present in the building design process. To further the discussion on creativity and design education this paper presents a…

  20. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  1. Establishment of a Digital Knowledge Conversion Architecture Design Learning with High User Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Apollo; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a knowledge conversion and management digital learning system for architecture design learning, helping students to share, extract, use and create their design knowledge through web-based interactive activities based on socialization, internalization, combination and externalization process in addition to…

  2. Designing a Utopia: An Architectural Studio Experience on David Harvey's "Edilia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesilkaya, Nese Gurallar

    2008-01-01

    The design of a utopia was devised as a studio project in order to bring critical thinking into the design studio and to stimulate creativity. By suggesting a utopia, the pedagogical aim was to improve progressive thinking and critical thought in the design education of architectural students -- and also future architects. From this perspective,…

  3. Methods that May Stimulate Creativity and Their Use in Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K.; Bianchi, Giovana; Teixeira de Paiva, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    The architectural design process is based on a creative phase where creativity is highly valued. Although the literature on creativity is rich in ways to stimulate the decision-making process, these tools are rarely formally present in the building design process. To further the discussion on creativity and design education this paper presents a…

  4. Designing a Utopia: An Architectural Studio Experience on David Harvey's "Edilia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesilkaya, Nese Gurallar

    2008-01-01

    The design of a utopia was devised as a studio project in order to bring critical thinking into the design studio and to stimulate creativity. By suggesting a utopia, the pedagogical aim was to improve progressive thinking and critical thought in the design education of architectural students -- and also future architects. From this perspective,…

  5. A Project-Based Learning Approach to Programmable Logic Design and Computer Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a course in programmable logic design and computer architecture as it is taught at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The course is designed around a major design project and has two supplemental assessment tasks that are also described. The context of the Computer Engineering degree program within which the course is…

  6. Potato root system development and factors that determine its architecture.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mukul; Fogelman, Edna; Belausov, Eduard; Ginzberg, Idit

    2016-10-20

    The potato root system is often characterized as shallow and inefficient, with poor ability to extract water and minerals from the soil. Potato root system architecture (RSA) refers to its 3-dimensional structure as determined by adventitious root (AR) growth and branching through lateral roots (LR). Understanding how the root system develops holds potential to increase plant yield and optimize agricultural land use. Root system development was monitored in greenhouse-grown potato while a root-on-a-plate assay was developed to explore factors that affect AR and LR development. Expression study of LR-related genes was conducted. Transgenic plants carrying DR5:GFP and CycB1:GUS reporter genes were used to monitor auxin signaling and cell division during root primordia formation, respectively. Maximum root development occurred mainly during the 6-week post seed-tuber planting and slowed during the onset of tuberization. AR and LR development was coordinated - a positive correlation was found between the length of AR and LR and between LR length and number. The expression of LR-related genes was higher in LR than in AR. High nitrate levels reduced LR number and length, however ablation of root-cap by high temperature (33°C) or cutting resulted with enhanced formation of LR. Growth conditions affect AR and LR development in potato, determining the final architecture of its root system. The overall results indicate that LR formation in potato follows similar pattern as in model plants, facilitating study and manipulation of its RSA to improve soil exploitation and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of designed PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffold architectures on bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiji; Liao, Elly E.; Hu, Wei-Wen; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable porous scaffolds have been investigated as an alternative approach to current metal, ceramic, and polymer bone graft substitutes for lost or damaged bone tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the effects of scaffold architecture on bone formation, many of these scaffolds were fabricated using conventional methods, such as salt leaching and phase separation, and were constructed without designed architecture. To study the effects of both designed architecture and material on bone formation, we designed and fabricated three types of porous scaffold architecture from two biodegradable materials, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and 50:50Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using image based design and indirect solid freeform fabrication techniques, seeded them with bone morphogenic protein-7 transduced human gingival fibroblasts and implanted them subcutaneously into mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography data confirmed that the fabricated porous scaffolds replicated the designed architectures. Histological analysis revealed that the 50:50PLGA scaffolds degraded and did not maintain their architecture after 4 weeks. The PLLA scaffolds maintained their architecture at both time points and showed improved bone ingrowth which followed the internal architecture of the scaffolds. Mechanical properties of both PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffolds decreased, but PLLA scaffolds maintained greater mechanical properties than 50:50PLGA after implantation. The increase of mineralized tissue helped to support mechanical properties of bone tissue and scaffold constructs from 4 to 8 weeks. The results indicated the importance of choice of scaffold materials and computationally designed scaffolds to control tissue formation and mechanical properties for desired bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22162220

  8. Effects of designed PLLA and 50:50 PLGA scaffold architectures on bone formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saito, Eiji; Liao, Elly E; Hu, Wei-Wen; Krebsbach, Paul H; Hollister, Scott J

    2013-02-01

    Biodegradable porous scaffolds have been investigated as an alternative approach to current metal, ceramic, and polymer bone graft substitutes for lost or damaged bone tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the effects of scaffold architecture on bone formation, many of these scaffolds were fabricated using conventional methods such as salt leaching and phase separation, and were constructed without designed architecture. To study the effects of both designed architecture and material on bone formation, this study designed and fabricated three types of porous scaffold architecture from two biodegradable materials, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and 50:50 Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), using image based design and indirect solid freeform fabrication techniques, seeded them with bone morphogenetic protein-7 transduced human gingival fibroblasts, and implanted them subcutaneously into mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography data confirmed that the fabricated porous scaffolds replicated the designed architectures. Histological analysis revealed that the 50:50 PLGA scaffolds degraded but did not maintain their architecture after 4 weeks implantation. However, PLLA scaffolds maintained their architecture at both time points and showed improved bone ingrowth, which followed the internal architecture of the scaffolds. Mechanical properties of both PLLA and 50:50 PLGA scaffolds decreased but PLLA scaffolds maintained greater mechanical properties than 50:50 PLGA after implantation. The increase of mineralized tissue helped support the mechanical properties of bone tissue and scaffold constructs between 4-8 weeks. The results indicate the importance of choice of scaffold materials and computationally designed scaffolds to control tissue formation and mechanical properties for desired bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A conceptual framework to design a dimensional model based on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to design a dimensional model based on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) standard. The adoption of this framework can represent a possible solution to facilitate the integration of heterogeneous information systems in a clinical data warehouse. This can simplify the Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) procedures that are considered the most time-consuming and expensive part of the data warehouse development process. The paper describes the main activities to be carried out to design the dimensional model outlining the main advantages in the application of the proposed framework. The feasibility of our approach is also demonstrated providing a case study to define clinical indicators for quality assessment.

  10. Agile Development & Software Architecture - Crossing the Great Divide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-22

    University What is Architecture? Structure A Thematic Analysis System Qualities Decisions / Governance Multi-Dimensional SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski & Woods 12...TWITTER Hashtag #seiwebinar Crossing the Great Divide Brown , 4/22/2010 © 2010 Carnegie Mellon University Architectural Themes SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski...2010 © 2010 Carnegie Mellon University Structure System Qualities Decisions / Governance Multi-Dimensional Architectural Themes SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski

  11. Design of a real-time wind turbine simulator using a custom parallel architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John A.; Gluck, R.; Sridhar, S.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a new parallel-processing digital simulator is described. The new simulator has been developed specifically for analysis of wind energy systems in real time. The new processor has been named: the Wind Energy System Time-domain simulator, version 3 (WEST-3). Like previous WEST versions, WEST-3 performs many computations in parallel. The modules in WEST-3 are pure digital processors, however. These digital processors can be programmed individually and operated in concert to achieve real-time simulation of wind turbine systems. Because of this programmability, WEST-3 is very much more flexible and general than its two predecessors. The design features of WEST-3 are described to show how the system produces high-speed solutions of nonlinear time-domain equations. WEST-3 has two very fast Computational Units (CU's) that use minicomputer technology plus special architectural features that make them many times faster than a microcomputer. These CU's are needed to perform the complex computations associated with the wind turbine rotor system in real time. The parallel architecture of the CU causes several tasks to be done in each cycle, including an IO operation and the combination of a multiply, add, and store. The WEST-3 simulator can be expanded at any time for additional computational power. This is possible because the CU's interfaced to each other and to other portions of the simulation using special serial buses. These buses can be 'patched' together in essentially any configuration (in a manner very similar to the programming methods used in analog computation) to balance the input/ output requirements. CU's can be added in any number to share a given computational load. This flexible bus feature is very different from many other parallel processors which usually have a throughput limit because of rigid bus architecture.

  12. Design of a decentralized reusable research database architecture to support data acquisition in large research projects.

    PubMed

    Iavindrasana, Jimison; Depeursinge, Adrien; Ruch, Patrick; Spahni, Stéphane; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Müller, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic processes, as well as the development of new treatments, are hindered by the fragmentation of information which underlies them. In a multi-institutional research study database, the clinical information system (CIS) contains the primary data input. An important part of the money of large scale clinical studies is often paid for data creation and maintenance. The objective of this work is to design a decentralized, scalable, reusable database architecture with lower maintenance costs for managing and integrating distributed heterogeneous data required as basis for a large-scale research project. Technical and legal aspects are taken into account based on various use case scenarios. The architecture contains 4 layers: data storage and access are decentralized at their production source, a connector as a proxy between the CIS and the external world, an information mediator as a data access point and the client side. The proposed design will be implemented inside six clinical centers participating in the @neurIST project as part of a larger system on data integration and reuse for aneurism treatment.

  13. On-board B-ISDN fast packet switching architectures. Phase 2: Development. Proof-of-concept architecture definition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Dong-Jye; Redman, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    For the next-generation packet switched communications satellite system with onboard processing and spot-beam operation, a reliable onboard fast packet switch is essential to route packets from different uplink beams to different downlink beams. The rapid emergence of point-to-point services such as video distribution, and the large demand for video conference, distributed data processing, and network management makes the multicast function essential to a fast packet switch (FPS). The satellite's inherent broadcast features gives the satellite network an advantage over the terrestrial network in providing multicast services. This report evaluates alternate multicast FPS architectures for onboard baseband switching applications and selects a candidate for subsequent breadboard development. Architecture evaluation and selection will be based on the study performed in phase 1, 'Onboard B-ISDN Fast Packet Switching Architectures', and other switch architectures which have become commercially available as large scale integration (LSI) devices.

  14. A reliable architectural style for designing pervasive healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Rafe, Vahid; Hajvali, Masoumeh

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of wireless communication technologies opened the way to the definition of innovative e-Health systems aimed at providing a continuous and remote support to patients and new instruments to improve the workflow of the medical personnel. Nowadays, pervasive healthcare systems are a major step in this regard. The safety-critical systems on one hand and their failure in communication (i.e. sending and receiving messages) in other hand may lead to disaster results in the systems. Moreover, the need for high quality services in such systems, and the access to various types of Quality of Services such as reliability in software development has been increasing in the past years. In this paper, firstly we extend the core meta-model of the previously designed style for designing the structures of such systems in order to reach a high level of reliability in messaging. Secondly, their configuration mechanisms in controlling the communicative errors will be modeled using graph transformation rules. Finally, the correctness of the model is analyzed by model checking techniques. The results of the analysis show its high reliability.

  15. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  16. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  17. Experiences with a prevalidation methodology for designing integrated/propulsion control system architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, Charles W.; Strickland, Michael J.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a validation methodology and supporting analytical tools developed to provide system designers with a capability of selecting, in the early stages of development, candidate architectures for an integrated airframe/propulsion control system and of predicting their reliability and performance. The results of an application of this methodology to an integrated flight and propulsion control system demonstrated that firm system requirements are being established early in the system life cycle and that an early evaluation exposes missing and conflicting specifications. It is shown that fundamental improvements and refinements can be made early in the concept life cycle when the potential for increased performance is high and the cost and schedule impacts from changes are relatively low. The application of this methodology reduces technical risks associated with integrated system concepts incorporating new technologies.

  18. Applied Nuclear Accountability Systems: A Case Study in the System Architecture and Development of NuMAC

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Andrea Beth

    2004-07-01

    This is a case study of the NuMAC nuclear accountability system developed at a private fuel fabrication facility. This paper investigates nuclear material accountability and safeguards by researching expert knowledge applied in the system design and development. Presented is a system developed to detect and deter the theft of weapons grade nuclear material. Examined is the system architecture that includes: issues for the design and development of the system; stakeholder issues; how the system was built and evolved; software design, database design, and development tool considerations; security and computing ethics. (author)

  19. Hidden Realities inside PBL Design Processes: Is Consensus Design an Impossible Clash of Interest between the Individual and the Collective, and Is Architecture Its First Victim?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Ole

    2015-01-01

    How do architecture students experience the contradictions between the individual and the group at the Department of Architecture and Design of Aalborg University? The Problem-Based Learning model has been extensively applied to the department's degree programs in coherence with the Integrated Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and…

  20. Programmable Optoelectronic Multiprocessors: Design, Performance and CAD Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiamilev, Fouad Eskender

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of Programmable Optoelectronic Multiprocessor (POEM) architectures and systems. POEM systems combine simple electronic processing elements with free-space optical interconnects to implement high-performance, massively-parallel computers. POEM architectures are fundamentally different from architectures used in conventional VLSI systems. Novel system partitioning and processing element design methods have been developed to ensure efficient implementation of POEM architectures with optoelectronic technology. The main contributions of this thesis are: architecture and software design for the POEM prototype built at UCSD; detailed technology design-tradeoff and comparison studies for POEM interconnection networks; and application of the VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to the design, simulation, and synthesis of POEM computers. A general-purpose POEM SIMD parallel computer architecture has been designed for symbolic computing applications. A VHDL simulation of this architecture was written to test the POEM hardware running parallel programs prior to prototype fabrication. Detailed performance comparison of this architecture with all-optical computing, based on symbolic substitution, has also been carried out to show that POEMs offer higher computational efficiency. A detailed technological design of a packet-switched POEM multistage interconnection network system has been performed. This design uses optically interconnected stages of K x K electronic switching elements, where K is a variable parameter, called grain-size, that determines the ratio of optics to electronics in the system. A thorough cost and performance comparison between this design and existing VLSI implementations was undertaken to show that the POEM approach offers better scalability and higher performance. The grain-size was optimized, showing that switch sizes of 16 x 16 to 256 x 256 provide maximum performance/cost. The effects of varying

  1. Designing a meta-level architecture in Java for adaptive parallelism by mobile software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominic, Stephen Victor

    Adaptive parallelism refers to a parallel computation that runs on a pool of processors that may join or withdraw from a running computation. In this dissertation, a functional system of agents and agent behaviors for adaptive parallelism is developed. Software agents have the properties of robustness and have capacity for fault-tolerance. Adaptation and fault-tolerance emerge from the interaction of self-directed autonomous software agents for a parallel computation application. The multi-agent system can be considered an object-oriented system with a higher-level architectural component, i.e., a meta level for agent behavior. The meta-level object architecture is based on patterns of behavior and communication for mobile agents, which are developed to support cooperative problem solving in a distributed-heterogeneous computing environment. Although parallel processing is a suggested application domain for mobile agents implemented in the Java language, the development of robust agent behaviors implemented in an efficient manner is an active research area. Performance characteristics for three versions of a pattern recognition problem are used to demonstrate a linear speed-up with efficiency that is compared to research using a traditional client-server protocol in the C language. The best ideas from existing approaches to adaptive parallelism are used to create a single general-purpose paradigm that overcomes problems associated with nodefailure, the use of a single-centralized or shared resource, requirements for clients to actively join a computation, and a variety of other limitations that are associated with existing systems. The multi-agent system, and experiments, show how adaptation and parallelism can be exploited by a meta-architecture for a distributed-scientific application that is of particular interest to design of signal-processing ground stations. To a large extent the framework separates concern for algorithmic design from concern for where and

  2. Development of a power protection system using an agent based architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.K.; Kalam, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a system for the design, analysis and assessment of power protection schemes. The system aims to assist the protection experts in automating their work and aids them in diagnosing, planning and remembering. The system could also be used as a teaching or training tool for the inexperienced fresh graduates in the field. Protection for power system can be viewed as a sum of coordinated protective devices located in the various parts of a power system. The design of protection schemes depends on the configuration of the system, the specifications the system must meet and the constraints that must be satisfied. Selecting and setting the appropriate relays and protective devices are no easy tasks and require skill, experience, heuristics and common sense knowledge. This paper presents a generic architecture based on multi agent paradigm and introduces a novel approach in the development of an intelligent system. It uses distributed problem solving technique and integrates different reasoning methodologies such as case based, rule based and explanation based. The architecture of the system is based on an object oriented paradigm and utilizes a multi knowledge representation scheme in a case based framework. Part of the system which has been implemented in an object oriented environment shows a promising and convincing demonstration of the system`s architecture and approach.

  3. Computerizing the Classroom: Issues in Architectural Design and Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, William M., Jr.; Biancavilla, Dean

    1991-01-01

    The process of computerizing the classroom includes the following: (1) selection of the architect and engineer; (2) survey of existing premises; (3) solidifying program of usage and design; (4) school board approval and bond vote; and (5) final design and construction. Also discusses electrical system engineering, spatial design, illumination,…

  4. Computerizing the Classroom: Issues in Architectural Design and Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, William M., Jr.; Biancavilla, Dean

    1991-01-01

    The process of computerizing the classroom includes the following: (1) selection of the architect and engineer; (2) survey of existing premises; (3) solidifying program of usage and design; (4) school board approval and bond vote; and (5) final design and construction. Also discusses electrical system engineering, spatial design, illumination,…

  5. Design, architecture and application of nanorobotics in oncology.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Pramod, B J; Dayananda, B C; Nagaraju, K

    2015-01-01

    Oncologists all over the globe, relentlessly research on methodologies for detection of cancer and precise localization of cancer therapeutics with minimal adverse effects on healthy tissues. Since the previous decade, the fast growing research in nanotechnology has shown promising possibilities for achieving this dream of every oncologist.Nanorobots (or nanobots) are typical devices ranging in size from 0.1 to 10 μm and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. Robots will augment the surgeon's motor performance, diagnostic capability and sensations with haptics and augmented reality. The article here aims in briefly describing the architecture of the nanorobots and their role in oncotherapy. Although, research into nanorobots is still in its preliminary stages, the promise of such technology is endless.

  6. Exploring Gigabyte Datasets in Real Time: Architectures, Interfaces and Time-Critical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Architectures and Interfaces: The implications of real-time interaction on software architecture design: decoupling of interaction/graphics and computation into asynchronous processes. The performance requirements of graphics and computation for interaction. Time management in such an architecture. Examples of how visualization algorithms must be modified for high performance. Brief survey of interaction techniques and design, including direct manipulation and manipulation via widgets. talk discusses how human factors considerations drove the design and implementation of the virtual wind tunnel. Time-Critical Design: A survey of time-critical techniques for both computation and rendering. Emphasis on the assignment of a time budget to both the overall visualization environment and to each individual visualization technique in the environment. The estimation of the benefit and cost of an individual technique. Examples of the modification of visualization algorithms to allow time-critical control.

  7. Exploring Gigabyte Datasets in Real Time: Architectures, Interfaces and Time-Critical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Architectures and Interfaces: The implications of real-time interaction on software architecture design: decoupling of interaction/graphics and computation into asynchronous processes. The performance requirements of graphics and computation for interaction. Time management in such an architecture. Examples of how visualization algorithms must be modified for high performance. Brief survey of interaction techniques and design, including direct manipulation and manipulation via widgets. talk discusses how human factors considerations drove the design and implementation of the virtual wind tunnel. Time-Critical Design: A survey of time-critical techniques for both computation and rendering. Emphasis on the assignment of a time budget to both the overall visualization environment and to each individual visualization technique in the environment. The estimation of the benefit and cost of an individual technique. Examples of the modification of visualization algorithms to allow time-critical control.

  8. Architectures and design techniques for real-time image processing ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruetz, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    A set of 8 chips, which perform real-time image processing tasks, was designed and fabricated with a 4..mu.. MNOS technology. The chips include: a 3 x 3 linear convolver, a 3 x 3 sorting filter, a 7 x 7 logical convolver, a contour tracer, a feature extractor, a look-up table ROM, and two post processors for the linear convolver. All chips were designed using architectures dedicated to the particular image processing tasks to be performed. The image processing circuits operate on 10-MHz video data (512 x 512 pixel images). The design time for the chips was kept to 1.5 man years by re-using hardware and, in addition, utilizing and developing some appropriate CAD tools. ROM generators and a data-path generator were developed to reduce the circuit design time. An image-recognition system was built with these custom chips that can recognize two dimensional objects that are characterized by their closed outer contours. The complete system is controlled by a SUN work station and operates at rates up to 15 frame/Sec. The recognition system achieved a 97% recognition rate for 8 objects over a wide range of orientation and size variations and a 100% recognition rate without size variations.

  9. Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform: Design and Verification of the Remote Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sartori, John

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform (MSAP) represents an effort to bolster efficiency in the spacecraft design process. By incorporating essential spacecraft functionality into a modular, expandable system, the MSAP provides a foundation on which future spacecraft missions can be developed. Once completed, the MSAP will provide support for missions with varying objectives, while maintaining a level of standardization that will minimize redesign of general system components. One subsystem of the MSAP, the Remote Engineering Unit (REU), functions by gathering engineering telemetry from strategic points on the spacecraft and providing these measurements to the spacecraft's Command and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem. Before the MSAP Project reaches completion, all hardware, including the REU, must be verified. However, the speed and complexity of the REU circuitry rules out the possibility of physical prototyping. Instead, the MSAP hardware is designed and verified using the Verilog Hardware Definition Language (HDL). An increasingly popular means of digital design, HDL programming provides a level of abstraction, which allows the designer to focus on functionality while logic synthesis tools take care of gate-level design and optimization. As verification of the REU proceeds, errors are quickly remedied, preventing costly changes during hardware validation. After undergoing the careful, iterative processes of verification and validation, the REU and MSAP will prove their readiness for use in a multitude of spacecraft missions.

  10. Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform: Design and Verification of the Remote Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sartori, John

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform (MSAP) represents an effort to bolster efficiency in the spacecraft design process. By incorporating essential spacecraft functionality into a modular, expandable system, the MSAP provides a foundation on which future spacecraft missions can be developed. Once completed, the MSAP will provide support for missions with varying objectives, while maintaining a level of standardization that will minimize redesign of general system components. One subsystem of the MSAP, the Remote Engineering Unit (REU), functions by gathering engineering telemetry from strategic points on the spacecraft and providing these measurements to the spacecraft's Command and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem. Before the MSAP Project reaches completion, all hardware, including the REU, must be verified. However, the speed and complexity of the REU circuitry rules out the possibility of physical prototyping. Instead, the MSAP hardware is designed and verified using the Verilog Hardware Definition Language (HDL). An increasingly popular means of digital design, HDL programming provides a level of abstraction, which allows the designer to focus on functionality while logic synthesis tools take care of gate-level design and optimization. As verification of the REU proceeds, errors are quickly remedied, preventing costly changes during hardware validation. After undergoing the careful, iterative processes of verification and validation, the REU and MSAP will prove their readiness for use in a multitude of spacecraft missions.

  11. Interactive Universal Design Kiosks: Explanations About Social Inclusion Features in Architectural Design.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marcelo Pinto; Picceli, Angélica Fátima Baldin; Sabino, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a set of self-supporting and illuminated panels that work together but independently in order to emphasize the explanation of building features and activities that are based on Universal Design guidelines. The exhibition is based on two structures that are arranged in semi-circles (A and B). They are integrated to form a carpeted path where the visitor will be gradually exposed to the concepts related to the principles of Universal Design. Following the sequence of three-dimensional objects and swivelling box elements that support the tactile information on the subject, it is expected that visitors become familiar with each of the principles being demonstrated. Operated by a control system consisting of keys with colour signage, textures and high relief, the panel on the control table allows the user to choose information about paired relationships between some of seven principles contained in printed images about the architectural design on the set of panels. The effectiveness of the composition can be verified by the time people remain enough to hear, see and touch the kiosks for all the information, or by successive visits users make to the setting.

  12. Design of phosphorylated dendritic architectures to promote human monocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Poupot, Mary; Griffe, Laurent; Marchand, Patrice; Maraval, Alexandrine; Rolland, Olivier; Martinet, Ludovic; L'Faqihi-Olive, Fatima-Ezzahra; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Poupot, Rémy

    2006-11-01

    As first defensive line, monocytes are a pivotal cell population of innate immunity. Monocyte activation can be relevant to a range of immune conditions and responses. Here we present new insights into the activation of monocytes by a series of phosphonic acid-terminated, phosphorus-containing dendrimers. Various dendritic or subdendritic structures were synthesized and tested, revealing the basic structural requirements for monocyte activation. We showed that multivalent character and phosphonic acid capping of dendrimers are crucial for monocyte targeting and activation. Confocal videomicroscopy showed that a fluorescein-tagged dendrimer binds to isolated monocytes and gets internalized within a few seconds. We also found that dendrimers follow the phagolysosomial route during internalization by monocytes. Finally, we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments between a specifically designed fluorescent dendrimer and phycoerythrin-coupled antibodies. We showed that the typical innate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is clearly involved, but not alone, in the sensing of dendrimers by monocytes. In conclusion, phosphorus-containing dendrimers appear as precisely tunable nanobiotools able to target and activate human innate immunity and thus prove to be good candidates to develop new drugs for immunotherapies.

  13. The Visible Nulling Coronagraph--Architecture Definition and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, B. Martin; Wallace, J. Kent; Liu, Duncan T.; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Serabyn, Eugene; Mennesson, Bertrand; Green, Joseph J.; Aguayo, Francisco; Fregoso, S. Felipe; Lane, Benjamin F.; Samuele, Rocco; Tuttle, Carl

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of visible direct detection and spectroscopy of Earth-like extrasolar planets using a nulling coronagraph instrument behind a moderately sized single aperture space telescope. Our concept synthesizes a nulling interferometer by shearing the telescope pupil, with the resultant producing a deep null. We describe nulling configurations that also include methods to mitigate stellar leakage, such as spatial filtering by a coherent array of single mode fibers, and post-starlight suppression wavefront sensing and control. With diffraction limited telescope optics and similar quality components in the optical train (lambda/20), suppression of the starlight to 1e-10 is readily achievable. We describe key features of the architecture and analysis, present latest results of laboratory measurements demonstrating achievable null depth and component development, and discuss future key technical milestones.

  14. The Visible Nulling Coronagraph--Architecture Definition and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Levine, B. Martin; Wallace, J. Kent; Liu, Duncan T.; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Serabyn, Eugene; Mennesson, Bertrand; Green, Joseph J.; Aguayo, Francisco; Fregoso, S. Felipe; hide

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of visible direct detection and spectroscopy of Earth-like extrasolar planets using a nulling coronagraph instrument behind a moderately sized single aperture space telescope. Our concept synthesizes a nulling interferometer by shearing the telescope pupil, with the resultant producing a deep null. We describe nulling configurations that also include methods to mitigate stellar leakage, such as spatial filtering by a coherent array of single mode fibers, and post-starlight suppression wavefront sensing and control. With diffraction limited telescope optics and similar quality components in the optical train (lambda/20), suppression of the starlight to 1e-10 is readily achievable. We describe key features of the architecture and analysis, present latest results of laboratory measurements demonstrating achievable null depth and component development, and discuss future key technical milestones.

  15. One Approach to Senior Level Design in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. Report 09-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colella, Kurt J.

    The United States Coast Guard Academy has integrated a successful senior-level ship design course sequence into an undergraduate engineering curriculum in order to achieve specifically desired academic and professional outcomes. The Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering (NAME) curriculum discussed is designed to allow for efficient use of…

  16. Cultural Symbolism behind the Architectural Design of Mounds Park All-Nations Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornell; May, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    The architectural design of Mounds Park All-Nations Magnet School (St. Paul, Minnesota) incorporates cultural symbols representing the Native American worldview and Medicine Wheel Circle beliefs, as well as design elements from aboriginal housing styles, and colors and sculptured elements that reinforce the relationship of nature to building. (SV)

  17. 36 CFR 1281.4 - What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist...

  18. 36 CFR 1281.4 - What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist...

  19. 36 CFR 1281.4 - What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist is required by...

  20. 36 CFR 1281.4 - What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist...

  1. 36 CFR 1281.4 - What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and design standards for Presidential libraries? 1281.4 Section 1281.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.4 What are the architectural and design standards for Presidential libraries? The Archivist...

  2. A Methodology For Developing an Agent Systems Reference Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    are the start- ing point for the analysis process. 2.3 The Agent Systems Reference Architecture The Agent Systems Reference Architecture (ASRA) is an...process diagram from the common features across the agent framework implementations while documenting differences as points of variation. This abstract...architecture for the functional concept and the points for variation comprise the Process View. 3. Construct the Implementation View using the static

  3. Designing using Lego and Uno-Stacko: A Playful Architecture for an Integrated Kindergarten and Elementary School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthmainnah, K.; Aryanti, T.; Ardiansyah, A.

    2017-03-01

    The integrated kindergarten and elementary school is a public educational facility used for early age and elementary education. Designated for children at 4-12 years of age, the design should meet the standards and requirements, while considering children’s needs in their development phase. This paper discusses the design of an integrated kindergarten and elementary school using the playful theme. Design was explored using LEGO and UNO-STACKO to create spaces that accommodate material exploration for children. The design takes the play concept as a medium of child’s learning in order to improve their ability and awareness of the surrounding environment. The design translates the playful theme into imaginary dimension, constructive-deconstructive shapes, and glide circulations concept. The spatial pattern is applied by considering children’s behavior in the designated ages to trigger their creativity improvement. The design is expected to serve as a model of an integrated kindergarten and elementary school architecture.

  4. DAsHER CD: Developing a Data-Oriented Human-Centric Enterprise Architecture for EarthCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. P.; Yu, M.; Sun, M.; Qin, H.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges that face Earth scientists is the resource discovery, access, and sharing in a desired fashion. EarthCube is targeted to enable geoscientists to address the challenges by fostering community-governed efforts that develop a common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of collecting, accessing, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources, through the use of advanced technological and computational capabilities. Here we design an Enterprise Architecture (EA) for EarthCube to facilitate the knowledge management, communication and human collaboration in pursuit of the unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. The design results will provide EarthCube a reference framework for developing geoscience cyberinfrastructure collaborated by different stakeholders, and identifying topics which should invoke high interest in the community. The development of this EarthCube EA framework leverages popular frameworks, such as Zachman, Gartner, DoDAF, and FEAF. The science driver of this design is the needs from EarthCube community, including the analyzed user requirements from EarthCube End User Workshop reports and EarthCube working group roadmaps, and feedbacks or comments from scientists obtained by organizing workshops. The final product of this Enterprise Architecture is a four-volume reference document: 1) Volume one is this document and comprises an executive summary of the EarthCube architecture, serving as an overview in the initial phases of architecture development; 2) Volume two is the major body of the design product. It outlines all the architectural design components or viewpoints; 3) Volume three provides taxonomy of the EarthCube enterprise augmented with semantics relations; 4) Volume four describes an example of utilizing this architecture for a geoscience project.

  5. Resilient Monitoring Systems: Architecture, Design, and Application to Boiler/Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M.; Ravichandran, Maruthi T.

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this work is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified using Kullback-Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  6. GTAG: architecture and design of miniature transmitter with position logging for radio telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řeřucha, Šimon; Bartonička, Tomáš; Jedlička, Petr

    2011-10-01

    The radio telemetry is a well-known technique used within zoological research to exploit the behaviour of animal species. A usage of GPS for a frequent and precise position recording gives interesting possibility for a further enhancement of this method. We present our proposal of an architecture and design concepts of telemetry transmitter with GPS module, called GTAG, that is suited for study of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). The model group we study set particular constrains, especially the weight limit (9 g) and prevention of any power resources recharging technique. We discuss the aspect of physical realization and the energyconsumption issues. We have developed a reference implementation that has been already deployed during telemetry sessions and we evaluate the experience and compare the estimated performance of our device to a real data.

  7. Resilient monitoring systems: architecture, design, and application to boiler/turbine plant.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Humberto E; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence and shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  8. Resilient Monitoring Systems: Architecture, Design, and Application to Boiler/Turbine Plant

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M.; ...

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this work is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliencymore » is quantified using Kullback-Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.« less

  9. Architecture and Design of IP Broadcasting System Using Passive Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Sugawa, Jun; Ashi, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi

    We propose an IP broadcasting system architecture using passive optical networks (PON) utilizing the optical broadcast links of a PON with a downstream bandwidth allocation algorithm to provide a multi-channel IP broadcasting service to home subscribers on single broadband IP network infrastructures. We introduce the design and adaptation of the optical broadcast links to effectively broadcast video contents to home subscribers. We present a performance analysis that includes the downstream bandwidth utilization efficiency of the broadcast link and the bandwidth control of the IP broadcasting and Internet data. Our analysis and simulation results show that the proposed system can provide 100 HDTV channels to every user over fiber lines. We also propose an IPTV channel selection mechanism in an ONT by selecting a broadcast stream. We developed and evaluated a prototype that can achieve a 15-msec IPTV channel selection speed.

  10. NDARC-NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft Theoretical Basis and Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical basis and architecture of the conceptual design tool NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) are described. The principal tasks of NDARC are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of off-design missions and point operating conditions. The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated. The aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. NDARC provides a capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and attributes of advanced rotor concepts. The software has been implemented with low-fidelity models, typical of the conceptual design environment. Incorporation of higher-fidelity models will be possible, as the architecture of the code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization.

  11. Architecture and Children: Learning Environments and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne, Ed.; Muhlberger, Joe, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue addresses (1) growing international interest in learning environments and their effects on behavior, and (2) design education, an integrated model for visual-spatial lifelong learning. It focuses on this new and emerging integrated field which integrates elements in education, new learning environment design, and the use of more two-…

  12. Architecture and Children: Learning Environments and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne, Ed.; Muhlberger, Joe, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue addresses (1) growing international interest in learning environments and their effects on behavior, and (2) design education, an integrated model for visual-spatial lifelong learning. It focuses on this new and emerging integrated field which integrates elements in education, new learning environment design, and the use of more two-…

  13. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  14. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  15. RELAP5-3D Architectural Developments in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L. Mesina

    2004-08-01

    Currently, RELAP5 is undergoing a transformation that will replace much of its coding with equivalent structured Fortran 90 coding. Four efforts are underway to modernize the code architecture of RELAP5-3D. These are parallelization, vectorization, code restructuring, and conversion to Fortran 90. The first two improve code run speed via on computer platforms of certain architectures. These code modifications have little effect on normal code performance on non-vector and non-parallel computers because they are mostly done with compiler directives. The third and fourth efforts involve considerable rewriting of the source code. The third code improvement effort addresses code readability and maintainability. These are being greatly enhanced by application of a Fortran code-restructuring tool. The fourth effort is conversion to Fortran 90. The bulk of the coding is being rewritten in Fortran 90. This is a ground up reworking of the coding that begins with completely reorganizing the underlying database and continues with the source code. It will reach every part of RELAP5-3D. Each of these efforts is discussed in detail in a different section. Section 1 relates background information. Section 2 covers the parallelization effort. Section 3 covers the efforts to vectorize the code. Section 4 covers the code restructuring. Section 5 covers the Fortran 90 effort. Outline Background: longevity, maintenance & development, reliability, speed Parallelization: KAI to OpenMP, previous work & current, domain decomposition, done. Vectorization: Speed - Fed init, vectors in PCs, INL Cray SV1, R5 Phant, EXV, results. Code Restructuring: Reason to restructure, study of restruct, For Study: what it does, Fortran 90: Modernization -

  16. Application developer's tutorial for the CSM testbed architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Phillip; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    This tutorial serves as an illustration of the use of the programmer interface on the CSM Testbed Architecture (NICE). It presents a complete, but simple, introduction to using both the GAL-DBM (Global Access Library-Database Manager) and CLIP (Command Language Interface Program) to write a NICE processor. Familiarity with the CSM Testbed architecture is required.

  17. Architectural design of diamond-like carbon coatings for long-lasting joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2013-07-01

    Surface engineering through the application of super-hard, low-friction coatings as a potential approach for increasing the durability of metal-on-metal replacements is attracting significant attention. In this study innovative design strategies are proposed for the development of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings against the damage caused by wear particles on the joint replacements. Finite element modeling is used to analyze stress distributions induced by wear particles of different sizes in the newly-designed coating in comparison to its conventional monolithic counterpart. The critical roles of architectural design in regulating stress concentrations and suppressing crack initiation within the coatings is elucidated. Notably, the introduction of multilayer structure with graded modulus is effective in modifying the stress field and reducing the magnitude and size of stress concentrations in the DLC diamond-like-carbon coatings. The new design is expected to greatly improve the load-carrying ability of surface coatings on prosthetic implants, in addition to the provision of damage tolerance through crack arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Architectural Design for the Global Legal Information Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalpakis, Konstantinos

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we provide a summary of our activities regarding the goals, requirements analysis, design, and prototype implementation for the Global Legal Information Network, a joint effort between the Law Library of Congress and NASA.

  19. Advanced Design and Implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Alvarez, A.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.; Petras, R.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced design and implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers is presented using a hierarchical top-down task decomposition, and the common structure of each design is presented based on feedback control theory. Graphical programming is presented as a common intuitive language for the design when a large design team is composed of managers, architecture designers, engineers, programmers, and maintenance personnel. The whole design of the control architecture consists in the classic control concepts of cyclic data processing and event-driven reaction to achieve all the reasoning and behaviors needed. For this purpose, a commercial graphical tool is presented that includes the mentioned control capabilities. Messages queues are used for inter-communication among control functions, allowing Artificial Intelligence (AI) reasoning techniques based on queue manipulation. Experimental results show a highly autonomous control system running in real time on top the JPL micro-rover Rocky 7 controlling simultaneously several robotic devices. This paper validates the sinergy between Artificial Intelligence and classic control concepts in having in advanced Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers.

  20. Developing the architecture for the Climate Information Portal for Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Thijsse, Peter; Plieger, Maarten; Pascoe, Stephen; Jukes, Martin; Leadbetter, Adam; Goosen, Hasse; de Vreede, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    environment and society, but will develop an end to end processing chain (indicator toolkit), from comprehensive information on the climate state through to highly aggregated decision relevant products. This processing chain will be demonstrated within three thematic areas: water, rural and urban. Indicators of climate change and climate change impact will be provided, and a toolkit to update and post process the collection of indicators will be integrated into the portal. For the indicators three levels (Tiers) have been loosely defined: Tier 1: field summarising properties of the climate system; e.g. temperature change; Tier 2: expressed in terms of environmental properties outside the climate system; e.g. flooding change; Tier 3: expressed in social and economic impact. For the architecture, CLIPC has two interlocked themes: 1. Harmonised access to climate datasets derived from models, observations and re-analyses 2. A climate impact toolkit to evaluate, rank and aggregate indicators For development of the CLIPC architecture an Agile 'storyline' approach is taken. The storyline is a real world use case and consists of producing a Tier 3 indicator (Urban Heat Vulnerability) and making it available through the CLIPC infrastructure for a user group. In this way architecture concepts can be directly tested and improved. Also, the produced indicator can be shown to users to refine requirements. Main components of the CLIPC architecture are 1) Data discovery and access, 2) Data processing, 3) Data visualization, 4) Knowledge base and 5) User Management. The Data discovery and access component main challenge is to provide harmonized access to various sources of climate data (ngEO, EMODNET/SeaDataNet, ESGF, MyOcean). The discovery service concept will be provided using a CLIPC data and data product catalogue and via a structured data search on selected infrastructures, using NERC vocabulary services and mappings. Data processing will be provided using OGC WPS services, linking

  1. Architecture and design of a 500-MHz gallium-arsenide processing element for a parallel supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouts, Douglas J.; Butner, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the processing element of GASP, a GaAs supercomputer with a 500-MHz instruction issue rate and 1-GHz subsystem clocks, is presented. The novel, functionally modular, block data flow architecture of GASP is described. The architecture and design of a GASP processing element is then presented. The processing element (PE) is implemented in a hybrid semiconductor module with 152 custom GaAs ICs of eight different types. The effects of the implementation technology on both the system-level architecture and the PE design are discussed. SPICE simulations indicate that parts of the PE are capable of being clocked at 1 GHz, while the rest of the PE uses a 500-MHz clock. The architecture utilizes data flow techniques at a program block level, which allows efficient execution of parallel programs while maintaining reasonably good performance on sequential programs. A simulation study of the architecture indicates that an instruction execution rate of over 30,000 MIPS can be attained with 65 PEs.

  2. Architecture and design of a 500-MHz gallium-arsenide processing element for a parallel supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouts, Douglas J.; Butner, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the processing element of GASP, a GaAs supercomputer with a 500-MHz instruction issue rate and 1-GHz subsystem clocks, is presented. The novel, functionally modular, block data flow architecture of GASP is described. The architecture and design of a GASP processing element is then presented. The processing element (PE) is implemented in a hybrid semiconductor module with 152 custom GaAs ICs of eight different types. The effects of the implementation technology on both the system-level architecture and the PE design are discussed. SPICE simulations indicate that parts of the PE are capable of being clocked at 1 GHz, while the rest of the PE uses a 500-MHz clock. The architecture utilizes data flow techniques at a program block level, which allows efficient execution of parallel programs while maintaining reasonably good performance on sequential programs. A simulation study of the architecture indicates that an instruction execution rate of over 30,000 MIPS can be attained with 65 PEs.

  3. An Experimental Study in an Architectural Design Studio: The Search for Three-Dimensional Form and Aesthetics through Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamacli, Rusen; Ozen, Aysegul; Tokman, Leyla Yekdane

    2005-01-01

    In architectural design education, the main objective is to help students, especially first-year students, improve their design ideas, creativity, perception of three dimensions and ways of expressing them. Thus, as an embedded concept in architecture, art has been emphasized here as a design method. In other words, the necessary help to enable…

  4. Using an Analogical Thinking Model as an Instructional Tool to Improve Student Cognitive Ability in Architecture Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…

  5. Using an Analogical Thinking Model as an Instructional Tool to Improve Student Cognitive Ability in Architecture Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…

  6. An Experimental Study in an Architectural Design Studio: The Search for Three-Dimensional Form and Aesthetics through Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamacli, Rusen; Ozen, Aysegul; Tokman, Leyla Yekdane

    2005-01-01

    In architectural design education, the main objective is to help students, especially first-year students, improve their design ideas, creativity, perception of three dimensions and ways of expressing them. Thus, as an embedded concept in architecture, art has been emphasized here as a design method. In other words, the necessary help to enable…

  7. Judicious use of custom development in an open source component architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.; Latysh, N.; Long, D.; Tekell, S.; Allen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern software engineering is not as much programming from scratch as innovative assembly of existing components. Seamlessly integrating disparate components into scalable, performant architecture requires sound engineering craftsmanship and can often result in increased cost efficiency and accelerated capabilities if software teams focus their creativity on the edges of the problem space. ScienceBase is part of the U.S. Geological Survey scientific cyberinfrastructure, providing data and information management, distribution services, and analysis capabilities in a way that strives to follow this pattern. ScienceBase leverages open source NoSQL and relational databases, search indexing technology, spatial service engines, numerous libraries, and one proprietary but necessary software component in its architecture. The primary engineering focus is cohesive component interaction, including construction of a seamless Application Programming Interface (API) across all elements. The API allows researchers and software developers alike to leverage the infrastructure in unique, creative ways. Scaling the ScienceBase architecture and core API with increasing data volume (more databases) and complexity (integrated science problems) is a primary challenge addressed by judicious use of custom development in the component architecture. Other data management and informatics activities in the earth sciences have independently resolved to a similar design of reusing and building upon established technology and are working through similar issues for managing and developing information (e.g., U.S. Geoscience Information Network; NASA's Earth Observing System Clearing House; GSToRE at the University of New Mexico). Recent discussions facilitated through the Earth Science Information Partners are exploring potential avenues to exploit the implicit relationships between similar projects for explicit gains in our ability to more rapidly advance global scientific cyberinfrastructure.

  8. Designing a Component-Based Architecture for the Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Fuels and Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, Jay Jay; Elwasif, Wael R; Hively, Lee M; Bernholdt, David E; Hetrick III, John M; Bohn, Tim T

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the environment and energy security have recently prompted renewed interest in the U.S. in nuclear energy. Recognizing this, the U.S. Dept. of Energy has launched an initiative to revamp and modernize the role that modeling and simulation plays in the development and operation of nuclear facilities. This Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program represents a major investment in the development of new software, with one or more large multi-scale multi-physics capabilities in each of four technical areas associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as additional supporting developments. In conjunction with this, we are designing a software architecture, computational environment, and component framework to integrate the NEAMS technical capabilities and make them more accessible to users. In this report of work very much in progress, we lay out the 'problem' we are addressing, describe the model-driven system design approach we are using, and compare them with several large-scale technical software initiatives from the past. We discuss how component technology may be uniquely positioned to address the software integration challenges of the NEAMS program, outline the capabilities planned for the NEAMS computational environment and framework, and describe some initial prototyping activities.

  9. An expert system for the selection of building elements during architectural design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibaba, Halil Zafer

    This thesis explains the development stages of an expert system for the evaluation and selection of building elements during the early stages of architectural design. This expert system is called BES. It is produced after two prototypes were established. Testing of BES is made on professional architects who are from both academia and the practical construction market of Northern Cyprus. BES is intended to be used by experienced and inexperienced architects. The model includes selection of all kinds of main building elements that are available like retaining walls, foundations, external walls, internal walls, floors, external stairs, internal stairs, roofs, external chimneys, internal chimneys, windows and external doors and internal doors and their sub-type building elements. The selection is achieved via SMART Methodology depending on the performance requirements and an expert system shell Exsys Corvid version 1.2.14 is used to structure the expert system. The use of computers in today's world is very important with its advantages in handling vast amount of data. The use of the model through Internet makes the model international, and a useful design aid for architects. In addition, the decision-making feature of this model provides a suitable selection among numerous alternatives. The thesis also explains the development and the experience gained through use of the BES. It discusses the further development of the model.

  10. Design for Effective Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagren, Alan T.

    This paper presents a model for designing an effective staff development program. The rationale, philosophy, and instructional design utilized in the instructional Staff Development (ISD) program provides the basis for the design presented. The ISD program was conceptualized, developed, pilot tested, and field tested as a cooperative research…

  11. Local Design Methodologies for a Hierarchic Control Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-12

    decentralized manner. This design is based on the concept of the disturbance information "flowing" along the structure as " waves ". A control...computer. This design is based on a view of the disturbances "flowing"along a structure as " waves ", and the implementation is done in such a way as to...Company, New York, 1986 [47] Miller, D., Modelling and Active Modification of Wave Scattering in Struc- tural Networks, ScD Thesis, MIT Department of

  12. The Co Design Architecture for Exascale Systems, a Novel Approach for Scalable Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Michael; Shainer, Gilad; Poole, Stephen W; Shamis, Pavel; Wilde, Todd; Pak, Lui; Liu, Tong; Dubman, Mike; Shahar, Yiftah; Graham, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    High performance computing (HPC) has begun scaling beyond the Petaflop range towards the Exaflop (1000 Petaflops) mark. One of the major concerns throughout the development toward such performance capability is scalability both at the system level and the application layer. In this paper we present a novel approach for a new design concept the Co Design approach with enables a tighter development of both the application communication libraries and the underlying hardware interconnect solution in order to overcome scalability issues and to enable a more efficient design approach towards Exascale computing. We have suggested a new application programing interface and have demonstrated a 50x improvement of performance and scalability increases.

  13. Spatial organization of genome architecture in neuronal development and disease.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yuki; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2017-07-28

    Although mammalian genomes encode genetic information in their linear sequences, their fundamental function with regard to gene expression depends on the higher-order structure of chromosomes. Current techniques for the evaluation of chromosomal structure have revealed that genomes are arranged at several hierarchical levels in three-dimensional space. The spatial organization of genomes involves the formation of chromatin loops that bypass a wide range of genomic distances, providing a connection between enhancers and chromosomal domains. Furthermore, they form chromatin domains that are arranged into chromosome territories in the three-dimensional space of the cell nucleus. Recent studies have shown that the spatial organization of the genome is essential for normal brain development and function. Activity-dependent alterations in the spatial organization of the genome can regulate transcriptional activity related to neuronal plasticity. Disruptions in the higher-order chromatin architecture have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as cognitive dysfunction and anxiety. Here, we discuss the growing interest in the role of genome organization in brain development and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Adaptation of pancreatic islet cyto-architecture during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegel, Deborah A.; Hara, Manami; Periwal, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    Plasma glucose in mammals is regulated by hormones secreted by the islets of Langerhans embedded in the exocrine pancreas. Islets consist of endocrine cells, primarily α, β, and δ cells, which secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, respectively. β cells form irregular locally connected clusters within islets that act in concert to secrete insulin upon glucose stimulation. Varying demands and available nutrients during development produce changes in the local connectivity of β cells in an islet. We showed in earlier work that graph theory provides a framework for the quantification of the seemingly stochastic cyto-architecture of β cells in an islet. To quantify the dynamics of endocrine connectivity during development requires a framework for characterizing changes in the probability distribution on the space of possible graphs, essentially a Fokker-Planck formalism on graphs. With large-scale imaging data for hundreds of thousands of islets containing millions of cells from human specimens, we show that this dynamics can be determined quantitatively. Requiring that rearrangement and cell addition processes match the observed dynamic developmental changes in quantitative topological graph characteristics strongly constrained possible processes. Our results suggest that there is a transient shift in preferred connectivity for β cells between 1-35 weeks and 12-24 months.

  15. Developing a scalable modeling architecture for studying survivability technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Syed; Bounker, Paul; Mason, James; Brister, Jason; Shady, Dan; Tucker, David

    2006-05-01

    To facilitate interoperability of models in a scalable environment, and provide a relevant virtual environment in which Survivability technologies can be evaluated, the US Army Research Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Modeling Architecture for Technology Research and Experimentation (MATREX) Science and Technology Objective (STO) program has initiated the Survivability Thread which will seek to address some of the many technical and programmatic challenges associated with the effort. In coordination with different Thread customers, such as the Survivability branches of various Army labs, a collaborative group has been formed to define the requirements for the simulation environment that would in turn provide them a value-added tool for assessing models and gauge system-level performance relevant to Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Survivability requirements of other burgeoning programs. An initial set of customer requirements has been generated in coordination with the RDECOM Survivability IPT lead, through the Survivability Technology Area at RDECOM Tank-automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, Warren, MI). The results of this project are aimed at a culminating experiment and demonstration scheduled for September, 2006, which will include a multitude of components from within RDECOM and provide the framework for future experiments to support Survivability research. This paper details the components with which the MATREX Survivability Thread was created and executed, and provides insight into the capabilities currently demanded by the Survivability faculty within RDECOM.

  16. Hybrid Architectures and Their Impact on Intelligent Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandel, Abe

    1996-01-01

    In this presentation we investigate a novel framework for the design of autonomous fuzzy intelligent systems. The system integrates the following modules into a single autonomous entity: (1) a fuzzy expert system; (2) artificial neural network; (3) genetic algorithm; and (4) case-base reasoning. We describe the integration of these units into one intelligent structure and discuss potential applications.

  17. Peeling the Onion: Okapi System Architecture and Software Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses software design issues for Okapi, an information retrieval system that incorporates both search engine and user interface and supports weighted searching, relevance feedback, and query expansion. The basic search system, adjacency searching, and moving toward a distributed system are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  18. Dependability Modeling with the Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    louse, France, August 27, 2004. http://www.laas.fr/ FERIA /SVF/WADL04/slides/CONCORDE2- 27-1100-VESTAL/BinnsVestalADLWorkshop.ppt [Feiler 2004] Feiler...Design Languages at the 18th IFIP World Computer Congress. Toulouse, France, August 27, 2004. http://www.laas.fr/ FERIA /SVF/WADL04/slides/CONCORDE2-27

  19. Peeling the Onion: Okapi System Architecture and Software Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses software design issues for Okapi, an information retrieval system that incorporates both search engine and user interface and supports weighted searching, relevance feedback, and query expansion. The basic search system, adjacency searching, and moving toward a distributed system are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  20. Design of structures against fire. Civil engineering/buildings, architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Anchor, R.D.; Malhotra, H.L.; Purkiss, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The book covers structural design criteria, along with background theory on fire protection methods for structures from a variety of materials, including timber, steel, and concrete. Research on the behavior of structural materials in the presence of fire is highlighted, and the need for fire-resistant materials is addressed.

  1. Architecture for Education: New School Designs from the Chicago Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mark; Moelis, Cindy S.; Clarke, Pamela H.; Hendrickson, Jamie; Nowaczewski, Jeanne L.; Haar, Sharon

    This volume documents the work that resulted from the Chicago Public Schools Design Competition, explaining research and policies underlying the competition's criteria. The volume has three parts. Book 1, "The Chicago Experience," written by the competition's organizers, describes the competition's process and explains how it allowed community…

  2. Integrating Computer Architectures into the Design of High-Performance Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Leyland, Jane A.; Warmbrodt, William

    1986-01-01

    Modern control systems must typically perform real-time identification and control, as well as coordinate a host of other activities related to user interaction, on-line graphics, and file management. This paper discusses five global design considerations that are useful to integrate array processor, multimicroprocessor, and host computer system architecture into versatile, high-speed controllers. Such controllers are capable of very high control throughput, and can maintain constant interaction with the non-real-time or user environment. As an application example, the architecture of a high-speed, closed-loop controller used to actively control helicopter vibration will be briefly discussed. Although this system has been designed for use as the controller for real-time rotorcraft dynamics and control studies in a wind-tunnel environment, the control architecture can generally be applied to a wide range of automatic control applications.

  3. Design and "restoration": the Roots of Architecture Porject for the Built

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, C.

    2017-05-01

    It is absolutely essential now to prepare a project of pre-critical understanding of the building which will be the object of action, free from preconceived notions of value, fully committed to the implementation of a variety of useful and indispensable to determine that operating margin and freedom that each architecture has not being linked uniquely to the precise original function. This is the margin that you can leverage to implement the architectural project for the built that mutuerà inside knowledge, conservation and innovation at the same time. The binomials in the lead paragraph as all sides of the same coin that merge into one integrated design process that takes charge of design including those different styles of drafting of survey (in all aspects) of an existing architecture.

  4. The Design of a Fault-Tolerant COTS-Based Bus Architecture for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio N.; Alkalai, Leon; Tai, Ann T.

    2000-01-01

    The high-performance, scalability and miniaturization requirements together with the power, mass and cost constraints mandate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and standards in the X2000 avionics system architecture for deep-space missions. In this paper, we report our experiences and findings on the design of an IEEE 1394 compliant fault-tolerant COTS-based bus architecture. While the COTS standard IEEE 1394 adequately supports power management, high performance and scalability, its topological criteria impose restrictions on fault tolerance realization. To circumvent the difficulties, we derive a "stack-tree" topology that not only complies with the IEEE 1394 standard but also facilitates fault tolerance realization in a spaceborne system with limited dedicated resource redundancies. Moreover, by exploiting pertinent standard features of the 1394 interface which are not purposely designed for fault tolerance, we devise a comprehensive set of fault detection mechanisms to support the fault-tolerant bus architecture.

  5. Surface curvature in triply-periodic minimal surface architectures as a distinct design parameter in preparing advanced tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Blanquer, Sébastien B G; Werner, Maike; Hannula, Markus; Sharifi, Shahriar; Lajoinie, Guillaume P R; Eglin, David; Hyttinen, Jari; Poot, André A; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2017-04-12

    Reproduction of the anatomical structures and functions of tissues using cells and designed 3D scaffolds is an ongoing challenge. For this, scaffolds with appropriate biomorphic surfaces promoting cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation are needed. In this study, eight triply-periodic minimal surface (TPMS)-based scaffolds were designed using specific trigonometric equations, providing the same porosity and the same number of unit cells, while presenting different surface curvatures. The scaffolds were fabricated by stereolithography using a photocurable resin based on the biocompatible, biodegradable and rubber-like material, poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC). A numerical approach was developed to calculate the surface curvature distributions of the TPMS architectures. Moreover, the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, micro-computed tomography and water permeability measurements. These original scaffold architectures will be helpful to decipher the biofunctional role of the surface curvature of scaffolds intended for tissue engineering applications.

  6. Building a prototype of a Martian base in Poland, an architectural design overview and progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Janek

    This talk focuses on recent advances in the construction of a prototype 1000 m2 Martian out-post for 8 inhabitants. The architectural design for such a Martian base has been presented previously on COSPAR 2008, the presentation being entitled ,,Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission". The presentation was welcomed with warm interest by various institutions, some of which offered help in building a prototype such as providing the building site or funding. This year's oral presentation will focus on a progress report and will briefly describe the architectural design. The architectural design is inspired by terrestrial pneumatic architecture. It has small volume, can be easily transported and provides a large habitable space. An architectural solution analo-gous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. The spatial placement of the following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as garage and workshop. Further attention was paid to transportation routes and a control and communications center. The issues of a life support system, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least one and a half year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation. The prototype of such a Polish-origin Martian outpost will be used in a manner similar to MDRS or FMARS but to a larger extent. The prototype's design itself will be tested and corrected to achieve a design which can be used on Mars. The procedure of unfolding the pneumatic modules and floor leveling will be tested. The 1000 m2 interior will be used for various simulation exercises: socio-psychological testing, interior arrangement experiments

  7. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang; Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-10-02

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part "how to design superior electrode architectures". In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Memristor-Based Computing Architecture: Design Methodologies and Circuit Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    simply consists of an NMOS transistor (Q) and a memristor. When the input Vin is low, the transistor Q is turned off. Thus, the output Vout is...connected to ground through the memristor. Conversely, when Vin is high, turning Q on, the memristance M and the equivalent transistor resistance (RQ...synapse design was dependent on the equivalent resistance (effectively, the size) of the Q transistor (RQ). A larger Q would offer a wider range of Vout

  9. Internet-Protocol-Based Satellite Bus Architecture Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywczak, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is designing future complex satellite missions ranging from single satellites and constellations to space networks and sensor webs. These missions require more interoperability, autonomy, and coordination than previous missions; in addition, a desire exists to have scientists retrieve data directly from the satellite rather than a central distribution source. To meet these goals, NASA has been studying the possibility of extending the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite for spacebased applications.

  10. A Web Centric Architecture for Deploying Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Design Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woyak, Scott; Kim, Hongman; Mullins, James; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2004-01-01

    There are continuous needs for engineering organizations to improve their design process. Current state of the art techniques use computational simulations to predict design performance, and optimize it through advanced design methods. These tools have been used mostly by individual engineers. This paper presents an architecture for achieving results at an organization level beyond individual level. The next set of gains in process improvement will come from improving the effective use of computers and software within a whole organization, not just for an individual. The architecture takes advantage of state of the art capabilities to produce a Web based system to carry engineering design into the future. To illustrate deployment of the architecture, a case study for implementing advanced multidisciplinary design optimization processes such as Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis is discussed. Another example for rolling-out a design process for Design for Six Sigma is also described. Each example explains how an organization can effectively infuse engineering practice with new design methods and retain the knowledge over time.

  11. Development of the Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex

    PubMed Central

    Boyan, George S.; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The central complex represents one of the most conspicuous neuroarchitectures to be found in the insect brain and regulates a wide repertoire of behaviors including locomotion, stridulation, spatial orientation and spatial memory. In this review article, we show that in the grasshopper, a model insect system, the intricate wiring of the fan-shaped body (FB) begins early in embryogenesis when axons from the first progeny of four protocerebral stem cells (called W, X, Y, Z, respectively) in each brain hemisphere establish a set of tracts to the primary commissural system. Decussation of subsets of commissural neurons at stereotypic locations across the brain midline then establishes a columnar neuroarchitecture in the FB which is completed during embryogenesis. Examination of the expression patterns of various neurochemicals in the central complex including neuropeptides, a neurotransmitter and the gas nitric oxide (NO), show that these appear progressively and in a substance-specific manner during embryogenesis. Each neuroactive substance is expressed by neurons located at stereotypic locations in a given central complex lineage, confirming that the stem cells are biochemically multipotent. The organization of axons expressing the various neurochemicals within the central complex is topologically related to the location, and hence birthdate, of the neurons within the lineages. The neurochemical expression patterns within the FB are layered, and so reflect the temporal topology present in the lineages. This principle relates the neuroanatomical to the neurochemical architecture of the central complex and so may provide insights into the development of adaptive behaviors. PMID:27630548

  12. Systems budgets architecture and development for the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Shan; Flagey, Nicolas; Szeto, Kei; Murowinski, Rick; McConnachie, Alan

    2016-08-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project is an enterprise to upgrade the existing Canada-France- Hawaii observatory into a spectroscopic facility based on a 10 meter-class telescope. As such, the project relies on engineering requirements not limited only to its instruments (the low, medium and high resolution spectrographs) but for the whole observatory. The science requirements, the operations concept, the project management and the applicable regulations are the basis from which these requirements are initially derived, yet they do not form hierarchies as each may serve several purposes, that is, pertain to several budgets. Completeness and consistency are hence the main systems engineering challenges for such a large project as MSE. Special attention is devoted to ensuring the traceability of requirements via parametric models, derivation documents, simulations, and finally maintaining KAOS diagrams and a database under IBM Rational DOORS linking them together. This paper will present the architecture of the main budgets under development and the associated processes, expand to highlight those that are interrelated and how the system, as a whole, is then optimized by modelling and analysis of the pertinent system parameters.

  13. Energy Conservation and Solar Retrofitting for Existing Buildings in Oregon: An Architectural Design Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. School of Architecture and Allied Arts.

    Five privately owned homes and two university owned homes were examined by architecture students in order to formulate design alternatives to fit the houses with solar collection, storage, and control devices for supplementing domestic space and/or water heating. General principles advanced include why energy conservation and solar retrofitting…

  14. The Design of Geo-Spatial Metadata Architecture for Digital Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.-X.; Zhang, J.; Cao, Y.-B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper analyzes the significance of geospatial metadata technology in the "Digital Boundary" project. In the study of boundary data types and characteristics, the architecture framework of geospatial metadata is designed. It lays foundation for establishing detailed content of all kinds of metadata as the next step.

  15. Shifting Engagements in Figured Worlds: Middle School Mathematics Students' Participation in an Architectural Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2005-01-01

    Project-based curricula have the potential to engage students' interests. But how do students become interested in the goals of a project? This article documents how a group of 8th-grade students participated in an architectural design project called the Antarctica Project. The project is based on the imaginary premise that students need to design…

  16. Shifting Engagements in Figured Worlds: Middle School Mathematics Students' Participation in an Architectural Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2005-01-01

    Project-based curricula have the potential to engage students' interests. But how do students become interested in the goals of a project? This article documents how a group of 8th-grade students participated in an architectural design project called the Antarctica Project. The project is based on the imaginary premise that students need to design…

  17. The Architecture of Peer Assessment: Do Academically Successful Students Make Good Teammates in Design Assignments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between architecture and construction management students' overall academic abilities (as measured by Weighted Average Marks [WAMs]), their peer ratings for contributions to team design assignments (as measured by an online Self-and-Peer-Assessment [SAPA] tool), and their specific abilities as building…

  18. The Architecture of Peer Assessment: Do Academically Successful Students Make Good Teammates in Design Assignments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between architecture and construction management students' overall academic abilities (as measured by Weighted Average Marks [WAMs]), their peer ratings for contributions to team design assignments (as measured by an online Self-and-Peer-Assessment [SAPA] tool), and their specific abilities as building…

  19. Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

  20. Information Architecture for the Web: The IA Matrix Approach to Designing Children's Portals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Andrew; Beheshti, Jamshid; Cole, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Presents a matrix that can serve as a tool for designing the information architecture of a Web portal in a logical and systematic manner. Highlights include interfaces; metaphors; navigation; interaction; information retrieval; and an example of a children's Web portal to provide access to museum information. (Author/LRW)