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Sample records for development joint development

  1. Joint shape morphogenesis precedes cavitation of the developing hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Nowlan, Niamh C; Sharpe, James

    2014-01-01

    The biology and mechanobiology of joint cavitation have undergone extensive investigation, but we have almost no understanding of the development of joint shape. Joint morphogenesis, the development of shape, has been identified as the ‘least understood aspect of joint formation’ (2005, Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 75, 237), despite the clinical relevance of shape morphogenesis to postnatal skeletal malformations such as developmental dysplasia of the hip. In this study, we characterise development of early hip joint shape in the embryonic chick using direct capture 3D imaging. Contrary to formerly held assumptions that cavitation precedes morphogenesis in joint development, we have found that the major anatomical features of the adult hip are present at Hamburger Hamilton (HH)32, a full day prior to cavitation of the joint at HH34. We also reveal that the pelvis undergoes significant changes in orientation with respect to the femur, despite the lack of a joint cavity between the rudiments. Furthermore, we have identified the appearance of the ischium and pubis several developmental stages earlier than was previously reported, illustrating the value and importance of direct capture 3D imaging. PMID:24266523

  2. Synovial joints: from development to homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, Lara; Li, Tieshi; Tagliafierro, Lidia; Temple, Joseph D; Willcockson, Helen H; Ye, Ping; Esposito, Alessandra; Xu, Fuhua; Spagnoli, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Synovial joint morphogenesis occurs through the condensation of mesenchymal cells into a non-cartilaginous region known as the interzone and the specification of progenitor cells that commit to the articular fate. Although several signaling molecules are expressed by the interzone, the mechanism is poorly understood. For treatments of cartilage injuries, it is critical to discover the presence of joint progenitor cells in adult tissues and their expression gene pattern. Potential stem cell niches have been found in different joint regions, such as the surface zone of articular cartilage, synovium, and groove of Ranvier. Inherited joint malformations as well as joint-degenerating conditions are often associated with other skeletal defects and may be seen as the failure of morphogenic factors to establish the correct microenvironment in cartilage and bone. Therefore, exploring how joints form can help us understand how cartilage and bone are damaged and develop drugs to reactivate this developing mechanism.

  3. Synovial Joints: from Development to Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tieshi; Tagliafierro, Lidia; Temple, Joseph D.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Ye, Ping; Esposito, Alessandra; Xu, Fuhua; Spagnoli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Synovial joint morphogenesis occurs through the condensation of mesenchymal cells into a non-cartilaginous region known as interzone, and the specification of progenitor cells that commit to the articular fate. Although several signaling molecules are expressed by the interzone, the mechanism is poorly understood. For treatments of cartilage injuries, it is critical to discover the presence of joint progenitor cells in adult tissues and their expression gene pattern. Potential stem cells niches have been found in different joint regions, such as the surface zone of articular cartilage, synovium and groove of Ranvier. Inherited joint malformation as well as joint degenerating conditions are often associated with other skeletal defects, and may be seen as the failure of morphogenic factors to establish the correct microenvironment in cartilage and bone. Therefore, exploring how joints form can help us understand how cartilage and bone are damaged and to develop drugs to reactivate this developing mechanism. PMID:25431159

  4. Development of the human elbow joint.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J A; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Espín-Ferra, J; Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Jiménez-Collado, J

    2000-02-01

    Many studies have been published on the development of the human elbow joint, but authors disagree on its morphogenetic timetable. Most discrepancies center on the cavitation of the elbow joint (including the humeroradial, humeroulnar, and superior radioulnar joints), and the organization of the tunnel of the ulnar nerve. We summarize our observations on the development of the elbow joint in 49 serially sectioned human embryonic (n = 28) and fetal (n = 21) upper limbs. During week 12, ossification begins in the epiphyses of the elements comprising the elbow joint. At the end of the embryonic period, the shallow groove between the posterior aspect of the medial epicondyle and the olecranon process, begins to be visible. The elbow joint cavity appears in O'Rahilly stage 21 (51 days) at the level of the humeroulnar and humeroradial interzones. Formation of the cavity begins at the medialmost portion of the humeroradial interzone and the lateralmost portion of the humeroulnar interzone. The annular ligament begins to develop in O'Rahilly stage 21 (51 days), and the superior radioulnar joint cavity appears between this ligament and the lateral aspect of the head of the radius during O'Rahilly stage 23 (56 days). We established the morphogenetic timetable of the human elbow joint.

  5. Spherical Joint Piston and Connecting Rod Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy, the NASA Lewis Research Center manages a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Technology (HDET) research program. The overall program objectives are to reduce fuel consumption through increased engine efficiency, reduce engine exhaust emissions, and provide options for the use of alternative fuels. The program is administered with a balance of research contracts, university research grants, and focused in-house research. The Cummins Engine Company participates in the HDET program under a cost-sharing research contract. Cummins is researching and developing in-cylinder component technologies for heavy-duty diesel engines. An objective of the Cummins research is to develop technologies for a low-emissions, 55-percent thermal efficiency (LE-55) engine. The best current-production engines in this class achieve about 46-percent thermal efficiency. Federal emissions regulations are driving this technology. Regulations for heavy duty diesel engines were tightened in 1994, more demanding emissions regulations are scheduled for 1998, and another step is planned for 2002. The LE-55 engine emissions goal is set at half of the 1998 regulation level and is consistent with plans for 2002 emissions regulations. LE-55 engine design requirements to meet the efficiency target dictate a need to operate at higher peak cylinder pressures. A key technology being developed and evaluated under the Cummins Engine Company LE-55 engine concept is the spherical joint piston and connecting rod. Unlike conventional piston and connecting rod arrangements which are joined by a pin forming a hinged joint, the spherical joint piston and connecting rod use a ball-and-socket joint. The ball-and-socket arrangement enables the piston to have an axisymmetric design allowing rotation within the cylinder. The potential benefits of piston symmetry and rotation are reduced scuffing, improved piston ring sealing, improved lubrication, mechanical and thermal

  6. Atypical molecular profile for joint development in the avian costal joint.

    PubMed

    Winslow, B B; Burke, A C

    2010-10-01

    Development of synovial joints involves generation of cartilaginous anlagen, formation of interzones between cartilage anlagen, and cavitation of interzones to produce fluid filled cavities. Interzone development is not fully understood, but interzones are thought to develop from skeletogenic cells that are inhibited from further chondrogenic development by a cascade of gene expression including Wnt and Bmp family members. We examined the development of the rarely studied avian costal joint to better understand mechanisms of joint development. The costal joint is found within ribs, is morphologically similar to the metatarsophalangeal joint, and undergoes cavitation in a similar manner. In contrast to other interzones, Wnt14/9a, Gdf5, Chordin, Barx1, and Bapx1 are absent from the costal joint interzone, consistent with the absence of active β-catenin and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. However Autotaxin and Noggin are expressed. The molecular profile of the costal joint suggests there are alternative mechanisms of interzone development. PMID:20730871

  7. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  8. Developing a pharmaceutical formulary for joint military medical operations.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Marc L

    2005-02-01

    This article describes the development of a standardized formulary for medical contingency operations for any theater of operations. The article compares peacetime health care systems within the Department of Defense and the formulary systems developed and used within the fixed facility environment with Department of Defense contingency health care operations systems and the complications encountered while attempting formulary development for the deployed environment. Despite great difficulties, the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board developed, published, and marketed a jointly approved, standardized, modernized formulary to assist forces deploying for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The process used by the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board during formulary development is described in detail, giving readers an understanding of the foundations of the Joint Deployment Formulary. The military departments will experience the benefits of enhanced supply chain predictability and responsiveness, increased clinician satisfaction, and improved patient safety and health care quality by implementing the Joint Deployment Formulary for their forces engaged in contingency operations. PMID:15782828

  9. The Development of Action Planning in a Joint Action Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus.…

  10. Temperamental and Joint Attentional Predictors of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda J.; Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in child temperament have been associated with individual differences in language development. Similarly, relationships have been reported between early nonverbal social communication (joint attention) and both temperament and language. The present study examined whether individual differences in joint attention might…

  11. Children's Developing Commitments to Joint Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated young children's commitment to a joint goal by assessing whether peers in collaborative activities continue to collaborate until all received their rewards. Forty-eight 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children worked on an apparatus dyadically. One child got access to her reward early. For the partner to benefit as well, this child…

  12. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 570—Community Development Block Grants, subpart C—Eligible Activities. These... in accordance with 24 CFR part 58 must be carried out by the State or unit of general local... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Joint Community Development...

  13. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 570—Community Development Block Grants, subpart C—Eligible Activities. These... in accordance with 24 CFR part 58 must be carried out by the State or unit of general local... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Joint Community Development...

  14. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 570—Community Development Block Grants, subpart C—Eligible Activities. These... in accordance with 24 CFR part 58 must be carried out by the State or unit of general local... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Joint Community Development...

  15. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 570—Community Development Block Grants, subpart C—Eligible Activities. These... in accordance with 24 CFR part 58 must be carried out by the State or unit of general local... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Joint Community Development...

  16. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under 24 CFR part 570—Community Development Block Grants, subpart C—Eligible Activities. These... in accordance with 24 CFR part 58 must be carried out by the State or unit of general local... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint Community Development...

  17. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  18. Development of invar joint for hydrogen transfer line in JSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Ooi, M.; Kai, T.; Maekawa, F.; Futakawa, M.

    2012-12-01

    A plan of 2nd moderator fabrication in JSNS is under way. In terms of low thermal expansion, invar joints, such as Invar-Al and Invar-SS316L joints, were developed by friction welding method as a component of hydrogen transfer line. Mechanical tests such as tensile tests, were carried out at room and cold (77 K) temperature conditions. Especially, Invar-SS316L joint gave high tensile strength (yield strength: ca. 20% higher and ultimate strength: ca. 2.5 times higher) and large strain at 77 K, and fractured not at bonding interface but at base metal of invar. In case of Invar-Al joint, it also gave high yield strength, but fracture was occurred at bonding interface. However, these joints will be available for component of hydrogen transfer line.

  19. Development of the Butt Joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2006-08-23

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) requires compact and reliable joints for its Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). The baseline design is a diffusion bonded butt joint. In such a joint the mating cables are compacted to a very low void fraction in a copper sleeve and then heat treated. After the heat treatment the ends are cut, polished and aligned against each other and then diffusion bonded under high compression in a vacuum chamber at 750 C. The jacket is then welded on the conductor to complete the joint, which remarkably does not require more room than a regular conductor. This joint design is based on a proven concept developed for the ITER CS Model Coil that was successfully tested in the previous R&D phase.

  20. Development of a Specific Finite Element for Timber Joint Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, Thierry; Van Parys, Laurent; Datoussaïd, Sélim

    2011-01-01

    Widely used for light frame structures or for heavy laminated wood structures, dowel-type fasteners are the most commonly used kind of connectors in timber construction. The purpose of this work is to develop a tool for the semi-rigid analysis and design of such joints. Firstly, interests and approaches described in literature for the semi-rigid modeling of timber plane frames are summarized. Secondly, for a better understanding of the problem, the main characteristics of wood used as a structural material are presented. Finally, a method for an efficient study of joints built with dowel-type fasteners is proposed and developed. This method consists of the introduction of a specific finite element called "Finite Semi-Rigid Element (FSRE)" between the ends of the jointed members. This joint element consists of two nodes, each with three degrees of freedom. These nodes will be tied with common beamelements during the FE analysis. The stiffness of the FSRE is computed from the geometry of the joints and embedding stiffness of all fasteners, along and perpendicular to the grain. The embedding characteristics of fasteners are defined with help of their experimental load-slip curves (fitted with Foschi's models) leading finally to the resolution of a FE non-linear problem.

  1. The development of action planning in a joint action context.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus. Their task was to hand the experimenter a tool with which she could activate 1 of 2 different effects on the apparatus. The elicitation of each effect required participants to grasp and insert the tool in a particular orientation. We assessed whether participants planned their grasping and reaching action in such a way that it enabled the partner to efficiently handle the tool, that is, anticipating the final end state of the joint activity. We found that 3-year-old children did not adjust their behavior to accommodate the other's action and that they did not increase their performance over multiple trials. Five- and 7-year-old children initially showed a tendency to plan their action in an egocentric manner (i.e., showed a form of egocentrism), but improved their joint action performance over time. Adult participants demonstrated joint action planning from the beginning. Interestingly, 3- and 5-year-old children were able to plan their grasp efficiently when acting alone on the apparatus. Yet, having first-hand experience with the task before acting with a partner did not facilitate performance in the joint action task for younger children. Overall, the study informs current approaches on the psychological basis and ontogenetic origins of joint action in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337512

  2. Development of restraint material and tucked fabric joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmullen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and select a suitable restraint material for the exterior of space suits pressurized to 4.0 PSID for normal operations, and to develop and improve tucked fabric joints for motions associated with the human shoulder, elbow, knee, waist, hip, ankle, and wrist. The many attributes of the end items are summarized to include structural integrity, simplicity, low maintenance, lightweight, high durability, low elongation, full range mobility, long life, and resistance to degradation in the operational environment.

  3. The joint DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Repa, J.V. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The joint Department of Defense (DoD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Munitions Technology Development Program is a cooperative, jointly funded effort of research and development to improve nonnuclear munitions technology across all service mission areas. This program is enabled under a Memorandum of Understanding, approved in 1985 between the DoD and the DOE, that tasks the nuclear weapons laboratories of the DOE to solve problems in conventional defense. The selection of the technical areas to be investigated is based on their importance to the military services, the needs that are common to the conventional and nuclear weapons programs, the expertise of the performing organization, and the perceived benefit to the overall national defense efforts. The research benefits both DoD and DOE programs; therefore, funding, planning, and monitoring are joint activities. Technology Coordination Groups (TCGs), organized by topical areas, serve as technology liaisons between the DoD and DOE for the exchange of information. The members of the TCGs are technical experts who meet semiannually in an informal workshop format to coordinate multiagency requirements, establish project plans, monitor technical activity, and develop classification guidance. A technical advisory committee of senior DoD and DOE managers administers the program and provides guidance on policy and strategy. The abstracts in this volume were collected from the technical progress report for fiscal year 1993. The annual report is organized by major technology areas. Telephone and fax numbers for the principal contacts are provided with each abstract.

  4. The design and development of a finger joint simulator.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Artificial finger joints lack the long-term clinical success seen with hip and knee prostheses. In part, this can be explained by the challenges of rheumatoid arthritis, a progressive disease which attacks surrounding tissues as well as the joint itself. Therefore, the natural finger joints' biomechanics are adversely affected, and consequently, this imbalance due to subluxing forces further challenges any prosthesis. Many different designs of finger prosthesis have been offered over a period of greater than 50 years. Most of these designs have failed, and it is likely that many of these failures could have been identified had the prostheses been appropriately tested prior to implantation into patients. While finger joint simulators have been designed, arguably only those from a single centre have been able to reproduce clinical-type failures of the finger prostheses tested in them. This article describes the design and development of a finger simulator at Durham University, UK. It explains and justifies the engineering decisions made and thus the evolution of the finger simulator. In vitro results and their linkage to clinical-type failures are outlined to help to show the effectiveness of the simulator. Failures of finger implants in vivo continue to occur, and the need for appropriate in vitro testing of finger prostheses remains strong.

  5. The design and development of a finger joint simulator.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Artificial finger joints lack the long-term clinical success seen with hip and knee prostheses. In part, this can be explained by the challenges of rheumatoid arthritis, a progressive disease which attacks surrounding tissues as well as the joint itself. Therefore, the natural finger joints' biomechanics are adversely affected, and consequently, this imbalance due to subluxing forces further challenges any prosthesis. Many different designs of finger prosthesis have been offered over a period of greater than 50 years. Most of these designs have failed, and it is likely that many of these failures could have been identified had the prostheses been appropriately tested prior to implantation into patients. While finger joint simulators have been designed, arguably only those from a single centre have been able to reproduce clinical-type failures of the finger prostheses tested in them. This article describes the design and development of a finger simulator at Durham University, UK. It explains and justifies the engineering decisions made and thus the evolution of the finger simulator. In vitro results and their linkage to clinical-type failures are outlined to help to show the effectiveness of the simulator. Failures of finger implants in vivo continue to occur, and the need for appropriate in vitro testing of finger prostheses remains strong. PMID:26833697

  6. New methods being developed to field inspect plastic joints

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, R.S.

    1983-03-01

    The ultimate objective of this Gas Research Institute (GRI) research is to develop a portable NDE system to assist polyethylene (PE) pipe installers in detecting heat-fusion joint flaws. It is expected that this system will complement the current visual inspection techniques so that high quality PE pipe systems are installed as gas distribution mains and services. It is pointed out that of the nearly 25,000 miles of new gas distribution mains and services installed each year in the US, over 80% is PE pipe.

  7. Development of a New Joint Geometry for FSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penalva, M. L.; Otaegi, A.; Pujana, J.; Rivero, A.

    2009-11-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an emerging solid state joining technology that allows welding most aluminum alloys that otherwise are difficult to weld by using conventional fusion based technologies. The technology is of particular interest for transport applications, since welded structures are considered to offer cost and weight savings. From a point of view of the joint geometries, FSW is mature for simple configurations. Most work to date has concentrated on butt welds and, only to a certain degree, on overlap configurations. Different designs such as T-sections, corner welds, box sections… are then principally restricted to the use of butt weld configurations. However, it is necessary for FSW to be able to be applied to new geometries in order to spread its use to a wider range of applications. Present work explores the feasibility of producing corner fillet geometries using FSW. Although such a kind of geometry has traditionally been considered unfeasible for the process, it seems to have the greatest potential to be used for T-joint configurations, a recurrent design pattern in transport applications. In order to study the feasibility of the proposed new joint geometry, a specific tool has been developed and a set of welds has been produced with it. Microstructure of the produced welds has been analyzed. According to the obtained results, the proposed joint geometry seems to be feasible. Main problem pending to solve is how to avoid the formation of a tunnel defect in the weld centre line due to a suck effect of the tool on the stirred material. Further improvements are proposed to produce welds with acceptable quality.

  8. Distribution of elastic fibres in the developing rabbit craniomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Nagy, N B; Daniel, J C

    1991-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of the CMJ disc depend upon the composition and organization of the extracellular matrix. Elastic fibres are important elements of the matrix and may be in part responsible for the resilience of the disc during jaw movements. Elastic fibres first appeared after the establishment of a miniature CMJ at 23 days of prenatal development. The first elastic fibres appeared in the antero-inferior and postero-inferior attachment regions of the disc. In the newborn rabbit there were elastic fibres in the articulating surfaces of the joint and by one week fibres could be seen in the intermediate zone portion of the disc. At two weeks, when the animals were beginning to experiment with solid food, the disc band areas showed accumulations of elastic fibres and proteoglycans. The findings suggest that the elastic elements of the disc, squamosal and condylar articulations may have a resilience function which develops in response to functional loads placed upon the joint as the rabbit grows and changes diet.

  9. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Development Ventures § 295.23 Dissolution of joint research and development ventures. Upon dissolution of any joint research and development venture receiving funds under these procedures or at a time otherwise... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research...

  10. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The...

  11. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  12. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  13. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  14. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  15. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  16. Study on changes in skin extensibility during the development of joint contracture due to joint immobilization in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tasaka, Atsushi; Ono, Takeya; Oki, Sadaaki; Umei, Namiko; Ishikura, Hideki; Aihara, Kazuki; Sato, Yuta; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether skin extensibility decreases when a contracture develops as a result of joint immobilization. [Subjects] This study was conducted on six female Wistar rats. [Methods] The rats were divided into two experimental groups. In the immobilized group, the right ankle joints were immobilized in complete plantar flexion by plaster casts for two weeks. In the control group, the left ankle joints had no intervention. On the final day, skin extensibility was determined from a length-tension curve by collecting skin from the posterior aspect of the ankle joint and using a tensile strength tester. [Results] Compared with the control group, the immobilized group showed a significant decrease in skin extensibility. [Conclusion] The results demonstrated that the extensibility of the skin itself decreases when joint contracture develops. PMID:26504268

  17. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  18. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

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  1. Southeast Asian seas: joint development of hydrocarbons in overlapping claim areas

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, M.J.; Miyoshi, M.

    1986-01-01

    There are ocean areas of overlapping claims in Southeast Asia with significant petroleum potential which appear to be candidates for joint development, a process in which boundary disputes are set aside and the claimants jointly explore and exploit any hydrocarbon resources in such areas. Factors influencing the choice of joint development are delineated and described. The best candidate areas for joint development in Southeast Asia are the areas of overlap between Vietnam and Kampuchea in the eastern Gulf of Thailand and the Timor gap between Indonesia and Australia. The overlap between Vietnam and China in the Gulf of Tonkin and parts of the Dangerous Ground could become candidates for joint development if political relations change. Joint development schemes include agreement on the extent of the area in question, on the contractual system, and on the degree of autonomy and authority of the joint development body. Hypothetical schemes for joint development of some candidate areas are described. Although joint development is neither the optimal nor the permanent solution to unresolved boundaries, it will look increasingly attractive if the need for oil intensifies and precedents mount. 5 figures.

  2. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  3. Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Explores the theories and models of self-actualization and human development. Twelve tables illustrate developmental stages, ways of knowing, moral and ethical development, management style, goals of learning, organizational development, and other dimensions. Availability: M.E.A.D. Subscriptions, C.S.M.L., University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1…

  4. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  5. Mouse genetic models for temporomandibular joint development and disorders

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, A; Iwata, J

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a synovial joint essential for hinge and sliding movements of the mammalian jaw. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are dysregulations of the muscles or the TMJ in structure, function, and physiology, and result in pain, limited mandibular mobility, and TMJ noise and clicking. Although approximately 40–70% adults in the USA have at least one sign of TMD, the etiology of TMD remains largely unknown. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of TMD in mouse models. PMID:26096083

  6. Genetic Influences on Temporomandibular Joint Development and Growth.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Robert J; Jing, Junjun; Feng, Jian Q

    2015-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a small synovial joint at which the mandible articulates with the skull during movements involved in speaking and mastication. However, the secondary cartilage lining its joint surfaces is indicative of a very different developmental history than limb cartilages. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genes that regulate the formation of primary components of the TMJ, as well as genes that regulate postnatal growth of the TMJ. Although the TMJ is regulated by some of the same genes that are important in limb joints, others appear unique to the TMJ or have different actions. Runx2, Sox9, and members of the TGF-β/BMP family are critical drivers of chondrogenesis during condylar cartilage morphogenesis, and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is important for formation of the articular disc and cavitation. Osterix (Osx) is a critical regulator of endochondral bone formation during postnatal TMJ growth. PMID:26589922

  7. High current density, cryogenically cooled sliding electrical joint development

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.

    1986-09-01

    In the past two years, conceptual designs for fusion energy research devices have focussed on compact, high magnetic field configurations. The concept of sliding electrical joints in the large magnets allows a number of technical advantages including enhanced mechanical integrity, remote maintainability, and reduced project cost. The rationale for sliding electrical joints is presented. The conceptual configuration for this generation of experimental devices is highlghted by an approx. 20 T toroidal field magnet with a flat top conductor current of approx. 300 kA and a sliding electrical joint with a gross current density of approx. 0.6 kA/cm/sup 2/. A numerical model was used to map the conductor current distribution as a function of time and position in the conductor. A series of electrical joint arrangements were produced against the system code envelope constraints for a specific version of the Ignition Studies Project (ISP) which is designated as 1025.

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  12. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  13. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  14. Development of assembly and joint concepts for erectable space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemin, G. G.; Bluck, R. M.; Grotbeck, G. H.; Johnson, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    The technology associated with the on-orbit assembly of tetrahedral truss platforms erected of graphite epoxy tapered columns is examined. Associated with the assembly process is the design and fabrication of nine member node joints. Two such joints demonstrating somewhat different technology were designed and fabricated. Two methods of automatic assembly using the node designs were investigated, and the time of assembly of tetrahedral truss structures up to 1 square km in size was estimated. The effect of column and node joint packaging on the Space Shuttle cargo bay is examined. A brief discussion is included of operating cost considerations and the selection of energy sources. Consideration was given to the design assembly machines from 5 m to 20 m. The smaller machines, mounted on the Space Shuttle, are deployable and restowable. They provide a means of demonstrating the capabilities of the concept and of erecting small specialized platforms on relatively short notice.

  15. Development of a Enhanced Thermal Barrier for RSRM Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P. H.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber rope is being considered as replacement for the RTV thermal barrier that is currently used to protect o-rings in RSRM nozzle joints, Performance requirements include its ability to cool propellant gases filter slag and particulates, and conform to various joint assembly conditions as well as dynamic flight motion. Testing has shown its superior heat resistance, even in oxidative and corrosive environments. Testing has also demonstrated excellent performance of this system in sub-scale motors. Cold flow testing, has demonstrated its ability to conform to motor dynamics. Manufacture and assembly testing have demonstrated the ease of gland machining as well as assembly in a full-scale nozzle.

  16. Partnerships between Public Schools and Private Developers. A Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoudian, Maria

    The California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee investigated several "joint venture" partnerships between school districts and the private sector to develop school district-owned properties to determine the feasibility of such innovative school construction projects. This report presents findings from seven of these public/private…

  17. Organisational Learning in International Joint Ventures: Implications for Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrell, Mike; Gloet, Marianne; Wright, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Malaysian and Australian managers enrolled in a training program exhibited differences attributed to national culture in their approaches to learning, influences on management behavior, and ways of knowing. National culture had greater influence on management development and organizational learning than did organizational or systems cultures.…

  18. Minority Business Participation in Public/Private Partnerships: A Manual on Joint Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Celestino M.; And Others

    The Urban Mass Transportation Association promotes Commercial real estate development projects in and adjacent to transit facilities as a means of generating additional revenues to defray part of local transit agency operating cost. Transit-related real estate development, or joint development, provides unique financial benefits for investors and…

  19. Library development and the joint commission on accreditation of hospitals standards.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, E C

    1979-01-01

    The author traces the historical development of standards for library services prepared by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, emphasizing those elements of the present standards that auger well for the development of libraries in hospitals. Then examined are the role of librarians and new roles for libraries, stressing sound management practices that ensure continued development. PMID:288490

  20. Development of molded, coated fabric joints: Fabric construction criteria for a spacesuit elbow joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a molded, coated fabric elbow joint capable of operating reliably at 8 psi internal pressure for extended periods of flexure is considered. The overall design of the joint includes: (1) selection of heatsettable fiber of sufficient strengths; (2) choosing an optimum fabric construction; (3) a fatigue resistant; flexible coating; and (4) a molding technique. A polyester yarn of type 56 Dacron and a urethane coating system were selected. The relationships between yarn and weave parameters which lead to an optimum fabric construction for the 8 psi elbow joint are defined.

  1. Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.; Raver, Sharon A.; Michalek, Anne M. P.; Wilson, Corinne L.

    2013-01-01

    All eligible infants and toddlers who receive early intervention services under Part C of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are entitled to service coordination. To examine the effectiveness of one state's service coordination training and its impact on knowledge and skill development, a pretest--posttest design with follow-up…

  2. Development of Synovial Membrane in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, R.C.; Arraéz-Aybar, L.A.; Klein, O.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities. PMID:26708184

  3. Working better together: joint leadership development for doctors and managers.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, there have been tensions between frontline healthcare professionals and managers, with well-known stereotypes of difficult consultants and pen-pushing managers. Many junior doctors have limited management experience and have often never even met a manager prior to taking on a consultant role. Based on a successful programme pioneered by Dr Robert Klaber (Imperial, London) we have set-up an innovative scheme for Birmingham Children's Hospital, pairing junior doctors and managers to learn and work together. Our aim was to cultivate positive attitudes and understanding between the two groups, break down inter-professional barriers, and to provide practical leadership experience and education. We recruited 60 managers and doctors to participate in shadowing, conversation, and quality improvement projects. Thought-provoking online materials, blogs, socials, and popular monthly workshops consisting of patient-focused debate and discussion around key leadership themes, have helped to support learning and cement shared values. Formal evaluation has demonstrated an improvement in how participants perceive their knowledge and ability based on key NHS Leadership Framework competencies. Participant feedback has been extremely positive, and everyone plans to continue to incorporate Paired Learning into their continuing professional development. We are now embedding Paired Learning in the on-going educational programme offered at Birmingham Children's Hospital, whilst looking at extending the scheme to include different professional groups and other trusts across the region and nationally. PMID:27493738

  4. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  5. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  6. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to became more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children’s symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across four years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver’s actions. PMID:24266591

  7. Forces in bolted joints: analysis methods and test results utilized for nuclear core applications (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, P.J.; Keller, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    Analytical methods and test data employed in the core design of bolted joints for the LWBR core are presented. The effects of external working loads, thermal expansion, and material stress relaxation are considered in the formulation developed to analyze joint performance. Extensions of these methods are also provided for bolted joints having both axial and bending flexibilities, and for the effect of plastic deformation on internal forces developed in a bolted joint. Design applications are illustrated by examples.

  8. Cellular aspects of the development of diarthrodial joints and articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, C W; Morrison, H; Pitsillides, A A

    1994-01-01

    There have been many reports on the histological development of mammalian diarthrodial or synovial joints. While these are useful for comparative purposes, they tell us little of the cellular basis of joint morphogenesis which must underlie a number of morphogenetic defects. The process of joint morphogenesis is complex and can be subdivided into a number of facets and this report will focus on 2 of them. First, the process of joint cavitation in the chick metatarsophalangeal joint, where we propose that the selective secretion of hyaluronan into the presumptive cavity plays a central role. Secondly, the development of articular cartilage where we have used the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica as a model for mammalian development. Like most marsupials, the young are born at a much earlier developmental stage than eutherian mammals. Using antibodies which detect proliferating chondrocytes and those synthesising insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 and insulin-like growth factor 1 binding protein, we report that the majority of growth (as assessed by these indicators) appears appositional. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7928634

  9. Morphogen-based simulation model of ray growth and joint patterning during fin development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Paquette, Mathieu; Tweedle, Valerie; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée

    2012-03-01

    The fact that some organisms are able to regenerate organs of the correct shape and size following amputation is particularly fascinating, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) caudal fin has emerged as a model system for the study of bone development and regeneration. The fin comprises 16 to 18 bony rays, each containing multiple joints along its proximodistal axis that give rise to segments. Experimental observations on fin ray growth, regeneration and joint formation have been described, but no unified theory has yet been put forward to explain how growth and joint patterns are controlled. We present a model for the control of fin ray growth during development and regeneration, integrated with a model for joint pattern formation, which is in agreement with published, as well as new, experimental data. We propose that fin ray growth and joint patterning are coordinated through the interaction of three morphogens. When the model is extended to incorporate multiple rays across the fin, it also accounts for how the caudal fin acquires its shape during development, and regains its correct size and shape following amputation. PMID:22318227

  10. Finite element modelling predicts changes in joint shape and cell behaviour due to loss of muscle strain in jaw development.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Lucy H; Norton, Joanna L; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J; Hammond, Chrissy L

    2015-09-18

    Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Using zebrafish, in which we can image all joint musculoskeletal tissues at high resolution, we show that removal of muscle activity through anaesthetisation or genetic manipulation causes a change to the shape of the joint between the Meckel's cartilage and Palatoquadrate (the jaw joint), such that the joint develops asymmetrically leading to an overlap of the cartilage elements on the medial side which inhibits normal joint function. We identify the time during which muscle activity is critical to produce a normal joint. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), to model the strains exerted by muscle on the skeletal elements, we identify that minimum principal strains are located at the medial region of the joint and interzone during mouth opening. Then, by studying the cells immediately proximal to the joint, we demonstrate that biomechanical strain regulates cell orientation within the developing joint, such that when muscle-induced strain is removed, cells on the medial side of the joint notably change their orientation. Together, these data show that biomechanical forces are required to establish symmetry in the joint during development. PMID:26253758

  11. Finite element modelling predicts changes in joint shape and cell behaviour due to loss of muscle strain in jaw development

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Lucy H.; Norton, Joanna L.; Bright, Jen A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Using zebrafish, in which we can image all joint musculoskeletal tissues at high resolution, we show that removal of muscle activity through anaesthetisation or genetic manipulation causes a change to the shape of the joint between the Meckel's cartilage and Palatoquadrate (the jaw joint), such that the joint develops asymmetrically leading to an overlap of the cartilage elements on the medial side which inhibits normal joint function. We identify the time during which muscle activity is critical to produce a normal joint. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), to model the strains exerted by muscle on the skeletal elements, we identify that minimum principal strains are located at the medial region of the joint and interzone during mouth opening. Then, by studying the cells immediately proximal to the joint, we demonstrate that biomechanical strain regulates cell orientation within the developing joint, such that when muscle-induced strain is removed, cells on the medial side of the joint notably change their orientation. Together, these data show that biomechanical forces are required to establish symmetry in the joint during development. PMID:26253758

  12. Development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Hutchins, E. L.; Barr, Ronald E.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model that represents human elbow flexion-extension and forearm pronation-supination. The length, velocity, and moment arm for each of the eight musculotendon actuators were based on skeletal anatomy and position. Musculotendon parameters were determined for each actuator and verified by comparing analytical torque-angle curves with experimental joint torque data. The parameters and skeletal geometry were also utilized in the musculoskeletal model for the analysis of ballistic elbow joint complex movements. The key objective was to develop a computational model, guided by parameterized optimal control, to investigate the relationship among patterns of muscle excitation, individual muscle forces, and movement kinematics. The model was verified using experimental kinematic, torque, and electromyographic data from volunteer subjects performing ballistic elbow joint complex movements.

  13. The joint development of orientation and ocular dominance: role of constraints.

    PubMed

    Piepenbrock, C; Ritter, H; Obermayer, K

    1997-07-01

    Correlation-based learning (CBL) has been suggested as the mechanism that underlies the development of simple-cell receptive fields in the primary visual cortex of cats, including orientation preference (OR) and ocular dominance (OD) (Linsker, 1986; Miller, Keller, & Stryker, 1989). CBL has been applied successfully to the development of OR and OD individually (Miller, Keller, & Stryker, 1989; Miller, 1994; Miyashita & Tanaka, 1991; Erwin, Obermayer, & Schulten, 1995), but the conditions for their joint development have not been studied (but see Erwin & Miller, 1995, for independent work on the same question) in contrast to competitive Hebbian models (Obermayer, Blasdel, & Schulten, 1992). In this article, we provide insight into why this has been the case: OR and OD decouple in symmetric CBL models, and a joint development of OR and OD is possible only in a parameter regime that depends on nonlinear mechanisms. PMID:9221108

  14. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2014-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner), [Adamson, L. B., 2004], were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages…

  15. Early Interests and Joint Engagement in Typical Development, Autism, and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Deckner, Deborah F.; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by…

  16. Mechanical testing and development of the helical field coil joint for the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.E.; Bryan, W.E.; Goranson, P.L.; Warwick, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The helical field (HF) coil set for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is an M = 12, l = 2, constant-ratio torsatron winding consisting of 2 coils, each with 14 turns of heavy copper conductor. The coils are divided into 24 identical segments to facilitate fabrication and minimize the assembly schedule. The segments are connected across through-bolted lap joints that must carry up to 124,000 A per turn for 5 s or 62,500 A steady-state. In addition, the joints must carry the high magnetic and thermal loads induced in the conductor and still fit within the basic 140- by 30-mm copper envelope. Extensive testing and development were undertaken to verify and refine the basic joint design. Tests included assembly force and clamping force for various types of misalignment; joint resistance as a function of clamping force; clamp bolt relaxation due to thermal cycling; fatigue testing of full-size, multiturn joint prototypes; and low-cycle fatigue and tensile tests of annealed CDA102 copper. The required performance parameters and actual test results, as well as the final joint configuration, are presented. 2 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Design and technical support for development of a molded fabric space suit joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. Howard

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has under design a new joint or element for use in a space suit. The design concept involves molding a fabric to a geometry developed at Ames. Unusual characteristics of this design include the need to produce a fabric molding draw ratio on the order of thirty percent circumferentially on the surface. Previous work done at NASA on molded fabric joints has shown that standard, NASA qualified polyester fabrics as are currently available in the textile industry for use in suits have a maximum of about fifteen percent draw ratio. NASA has done the fundamental design for a prototype joint and of a mold which would impart the correct shape to the fabric support layer of the joint. NASA also has the capability to test a finished product for suitability and reliability. Responsibilities resting with Georgia Tech in the design effort for this project are textile related, namely fiber selection, fabric design to achieve the properties of the objective design, and determining production means and sources for the fabrics. The project goals are to produce a prototype joint using the NASA design for evaluation of effectiveness by NASA, and to establish the sources and specifications which would allow reliable and repeatable production of the joint.

  18. Development of Bonded Joint Technology for a Rigidizable-Inflatable Deployable Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2006-01-01

    Microwave and Synthetic Aperture Radar antenna systems have been developed as instrument systems using truss structures as their primary support and deployment mechanism for over a decade. NASA Langley Research Center has been investigating fabrication, modular assembly, and deployment methods of lightweight rigidizable/inflatable linear truss structures during that time for large spacecraft systems. The primary goal of the research at Langley Research Center is to advance these existing state-of-the-art joining and deployment concepts to achieve prototype system performance in a relevant space environment. During 2005, the development, fabrication, and testing of a 6.7 meter multi-bay, deployable linear truss was conducted at Langley Research Center to demonstrate functional and precision metrics of a rigidizable/inflatable truss structure. The present paper is intended to summarize aspects of bonded joint technology developed for the 6.7 meter deployable linear truss structure while providing a brief overview of the entire truss fabrication, assembly, and deployment methodology. A description of the basic joint design, surface preparation investigations, and experimental joint testing of component joint test articles will be described. Specifically, the performance of two room temperature adhesives were investigated to obtain qualitative data related to tube folding testing and quantitative data related to tensile shear strength testing. It was determined from the testing that a polyurethane-based adhesive best met the rigidizable/inflatable truss project requirements.

  19. Design and development testing of the bonded joint between a typical launch vehicle attachment ring and CFRP thrust cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, J. T.; Nayler, G. H. F.; Reynolds, J.

    1986-02-01

    The development of the principal structural joint of a Shuttle payload is described. The joint is subjected to large tension and compression loads due to the spacecraft being cantilevered perpendicular to the direction of flight of the launch vehicle. Finite element modeling was included in the investigation of joint designs. A bonded and bolted double lap shear configuration was chosen. Manufacturing and inspection methods were developed and testing of joint samples was undertaken including static, thermal and fatigue loading. The static test results were used to determine the design allowable strength of the joint.

  20. Analysis of EDZ Development of Columnar Jointed Rock Mass in the Baihetan Diversion Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xian-Jie; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Due to the time dependency of the crack propagation, columnar jointed rock masses exhibit marked time-dependent behaviour. In this study, in situ measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), back-analysis method and numerical simulations are presented to study the time-dependent development of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around underground diversion tunnels in a columnar jointed rock mass. Through in situ measurements of crack propagation and EDZ development, their extent is seen to have increased over time, despite the fact that the advancing face has passed. Similar to creep behaviour, the time-dependent EDZ development curve also consists of three stages: a deceleration stage, a stabilization stage, and an acceleration stage. A corresponding constitutive model of columnar jointed rock mass considering time-dependent behaviour is proposed. The time-dependent degradation coefficient of the roughness coefficient and residual friction angle in the Barton-Bandis strength criterion are taken into account. An intelligent back-analysis method is adopted to obtain the unknown time-dependent degradation coefficients for the proposed constitutive model. The numerical modelling results are in good agreement with the measured EDZ. Not only that, the failure pattern simulated by this time-dependent constitutive model is consistent with that observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in situ observation, indicating that this model could accurately simulate the failure pattern and time-dependent EDZ development of columnar joints. Moreover, the effects of the support system provided and the in situ stress on the time-dependent coefficients are studied. Finally, the long-term stability analysis of diversion tunnels excavated in columnar jointed rock masses is performed.

  1. Development of High Temperature Dissimilar Joint Technology for Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is developing fission surface power (FSP) system technology as a potential option for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. The goal is to design a robust system that takes full advantage of existing materials data bases. One of the key components of the power conversion system is the hot-side Heat Exchanger (HX). One possible design for this heat exchanger requires a joint of the dissimilar metals 316L stainless steel and Inconel 718, which must sustain extended operation at high temperatures. This study compares two joining techniques, brazing and diffusion bonding, in the context of forming the requisite stainless steel to superalloy joint. The microstructures produced by brazing and diffusion bonding, the effect of brazing cycle on the mechanical tensile properties of the alloys, and the strength of several brazed joints will be discussed.

  2. Early interests and joint engagement in typical development, autism, and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Deckner, Deborah F; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-06-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by diagnosis and relatively stable across intermissions. In autism, interest in people tended to be low and to decline rapidly, and the balance of interests favored familiar objects over people. Lower interest in people and in unfamiliar objects was associated with less coordinated joint engagement and with less steep developmental trajectories for symbol-infused joint engagement. These findings suggest that variations in interests may contribute to differences in the child's engagement during social interactions that facilitate the acquisition of language.

  3. Characterization of bulk stainless steel joints developed through microwave hybrid heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Amit; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Das, Shantanu

    2014-05-01

    Processing of metallic materials through microwave heating is a challenging area of research. In the present work, joining of stainless steel-316 to stainless steel-316 in the bulk form has been carried out by placing stainless steel-316 powder at the interface and through targeted heating using microwave hybrid heating. The trials were carried out in a multimode microwave applicator at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and power 900 W. The developed joints were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope and measurement of Vicker's microhardness, porosity and tensile strength. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of the developed joint shows the presence of chromium carbide, iron carbide and iron silicide phases that eventually contribute to enhancement of the microhardness of the joint. The scanning electron microscope micrographs confirm classical metallurgical bonding between the substrate and the interface (molten powder) layer; the epitaxial growth rate was observed adjacent to the fusion zone. The average observed Vicker's microhardness in the joint zone on the grain boundary was significantly higher than that inside the grains due to the presence of various hard phases at the grain boundaries. Evaluation of the tensile strength of the joints showed an average ultimate tensile strength of 425.0 MPa with an average elongation of 9.44%. - Highlights: • Joining of stainless steel (SS-316) plates using microwave hybrid heating • Epitaxial growth rate observed adjacent to the fusion zone of welded joint • The ultimate tensile strength of the order of 425.0 MPa with 9.44% elongation.

  4. Structural development of laminar flow control aircraft chordwise wing joint designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.; Jerstad, N. M.; Gallimore, F. H., Jr.; Pollard, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    For laminar flow to be achieved, any protuberances on the surface must be small enough to avoid transition to turbulent flow. However, the surface must have joints between the structural components to allow assembly or replacement of damaged parts, although large continuous surfaces can be utilized to minimize the number the number of joints. Aircraft structural joints usually have many countersunk bolts or rivets on the outer surface. To maintain no mismatch on outer surfaces, it is desirable to attach the components from the inner surface. It is also desirable for the panels to be interchangeable, without the need for shims at the joint, to avoid surface discontinuities that could cause turbulence. Fabricating components while pressing their outer surfaces against an accurate mold helps to ensure surface smoothness and continuity at joints. These items were considered in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the joint design concepts. After evaluating six design concepts, two of the leading candidates were fabricated and tested using many small test panels. One joint concept was also built and tested using large panels. The small and large test panel deflections for the leading candidate designs at load factors up to +1.5 g's were well within the step and waviness requirements for avoiding transition.The small panels were designed and tested for compression and tension at -65 F, at ambient conditions, and at 160 F. The small panel results for the three-rib and the sliding-joint concepts indicated that they were both acceptable. The three-rib concept, with tapered splice plates, was considered to be the most practical. A modified three-rib joint that combined the best attributes of previous candidates was designed, developed, and tested. This improved joint met all of the structural strength, surface smoothness, and waviness criteria for laminar flow control (LFC). The design eliminated all disadvantages of the initial three-rib concept except for

  5. Statistic study on developing condition of horizontal columnar joints in Jeongja and Eupchon beach areas, SE Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, K.; Kim, Y.; Geologic Structure; Geohazard Research Group

    2010-12-01

    Unusual patterns of columnar joints are developed in Tertiary volcanic rocks along the Jeongja and Eupchon beach areas, SE Korea. The columnar joints represent various features in shape and orientation, including horizontal and inclined column distribution. The shape and orientation of columnar joints were statistically analyzed to understand the causes of the unusual column patterns. For this purpose, the shape of the column face perpendicular to the column direction and the trend and plunge of the column are analyzed. Most columnar joints in the study areas have five or six column faces, and the column diameter perpendicular to the column direction is in a range of between 30 to 50 cm. Columnar joints generally develop vertically due to cooling from both top and bottom surfaces. However, unusual horizontal and inclined columnar joints are observed in the study areas. Therefore, the horizontal and inclined columnar joints developed in the study areas may suggest abnormal cooling condition. The volcanic rocks in the study areas intruded or extruded in late Miocene (22-16 Ma), which coincides with a period of high sea level in the Miocene. The sea level is almost the same as the present sea level. This may suggest that the unusual columnar joint patterns that have developed in the study areas may have been affected by sea water. Therefore, if the characteristics of these columnar joints are more intensively studied on a morphological, petrological, geochemical, and chronological level, we can better understand the developing mechanism of horizontal columnar joints.

  6. 77 FR 38088 - Development of the Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement; Request of the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... BUDGET Development of the Joint Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement; Request of the U.S... Strategic Plan on Intellectual Property Enforcement. By committing to common goals, the U.S. Government will... IP Act, IPEC is charged with developing the Administration's Joint Strategic Plan on...

  7. First Phase Development of Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator and Its Current Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    The first phase of the Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator (KJJVC) development has been completed and installed to correlate the observed data from KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) in October 2009. KJJVC is able to process 16 stations, a maximum of 8 Gbps/station, and 8,192 output channels for VLBI data. The system configuration, the experimental results, and future plans are introduced in this paper.

  8. The physician/hospital joint venture. Developing a win/win strategy for success. Part II: Joint venture strategies and considerations.

    PubMed

    Shorr, A S

    1987-05-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," examines the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this second part of the series, the author examines the internal and external issues that must be addressed to ensure success and the types of information that must be gathered.

  9. Morphometric study of the fetal development of the human hip joint: significance for congenital hip disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. M.; Goldsmith, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Hip joints (280) from 140 human fetuses, obtained from abortions and deaths in the perinatal period, were studied. The fetuses ranged from 8.7 to 40 cm in crown-rump length and are believed to be between 12 and 42 weeks in age. The joints were dissected, morphology inspected, and measurements taken of the depth and diameter of the acetabulum, the diameter of the femoral head, length and width of the ligament of the head, the neck-shaft, and torsion angles of the proximal femur. Regression models were fitted to determine which would best predict the growth pattern. Multivariate analysis of variance showed no significant differences between males and females or between the right and left sides. Acetabular depth was shown to be the slowest-growing hip variable, increasing less than fourfold in the period studied. Acetabular indices less than 50 percent indicate a shallow socket at term. Femoral head and acetabular diameter demonstrated a strong relationship (r = 0.860) and in many joints the femoral head diameter exceeded that of the acetabulum. Considerable variability was demonstrated in both femoral angles. The femoral angles showed only low correlation with the other hip variables. These observations indicate that soft tissue structures about the joint must play an important role in neonatal joint stability. The explanation of greater female and left side involvement in congenital hip disease must lie in factors other than growth changes of hip dimensions. Neither angle appears to be a useful indicator of normal joint development. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 13 PMID:7342490

  10. The physician/hospital joint venture. Developing a win/win strategy for success. Part I: The first step: developing the environment.

    PubMed

    Shorr, A B

    1987-02-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," will examine the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this first article, the author emphasizes the organization's need to develop a strategic plan that includes a program for attracting physicians. It also points out the need for sensitivity to physicians' concerns and provides examples of successes and failures.

  11. Alterations of the Temporomandibular Joint on Magnetic Resonance Imaging according to Growth and Development in Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tatsurou; Konoo, Tetsuro; Habu, Manabu; Oda, Masafumi; Kito, Shinji; Kodama, Masaaki; Kokuryo, Shinya; Wakasugi-Sato, Nao; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Nishida, Ikuko; Morikawa, Kazumasa; Saeki, Katsura; Maki, Kenshi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Masumi, Shin-ichi; Terashita, Masamichi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The paper explains the alterations of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the growth and development of schoolchildren. Appearance and disappearance of a “double contour-like structure” (DCLS) of the mandibular condyle on MRI according to the growth and development of schoolchildren were demonstrated. In addition, possible constituents of DCLS and the significance of detection of DCLS on MRI were also speculated. The relationship between red marrow and yellow marrow in the articular eminence of temporal bone, the disappearance of DCLS, and alterations of the mandibular condyle have been elucidated. PMID:23316233

  12. [Experimental research of the influences on the development of the hip joints with excavated acetabula].

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Chen, X; Tang, C

    1996-12-01

    There are still arguments about the operation excavated acetabula treatments for the congenital dislocation of the hip. To inquire into the influences on the development of the hip joints with excavated acetabula size, we divided 60 two-month-old chickens into three groups which were given incised dislocation and then reduction partly excavated the cartilages of the acetabula and excavated them totally to the left hips respectively. Contrasting observation of all the experimental chickens was taken on the right ones of their own. The second group achieved a fair function of the joint movement. Limited and slight adhesion was not affecting the development of the joints seriously. The third group had, on the contrary, poor functions because of the comprehensive adhesion in the acetabula. The surfaces of the acetabula were replaced by fabric tissue. The remaining or regenerating cartilage cells vary obviously under the light scope and the electronic scope. The heads of the femurs had changed similarly. It is suggested that in dealing with the congenital dislocation of the hip, excavating the acetabola cartilage is not advisable. Partly excavating is permitted when a limited bony process existing in the bottom of the acetabula. PMID:9590781

  13. Development of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in rats: a preliminary experimental study.

    PubMed

    Porto, G; Vasconcelos, B; Silva, V

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for the development of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in rats using disc removal and articular damage. In 30 adult male Wistar rats, articular damage was induced and disc removal performed in the right joint to induce ankylosis. The rats were divided into groups according to the time of killing (7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days). Maximal mouth opening, mandibular deviation, initial and final weights, and duration of surgery were recorded and evaluated. After death, the joints were submitted to histological study in order to score the ankylosis. The mean duration of surgery was 14.23 min. Mean difference between initial and final maximal mouth opening was 3.38 mm, being greatest at the 15-day evaluation and lowest at 90 days, and was statistically significant at 15 days (p=0.043), 30 days (p=0.027) and 60 days (p=0.027). No mandibular deviation was observed at any of the evaluation times. Histological scores increased with time of evaluation from 7 to 30 days, when they started to fall. This study model permitted the development of fibrous ankylosis in the majority of the animals, and no bony bridge was observed between the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone.

  14. Structural tests and development of a laminar flow control wing surface composite chordwise joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program beginning in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplished under NAS1-16235 Laminar-Flow-Control (LFC) Wing Panel Structural Design and Development (WSSD); design, manufacturing, and testing activities. An in-depth preliminary design of the baseline 1993 LFC wing was accomplished. A surface panel using the Lockheed graphite/epoxy integrated LFC wing box structural concept was designed. The concept was shown by analysis to be structurally efficient and cost effective. Critical details of the surface and surface joint was demonstrated by fabricating and testing complex, concept selection specimens. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments, Development of LFC Wind Surface Composite Structures (WSCS), are documented. Tests were conducted on two CV2 panels to verify the static tension and fatigue strength of LFC wing surface chordwise joints.

  15. The Role of Mother-Child Joint Play in the Early Development of Children's Conduct Problems: A Longitudinal Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Frances; Ward, Sarah; Burton, Jennifer; Wilson, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the relationship between mother-child spontaneous joint play and development of conduct problems in 60 preschoolers. Found that amount of joint play at age 3 predicted individual improvement in conduct problems at age 4, and this association was independent of initial level of conduct problems and hyperactivity, social…

  16. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  17. Development and validation of a 3-D model to predict knee joint loading during dynamic movement.

    PubMed

    McLean, S G; Su, A; van den Bogert, A J

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subject-specific 3-D model of the lower extremity to predict neuromuscular control effects on 3-D knee joint loading during movements that can potentially cause injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. The simulation consisted of a forward dynamic 3-D musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity, scaled to represent a specific subject. Inputs of the model were the initial position and velocity of the skeletal elements, and the muscle stimulation patterns. Outputs of the model were movement and ground reaction forces, as well as resultant 3-D forces and moments acting across the knee joint. An optimization method was established to find muscle stimulation patterns that best reproduced the subject's movement and ground reaction forces during a sidestepping task. The optimized model produced movements and forces that were generally within one standard deviation of the measured subject data. Resultant knee joint loading variables extracted from the optimized model were comparable to those reported in the literature. The ability of the model to successfully predict the subject's response to altered initial conditions was quantified and found acceptable for use of the model to investigate the effect of altered neuromuscular control on knee joint loading during sidestepping. Monte Carlo simulations (N = 100,000) using randomly perturbed initial kinematic conditions, based on the subject's variability, resulted in peak anterior force, valgus torque and internal torque values of 378 N, 94 Nm and 71 Nm, respectively, large enough to cause ACL rupture. We conclude that the procedures described in this paper were successful in creating valid simulations of normal movement, and in simulating injuries that are caused by perturbed neuromuscular control.

  18. Rating parent-child interactions: joint engagement, communication dynamics, and shared topics in autism, Down syndrome, and typical development.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F; Nelson, P Brooke

    2012-12-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the finding that coordinated joint engagement was less likely in children with autism. Ratings of other child actions, of parent contributions, and of shared topics and communicative dynamics also documented pervasive variations related to diagnosis, language facility, and communicative context.

  19. On the development, morphology and function of the temporomandibular joint in the light of the orofacial system.

    PubMed

    Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint has a key role in the biocybernetic functional cycle of the orofacial system. It has developed as a "secondary joint" and displays a number of features relating to the articular tubercle, the mandibular condyle, the articular disc, the joint cartilage and the retroarticular pad. The joint cartilage of the mandibular condyle is a primary compensatory growth centre also comprising distant effects. The coordinate course of the mandibular movements is controlled by a complex reflex mechanism and neuronal controller cycles. Morphology, function and clinical aspects are of equal interest to both physicians and dentists.

  20. Ground reaction forces and lower-limb joint kinetics of turning gait in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Philippe C; Stebbins, Julie; Theologis, Tim; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2014-11-28

    Turning is a common locomotor task essential to daily activity; however, very little is known about the forces and moments responsible for the kinematic adaptations occurring relative to straight-line gait in typically developing children. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyse ground reaction forces (GRFs), ground reaction free vertical torque (TZ), and the lower-limb joint kinetics of 90° outside (step) and inside (spin) limb turns. Step, spin, and straight walking trials from fifty-four typically developing children were analysed. All children were fit with the Plug-in Gait and Oxford Foot Model marker sets while walking over force plates embedded in the walkway. Net internal joint moments and power were computed via a standard inverse dynamics approach. All dependent variables were statistically analysed over the entire curves using the mean difference 95% bootstrap confidence band approach. GRFs were directed medially for step turns and laterally for spin turns during the turning phase. Directions were reversed and magnitudes decreased during the approach phase. Step turns showed reduced ankle power generation, while spin turns showed large TZ. Both strategies required large knee and hip coronal and transverse plane moments during swing. These kinetic differences highlight adaptations required to maintain stability and reorient the body towards the new walking direction during turning. From a clinical perspective, turning gait may better reveal weaknesses and motor control deficits than straight walking in pathological populations, such as children with cerebral palsy, and could potentially be implemented in standard gait analysis sessions.

  1. Foundation-industry relationships--a new business model joint-venture philanthropy in therapy development.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    The business model for medical therapy development has changed drastically. Large companies that once conducted their own Research and Development (R&D) and funded all the preclinical studies, all phases of clinical development and marketing of the products are increasingly turning to others for more and more of the earlier work in hopes of being able to in-license a de-risked program well downstream, take it through the final phases of clinical development and into the marketplace. This new paradigm has required patient-advocacy foundations, especially in the rare-disease space, to become far more effective in building relationships with all the players along the therapy-development pathway -- academic scientists, government agencies, other foundations with overlapping interests, biotechs, small biopharmaceutical entities and even the larger industry companies. From the perspective of the patient-advocacy community, these increasingly essential public-private partnerships have taken on the nature of what could be called joint-venture philanthropy and involve a broad spectrum of collaborations and financial relationships between foundations and industry partners that are not without concerns about potential conflicts of interest.

  2. Development of a complex parent-metabolite joint population pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julie; Laffont, Céline M; Mentré, France; Chenel, Marylore; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a joint population pharmacokinetic model for an antipsychotic agent in development (S33138) and its active metabolite (S35424) produced by reversible metabolism. Because such a model leads to identifiability problems and numerical difficulties, the model building was performed using the FOCE-I and the Stochastic Approximation Expectation Maximization (SAEM) estimation algorithms in NONMEM and MONOLIX, respectively. Four different structural models were compared based on Bayesian information criteria. Models were first written as ordinary differential equations systems and then in closed form (CF) to facilitate further analyses. The impact of polymorphisms on genes coding for the CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 enzymes, respectively involved in the parent drug and the metabolite elimination were investigated using permutation Wald test. The parent drug and metabolite plasma concentrations of 101 patients were analyzed on two occasions after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h following daily oral administration. All configurations led to a two compartment model with back-transformation of the metabolite into the parent drug and a first-pass effect. The elimination clearance of the metabolite through other processes than back-transformation was decreased by 35% [9-53%] in CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Permutation tests were performed to ensure the robustness of the analysis, using SAEM and CF. In conclusion, we developed a complex joint pharmacokinetic model adequately predicting the impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the parent drug and its metabolite concentrations through the back-transformation mechanism. PMID:21618059

  3. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  4. Mouse limb skeletal growth and synovial joint development are coordinately enhanced by Kartogenin

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Rebekah S.; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Maye, Peter; Rowe, David; Zhu, Shoutian; Schultz, Peter G.; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Limb development requires the coordinated growth of several tissues and structures including long bones, joints and tendons, but the underlying mechanisms are not wholly clear. Recently, we identified a small drug-like molecule -we named Kartogenin (KGN)- that greatly stimulates chondrogenesis in marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhances cartilage repair in mouse osteoarthritis (OA) models. To determine whether limb developmental processes are regulated by KGN, we tested its activity on committed preskeletal mesenchymal cells from mouse embryo limb buds and whole limb explants. KGN did stimulate cartilage nodule formation and more strikingly, boosted digit cartilaginous anlaga elongation, synovial joint formation and interzone compaction, tendon maturation as monitored by ScxGFP, and interdigit invagination. To identify mechanisms, we carried out gene expression analyses and found that several genes, including those encoding key signaling proteins, were up-regulated by KGN. Amongst highly up-regulated genes were those encoding hedgehog and TGFβ superfamily members, particularly TFGβ1. The former response was verified by increases in Gli1-LacZ activity and Gli1 mRNA expression. Exogenous TGFβ1 stimulated cartilage nodule formation to levels similar to KGN, and KGN and TGFβ1 both greatly enhanced expression of lubricin/Prg4 in articular superficial zone cells. KGN also strongly increased the cellular levels of phospho-Smads that mediate canonical TGFβ and BMP signaling. Thus, limb development is potently and harmoniously stimulated by KGN. The growth effects of KGN appear to result from its ability to boost several key signaling pathways and in particular TGFβ signaling, working in addition to and/or in concert with the filamin A/CBFβ/RUNX1 pathway we identified previously to orchestrate overall limb development. KGN may thus represent a very powerful tool not only for OA therapy, but also limb regeneration and tissue repair strategies. PMID

  5. Spontaneously developed osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint in STR/ort mice

    PubMed Central

    KUMAGAI, KENICHI; SUZUKI, SATSUKI; KANRI, YORIAKI; MATSUBARA, RYOTA; FUJII, KEISUKE; WAKE, MASAHIRO; SUZUKI, RYUJI; HAMADA, YOSHIKI

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis is typically a slowly progressive asymmetric disease. Little is known regarding the natural destruction of TMJ articular tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological changes in the TMJ of STR/ort mice, known to be the model for spontaneous osteoarthritis in the knee joint, and to evaluate STR/ort mice as a suitable animal model for TMJ osteoarthritis. TMJs from 32 STR/ort mice euthanized at 30, 40, 50 or 60 weeks of age, and from 6 CBA mice euthanized at 30, 40 or 60 weeks of age were examined. Toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were used to assess histological changes in the articular cartilage. Morphological changes in the articular cartilage of the TMJ were evaluated using microcomputed tomography. At the age of 40–50 weeks, 17 (68%) of the 25 STR/ort mice had loss of articular cartilage on histology, with cavitation and erosion of the exposed bone and gradual changes in condylar shape. Furthermore, osteoarthritic morphological changes, and structural alterations were observed by microcomputed tomography. The STR/ort mouse strain appears to develop spontaneous osteoarthritis-like lesions in the TMJ with age, and would be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of TMJ osteoarthritis. PMID:26171147

  6. Development of a rotary joint fluid coupling for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costulis, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The design and development is described of a rotary joint fluid coupling for Space Station Freedom. The function of this fluid coupling is to transfer a heat rejection fluid between stationary and rotating interfaces with the Space Station thermal bus system. The design of this coupling incorporates a modular type design to allow maximum flexibility, two types of seals (mechanical face seals and shaft lip seals) for redundancy, materials with excellent ammonia compatibility, and coatings that enhance seal wear resistance and increased protection against corrosion. This design was thoroughly tested and met all design requirements. Potential applications of this hardware include uses in gun turrets, coal slurries, farming equipment, and any other applications that require the low leakage transfer of fluids between stationary and rotating interfaces.

  7. Development of a truss joint for robotic assembly of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed study of mechanical fasteners which were designed to facilitate robotic assembly of structures. Design requirements for robotic structural assembly were developed, taking into account structural properties and overall system design, and four candidate fasteners were designed to meet them. These fasteners were built and evaluated in the laboratory, and the Hammer-Head joint was chosen as superior overall. It had a high reliability of fastening under misalignments of 2.54 mm (0.1 in) and 3 deg, the highest end fixity (2.18), the simplest end effector, an integral capture guide, good visual verification, and the lightest weight (782 g, 1.72 lb). The study found that a good design should incorporate chamfers sliding on chamfers, cylinders sliding on chamfers, and hard surface finishes on sliding surfaces. The study also comments on robot flexibility, sag, hysteresis, thermal expansion, and friction which were observed during the testing.

  8. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent–child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children’s oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale–4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children’s oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL. PMID:25309136

  9. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    DesJardin, Jean L; Doll, Emily R; Stika, Carren J; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Johnson, Karen J; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G; Henning, Shirley C

    2014-05-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children's oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children's oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL.

  10. Development and application of biomimetic electrospun nanofibers in total joint replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei

    Failure of osseointegration (direct anchorage of an implant by bone formation at the bone-implant surface) and implant infection (such as that caused by Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus) are the two main causes of implant failure and loosening. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. A better understanding of the key factors that influence cell fate decisions at the bone-implant interface is required. Our study is to develop a class of "bone-like" nanofibers (NFs) that promote osseointegration while preventing bacterial colonization and subsequent infections. This research goal is supported by our preliminary data on the preparation of coaxial electrospun NFs composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers arranged in a core-sheath shape. The PCL/PVA NFs are biocompatible and biodegradable with appropriate fiber diameter, pore size and mechanical strength, leading to enhanced cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells. The objective is to develop functionalized "bone-like" PCL/PVA NFs matrix embedded with antibiotics (doxycycline (Doxy), bactericidal and anti-osteoclastic) on prosthesis surface. Through a rat tibia implantation model, the Doxy incorporated coaxial NFs has demonstrated excellent in promoting osseointegration and bacteria inhibitory efficacy. NFs coatings significantly enhanced the bonding between implant and bone remodeling within 8 weeks. The SA-induced osteomyelitis was prevented by the sustained release of Doxy from NFs. The capability of embedding numerous bio-components including proteins, growth factors, drugs, etc. enables NFs an effective solution to overcome the current challenged issue in Total joint replacement. In summary, we proposed PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers as promising biomaterials that can be applied on

  11. Hedgehog inhibits β-catenin activity in synovial joint development and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rockel, Jason S.; Yu, Chunying; Whetstone, Heather; Craft, April M.; Reilly, Katherine; Ma, Henry; Tsushima, Hidetoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Al-Jazrawe, Mushriq; Keller, Gordon M.; Alman, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Both the WNT/β-catenin and hedgehog signaling pathways are important in the regulation of limb development, chondrocyte differentiation, and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). It is not clear how these signaling pathways interact in interzone cell differentiation and synovial joint morphogenesis. Here, we determined that constitutive activation of hedgehog signaling specifically within interzone cells induces joint morphological changes by selectively inhibiting β-catenin–induced Fgf18 expression. Stabilization of β-catenin or treatment with FGF18 rescued hedgehog-induced phenotypes. Hedgehog signaling induced expression of a dominant negative isoform of TCF7L2 (dnTCF7L2) in interzone progeny, which may account for the selective regulation of β-catenin target genes observed. Knockdown of TCF7L2 isoforms in mouse chondrocytes rescued hedgehog signaling–induced Fgf18 downregulation, while overexpression of the human dnTCF7L2 orthologue (dnTCF4) in human chondrocytes promoted the expression of catabolic enzymes associated with OA. Similarly, expression of dnTCF4 in human chondrocytes positively correlated with the aggrecanase ADAMTS4. Consistent with our developmental findings, activation of β-catenin also attenuated hedgehog-induced or surgically induced articular cartilage degeneration in mouse models of OA. Thus, our results demonstrate that hedgehog inhibits selective β-catenin target gene expression to direct interzone progeny fates and articular cartilage development and disease. Moreover, agents that increase β-catenin activity have the potential to therapeutically attenuate articular cartilage degeneration as part of OA. PMID:27018594

  12. Joint operation and energy sales of the Indonesia`s geothermal development project

    SciTech Connect

    Suryadi, D.; Sulaiman, S.; Boedihardi, M.; Agus, I.

    1995-12-31

    The government of Indonesia plans to intensify the utilization of geothermal energy for electrical generation as part of its energy diversification policy. Presently only 1.6% of the 19,650 megawatts country-wide potential are being utilized. To accelerate the development of geothermal energy, the government invites private companies as Contractor to cooperate with PERTAMINA, the State Company that is authorized to explore and exploit oil, gas and geothermal reserves in Indonesia, in a form of Joint Operation Contract (JOC) and gives incentives in fiscal and other terms to contractors that develop this source of energy. In the JOC, PERTAMINA is responsible for the management of operation and Contractor is responsible for the execution of the operation. Contractor has to provide financial, technical assistance and all facilities required to conduct geothermal operation and carries the risks of operating cost and therefore has an economic interest from the project. Each party involved in the development has a right to demand a certain portion of the Net Operating Income (NOI). The Energy Sales Contract (ESC) is made in conjunction with the JOC whereby the buyer agrees to purchase from PERTAMINA geothermal steam or electricity which is generated from geothermal energy produced and delivered by Contractor to the buyer on behalf of PERTAMINA.

  13. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    SciTech Connect

    West, S.L.; Nelson, D.Z.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed.

  14. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    SciTech Connect

    West, S.L.; Nelson, D.Z.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed.

  15. Operational space weather product development and validation at the joint SMC-AFRL Rapid Prototyping Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) and Detachment 11, Space &Missile Systems Center (SMC, Det 11/CIT) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, and implement graphical products for the Air Force's space weather operations center. These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. Jointly-developed products that have been, or will soon be added to real-time operations include: 1) the Operational Space Environment Network Display (OpSEND) suit - a set of four products that address HF communication, UHF satellite communication scintillation, radar auroral clutter, and GP S single- frequency errors; 2) a solar radio background and burst effects (SoRBE) product suite; and C) a meteor effects (ME) product suite. The RPC is also involved in a rather substantial "V&V" effort to produce multiple operational product verifications and validations, with an added end goal of a generalized validation software package. The presentation will provide a general overview of the RPC and each of the products mentioned above, to include background science, operational history, inputs, outputs, dissemination, and customer uses for each.

  16. Development and morphogenesis of human wrist joint during embryonic and early fetal period.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Alvarez, Pablo; Prados, José C; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Aránega, Antonia; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mérida-Velasco, Juan A

    2012-06-01

    The development of the human wrist joint has been studied widely, with the main focus on carpal chondrogenesis, ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage. However, there are some discrepancies concerning the origin and morphogenetic time-table of these structures, including nerves, muscles and vascular elements. For this study we used serial sections of 57 human embryonic (n = 30) and fetal (n = 27) specimens from O'Rahilly stages 17-23 and 9-14 weeks, respectively. The following phases in carpal morphogenesis have been established: undifferentiated mesenchyme (stage 17), condensated mesenchyme (stages 18 and 19), pre-chondrogenic (stages 19 and 20) and chondrogenic (stages 21 and over). Carpal chondrification and osteogenic processes are similar, starting with capitate and hamate (stage 19) and ending with pisiform (stage 22). In week 14, a vascular bud penetrates into the lunate cartilaginous mold, early sign of the osteogenic process that will be completed after birth. In stage 18, median, ulnar and radial nerves and thenar eminence appear in the hand plate. In stage 21, there are indications of the interosseous muscles, and in stage 22 flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus and lumbrical muscles, transverse carpal ligament and collateral ligaments emerge. In stage 23, the articular disc, radiocarpal and ulnocarpal ligaments and deep palmar arterial arch become visible. Radiate carpal and interosseous ligaments appear in week 9, and in week 10, dorsal radiocarpal ligament and articular capsule are evident. Finally, synovial membrane is observed in week 13. We have performed a complete analysis of the morphogenesis of the structures of the human wrist joint. Our results present new data on nervous and arterial elements and provide the basis for further investigations on anatomical pathology, comparative morphology and evolutionary anthropology.

  17. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  18. JOINT-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP TO DEVELOP A HOLLOW SPHERE DUAL-GRADIENT DRILLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; Colin Ruan; Greg Deskins

    2003-05-01

    Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI) formed a joint-industry partnership to fund the development of a hollow sphere dual-gradient drilling (DGD) system. Phase I consisted of collecting, compiling, analyzing, and distributing information and data regarding a new DGD system for use by the oil and gas industry. Near the end of Phase I, DOE provided funding to the project that was used to conduct a series of critical follow-on tests investigating sphere separation in weighted waterbase and oilbase muds. Drilling costs in deep water are high because seawater pressure on the ocean floor creates a situation where many strings of casing are required due to the relatively close spacing between fracture and pore pressure curves. Approximately $100 million have been spent during the past five years on DGD systems that place pumps on the seafloor to reduce these drilling problems by reducing the annulus fluid pressure at the bottom of the riser. BP estimates that a DGD system can save $9 million per well in the Thunderhorse Field and Conoco estimates it can save $5 to $15 million per well in its deepwater operations. Unfortunately, previous DGD development projects have been unsuccessful due to the high costs ($20 to $50 million) and reliability problems with seafloor pump systems. MTI has been developing a simple DGD system concept that would pump hollow glass spheres into the bottom of the riser to reduce density of the mud in the riser. This eliminates the requirement for seafloor pumps and replaces them with low cost mud pumps, shale shakers, and other oilfield equipment that can be operated on the rig by conventional crews. A $1.8 million Phase I joint-industry project funded by five service companies and three operators showed that hollow spheres could be pumped well, but difficulties were encountered in separating the spheres from a polymer mud supplied by Halliburton due to the high viscosity of this mud at the low shear rates encountered on oilfield shale shaker screens. As a

  19. Skeletal development of hallucal tarsometatarsal joint curvature and angulation in extant apes and modern humans.

    PubMed

    Gill, Corey M; Bredella, Miriam A; DeSilva, Jeremy M

    2015-11-01

    The medial cuneiform, namely the curvature and angulation of its distal facet with metatarsal 1, is crucial as a stabilizer in bipedal locomotion and an axis upon which the great toe medially deviates during arboreal locomotion in extant apes. Previous work has shown that facet curvature and angulation in adult dry-bone specimens can distinguish African apes from Homo, and can even distinguish among species of Gorilla. This study provides the first ontogenetic assessment of medial cuneiform curvature and angulation in juvenile (n = 68) and adult specimens (n = 102) using computed tomography in humans and extant ape specimens, including Pongo. Our data find that modern human juveniles initially have a convex and slightly medially oriented osseous surface of the developing medial cuneiform distal facet that flattens and becomes more distally oriented with age. The same pattern (though of a different magnitude) occurs developmentally in the chimpanzee medial cuneiform, but not in Gorilla or Pongo, whose medial cuneiform facet angulation remains unchanged ontogenetically. These data suggest that the medial cuneiform ossifies in a distinguishable pattern between Pongo, Gorilla, Pan, and Homo, which may in part be due to subtle differences in the loading environment at the hallucal tarsometatarsal joint-a finding that has important implications for interpreting fossil medial cuneiforms.

  20. Gravity model development for TOPEX/POSEIDON: Joint gravity models 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Marshall, J. A.; Pavlis, E. C.; Putney, B. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) prelaunch Joint Gravity Model-1 (JGM-1) and the postlaunch JGM-2 Earth gravitational models have been developed to support precision orbit determination for T/P. Each of these models is complete to degree 70 in spherical harmonics and was computed from a combination of satellite tracking data, satellite altimetry, and surface gravimetry. While improved orbit determination accuracies for T/P have driven the improvements in the models, the models are general in application and also provide an improved geoid for oceanographic computations. The postlaunch model, JGM-2, which includes T/P satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking data, introduces radial orbit errors for T/P that are only 2 cm RMS with the commission errors of the marine geoid for terms to degree 70 being +/- 25 cm. Errors in modeling the nonconservative forces acting on T/P increase the total radial errors to only 3-4 cm root mean square (RMS), a result much better than premission goals. While the orbit accuracy goal for T/P has been far surpassed geoid errors still prevent the absolute determination of the ocean dynamic topography for wavelengths shorter than about 2500 km. Only a dedicated gravitational field satellite mission will likely provide the necessary improvement in the geoid.

  1. Mice lacking alpha 1 (IX) collagen develop noninflammatory degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fässler, R; Schnegelsberg, P N; Dausman, J; Shinya, T; Muragaki, Y; McCarthy, M T; Olsen, B R; Jaenisch, R

    1994-01-01

    Type IX collagen is a nonfibrillar collagen composed of three gene products, alpha 1(IX), alpha 2(IX), and alpha 3(IX). Type IX molecules are localized on the surface of type II-containing fibrils and consist of two arms, a long arm that is crosslinked to type II collagen and a short arm that projects into the perifibrillar space. In hyaline cartilage, the alpha 1(IX) collagen transcript encodes a polypeptide with a large N-terminal globular domain (NC4), whereas in many other tissues an alternative transcript encodes an alpha 1(IX) chain with a truncated NC4 domain. It has been proposed that type IX molecules are involved in the interaction of fibrils with each other or with other components of the extracellular matrix. To test this hypothesis, we have generated a mouse strain lacking both isoforms of the alpha 1(IX) chain. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and show no detectable abnormalities at birth but develop a severe degenerative joint disease resembling human osteoarthritis. Images PMID:8197187

  2. Decorin Binding Proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi Promote Arthritis Development and Joint Specific Post-Treatment DNA Persistence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Jemiina; Jaatinen, Annukka; Söderström, Mirva; Viljanen, Matti K.; Hytönen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B) of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria. PMID:25816291

  3. Joint Attention in Parent-Child Dyads Involving Children with Selective Mutism: A Comparison between Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint…

  4. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's…

  5. Development and Applications of a Self-Contained, Non-Invasive EVA Joint Angle and Muscle Fatigue Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranniger, C. U.; Sorenson, E. A.; Akin, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory, as a participant in NASA's INSTEP program, is developing a non-invasive, self-contained sensor system which can provide quantitative measurements of joint angles and muscle fatigue in the hand and forearm. The goal of this project is to develop a system with which hand/forearm motion and fatigue metrics can be determined in various terrestrial and zero-G work environments. A preliminary study of the prototype sensor systems and data reduction techniques for the fatigue measurement system are presented. The sensor systems evaluated include fiberoptics, used to measure joint angle, surface electrodes, which measure the electrical signals created in muscle as it contracts; microphones, which measure the noise made by contracting muscle; and accelerometers, which measure the lateral muscle acceleration during contraction. The prototype sensor systems were used to monitor joint motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint and muscle fatigue in flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris in subjects performing gripping tasks. Subjects were asked to sustain a 60-second constant-contraction (isometric) exercise and subsequently to perform a repetitive handgripping task to failure. Comparison of the electrical and mechanical signals of the muscles during the different tasks will be used to evaluate the applicability of muscle signal measurement techniques developed for isometric contraction tasks to fatigue prediction in quasi-dynamic exercises. Potential data reduction schemes are presented.

  6. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  7. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  8. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5–10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  9. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  10. The early development of joint attention in infants with autistic disorder using home video observations and parental interview.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Sally M; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2008-05-01

    The aim in the current study was to investigate the early development of joint attention, eye contact and affect during the first 2 years of life, by using retrospective parental interviews and analyses of home videos of infants who were later diagnosed with Autistic Disorder (AD). The 36 children with AD and the 27 matched control children were all aged between 3 and 5 years at recruitment. Reported anomalies in gaze and affect emerged in the children with AD as early as the first 6 months of life, generally becoming more severe just prior to the second birthday. Video data confirmed these anomalies from as early as the first year. Joint attention impairments were found throughout the second year of life. The results suggest that early dyadic behaviours-eye contact and affect-may play a role in the joint attention impairment in AD. PMID:17917803

  11. Development of brazing process for W-EUROFER joints using Cu-based fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prado, J.; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2016-02-01

    A successful joint between W and EUROFER using high temperature brazing technique has been achieved for structural application in future fusion power plants. Cu-based powder alloy mixed with a polymeric binder has been used as filler. Microstructural analysis of the joints revealed that the joint consisted mainly of primary phases and acicular structures in a Cu matrix. Interaction between EUROFER and filler took place at the interface giving rise to several Cu-Ti-Fe rich layers. A loss of hardness at the EUROFER substrate close to the joint due to a diffusion phenomenon during brazing cycle was measured; however, the joints had an adequate shear strength value.

  12. Development of AN Automotive Joint Model Using AN Analytically Based Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y.-M.; Lee, T.-H.; Park, Y.-P.

    1999-03-01

    A FE model of an automotive structure consists of beam and shell elements. Generally, the pillars and rockers are modelled as beam elements and other parts as shell elements. Beam elements are used since they are more efficient than shell elements. A joint is defined as an intersection region of beam elements, and is generally modelled as coupled rotational springs. In this study, a joint modelling methodology is presented. First, the definition and assumptions of the joint are discussed. Second, the joint stiffness analytical model is proposed using static load test results. The proposed method is more efficient and accurate than existing evaluation methods. Third, the sensitivity analysis method (Nelson's method) and a joint stiffness updating algorithm are presented. To verify these methods, the FE analysis results of a half size structural model of an automobile with rigid joints and rotational spring joints are compared with experimental modal analysis results.

  13. Observing the development of the temporomandibular joint in embryonic and post-natal mice using various staining methods

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a specialized synovial joint that is essential for the movement and function of the mammalian jaw. The TMJ develops from two mesenchymal condensations, and is composed of the glenoid fossa that originates from the otic capsule by intramembranous ossification, the mandibular condyle of the temporal bone and a fibrocartilagenous articular disc derived from a secondary cartilaginous joint by endochondral ossification. However, the development of the TMJ remains unclear. In the present study, the formation and development of the mouse TMJ was investigated between embryonic day 13.5 and post-natal day 180 in order to elucidate the morphological and molecular alterations that occur during this period. TMJ formation appeared to proceed in three stages: Initiation or blastema stage; growth and cavitation stage; and the maturation or completion stage. In order to investigate the activity of certain transcription factors on TMJ formation and development, the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM), sex determining region Y-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2, Indian hedgehog homolog, Osterix, collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan, total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), MMP-9 and MMP-13 were detected in the TMJ using in situ and/or immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the transcription factors, ECM and MMP serve critical functions in the formation and development of the mouse TMJ. In summary, the development of the mouse TMJ was investigated, and the molecular regulation of mouse TMJ formation was partially characterized. The results of the present study may aid the systematic understanding of the physiological processes underlying TMJ formation and development in mice. PMID:26893634

  14. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research...

  15. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research...

  16. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research...

  17. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research...

  18. Effects of Professional Development Training on Joint Attention Engagement in Low-Quality Childcare Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David W.; Rudd, Loretta C.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2007-01-01

    This study carries forward the exploration of joint attention engagement in children from 18 to 24 months of age enrolled in "low-quality" childcare centers. Childcare providers and children were videotaped to capture social interactions in the classroom including duration and bids for joint attention. One-half of 48 childcare providers were…

  19. Development of Mathematic Model of Cold Welding at Drawing-up the Flange Joint of Pneumohydraulic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Y. S.

    2002-01-01

    Provision of high airtightness of joints of pipe- lines of pneumohydraulic systems (PHS) operating under high pressure, is an important task for designing and operation of launch vehicles. In the process of assembly and tests of PHS of launch vehicles, it was found that detachable flange joints do not lose their airtightness after removal of fastening elements, even in conditions of standard loads. The task of this work is in studying a phenomenon connected with initiation of the observed effect of adhesion and also stresses in the zone of contact at drawing- up the flange detachable joints with a plastic gasket. Investigations have shown that density of the joint is kept due to cold welding, as the created conditions are helpful for that process. As a result of the investigations performed, we have developed a mathematic model which is based on application of the theory of metal bonds; that theory explains the essence of the effect observed. Basic factors which provide optimum mode of cold welding, are effort which can cause microplastic deformation and form maximum contact, and also quality of processing the material of the surfaces joined. Strength of all- metal joint depends on factual area of contact. So, surface processing quality defines a configuration of microbulges which come into contact not simultaneously, and their stressed state is different, and it influences the character of dependence of the contact area on loading. Results of calculations by the mathematic model are expressed by dependencies of factual area of contact and a single diameter of the contact spot on the load applied which compresses the materials with various physical properties, and on the surface processing quality. The mathematic model allows to explain the common character of the cold welding process in detachable flange joints with the plastic gasket, to determine the nature and the character of acting forces, to define kinetics and the mechanism of formation of cold welding of

  20. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  1. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: implications of beef heifer development systems and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Endecott, R L; Funston, R N; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J

    2013-03-01

    Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has indicated that developing heifers to a lighter target BW at breeding (i.e., 50 to 57% of mature BW compared with 60 to 65% BW) reduced development costs and did not impair reproductive performance. Research published through the late 1980s demonstrated greater negative effects of limited postweaning growth on age at puberty and pregnancy rates whereas more recent studies demonstrate less of a negative impact of delayed puberty on pregnancy rate. A limitation of most research concerning influences of nutrition on heifer development and cow reproductive performance is little or limited consideration of long-term implications. Longevity has relatively low heritability; therefore, heifer development and other management strategies have a greater potential to impact cow retention. Establishing the impact of heifer development protocols on longevity is complex, requiring consideration of nutritional factors after the start of breeding and through subsequent calvings. Lower-input heifer development, where all heifers are managed together after the postweaning period, did not impair rebreeding, but continued subsequent restriction in the form of marginal winter supplementation resulted in decreased retention in the breeding herd. Therefore, the compensatory BW gain period for restricted-growth heifers may be important to longevity and lifetime productivity. Adequate growth and development to ensure minimal calving difficulty can be of critical importance for longevity; however, providing additional supplemental feed during postweaning development to accomplish this may be less efficient than later in development. Restricting gain during postweaning development by limiting DMI or developing heifers on dormant winter forage resulted

  2. The physician/hospital joint venture: developing a win/win strategy for success. Part III: Structuring and negotiating the deal.

    PubMed

    Shorr, A S

    1987-08-01

    This four part series, "The Physician/Hospital Joint Venture: Developing a Win/Win Strategy," examines the philosophical basis of marketing to physicians, the options for the organization in formulating a strategy for joint venture development, structuring and negotiating the deal, and finally how to build the physician loyalty and commitment essential for the joint venture's continued success. In this third part of the series, the author examines the elements essential to structure a successful joint venture and key issues that need to be addressed during the negotiation process.

  3. Development of an Underactuated 2-DOF Wrist Joint using McKibben PAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S. P.; Jain, S.; Ramasubramanian, S. N.; Johnson, B. V.; Dwivedy, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, model of an underactuated 2-DOF wrist joint with pneumatically actuated muscles is proposed. For the joint, McKibben-type artificial muscles are used in parallel configuration for the actuation. For each Degree of Freedom (DOF) one agonist-antagonist pair arrangement is usually used with a pulley mechanism. A mathematical model of wrist joint is derived using conventional forward kinematic analysis. The static model relating pressure in the muscle with the orientation of the wrist joint is obtained by combining the experimental data and mathematical model. Regulation of pressure can be achieved by pulse width modulation control of on/off solenoid valves. A set of free vibration experiments are done for the dynamic identification of the muscle characteristics.

  4. Sn-Ag-Cu solders and solder joints: Alloy development, microstructure, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, I. E.; Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Terpstra, R. L.

    2002-06-01

    Slow cooling of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-X (X = Fe, Co) solder-joint specimens made by hand soldering simulated reflow in surface-mount assembly to achieve similar as-solidified joint microstructures for realistic shearstrength testing, using Sn-3.5Ag (wt.%) as a baseline. Minor substitutions of either cobalt or iron for copper in Sn-3.7Ag-0.9Cu refined the joint matrix microstructure, modified the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic phase at the copper substrate/solder interface, and increased the shear strength. At elevated (150°C) temperature, no significant difference in shear strength was found in all of the alloys studied. Ambient temperature shear strength was reduced by largescale tin dendrites in the joint microstructure, especially by the coarse dendrites in solute poor Sn-Ag-Cu.

  5. The Joint Space Operations Center Mission System and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment Status Update 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Howard, Samantha; Sabol, Chris; Kim, Richard; Echeverry, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is a service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) performed at the US-led JSpOC. The Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE) is a test-bed maintained and operated by the Air Force to (1) serve as a centralized test-bed for all research and development activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support JMS Program Office-led market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. In this paper we will share with the international remote sensing community some of the recent JMS and ARCADE developments that may contribute to greater SSA at the JSpOC in the future, and share technical areas still in great need.

  6. Nuclear propulsion technology development - A joint NASA/Department of Energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the conceptual development of spacecraft nuclear propulsion systems with DOE support, in order to establish the bases for Space Exploration Initiative lunar and Mars missions. This conceptual evolution project encompasses nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. A technology base exists for NTP in the NERVA program files; more fundamental development efforts are entailed in the case of NEP, but this option is noted to offer greater advantages in the long term.

  7. Development of a cable reel development system using a rotary joint for kilometer lengths of two-fiber multi-mode fiber optic cable

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Jahelka, J.R.

    1995-08-11

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) recently developed a two-component system for use during remote inspections. The system consists of a mobile unit with television cameras and other equipment and a stationary base station. A variety of signals must be continually transmitted between the two system components as the mobile unit is moved from the location to another. Two channels of broadband (10MHz) NTSC video are transmitted from the mobile unit to the base station, and a bi-directional ``talk set`` provides audio communication between personnel at each location. In addition, several channels of RS-232 are required to support present and future instruments used at the mobile unit and controlled by personnel at the base station. Brookhaven developed a mobile unit which communicated with a base station over a 2-fiber multimode fiber optic cable. One of the design requirements was maintaining constant communication with the base station during the time the mobile unit was moved about. To provide uninterrupted communications, deployment of the 1-km long fiber optic cable was initially performed with a ``spinning reel`` mechanism. The spinning reel mechanism proved to be mechanically unsuitable, and so the cable deployment mechanism was redesigned to spool the cable off the reel. The requirement for uninterrupted communications required a two-channel fiber optic rotary joint in the design. Incorporation of the rotary joint into the design is described, and appropriate reference material is included.

  8. Jointing around magmatic dikes as a precursor to the development of volcanic plugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Meredith; Pollard, David D.; Johnson, Kendra; Culha, Cansu

    2015-10-01

    Basaltic volcanic eruptions typically initiate as fissures fed by dikes. In some cases, eruptions become localized through discrete vents, until the flow is sustained through a single vent underlain by a volcanic plug, at which point, the eruption is capable of delivering much greater volumes of magma to the surface. Existing theories to explain flow localization focus on the relationship between non-uniform dike thickness and variations in magma flow rates. Here, we propose a mechanism for conduit widening that precedes flow localization, and we present geologic evidence from an Oligocene-aged dike-plug system at Ship Rock, New Mexico. We use techniques of structure from motion to map 621 joints in the sedimentary rock adjacent to the intrusions and find that these joints are part of a systematic set oriented perpendicular to the dikes and localized to within a meter of the dike contacts. This joint set, along with a set of dike-parallel joints and the bedding planes, divides the strata into rectangular blocks that subsequently are entrained in the flowing magma to widen the dikes. Using field and lab data and a stress analysis, we show that the dike-perpendicular joints are intimately associated with the emplacement of magma and thermal pressurization of pore fluids in the host rock. This fracturing process is a precursor to entrainment of the host rock and sustained flow through discrete vents.

  9. Development of QSARs for predicting the joint effects between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Kedong; Shi, Ping; Wang, Liansheng; Yu, Hongxia

    2003-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches are proposed in this study to predict the joint effects of mixture toxicity. The initial investigation studies the joint effects between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum. Joint effects are found to result from the formation of a carbanion intermediate produced through the chemical interactions between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes. Further research indicates that the formation of carbanion intermediate is highly correlated with not only the charge of the carbon atom in the -CHO of aldehydes but also the charge of the carbon atom (C) in the carbochain of cyanogenic toxicants. The charge of the carbon atom in the -CHO of aldehydes is quantified by using the Hammett constant (sigma(p)), and then, sigma(p)-based QSAR models are proposed to describe the relationships between the joint effects and the chemical structures of the aldehydes. By using the charge of carbon atom (C) in the carbochain of cyanogenic toxicants, another QSAR model is proposed to describe the relationship between the joint effects and the chemical structures of cyanogenic toxicants.

  10. Development and applications of a software tool for diarthrodial joint analysis.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Sandra; Lopomo, Nicola; Greggio, Samuele; Ferretti, Emil; Visani, Andrea

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new software environment for advanced analysis of diarthrodial joints. The new tool provides a number of elaboration functions to investigate the joint kinematics, bone anatomy, and ligament and tendon properties. In particular, the shapes and the contact points of the articulating surfaces can be displayed and analysed through 2D user-defined sections and fittings (lines or conics). Ligament behaviour can be evaluated during joint movement, through the computation of elongations, orientations, and fiber strain. Motion trajectories can be also analysed through the calculation of helical axes, instantaneous rotations, and displacements in specific user-chosen coordinate reference frames. The software has an user-friendly graphical interface to display four-dimensional data (time-space data) obtained from medical images, navigation systems, spatial linkages or digitalizers, and can also generate printable reports and multiple graphs as well as ASCII files that can be imported to spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel.

  11. Development of a body joint angle measurement system using IMU sensors.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saba; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Davidson, Bradley S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for measuring and monitoring human body joint angles using inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. This type of monitoring is beneficial for therapists and physicians because it facilitates remote assessment of patient activities. In our approach, two IMUs are mounted on the upper leg and the lower leg to measure the Euler angles of each segment. The Euler angles are sent via Bluetooth protocols to a pc for calculating the knee joint angle. In our experiments, we utilized a motion capture system to accurately measure the knee joint angle and used this as the ground truth to assess the accuracy of the IMU system. The range of average error of the system across a variety of motion trials was 0.08 to 3.06 degrees. In summary, the accuracy of the IMU measurement system currently outperforms existing wearable systems such as conductive fiber optic sensors and flex-sensors. PMID:22255930

  12. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Background Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). Methods An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. Results This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. Conclusion SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints. PMID:27583436

  13. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  14. Development of molded joints and terminals for 230-kV extruded cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bahder, G.; Bopp, L.A.; Eager, G.S. Jr.; Katz, C.; Knott, A.; Schmidt, G.A.

    1985-04-01

    The reliability of extruded-dielectric transmission systems depends to a great extent on the quality of joints and terminals. Detailed procedures developed in this study for field-molding high-stress 230-kV cable joints can ensure the stability of critical interfaces over many years.

  15. How infant and mother jointly contribute to developing cognitive competence in the child.

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, M H

    1985-01-01

    Infants who processed visual information more efficiently and had mothers who more frequently encouraged them to attend to properties, objects, and events in the home environment in the first 6 months of life excelled in verbal development during their second year and scored higher on a conventional psychometric assessment of intelligence at 4 years. These results, confirmed over several studies, support the idea of continuity in mental development from infancy and begin to specify parental didactic activities that may most efficaciously promote cognitive achievement in young children of different ages. PMID:3864165

  16. Learning to Look for Language: Development of Joint Attention in Young Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Joint attention between hearing children and their caregivers is typically achieved when the adult provides spoken, auditory linguistic input that relates to the child's current visual focus of attention. Deaf children interacting through sign language must learn to continually switch visual attention between people and objects in order to…

  17. Development of Y-branch Joint for 275kV XLPE and Fluid Filled Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Sakamaki, Masatoshi

    When a new UHV substation is built in an urban region, generally, an existing underground transmission line shall be diverted and drawn into the new substation. Compared with above mentioned construction method, enormous cost reduction of switching facilities and cable construction is expected with applying a Y-Branch Joint (YJ) which is able to be a 3-way joint. The YJ has already been applied for 154kV class circuit, however, it has not been investigated for 275kV class circuit. Since both XLPE and Fluid-Filled cable are presently used in 275kV class underground cable line, an universal design YJ for both cables have been investigated. The YJ was applied a compact design which was based on our sophisticated electrical stress control technology for 500kV prefabricated type joint. Furthermore, the design was based on its prefabricated assembling technology. The YJ was verified its electrical and mechanical performance as 275kV cable joint by completion of its assembling test and a long term electrical test.

  18. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  19. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This progress report discusses the status and progress made in joint international programs including: 1) WEGENER; 2) Arabian Peninsula program; 3) Asia-Pacific Space Geodynamics (APSG) program; 4) the Fourteenth International Workshop on Laser Ranging; 5) the International Laser Ranging Service; and 6) current support for the NASA network.

  20. Development of a joint hydrogeophysical inversion approach and application to a contaminated fractured aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Philip M; Hubbard, Susan; Fienen, Michael; Watson, David B

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a joint inversion approach for combining crosshole seismic travel time and borehole flowmeter test data to estimate hydrogeological zonation. The approach is applied to a complex, fractured Department of Energy field site located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, United States. We consider seismic slowness (the inverse of seismic velocity) and hydrogeological zonation indicators as unknown variables and use a physically based model with unknown parameters to relate the seismic slowness to the zonation indicators. We jointly estimate all the unknown parameters in the model by conditioning them to the crosshole seismic travel times as well as the borehole flowmeter data using a Bayesian model and a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The fracture zonation estimates are qualitatively compared to bromide tracer breakthrough data and to uranium biostimulation experiment results. The comparison suggests that the joint inversion approach adequately estimated the fractured zonation and that the fracture zonation influenced biostimulation efficacy. Our study suggests that the new joint hydrogeophysical inversion approach is flexible and effective for integrating various types of data sets within complex subsurface environments and that seismic travel time data have the potential to provide valuable information about fracture zonation.

  1. Development of a joint hydrogeophysical inversion approach andapplication to a contaminated fractured aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.; Peterson, J.; Williams, K.; Fienen, M.; Jardine, P.; Watson, D.

    2006-02-24

    Thispaper presents a joint inversion approach for combiningcrosshole seismic traveltime and borehole flowmeter test data to estimatehydrogeological zonation. The approach is applied to a complex, fracturedDOE field site located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee,USA. We consider seismic slowness (the inverse of seismic velocity) andhydrogeological zonation indicators as unknown variables, and use aphysically based model with unknown parameters to relate the seismicslowness to the zonation indicators. We jointly estimate all the unknownparameters in the model by conditioning them to the crosshole seismictraveltimes as well as the borehole flowmeter data using a Bayesian modeland a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The fracture zonationestimates are qualitatively compared to bromide tracer breakthrough dataand to Uranium biostimulation experiment results. The comparison suggeststhat the joint inversion approach adequately estimated the fracturedzonation, and that the fracture zonation influenced biostimulationefficacy. Our study suggests that the new joint ydrogeophysical inversionapproach is flexible and effective for integrating various types ofdatasets within complex subsurface environments, and that seismictraveltime data have the potential to provide valuable information aboutfracture zonation.

  2. To the development of an automated system of assessment of radiological images of joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechikhin, A. I.; Grunina, E. A.; Karetnikova, I. R.

    2008-03-01

    An algorithm developed for the adaptive automated computer processing of radiological images of hands and feet in order to assess the degree of bone and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis is described. A set of new numeral signs was proposed in order to assess a degree of arthritis radiological progression.

  3. Develop virtual joint laboratory for education like distance engineering system for robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinovic, T. S.; Deaconu, S. I.; Latinović, M. T.; Malešević, N.; Barz, C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper work with a new system that provides distance learning and online training engineers. The purpose of this paper is to develop and provide web-based system for the handling and control of remote devices via the Internet. Remote devices are currently the industry or mobile robots [13]. For future product development machine in the factory will be included in the system. This article also discusses the current use of virtual reality tools in the fields of science and engineering education. One programming tool in particular, virtual reality modeling language (VRML) is presented in the light of its applications and capabilities in the development of computer visualization tool for education. One contribution of this paper is to present the software tools and examples that can encourage educators to develop a virtual reality model to improve teaching in their discipline. [12] This paper aims to introduce a software platform, called VALIP where users can build, share, and manipulate 3D content in cooperation with the interaction processes in a 3D context, while participating hardware and software devices can be physical and / or logical distributed and connected together via the Internet. VALIP the integration of virtual laboratories to appropriate partners; therefore, allowing access to all laboratories in any of the partners in the project. VALIP provides advanced laboratory for training and research within robotics and production engineering, and thus, provides a great laboratory facilities with only having to invest a limited amount of resources at the local level to the partner site.

  4. In Support of Access and Inclusion: Joint Professional Development for Science and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusca-Vega, Rita; Alexander, Jan; Kamin, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative professional development of science and special educators leads to improved access and inclusion of students with disabilities. Yet, despite poor science achievement of students with disabilities, their increasing presence in general education science classrooms, and research that demonstrates effective teaching strategies for…

  5. Quantification of joint effect for hydrogen bond and development of QSARs for predicting mixture toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifen; Zhong, Ping; Yin, Kedong; Wang, Liansheng; Yu, Hongxia

    2003-08-01

    A QSAR model is successfully proposed to predict the toxicity effect on Photobacterium phosphoreum by nonpolar-narcotic-chemical mixtures and/or polar-narcotic-chemical mixtures. For nonpolar-narcotic-chemical mixtures and polar-narcotic-chemical mixtures, their corresponding hydrophobicity-based QSAR models are derived from regression analysis. Comparison of these two QSAR models make us believe that it is the joint effect of hydrogen bond in polar-narcotic-chemical mixture that leads to the difference between these two models. Such joint effect of hydrogen bond can be quantified as AMH and BMH by using the different partition coefficients of mixtures in various organic phase/water systems. And the regression analysis results convinced us that the introduction of AMH does improve the quality of the QSAR model with r2=0.948, S.E.=0.166 and F=745.201 at P=0.000 for total 84 mixtures.

  6. Planning my actions to accommodate yours: joint action development during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Hunnius, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    The planning and adjusting of one's actions in relation to an action partner is fundamental to smooth joint action. During their first years of life, children gradually become more engaged in joint actions. Here, we investigated whether and at what age children take their partner into account in their action plans to accommodate the other's actions. We focused on children's proactive planning (without prior experience) and flexible adjustment of action plans over time. In a behavioural study, we tested 96 children from four age groups (2½, 3, 3½ and 5 years) in a joint cup-stacking task. Children passed cups to their partner who had only one hand available (alternating over time) to build a tower. Children's response choices were assessed (i.e. passing the cup on the free or occupied side to their partner). The study yielded two major findings. At all ages, children proactively planned their actions in a way that accommodated their partner's actions. However, only by 3½ years did children start to flexibly integrate their partner into their action plans. Even at age 5, children only showed minimal adjustments to their action partner. Candidate processes underlying these developmental changes (e.g. inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, perspective taking) are discussed. PMID:27069048

  7. Numerical Modeling of Ti Deformation for the Development of a Titanium and Stainless Steel Transition Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A. B.; Kapoor, R.; Thota, M. K.; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to model the joining of titanium grade 2 (Ti) to AISI 321 stainless steel (SS) transition joint of lap configuration with grooves at the interface on SS side. The hot forming of Ti for filling the grooves without defects was simulated. FEA involving large plastic flow with sticking friction condition was initially validated using compression test on cylindrical specimen at 900 °C. The barreled shape and a no-deformation zone in the sample predicted by FEA matched with those of the compression experiments. For the joining process, FEA computed the distribution of strain and hydrostatic stress in Ti and the minimum ram load required for a defect-free joint. The hot forming parameters for Ti to fill the grooves without defects and any geometrical distortion of the die were found to be 0.001 s-1 at 900 °C. Using these conditions a defect-free Ti-SS joint was experimentally produced.

  8. Preliminary results on the development of vacuum-brazed joints for cyrogenic wind tunnel aerofoil models

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, D.A.; Lawing, P.L.; Sandefur, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Initial trials carried out at the NASA Langley Research Center in the investigation of cryogenic wind tunnel joint construction demonstrated that diffusion-assisted brazed joints could be formed in 17-4 PH, 15-5 PH, AISI-type 347, and Nitronic 40 stainless steels using electrodeposited copper as the bonding agent. Subsequent work has concentrated on 15-5 PH and Nitronic 40 using thin foils of pure copper and Nicrobraz LM, a commercially available nickel-based alloy containing boron and silicon melting point depressants. This paper summarizes the work carried out to understand and evaluate these bonds and their metallurgical characteristics. The results indicate that a high-strength void-free bond can be formed by the vacuum brazing of stainless steels using copper- and nickel-based filler alloys. The Nitronic 40 brazed joints show strengths in excess of the yield strengths of the parent metal. The poor toughness of 15-5 PH stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures tends to disqualify its use in critical areas of low-temperature aerofoil models.

  9. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities. PMID:27276542

  10. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities.

  11. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  12. Does Improving Joint Attention in Low-Quality Child-Care Enhance Language Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Loretta C.; Cain, David W.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined effects of professional development for child-care staff on language acquisition of children ages 14-36 months. Child-care staff from 44 child-care centres agreed to participate in the study. Child-care staff from one-half of the child-care centres were randomly assigned to a one-time, four-hour workshop followed by three…

  13. Pre-Operative Status and Quality of Life Following Total Joint Replacement in a Developing Country: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Nina N.; Collins, Jamie E.; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Alcantara Abreu, Luis; Ghazinouri, Roya; Okike, Kanu; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of medical relief organizations have launched programs to perform total joint replacements in the developing world. There is a paucity of data on the clinical outcomes of these procedures. We documented pre- and post-operative pain and functional status in a group of low income Dominicans who underwent total hip or knee replacement performed by an American relief organization. Methods: In March 2009 and 2010, we surveyed patients participating in Operation Walk Boston, a medical relief organization that provides total joint replacements to patients in the Dominican Republic. Questionnaires included the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index scales and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scales for physical activity and mental health. Scores were transformed to a 0 - 100 point scale (100 is best). Results: 81 individuals (mean age 61 years, 60% female) completed the pre-operative questionnaires. Twenty eight of the 35 who completed preoperative forms in 2009 also completed follow up forms in 2010 (follow-up rate 80%). Patients reported poor pre-operative WOMAC function (mean = 33.6, sd = 22.0) and WOMAC pain (mean = 38.4, sd = 22.9) scores preoperatively. Mean post-operative WOMAC pain and function scores were 86.4 (sd = 13.1) and 88.1 (sd = 11.4) respectively. Improvement in pain and function was similar for patients undergoing hip (n=11) and knee (n=17) replacements. Conclusion: Total joint replacement was effective in relieving pain and restoring function in this program. These results are useful for comparison to outcomes in developed countries and for establishing benchmarks for future programs. PMID:21886686

  14. MeProRisk - a Joint Venture for Minimizing Risk in Geothermal Reservoir Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, C.; Marquart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Exploration and development of geothermal reservoirs for the generation of electric energy involves high engineering and economic risks due to the need for 3-D geophysical surface surveys and deep boreholes. The MeProRisk project provides a strategy guideline for reducing these risks by combining cross-disciplinary information from different specialists: Scientists from three German universities and two private companies contribute with new methods in seismic modeling and interpretation, numerical reservoir simulation, estimation of petrophysical parameters, and 3-D visualization. The approach chosen in MeProRisk consists in considering prospecting and developing of geothermal reservoirs as an iterative process. A first conceptual model for fluid flow and heat transport simulation can be developed based on limited available initial information on geology and rock properties. In the next step, additional data is incorporated which is based on (a) new seismic interpretation methods designed for delineating fracture systems, (b) statistical studies on large numbers of rock samples for estimating reliable rock parameters, (c) in situ estimates of the hydraulic conductivity tensor. This results in a continuous refinement of the reservoir model where inverse modelling of fluid flow and heat transport allows infering the uncertainty and resolution of the model at each iteration step. This finally yields a calibrated reservoir model which may be used to direct further exploration by optimizing additional borehole locations, estimate the uncertainty of key operational and economic parameters, and optimize the long-term operation of a geothermal resrvoir.

  15. Towards a Socio-Cultural Framework for the Analysis of Joint Student-Teacher Development over Technology-Based Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a framework, an extension of Valsiner's "zone theory", for the analysis of joint student-teacher development over a series of technology-based mathematics lessons. The framework is suitable for developing research studies over a moderately long period of time and considers interrelated student-teacher development as…

  16. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  17. Development and validation of a computational model of the knee joint for the evaluation of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mootanah, R.; Imhauser, C.W.; Reisse, F.; Carpanen, D.; Walker, R.W.; Koff, M.F.; Lenhoff, M.W.; Rozbruch, S.R.; Fragomen, A.T.; Dewan, Z.; Kirane, Y.M.; Cheah, Pamela A.; Dowell, J.K.; Hillstrom, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) knee joint computational model was developed and validated to predict knee joint contact forces and pressures for different degrees of malalignment. A 3D computational knee model was created from high-resolution radiological images to emulate passive sagittal rotation (full-extension to 65°-flexion) and weight acceptance. A cadaveric knee mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom robot was subjected to matching boundary and loading conditions. A ligament-tuning process minimised kinematic differences between the robotically loaded cadaver specimen and the finite element (FE) model. The model was validated by measured intra-articular force and pressure measurements. Percent full scale error between EE-predicted and in vitro-measured values in the medial and lateral compartments were 6.67% and 5.94%, respectively, for normalised peak pressure values, and 7.56% and 4.48%, respectively, for normalised force values. The knee model can accurately predict normalised intra-articular pressure and forces for different loading conditions and could be further developed for subject-specific surgical planning. PMID:24786914

  18. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George

    2015-03-30

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  19. Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

  20. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, George

    2015-03-01

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  1. A three-dimensional mechanical analysis of normal fault evolution and joint development in perturbed stress fields around normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattenhorn, Simon Allen

    1998-09-01

    This thesis investigates the role of three dimensionality in the evolution of normal fault systems and joint development in perturbed stress fields induced by slipping normal faults. This is accomplished using: (1) 3D numerical models; (2) field observations of fault and joint characteristics; and (3) seismic data interpretations of 3D normal fault geometries. Numerical models that incorporate the contribution of an increasing lithostatic load with increasing depth on fault slip behavior indicate that normal faults are more prone to slip near the top than the bottom. Energy release rates are maximized at the upper tip, suggesting that faults should grow preferentially in an up-dip direction. For the case of laterally segmented faults, mechanical interaction promotes propagation of segments towards each other, which may result in composite fault surfaces that are longer than they are tall, in agreement with documented natural examples. Slipping faults perturb the surrounding stress field. Field relationships in Arches National Park, Utah, suggest that joints grew in the perturbed stress field around the faults. Numerical analyses indicate that joint orientations depend on the location along the fault tipline in 3D, and may range from fault-parallel to fault-perpendicular. In addition, as the ratio of fault-parallel to fault-perpendicular remote stress increases, so too does the distance away from the fault affected by the perturbed field. In relay zones, joints forming at high angles to fault strike are likely to continue propagating away from the fault if the fault-parallel stress approaches, or slightly exceeds, the fault-perpendicular remote stress during fault slip. Multiple slip maxima at the same stratigraphic level on apparently continuous fault surfaces in 3D seismic data attest to initial lateral segmentation. Mechanical interaction and lateral propagation led to linkage of fault segments and the formation of composite faults that are longer than they are

  2. Development of the 50 TW laser for joint experiments with 1 MA z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiewior, P. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Chalyy, O.

    2010-08-01

    A 50 TW high-intensity laser (aka "Leopard" laser) was developed for experiments with the 1 MA z-pinch generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The laser produces short pulses of 0.35 ps; energy is 15 J. Long pulses are 1 ns; energy is 30 J. The output beam diameter is 80 mm. The Leopard laser applies chirped pulse amplification technology. The laser is based on the 130 fs Ti:Sapphire oscillator, Öffner-type stretcher, Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier, mixed Nd:glass rod and disk amplifiers, and vacuum grating compressor. An adaptive optics system ameliorates focusing ability and augments the repetition rate. Two beam terminals are available for experiments: in the vacuum chamber of the z-pinch generator (aka "Zebra"), and a laser-only vacuum chamber (aka "Phoenix" chamber). The Leopard laser coupled to the Zebra z-pinch generator is a powerful diagnostic tool for dense z-pinch plasma. We outline the status, design, architecture and parameters of the Leopard laser, and its coupling to Zebra. We present the methods of laser-based z-pinch plasma diagnostics, which are under development at the University of Nevada, Reno.

  3. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Methods Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Key Results Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Conclusions Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. PMID:25452250

  4. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in the joint: new developments relevant to the clinician.

    PubMed

    Pay, Salih; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2003-06-01

    The major types of crystals containing calcium, which causes arthropathy and periarticular disease, are calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphates, including hydroxyapatite. Exciting advances include the identification of mutations in the gene ANKH associated with disordered inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) transport in some kindred with familial chondrocalcinosis linked to chromosome 5p. In addition, central basic mechanisms governing cartilage calcification and their relationship to aging and osteoarthritis have now been elucidated. These include the role of plasma cell glycoprotein-1, the PPi-generating ecto-enzyme, in chondrocalcinosis and the linkage of low- grade inflammation to expression and activation of two cartilage-expressed transglutaminase isoenzymes with direct calcification-stimulating activity. This review discusses clinically pertinent new information on pathogenesis. The authors also address, in detail, current diagnostic and therapeutic issues pertaining to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in the joint, as well as possible therapeutic directions for the future.

  5. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  6. JOINT DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL 1:100,000-SCALE DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHIC DATA BASE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callahan, George M.; Broome, Frederick R.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey is beginning a major new program to create a nationwide digital cartographic data base from 1:100,000-scale maps by the end of the decade. This data base will supplement the currently available 1:2,000,000-scale national data base and the selected coverage at 1:24,000-scale. It is anticipated that the data will be useful for both the production of custom graphics and as basic input to geographic information systems. The 1:100,000-scale USGS map series was designed to facilitate automated data capture. The methodologies and procedures used in the data capture process have developed enough so that the two agencies can take advantage of the design features of the 1:100,000-scale maps and work together on complementary tasks to build a digital cartographic data base.

  7. Development of a revolute-joint robot for the precision positioning of an x-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preissner, Curt A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Shu, Deming

    2003-10-01

    This paper profiles the initial phase in the development of a six degree-of-freedom robot, with 1 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty, for the manipulation of x-ray detectors or test specimens at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). While revolute-joint robot manipulators exhibit a smaller footprint along with increased positioning flexibility compared to Cartesian manipulators, commercially available revolute-joint manipulators do not meet our size, positioning, or environmental specifications. Currently, a robot with 20 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty is functioning at the APS for cryogenic crystallography sample pick-and-place operation. Theoretical, computational and experimental procedures are being used to (1) identify and (2) simulate the dynamics of the present robot system using a multibody approach, including the mechanics and control architecture, and eventually to (3) design an improved version with a 1 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty. We expect that the preceding experimental and theoretical techniques will be useful design and analysis tools as multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators become more prevalent on synchrotron beamlines.

  8. Pubertal development and school transition. Joint influences on depressive symptoms in middle and late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Koenig, L J; Gladstone, T R

    1998-07-01

    The impact of simultaneous changes in biological and social context on the mental health of adolescents was examined by testing the hypothesis that normative developmental transitions can be associated with increased dysphoria if they occur in close temporal proximity. Girls experiencing physical changes associated with middle or later stage pubertal development during the initial high school or college year were predicted to experience more dysphoria than those experiencing these changes during non-transitional times, with negative pubertal attitudes exacerbating the relation. Pubertal status and dysphoria of high school and college students were assessed. Among females experiencing pubertal changes, dysphoria was indeed highest for the 15 and 19 year olds, and lower for the 16, 17, and 18 year olds with females viewing menstrual onset as negative experienced depressive symptoms of moderate clinical severity. This pattern did not emerge for males, or females not experiencing pubertal changes. In contrast, the hypothesis was not supported when transition time was operationalized using grade level. Implications for psychopathology risk are discussed.

  9. COMPARISON OF CARTILAGE HISTOPATHOLOGY ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS ON HUMAN KNEE JOINTS AT ALL STAGES OF OSTEOARTHRITIS DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, C.; Whiteside, R.; Heras, F. Las; Nesic, D.; Koziol1, J.; Grogan, S.P.; Matyas, J.; Pritzker, K.P.H.; D’Lima, D.D.; Lotz, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the MANKIN and OARSI cartilage histopathology assessment systems using human articular cartilage from a large number of donors across the adult age spectrum representing all levels of cartilage degradation. Design Human knees (n=125 from 65 donors; age range 23–92) were obtained from tissue banks. All cartilage surfaces were macroscopically graded. Osteochondral slabs representing the entire central regions of both femoral condyles, tibial plateaus, and the patella were processed for histology and Safranin O – Fast Green staining. Slides representing normal, aged, and OA tissue were scanned and electronic images were scored online by five observers. Statistical analysis was performed for inter- and intra-observer variability, reproducibility and reliability. Results The inter-observer variability among five observers for the MANKIN system showed a similar good intra-class coefficient (ICC >0.81) as for the OARSI system (ICC >0.78). Repeat scoring by three of the five readers showed very good agreement (ICC >0.94). Both systems showed a high reproducibility among four of the five readers as indicated by the Spearman’s rho value. For the MANKIN system, the surface represented by lesion depth was the parameter where all readers showed an excellent agreement. Other parameters such as cellularity, Safranin O staining intensity and tidemark had greater inter-reader disagreement. Conclusion Both scoring systems were reliable but appeared too complex and time consuming for assessment of lesion severity, the major parameter determined in standardized scoring systems. To rapidly and reproducibly assess severity of cartilage degradation, we propose to develop a simplified system for lesion volume. PMID:22353747

  10. Development of ASTM Standard for SiC-SiC Joint Testing Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, George; Back, Christina

    2015-10-30

    As the nuclear industry moves to advanced ceramic based materials for cladding and core structural materials for a variety of advanced reactors, new standards and test methods are required for material development and licensing purposes. For example, General Atomics (GA) is actively developing silicon carbide (SiC) based composite cladding (SiC-SiC) for its Energy Multiplier Module (EM2), a high efficiency gas cooled fast reactor. Through DOE funding via the advanced reactor concept program, GA developed a new test method for the nominal joint strength of an endplug sealed to advanced ceramic tubes, Fig. 1-1, at ambient and elevated temperatures called the endplug pushout (EPPO) test. This test utilizes widely available universal mechanical testers coupled with clam shell heaters, and specimen size is relatively small, making it a viable post irradiation test method. The culmination of this effort was a draft of an ASTM test standard that will be submitted for approval to the ASTM C28 ceramic committee. Once the standard has been vetted by the ceramics test community, an industry wide standard methodology to test joined tubular ceramic components will be available for the entire nuclear materials community.

  11. Acromioclavicular joint separations grades I-III: a review of the literature and development of best practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Reid, Duncan; Polson, Kate; Johnson, Louise

    2012-08-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) separation injuries are common injuries among sporting populations. ACJ separations are graded according to severity from grade I being a mild sprain to grade VI, which is severe dislocation with displacement. There is consensus in the literature that grade I-III ACJ separations are managed conservatively and grades IV-VI are managed surgically. Despite conservative care being recommended for lesser grades of injury, there is very little evidence in the literature as to what constitutes conservative care. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was, first, to review the relevant anatomy and kinematics of the ACJ and, second, to review the literature relating to current evidence of conservative management of ACJ injury. Using this data, a best practice guideline for conservative rehabilitation in grade I-III ACJ separations was developed. For the conservative management, a literature search was undertaken using the following databases in the Auckland University of Technology's electronic library resources; MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus™ and the Cochrane Library. The following keywords or phrases were used: 'acromioclavicular joint separations', 'injury', 'dislocations', 'rehabilitation', 'conservative care', 'physiotherapy' and 'exercise'. A total of 24 articles was identified. There were no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated conservative treatment for grade I-III ACJ sprains. Therefore, a narrative review was formulated covering the anatomy and biomechanics of the ACJ, injury mechanisms and relevant literature reviewed covering rehabilitation principles. Conservative management of grade I-III ACJ separations is still the main recommendation following this review. A best practice guideline for managing grade I-III ACJ separations is presented to help guide clinicians until well constructed RCTs are carried out to improve the conservative management of ACJ injuries.

  12. [Kinematic investigations of the talocrural joint in human cadaver specimens. Basic studies for the development of a hinged fixator].

    PubMed

    Schmickal, T; Biglari, B; Wentzensen, A

    2002-11-01

    To determine the specifications of a hinged fixator for the upper ankle joint, biomechanical investigations were performed on 20 human cadaver specimens and the talocrural axis was recorded by X-ray cinematography in all levels of the space. The results showed a medium variation of the axis in zero position (mean: 5.8 degrees ) from 3 degrees to 10 degrees in the anterior-posterior view. The span of the axis migration around zero position amounted to a minimum of 3 degrees and a maximum value of 10 degrees (mean: 7.2 degrees ). It could be ascertained that the axis kinetics does not move linearly in all cases. The talus rotation (the axle deviation from the sagittal plane) amounted to a minimum value of 2 degrees and a maximum value of 12 degrees (mean: 5.3 degrees ). In the transverse level, the axis kinetics was tracked by separate X-ray markings of the lateral and medial cortical of the talus in the zero point of the talocrural axis. The results were typical migration curves of the X-ray markings, demonstrating a ventral convex curve at the medial and lateral cortex. This migration of the cortex crossing point of the axis was geometrically entered in a coordinate system. The variance of the axis cortex crossing point at the medial cortical was X(M)=4.2 mm (min: 2 mm, max: 7 mm) and Y(M)=4.7 mm (2-7 mm), at the lateral cortical X(L)=3.7 mm (1-9 mm) and Y(L) =4.1 mm (1-8 mm). Regarding the clinical relevance for the development of a hinged fixator for the upper ankle joint, the results indicate that an external axis guidance of these axoids is not possible, but that an adjusted axis is necessary taking into consideration the values measured using ligamentotaxis. PMID:12436327

  13. Development of phased array ultrasonic testing in lieu of radiography for testing complete joint penetration (CJP) welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldipur, P.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-04-01

    The past decade has seen new, emerging innovation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT). Specifically, multiple manufacturers have produced Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) systems. The PAUT systems embed a matrix of multiple (some up to 128) single transducers into one probe used for scanning elastic materials. Simultaneously exciting multiple transducers offers distinct advantages; depending on the sequencing of transducer excitation, the ultrasonic beam could be steered within the material and multiple beams help develop extra dimensional data to assist with visualization of possible flaws including the discontinuity size, shape and location. Unfortunately, there has not been broad acceptance of PAUT in the bridge fabrication industry because it is currently not a recognized inspection technology in AWS D1.5. One situation in which the technology would excel would be inspection of Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) butt welds. Currently, AWS D1.5 required CJP welds subjected to tensile or reversal stresses only be inspected by Radiographic Testing (RT). However, discontinuities normally seen by RT can also be seen with PAUT. Until specification language is adopted into D1.5, there will continue to be hesitancy to use PAUT for the inspection of CJP butt welds. Developmental work must first be performed to develop the acceptance criteria and the specification language. The developmental work from the inspections carried out on butt-weld specimens and transition butt-weld specimens are presented in this paper. Specific scan plans were developed using the ES-Beam simulation software for each of the test specimens. In depth analysis of PAUT data obtained to determine exact location and sizing information of the defects was performed. The results also present the comparison of results from PAUT to those obtained using conventional UT and radiography.

  14. Joint Associations of Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness on the Development of Incident Hypertension: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

    PubMed Central

    Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Evans, Natalie S.; Church, Timothy S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Jacobs, David R.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Sidney, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Fitness and physical activity are each inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We tested whether fitness and physical activity were independently associated with the 20-year incidence of hypertension in 4618 men and women. Hypertension was determined in participants who had systolic blood pressure (SBP)≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or who reported antihypertensive medication use. Fitness was estimated based on the duration of a symptom-limited graded exercise treadmill test and physical activity was self-reported. The incidence rate of hypertension was 13.8 per 1000 person-years (n=1022). Both baseline fitness (hazard ratio [HR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 0.70 per standard deviation [SD; 2.9 minutes]) and physical activity (HR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.84 per SD [297 exercise units]) were inversely associated with incident hypertension when included jointly in a model that also adjusted for age, sex, race, baseline smoking status, SBP, alcohol intake, HDL cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, fasting glucose and BMI. The magnitude of association between physical activity and hypertension was strongest among participants in the high fitness (HR= 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.94) category, whereas the magnitude of association between fitness and hypertension was similar across tertiles of physical activity. The estimated proportion of hypertension cases that could be prevented if participants moved to a higher fitness category (i.e., preventive fraction) was 34% and varied by race and sex group. Fitness and physical activity are each associated with incident hypertension, and low fitness may account for a substantial proportion of hypertension incidence. PMID:20516395

  15. Use of a Stochastic Joint Inversion Modeling Algorithm to Develop a Hydrothermal Flow Model at a Geothermal Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompson, A. F. B.; Mellors, R. J.; Dyer, K.; Yang, X.; Chen, M.; Trainor Guitton, W.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ramirez, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    A stochastic joint inverse algorithm is used to analyze diverse geophysical and hydrologic data associated with a geothermal prospect. The approach uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) global search algorithm to develop an ensemble of hydrothermal groundwater flow models that are most consistent with the observations. The algorithm utilizes an initial conceptual model descriptive of structural (geology), parametric (permeability) and hydrothermal (saturation, temperature) characteristics of the geologic system. Initial (a-priori) estimates of uncertainty in these characteristics are used to drive simulations of hydrothermal fluid flow and related geophysical processes in a large number of random realizations of the conceptual geothermal system spanning these uncertainties. The process seeks to improve the conceptual model by developing a ranked subset of model realizations that best match all available data within a specified norm or tolerance. Statistical (posterior) characteristics of these solutions reflect reductions in the a-priori uncertainties. The algorithm has been tested on a geothermal prospect located at Superstition Mountain, California and has been successful in creating a suite of models compatible with available temperature, surface resistivity, and magnetotelluric (MT) data. Although the MCMC method is highly flexible and capable of accommodating multiple and diverse datasets, a typical inversion may require the evaluation of thousands of possible model runs whose sophistication and complexity may evolve with the magnitude of data considered. As a result, we are testing the use of sensitivity analyses to better identify critical uncertain variables, lower order surrogate models to streamline computational costs, and value of information analyses to better assess optimal use of related data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL

  16. A research experiment on facilitation and formation of joint research and development programs between government, industry, and universities: Overview, preliminary findings, and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.

    1992-01-01

    Presented is an overview of an experiment to explore the free-market approach to public-private collaboration through the development and implementation of a joint venture mechanism to enable formation of R&D projects between government, industry and academia. Some preliminary results related to time-to-commercialization and economic competitiveness are discussed.

  17. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  18. Agriculture and Community Development Interface. Joint Meeting of the Southern Region State Leaders for Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development Proceedings (October 8-11, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Paul D., Ed.; Campbell, Raymond, Ed.

    This document is a summary of remarks presented at a joint meeting of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development state leaders in 1989. The focus of the meeting was economic viability, rural extension and education, water quality, waste management, biotechnology, low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA), and rural…

  19. Leg joint power output during progressive resistance FES-LCE cycling in SCI subjects: developing an index of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Stephenie A; Faghri, Pouran D; Adams, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the hip, knee and ankle during a progressive resistance cycling protocol in an effort to detect and measure the presence of muscle fatigue. It was hypothesized that knee power output can be used as an indicator of fatigue in order to assess the cycling performance of SCI subjects. Methods Six spinal cord injured subjects (2 incomplete, 4 complete) between the ages of twenty and fifty years old and possessing either a complete or incomplete spinal cord injury at or below the fourth cervical vertebra participated in this study. Kinematic data and pedal forces were recorded during cycling at increasing levels of resistance. Ankle, knee and hip power outputs and resultant pedal force were calculated. Ergometer cadence and muscle stimulation intensity were also recorded. Results The main findings of this study were: (a) ankle and knee power outputs decreased, whereas hip power output increased with increasing resistance, (b) cadence, stimulation intensity and resultant pedal force in that combined order were significant predictors of knee power output and (c) knowing the value of these combined predictors at 10 rpm, an index of fatigue can be developed, quantitatively expressing the power capacity of the knee joint with respect to a baseline power level defined as fatigue. Conclusion An index of fatigue was successfully developed, proportionalizing knee power capacity during cycling to a predetermined value of fatigue. The fatigue index value at 0/8th kp, measured 90 seconds into active, unassisted pedaling was 1.6. This indicates initial power capacity at the knee to be 1.6 times greater than fatigue. The fatigue index decreased to 1.1 at 2/8th kp, representing approximately a 30% decrease in the knee's power capacity within a 4 minute timespan. These findings suggest that the present cycling protocol is not sufficient for a rider to gain the benefits of FES and thus raises speculation as to

  20. Solar Radio Burst Effects and Meteor Effects: Operational Products Under Development at the Joint SMC-AFRL Rapid Prototyping Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    2002-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) and Detachment 11, Space & Missile Systems Center (SMC, Det 11/CIT) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, and implement graphical products for the Air Force's space weather operations center. These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. Jointly-developed products that will be added to real-time operations in the near future include a solar radio background and burst effects (SoRBE) product suite, and a meteor effects (ME) product suite. The SoRBE product addresses the effect of background and event-level solar radio output on operational DoD systems. Strong bursts of radio wave emissions given off by the sun during solar ``events'' can detrimentally affect radar and satellite communication systems that have operational receiving geometries within the field of view of the sun. For some systems, even the background radiation from the sun can produce effects. The radio frequency interference (RFI) of interest occurs on VHF, UHF, and SHF frequency bands, usually lasting several minutes during a solar flare. While such effects are limited in time and area (typically a few degrees in viewing angle), they can be quite severe in magnitude. The result can be a significant lack in a radar system's ability to detect and/or track an object, and loss of a communication system's ability to receive satellite signals. The ME product will address the detrimental effects of meteors on operational DoD systems. These include impacts on satellites, visible trail observations, and radar clutter. While certain types of individual meteors can produce system effects, the initial ME product will address the more generalized range of meteor shower activity and associated affects. These effects can result in damage to satellites, incorrect assessment of satellite sensor observations, and false target returns on radar

  1. Project proposals on the creation of Russian-American joint enterprise for investigation, development and manufacture of power plants on the basis of solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smotrov, N.V.; Kleschev, Yu.N.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a joint Russian-American enterprise for performing scientific investigations, development, and manufacture of fuel cell power plants on the basis of the solid oxide fuel cell. RASOFCo. Russian-American Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Company. RASOFCo will provide the series output of the electrochemical generator (ECG) of 1kW power, then of 5kW and 10kW as well as the development and the output of 10kW power plant with the subsequent output of a power plant of greater power. An ECG based on solid oxide fuel cells uses methane as a fuel. Predicted technical characteristics, market analysis, assessment of potential demands for power plants of low power for Tyumentransgas, participants of the joint enterprise and their founding contributions, strategy for manufacture and financing, and management of RASOFCo are discussed.

  2. Joint development and tectonic stress field evolution in the southeastern Mesozoic Ordos Basin, west part of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lin; Qiu, Zhen; Wang, Qingchen; Guo, Yusen; Wu, Chaofan; Wu, Zhijie; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    Major joint sets trending E-W (J1), ENE-WSW (J2), NE-SW (J3), N-S (J4), NNW-SSE (J5), NNE-SSW (J6), NW-SE (J7), and WNW-ESE (J8) respectively are recognized in Mesozoic strata within the southeast of Ordos Basin. Among them, the J1, J2 and J3 joint sets are systematic joints, while the other five joint sets (J4, J5, J6, J7, J8) are nonsystematic joints. There are three groups of orthogonal joint systems (i.e. J1 and J4 sets, J2 and J5 sets, and J6 and J8 sets) and two groups of conjugate shear fractures (ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW) in the study area. Joint spacing analysis indicates that: (1) layer thickness has an effect on the joint spacing, but the correlation of joint spacing and layer thickness is low; (2) joint density of systematic joints is greater than nonsystematic joints, and the joint density of a thin layer is also greater than that of a thick layer; and (3) the joints of Mesozoic strata in the basin are the result of tectonic events affected by multiple stress fields. All these joints in the Mesozoic strata are formed in the two main tectonic events since Late Mesozoic times. One is the westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasia Plate, which formed the approximately E-W-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J1 joint set (E-W) and the bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (E-W). The other stress field is related to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, which formed the NE-SW-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J3 joint set and bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (NE-SW). Finally, we conclude that the J1 and J4 sets are formed in the E-W-trending compressive stress field, and the J2, J3, J5, J6, J7 and J8 sets are formed in the NE

  3. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project.

  4. Joint Use of Public Schools: Developing a New Social Contract for the Shared Use of Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filardo, Mary; Vincent, Jeff M.; Allen, Marni; Franklin, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the 21st Century School Fund and the Center for Cities and Schools at the University of California Berkeley provide a conceptual frame for the joint use of PK-12 public school buildings. There is a growing conversation about and demand for joint use as a way to provide services to children and families in convenient locations,…

  5. The Role of Joint Attention in Later Development among Preterm Children: Linkages between Early and Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lars; Ulvund, Stein Erik

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the hypothesis that two different types of joint-attention skills were related to verbal and nonverbal IQ measures through middle childhood. Subjects were infants born preterm and tested at 13 months and at 8 years. Findings provide support for the hypothesis that the initiation of joint attention makes a unique…

  6. Comparison of Extensive Thermal Cycling Effects on Microstructure Development in Micro-alloyed Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Boesenberg, Adam; Harringa, Joel; Riegner, David; Steinmetz, Andrew; Hillman, David

    2011-09-28

    Pb-free solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic have promise for widespread adoption across assembly conditions and operating environments, but enhanced microstructural control is needed. Micro-alloying with elements such as Zn was demonstrated for promoting a preferred solidification path and joint microstructure earlier in simple (Cu/Cu) solder joints studies for different cooling rates. This beneficial behavior now has been verified in reworked ball grid array (BGA) joints, using dissimilar SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, wt.%) solder paste. After industrial assembly, BGA components joined with Sn-3.5Ag-0.74Cu-0.21Zn solder were tested in thermal cycling (-55 C/+125 C) along with baseline SAC305 BGA joints beyond 3000 cycles with continuous failure monitoring. Weibull analysis of the results demonstrated that BGA components joined with SAC + Zn/SAC305 have less joint integrity than SAC305 joints, but their lifetime is sufficient for severe applications in consumer, defense, and avionics electronic product field environments. Failure analysis of the BGA joints revealed that cracking did not deviate from the typical top area (BGA component side) of each joint, in spite of different Ag3Sn blade content. Thus, SAC + Zn solder has not shown any advantage over SAC305 solder in these thermal cycling trials, but other characteristics of SAC + Zn solder may make it more attractive for use across the full range of harsh conditions of avionics or defense applications.

  7. Coordination of chondrocyte differentiation and joint formation by alpha5beta1 integrin in the developing appendicular skeleton.

    PubMed

    Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Rosales, Carlos; Katoh, Masaru; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2004-10-01

    The control point by which chondrocytes take the decision between the cartilage differentiation program or the joint formation program is unknown. Here, we have investigated the effect of alpha5beta1 integrin inhibitors and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) on joint formation. Blocking of alpha5beta1 integrin by specific antibodies or RGD peptide (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) induced inhibition of pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and ectopic joint formation between proliferating chondrocytes and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Ectopic joint expressed Wnt14, Gdf5, chordin, autotaxin, type I collagen and CD44, while expression of Indian hedgehog and type II collagen was downregulated in cartilage. Expression of these interzone markers confirmed that the new structure is a new joint being formed. In the presence of BMP7, inhibition of alpha5beta1 integrin function still induced the formation of the ectopic joint between proliferating chondrocytes and hypertrophic chondrocytes. By contrast, misexpression of alpha5beta1 integrin resulted in fusion of joints and formation of pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes. These facts indicate that the decision of which cell fate to make pre-joint or pre-hypertrophic is made on the basis of the presence or absence of alpha5beta1 integrin on chondrocytes.

  8. Development of Flow and Heat Transfer Models for the Carbon Fiber Rope in Nozzle Joints of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q.; Ewing, M. E.; Mathias, E. C.; Heman, J.; Smith, C.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for modeling both gas dynamics and heat transfer inside the carbon fiber rope (CFR) for applications in the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motor joints. Specifically, the CFR is modeled using an equivalent rectangular duct with a cross-section area, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient such that this duct has the same amount of mass flow rate, pressure drop, and heat transfer rate as the CFR. An equation for the friction factor is derived based on the Darcy-Forschheimer law and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from pipe flow correlations. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas inside the CFR are calculated using the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Various subscale tests, both cold flow and hot flow, have been carried out to validate and refine this CFR model. In particular, the following three types of testing were used: (1) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle-to-case joint geometry, (2) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle joint No. 2 geometry, and (3) hot flow in a RSRM nozzle joint environment simulator. The predicted pressure and temperature history are compared with experimental measurements. The effects of various input parameters for the model are discussed in detail.

  9. Ontogeny of joint mechanics in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis): functional implications for mammalian limb growth and locomotor development.

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W

    2009-05-01

    Juvenile animals must often compete against adults for common resources, keep pace during group travel and evade common predators, despite reduced body size and an immature musculoskeletal system. Previous morphometric studies of a diverse array of mammals, including jack rabbits, cats and capuchin monkeys, have identified growth-related changes in anatomy, such as negative allometry of limb muscle mechanical advantage, which should theoretically permit young mammals to overcome such ontogenetic limits on performance. However, it is important to evaluate the potential impact of such ;compensatory' growth trajectories within the context of developmental changes in locomotor behavior. I used standard kinematic and kinetic techniques to investigate the ontogenetic scaling of joint postures, substrate reaction forces, joint load arm lengths and external joint moments in an ontogenetic sample of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Results indicated that young squirrel monkeys were frequently able to limit forelimb and hind limb joint loading via a combination of changes in limb posture and limb force distribution, potentially compensating for limited muscularity at younger ages. These results complement previous morphometric studies and suggest that immature mammals may utilize a combination of behavioral and anatomical mechanisms to mitigate ontogenetic limits on locomotor performance. However, ontogenetic changes in joint posture, not limb length per se, explained most of the variation in load arm lengths and joint loading in growing squirrel monkeys, indicating the importance of incorporating both anatomical and performance measures when studying the ontogeny of limb joint mechanics.

  10. Analytical development of dynamic equations of motion for a three-dimensional flexible link manipulator with revolute and prismatic joints.

    PubMed

    Khadem, S E; Pirmohammadi, A A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model capable of handling a three-dimensional (3D) flexible n-degree of freedom manipulator having both revolute and prismatic joints is considered. This model is used to study the longitudinal, transversal, and torsional vibration characteristics of the robot manipulator and obtain kinematic and dynamic equations of motion. The presence of prismatic joints makes the mathematical derivation complex. In this paper, for the first time, prismatic joints as well as revolute joints have been considered in the structure of a 3D flexible n-degree of freedom manipulator. The kinematic and dynamic equations of motion representing longitudinal, transversal, and torsional vibration characteristics have been solved in parametric form with no discretization. In this investigation, in order to obtain an analytical solution of the vibrational equations, a novel approach is presented using the perturbation method. By solving the equations of motion, it is shown that mode shapes of the link with prismatic joints can be modeled as the equivalent clamped beam at each time instant. As an example, this method is applied to a three degrees of freedom robot with revolute and prismatic joints. The obtained equations are solved using the perturbation method and the results are used to simulate vibrational behavior of the manipulator.

  11. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US $39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

  12. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments.

  13. South Asian co-operation in population education. Materials jointly developed for common use by South Asian population education programmes.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Southern Asian population education programs have developed common materials on population and family life education. Countries involved were Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The development of materials occurred as a byproduct of workshop conducted in Nepal from December 3-7, 1990 and December 2-10, 1991 in Sri Lanka. The 1st meeting was organized by UNESCO's Population Education Advisory team, and 6 curriculum topics were identified. Pretesting of materials was conducted between meetings. The final product was a set of 10 posters and 2 comic strips on the quality of life developed by India for elementary level use; a family life and sex education syllabus developed by Sri Lanka for secondary school use; 5 modules with teacher's guides and sample lessons for secondary school use; 5 modules and a teacher's guide on transmission of values on population education by Pakistan; 25 flip charts on maternal and child health for illiterates developed by Nepal; and a field guide on environmental protection for nonformal field workers developed by Bangladesh. Materials were designed through brainstorming sessions, designing of materials by experts, review by other groups, and retesting on target audiences. Revision followed pretesting. The plan for assuring use of materials was to have UNESCO print prototypes and then participants would seek financial support for country supplies. A suggestion was made to leave ample space for insertion of local language captions. Another suggestion was that the cartoon strip "Girls are Pearls" be printed on students' exercise books for all member countries. Member countries should also have available selected materials translated into English and distributed. UNESCO should continue to play the role of facilitator of information and expertise exchange among member countries. Another mutually cooperative activity was the Group Training Course on Population Education for the South Asian subregion held in December 1991.

  14. Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Meghan R.; Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically…

  15. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  16. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  17. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  18. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvez, Carlos Sabu; Carvalho de Moraes, Luis Otavio; Marques, Sergio R.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Harb, Leandro J. C.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose F.; Mérida-Velasco, Jose R.; Alonso, Luis Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. PMID:24527214

  19. A serial study on the development of the temporomandibular joint in the fetal mouse--in particular on the fibrous component in the condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, M

    1990-06-01

    The development of the temporomandibular joint of 400 fetal mice at stages ranging from the 13th to the 20th day after insemination was investigated under the light, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopes. The differentiation and development of a cartilaginous tissue were observed at the supero-posterior end of the mandible at the 13 days after insemination. This tissue grew backward, upward and lateralward continuously and maintained a constant articulation with the squamosal part of the temporal bone. Seventeen days after insemination, cell layers in the condylar process and articular disc were arranged regularly. An supero- and inferno-directional cellular differentiation initiated from the subfibrous (SF) layer toward the articular spaces and cartilaginous layer was observed. The perichondrial ossification had taken place with the invasion of capillaries and the differentiation of osteoblasts in the SF layer, and was followed with a hypertrophic degeneration and endochondral ossification in the condylar process. Such a bi-directional growth of collagen and elastic fibers starting from the SF layer was also observed. Observation under SEM and TEM on the autoclaved condylar process revealed a complicated network consisted of main elastic fibers running in the sagittal direction. These fibers as well as the proteoglycan which contributes to the resilient property of the condylar cartilage and the ability to endure tensile or compressive stress from surrounding tissues during the growth and development of the mandibular condyle. The developing cartilaginous tissue was stimulated with the pressure from the masticatory muscles to initiate an active differentiation of the fibrous layer, which was invaded by the blood capillary system closely related with the subsequent endochondral ossification. These results elucidate that the development of the temporomandibular joint has closely kept relations with the functional influences from surrounding

  20. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-06-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  1. The development of internal repair and rehabilitation techniques for cast iron joints and small diameter steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuzaki, M.; Yasui, K.; Tsuji, T.

    1988-01-01

    Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. and Toho Gas Co., Ltd. have accomplished trenchless repair-rehabilitation techniques for cast iron mains, branches, services and house pipes as complete systems in order to maintain its buried pipelines efficiently. An outline of these systems is presented in this paper. Osaka Gas is the second largest and Toho Gas is the third largest gas company in Japan, both gas companies have 5,800,000 customers and pipelines extending approximately to 52,000 km. To maintain such gas pipelines whose length is much more longer than the circumference of the earth, a large amount of investment is required, because excavation of existing pipelines has become more and more difficult. In such a situation, it has become urgent to develop trenchless techniques to repair gas pipelines and to prevent leakage. From these viewpoints Osaka Gas and Toho Gas have developed several complete, internal repair-rehabilitation techniques for cast iron mains, branches, services, and house pipes.

  2. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  3. Development of a low-cost airborne ultrasound sensor for the detection of brick joints behind a wall painting.

    PubMed

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XV th century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research.

  4. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research. PMID:22438711

  5. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  7. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  8. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  9. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the rat trigeminal ganglion during the development of temporomandibular joint inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, G.C.; Rizzi, E.; Gerlach, R.F.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain is a prevalent symptom in modern society. Some musculoskeletal orofacial pain is caused by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). This condition has a multi-factorial etiology, including emotional factors and alteration of the masticator muscle and temporomandibular joints (TMJs). TMJ inflammation is considered to be a cause of pain in patients with TMD. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes, specifically the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been shown to modulate inflammation and pain. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the expression and level of gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the trigeminal ganglion are altered during different stages of temporomandibular inflammation, as determined by gelatin zymography. This study also evaluated whether mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia, induced by the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the TMJ capsule, were altered by an MMP inhibitor (doxycycline, DOX). TMJ inflammation was measured by plasma extravasation in the periarticular tissue (Evans blue test) and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the synovial fluid (myeloperoxidase enzyme quantification). MMP expression in the trigeminal ganglion was shown to vary during the phases of the inflammatory process. MMP-9 regulated the early phase and MMP-2 participated in the late phase of this process. Furthermore, increases in plasma extravasation in periarticular tissue and myeloperoxidase activity in the joint tissue, which occurred throughout the inflammation process, were diminished by treatment with DOX, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor. Additionally, the increases of mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia were attenuated by the same treatment. PMID:24270905

  10. Individual and joint toxic effects of cadmium sulfate and α-naphthoflavone on the development of zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhang, Feng; Miao, Peng; Lin, Ying; Chen, Ming-li

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the individual and joint toxicities of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4) and α-naphthoflavone (ANF) in zebrafish embryos. As a result, CdSO4 caused both lethal and sub-lethal effects, such as 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) death and 72 hpf delayed hatching. However, ANF only caused sub-lethal effects, including 48 hpf cardiac edema and 72 hpf delayed hatching. Taking 24 hpf death and 48 hpf cardiac edema as endpoints, the toxicities of CdSO4 and ANF were significantly enhanced by each other. Consistently, both CdSO4 and ANF caused significant oxidative stress, including decreases in the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish embryos, but these mixtures produced much more significant alterations on the biomarkers. Co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF significantly down-regulated the mRNA level of multidrug resistance-associated protein (mrp) 1 and cytochrome P450 (cyp) 1a, which constituted the protective mechanisms for zebrafish embryos to chemical toxins. In conclusion, co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF exhibited a much more severe damage in zebrafish embryos than individual treatment. Meanwhile, production of oxidative stress and altered expression of mrp1 and cyp1a could be important components of such joint toxicity.

  11. Probing emissions of military cargo aircraft: description of a joint field measurement Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Corporan, Edwin; DeWitt, Matthew J; Spicer, Chester W; Holdren, Michael W; Cowen, Kenneth A; Laskin, Alex; Harris, David B; Shores, Richard C; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram

    2008-06-01

    To develop effective air quality control strategies for military air bases, there is a need to accurately quantify these emissions. In support of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions from two T56 engines on a parked C-130 aircraft were characterized at the Kentucky Air National Guard base in Louisville, KY. Conventional and research-grade instrumentation and methodology were used in the field campaign during the first week of October 2005. Particulate emissions were sampled at the engine exit plane and at 15 m downstream. In addition, remote sensing of the gaseous species was performed via spectroscopic techniques at 5 and 15 m downstream of the engine exit. It was found that PM mass and number concentrations measured at 15-m downstream locations, after dilution-correction generally agreed well with those measured at the engine exhaust plane; however, higher variations were observed in the far-field after natural dilution of the downstream measurements was accounted for. Using carbon dioxide-normalized data we demonstrated that gas species measurements by extractive and remote sensing techniques agreed reasonably well.

  12. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  13. Development of Torque Sensor with High Sensitivity for Joint of Robot Manipulator Using 4-Bar Linkage Shape.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Ryoo, Young-Jae; Byun, Kyung-Seok

    2016-07-01

    The torque sensor is used to measure the joint torque of a robot manipulator. Previous research showed that the sensitivity and the stiffness of torque sensors have trade-off characteristics. Stiffness has to be sacrificed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor. In this research, a new torque sensor with high sensitivity (TSHS) is proposed in order to resolve this problem. The key idea of the TSHS comes from its 4-bar linkage shape in which the angular displacement of a short link is larger than that of a long link. The sensitivity of the torque sensor with a 4-bar link shape is improved without decreasing stiffness. Optimization techniques are applied to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. An actual TSHS is constructed to verify the validity of the proposed mechanism. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of TSHS can be increased 3.5 times without sacrificing stiffness.

  14. Development of Torque Sensor with High Sensitivity for Joint of Robot Manipulator Using 4-Bar Linkage Shape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Ryoo, Young-Jae; Byun, Kyung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The torque sensor is used to measure the joint torque of a robot manipulator. Previous research showed that the sensitivity and the stiffness of torque sensors have trade-off characteristics. Stiffness has to be sacrificed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor. In this research, a new torque sensor with high sensitivity (TSHS) is proposed in order to resolve this problem. The key idea of the TSHS comes from its 4-bar linkage shape in which the angular displacement of a short link is larger than that of a long link. The sensitivity of the torque sensor with a 4-bar link shape is improved without decreasing stiffness. Optimization techniques are applied to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. An actual TSHS is constructed to verify the validity of the proposed mechanism. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of TSHS can be increased 3.5 times without sacrificing stiffness. PMID:27376304

  15. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  16. Review of US Nanocorp - SNL Joint Development of Thermal-Sprayed Thin-Film Cathodes for Thermal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID E.

    2000-11-14

    The use of plasma spray to deposit thin metal-sulfide cathode films is described in this paper. Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts that are difficult to fabricate in large diameters in thicknesses <0.010. Plasma-sprayed electrodes do not steer from this difficulty, allowing greater energy densities and specific energies to be realized. Various co-spraying agents have been found suitable for improving the mechanical as well as electrochemical properties of plasma-sprayed cathodes for thermal batteries. These electrodes generally show equal or improved performance over conventional pressed-powder electrodes. A number of areas for future growth and development of plasma-spray technology is discussed.

  17. Development, assembly, and validation of an SMA-actuated two-joint nozzle and six-channel power supply for use in a smart inhaler system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Stephen J.; Hangekar, Rohan; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    The Smart Inhaler design concept recently developed at NC State University has the potential to target the delivery of inhaled aerosol medication to specified locations within the lung system. This targeted delivery could help patients with pulmonary ailments by reducing the exposure of healthy lung tissue to potentially harmful medications. However, controlled delivery can only be accomplished if medication is injected at a precise location in an inhaled stream of properly conditioned laminar flow. In particular, the medication must be injected into the inhaled flow using a small nozzle that can be positioned without disturbing the flow. This paper outlines the procedure used to assemble and control a key component of the smart inhaler: a shape memory alloy (SMA) based dual-joint flexible nozzle that exploits the sensing and actuating capabilities of thermally activated SMA wires. A novel 6-channel power-supply is used to control input power and measure the resistance across the SMA. Since a practical fabrication process may result in SMA wires with different contact resistances, the power supply employs an initialization procedure to self-calibrate and provide normalized power distribution 6 SMA wires simultaneously. Furthermore, a robust control scheme is used to ensure that a constant current is provided to the wires. In validation tests, a LabVIEW-based video positioning system was used to measure the deflection of the nozzle tip and joint rotation. Results show that the carefully controlled assembly of a stream-lined nozzle can produce a practical smart structure, and joint rotation is predictable and repeatable when power input is also controlled. Future work will assess the use of the SMA-resistance measurement as position feedback and PID position control power as a measurement of the convective cooling that results from the moving airflow.

  18. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  19. A joint modeling approach for uncovering associations between gene expression, bioactivity and chemical structure in early drug discovery to guide lead selection and genomic biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Perualila-Tan, Nolen; Kasim, Adetayo; Talloen, Willem; Verbist, Bie; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Shkedy, Ziv

    2016-08-01

    The modern drug discovery process involves multiple sources of high-dimensional data. This imposes the challenge of data integration. A typical example is the integration of chemical structure (fingerprint features), phenotypic bioactivity (bioassay read-outs) data for targets of interest, and transcriptomic (gene expression) data in early drug discovery to better understand the chemical and biological mechanisms of candidate drugs, and to facilitate early detection of safety issues prior to later and expensive phases of drug development cycles. In this paper, we discuss a joint model for the transcriptomic and the phenotypic variables conditioned on the chemical structure. This modeling approach can be used to uncover, for a given set of compounds, the association between gene expression and biological activity taking into account the influence of the chemical structure of the compound on both variables. The model allows to detect genes that are associated with the bioactivity data facilitating the identification of potential genomic biomarkers for compounds efficacy. In addition, the effect of every structural feature on both genes and pIC50 and their associations can be simultaneously investigated. Two oncology projects are used to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the joint model to integrate multi-source high-dimensional information to aid drug discovery. PMID:27269248

  20. Digital correction of magnification in pelvic x rays for preoperative planning of hip joint replacements: Theoretical development and clinical results of a new protocol

    SciTech Connect

    The, B.; Diercks, R.L.; Stewart, R.E.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2005-08-15

    The introduction of digital radiological facilities leads to the necessity of digital preoperative planning, which is an essential part of joint replacement surgery. To avoid errors in the preparation and execution of hip surgery, reliable correction of the magnification of the projected hip is a prerequisite. So far, no validated method exists to accomplish this. We present validated geometrical models of the x-ray projection of spheres, relevant for the calibration procedure to correct for the radiographic magnification. With help of these models a new calibration protocol was developed. The validity and precision of this procedure was determined in clinical practice. Magnification factors could be predicted with a maximal margin of error of 1.5%. The new calibration protocol is valid and reliable. The clinical tests revealed that correction of magnification has a 95% margin of error of -3% to +3%. Future research might clarify if a strict calibration protocol, as presented in this study, results in more accurate preoperative planning of hip joint replacements.

  1. [Joint locus of a/b-globin genes in Danio rerio is segregated into structural subdomains active at different stages of development].

    PubMed

    Dolgushin, K V; Petrova, N V; Iudinkova, E S; Razin, S V; Iarovaia, O V

    2015-01-01

    In the domain model of eukaryotic genome organization, the functional unit of the genome, along with the relevant regulatory elements, is considered to be a gene or a gene family. In hot-blooded vertebrate animals, the domains of a- and b-globin genes are positioned at different chromosomes and are organized and regulated in different fashion. In cold-blooded animals, in particular in tropical fish Danio rerio, a- and b globin genes are located in a common gene cluster. However, the joint a/b-globin gene cluster is subdivided into two development stage-specific subdomains, the adult one and the embryonic-larval one. In an attempt to find out whether this functional segregation correlates with structural segregation of the domain we compared the DNase I sensitivity and profiles of histone modifications of adult and embryonic-larval segments of the domain in cultured D. rerio fibroblasts. We have demonstrated that, in these nonerythroid cells, adult and embryonic- larval subdomains possess different DNase I sensitivities and different profiles of H3K27me3, a histone modification introduced by PRC2 complex. These observations suggest that joint a/b globin gene domain of Danio rerio is segregated into two structural subdomain harboring adult and embryonic-larval globin genes. PMID:26107904

  2. Management of open bite that developed during treatment for internal derangement and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Won; Nakaoka, Kazutoshi; Hamada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment performed for open bite caused by internal derangement (ID) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A Japanese woman, aged 31 years and 11 months, referred to our department by an oral surgeon had an open bite with clockwise rotation of the mandible and degeneration of the condyle. The overbite was corrected through intrusion of the maxillary and mandibular molars using mini-screw implants to induce counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. Then, the mandibular second premolars were extracted and comprehensive orthodontic treatment was performed to establish a Class I molar relationship with distalization of the maxillary arch and to eliminate anterior crowding. Following treatment, her facial profile improved and a functional and stable occlusion was achieved without recurrence of the TMJ symptoms. These results suggest that orthodontic intrusion of the molars is one of the safer and less stressful alternatives for the management of open bite due to degeneration of the condyles caused by ID and OA of TMJ. PMID:26023542

  3. Initial Report on the Development of a Monte Carlo-Markov Chain Joint Inversion Approach for Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Ramirez, A; Carlson, S; Dyer, K; Sun, Y

    2007-04-25

    Geothermal exploration and subsequent characterization of potential resources typically employ a variety of geophysical, geologic and geochemical techniques. However, since the data collected by each technique provide information directly on only one or a very limited set of the many physical parameters that characterize a geothermal system, no single method can be used to describe the system in its entirety. Presently, the usual approach to analyzing disparate data streams for geothermal applications is to invert (or forward model) each data set separately and then combine or compare the resulting models, for the most part in a more or less ad hoc manner. However, while each inversion may yield a model that fits the individual data set, the models are usually inconsistent with each other to some degree. This reflects uncertainties arising from the inevitable fact that geophysical and other exploration data in general are to some extent noisy, incomplete, and of limited sensitivity and resolution, and so yield non-unique results. The purpose of the project described here is to integrate the different model constraints provided by disparate geophysical, geological and geochemical data in a rigorous and consistent manner by formal joint inversion. The objective is to improve the fidelity of exploration results and reservoir characterization, thus addressing the goal of the DOE Geothermal Program to improve success in exploration for economically viable resources by better defining drilling targets, reducing risk, and improving exploration/drilling success rates.

  4. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a 10-minute videotaped free play task with parents. Engagement states ranged from the lowest (unengaged) to the highest level (symbol-infused coordinated). Standardized language measures were administered. Results Multivariate analyses were conducted between the groups, stratified by chronological and language age. Children who were deaf (Deaf) spent less time in total symbol-infused JE than children with normal hearing (NH) across all ages. The majority of the Deaf group (83%) fell in the lowest language age group, in comparison to 35% of the NH group, and spent significantly less time in symbol-infused JE than hearing children. These delays were also observed in the Deaf group, who fell into the 18-36 month language age. No children in the Deaf group had achieved a language age of >36 months. Conclusions Young children with and without hearing had different developmental trajectories of JE, which were related to oral language skills. PMID:24845423

  5. The Development of the Joint NASA GSFC and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Geopotential Model EGM96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Kenyon, S.C.; Factor, J. K.; Trimmer, R. G.; Pavlis, N. K.; Chinn, D. S.; Cox, C. M.; Klosko, S. M.; Luthcke, S. B.; Torrence, M. H.; Wang, Y. M.; Williamson, R. G.; Pavlis, E. C.; Rapp, R. H.; Olson, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), and The Ohio State University (OSU) have collaborated to develop an improved spherical harmonic model of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360. The new model, Earth Gravitational Model 1996 (EGM96), incorporates improved surface gravity data, altimeter-derived gravity anomalies from ERS-1 and from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM), extensive satellite tracking data-including new data from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), the Global Postioning System (GPS), NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the French DORIS system, and the US Navy TRANET Doppler tracking system-as well as direct altimeter ranges from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), ERS-1, and GEOSAT. The final solution blends a low-degree combination model to degree 70, a block-diagonal solution from degree 71 to 359, and a quadrature solution at degree 360. The model was used to compute geoid undulations accurate to better than one meter (with the exception of areas void of dense and accurate surface gravity data) and realize WGS84 as a true three-dimensional reference system. Additional results from the EGM96 solution include models of the dynamic ocean topography to degree 20 from T/P and ERS-1 together, and GEOSAT separately, and improved orbit determination for Earth-orbiting satellites.

  6. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  7. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors

  8. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  9. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  10. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  11. Joint Associations of Physical Activity and Hypertension with the Development of Type 2 Diabetes among Urban Men and Women in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S.; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, YouFa; Wang, ZhiYong; Hong, Xin; Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and hypertension (HTN) are important influences on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the joint impact of PA and HTN on T2D development is unknown. Methods Two community-based prospective cohort studies, with the same protocols, instruments and questionnaires, were conducted among adults in urban areas of Nanjing, China, during 2004–2007 and 2007–2010. T2D was defined using World Health Organization criteria based on physicians' diagnosis and fasting blood glucose concentration. PA level (sufficient/insufficient) and blood pressure status (hypertensive/normotensive) were assessed at baseline and the third year of follow-up. We pooled and analyzed data from these two studies. Results Among 4550 participants aged 35 years or older, the three-year cumulative incidence of T2D was 5.1%. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants with sufficient PA were less likely to develop T2D than those with insufficient PA (OR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.27, 0.68) and those who were normotensive were less likely to develop T2D than those who were hypertensive (OR = 0.39, 95%CI = 0.29, 0.51). Compared to participants with insufficient PA and who were hypertensive, those with sufficient PA and hypertension were at lower risk of developing T2D (OR = 0.36, 95%CI = 0.19, 0.69), as were those with insufficient PA who were normotensive (OR = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.28, 0.50) and those with sufficient PA who were normotensive (OR = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.37). Conclusions Insufficient PA was found to be associated with the development of T2D among adults with and without hypertension. These findings support a role for promoting higher physical activity levels to lower T2D risk in both hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. PMID:24551143

  12. Consumerism & Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockenden, Sandy

    1991-01-01

    This material asks social studies students in Canada to recognize the implications of the lifestyles of citizens in developed countries, and the power that consumers have to create change for a better world, to be agents of positive development. Development is seen as a four faceted process. This model implies that development is an approach to…

  13. Community Development in Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Richard; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, six papers on community development in developed nations review the conceptual dimensions, issues, and directions of community development in the United States; pilot programs of social research, training, and consultation in rural Saskatchewan; the community development efforts of the University of New…

  14. A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2009-06-03

    With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

  15. The joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure: development and cross-validation of a six-factor model of cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Price, Larry R

    2003-06-01

    During the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (3rd ed.; WMS-III) the participants in the normative study completed both scales. This "co-norming" methodology set the stage for full integration of the 2 tests and the development of an expanded structure of cognitive functioning. Until now, however, the WAIS-III and WMS-III had not been examined together in a factor analytic study. This article presents a series of confirmatory factor analyses to determine the joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach, a 6-factor model that included verbal, perceptual, processing speed, working memory, auditory memory, and visual memory constructs provided the best model fit to the data. Allowing select subtests to load simultaneously on 2 factors improved model fit and indicated that some subtests are multifaceted. The results were then replicated in a large cross-validation sample (N = 858).

  16. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  17. Toddler development

    MedlinePlus

    Toddlers are children ages 1 to 3. CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Cognitive (thought) development skills typical for toddlers include: Early use of instruments or tools Following visual (then later, invisible) displacement (moving from ...

  18. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  19. Developer Network

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  20. Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Eight conference papers on language teacher development are presented, including: "Mosaics of Teacher Development and Socialization" (Andrew Barfield, Paul A. Beaufait, Sean Conley, Tim Murphey, Katsura Haruko), a panel presentation on aspects of and experiments in teacher development; "Questions About Teaching? Answers from Teachers!" (David…

  1. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of Instruction and…

  2. Validation of hip joint center localization methods during gait analysis using 3D EOS imaging in typically developing and cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Assi, Ayman; Sauret, Christophe; Massaad, Abir; Bakouny, Ziad; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-07-01

    Localization of the hip joint center (HJC) is essential in computation of gait data. EOS low dose biplanar X-rays have been shown to be a good reference in evaluating various methods of HJC localization in adults. The aim is to evaluate predictive and functional techniques for HJC localization in typically developing (TD) and cerebral palsy (CP) children, using EOS as an image based reference. Eleven TD and 17 CP children underwent 3D gait analysis. Six HJC localization methods were evaluated in each group bilaterally: 3 predictive (Plug in Gait, Bell and Harrington) and 3 functional methods based on the star arc technique (symmetrical center of rotation estimate, center transformation technique and geometrical sphere fitting). All children then underwent EOS low dose biplanar radiographs. Pelvis, lower limbs and their corresponding external markers were reconstructed in 3D. The center of the femoral head was considered as the reference (HJCEOS). Euclidean distances between HJCs estimated by each of the 6 methods and the HJCEOS were calculated; distances were shown to be lower in predictive compared to functional methods (p<0.0001). Contrarily to findings in adults, functional methods were shown to be less accurate than predictive methods in TD and CP children, which could be mainly due to the shorter thigh segment in children. Harrington method was shown to be the most accurate in the prediction of HJC (mean error≈18mm, SD=9mm) and quasi-equivalent to the Bell method. The bias for each method was quantified, allowing its correction for an improved HJC estimation. PMID:27477704

  3. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, O.; Dufresne, A.; Pédrot, M.; Chatton, E.; Labasque, T.; Ben Maamar, S.; Burté, L.; de la Bernardie, J.; Guihéneuf, N.; Lavenant, N.; Petton, C.; Bour, O.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydro-logical systems. Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is observed in an 130m deep artesian well. Borehole video logs show an important colonization of the well by the biofilm in the shallower part (0 to 60m), while it is inexistent in the deeper part (60 to 130m). As flow is localized in a few deep and shallow fractures, we presume that the spatial distribution of biofilm is controlled by mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. To verify this hypothesis we conducted a field campaign with joint characterization of the flow and chemical composition of water flowing from the different fractures, as well as the microbiological composition of the biofilm at different depth, using pyrosequencing techniques. We will discuss in this presentation the results of this interdisciplinary dataset and their implications for the occurrence of hotspots of microbiological activity in the subsurface.

  4. Development of gait performance and dynamic hip and knee joint loading after containment improving surgery in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

    PubMed

    Stief, Felix; Schmidt, André; Adolf, Stefanie; Kremer, Laura; Brkic, Moamer; Meurer, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Current surgery outcome evaluations in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) are usually based on static radiological changes. The aim of the present study was to assess the development of characteristic gait parameters and passive hip range of motion (ROM) measurements during the postoperative period up to healed stage of the femoral head represented by Stulberg classification. Twelve children (10 male, 2 female) with unilateral diagnosis of LCPD and 19 healthy control subjects at the same age participated in this prospective longitudinal study. Instrumented gait analysis was performed preoperatively, 13.4 (±1.7), and 28.0 (±4.4) months postoperatively. At final follow-up, the mean leg length of the involved side was reduced by 1.10 (±0.53)cm compared to the non-involved side. In addition, a significant reduction in maximum knee flexion (-26%, p=0.037) and knee flexion/extension ROM (-26%, p=0.017) in stance was still present in the patient group compared to controls indicating a "stiff knee gait pattern". In contrast, the sagittal plane hip parameters, the ipsilateral trunk lean toward the involved stance limb, and the knee and hip joint loading during gait normalized during the postoperative period. The results of the present study should motivate further exploration if patients with LCPD stiffen their knees to compensate for leg length discrepancy. Besides the standard radiological evaluation of the surgery outcome, instrumented gait analysis is a valuable method of recording functional deficits and early recognition of the need for physiotherapeutic treatment or insole supply in patients with LCPD. PMID:27264403

  5. Program Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  6. Developable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, it has become the conventional wisdom that all developable conventional hydropower resources have been exhausted. Studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies find differently. The root of disagreement may lie in the definition of what is developable. Environmental special interest groups now define developable hydropower sites as those having zero effect on the environment. As a result they conclude there are no additional developable hydropower sites. By contrast, the definition used by DOE and others is broader as it balances economic, technical, and environmental factors in accordance with the Federal Power Act.

  7. KENO developments

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Modifications and developments to the series of KENO multigroup, criticality safety transport codes are very briefly summarized. Three areas are addressed: (1) modifications to KENO-V.a, (2) development of KENO-VI, (3) modifications to the CSAS4 sequence of the SCALE package, and (4) future work on KENO related programs. Minor changes have been made to KENO-V.a, primarily for maintenance. KENO-VI has been developed and will be released soon. A new search type is being developed in SCALE to allow CSAS4 to do a concentration search on a mixture component.

  8. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This serial issue contains 12 articles on the theme of "Professional Development," specifically about how teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network (BLRTN) are fostering their own and each other's development as teachers. The BLRTN consists of approximately 260 rural teachers in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New…

  9. Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  10. Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  11. [Toddler Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme newsletter issue presents seven articles describing toddler behavior and development, services for toddlers, and toddlers with special needs. The first article, "Toddlers: Themes and Variations" (Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen Small) focuses on variations in toddler development, noting emerging skills, language, and the caregiver role.…

  12. Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management development. "LMX (Leader-Member Exchange) Theory, Personality Type, and Management Development" (Janet Z. Burns) reports the results of a study on the similarities and differences in personality type (as outlined in the theories of Carl Jung and Isabel Myers) and its relationship…

  13. Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.

    PubMed

    Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

    1999-08-01

    Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were

  14. Technology development.

    PubMed

    Gomory, R E

    1983-05-01

    In technology development significant advances are as often the result of a series of evolutionary steps as they are of breakthroughs. This is illustrated by the examples of the steam engine and the computer. Breakthroughs, such as the transistor, are relatively rare, and are often the result of the introduction of new knowledge coming from a quite different area. Technology development is often difficult to predict because of its complexity; practical considerations may far outweigh apparent scientific advantages, and cultural factors enter in at many levels. In a large technological organization problems exist in bringing scientific knowledge to bear on development, but much can be done to obviate these difficulties. PMID:17749515

  15. Technology development.

    PubMed

    Gomory, R E

    1983-05-01

    In technology development significant advances are as often the result of a series of evolutionary steps as they are of breakthroughs. This is illustrated by the examples of the steam engine and the computer. Breakthroughs, such as the transistor, are relatively rare, and are often the result of the introduction of new knowledge coming from a quite different area. Technology development is often difficult to predict because of its complexity; practical considerations may far outweigh apparent scientific advantages, and cultural factors enter in at many levels. In a large technological organization problems exist in bringing scientific knowledge to bear on development, but much can be done to obviate these difficulties.

  16. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  17. Speech Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... W View More… Donate Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Speech Development skip to submenu ... Lip and Palate . Bzoch (1997). Cleft Palate Speech Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach . Shprintzen, Bardach (1995). Cleft Palate: ...

  18. Fetal development

    MedlinePlus

    WEEK BY WEEK CHANGES Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth when a baby grows and develops inside ... to the current date. It is measured in weeks. This means that during weeks 1 and 2 ...

  19. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... new neural connections every second. This growing brain development is influenced by many factors, including a child’s relationships, experiences and environment. Learn more about the crucial role you play ...

  20. Toddler development.

    PubMed

    Colson, E R; Dworkin, P H

    1997-08-01

    The toddler years are ones of exciting and challenging changes in cognitive, affective, and physical growth. Physical growth is particularly remarkable for the child's increasing skills and ability to navigate the environment. Affective development is marked by the push for autonomy and independence and the highly visible nature of the child's temperament or behavioral style. The toddler also enters the wonderful years of imagination and pretend play. Perhaps most noteworthy is the child's dramatic increase in ability to communicate with others through speech and language, as evidence of the progression to symbolic thinking. The dynamic changes in children's development during the toddler years have important implications for child health supervision. Familiarity with toddler development will enable the pediatrician to monitor children's development effectively and to address common, stage-related behaviors with families during anticipatory guidance.

  1. Toddler development.

    PubMed

    Colson, E R; Dworkin, P H

    1997-08-01

    The toddler years are ones of exciting and challenging changes in cognitive, affective, and physical growth. Physical growth is particularly remarkable for the child's increasing skills and ability to navigate the environment. Affective development is marked by the push for autonomy and independence and the highly visible nature of the child's temperament or behavioral style. The toddler also enters the wonderful years of imagination and pretend play. Perhaps most noteworthy is the child's dramatic increase in ability to communicate with others through speech and language, as evidence of the progression to symbolic thinking. The dynamic changes in children's development during the toddler years have important implications for child health supervision. Familiarity with toddler development will enable the pediatrician to monitor children's development effectively and to address common, stage-related behaviors with families during anticipatory guidance. PMID:9255990

  2. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  3. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  4. Development risks

    SciTech Connect

    Riedy, M.; Desai, S.

    1996-04-01

    Risks associated with hydropower production development in India are discussed in this article. A project prospectus for the development of India`s estimated 84,044 MW(e) hydropower potential is given which accounts for environmental and regulatory concerns. Regulations issued by the Government of Industry regarding private investment in hydropower are outlined, and additional policies which are expected to be instituted are discussed.

  5. PARENT DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, David Belais

    1957-01-01

    Today's parents tend to be overwhelmed with advice from many sources. In his role as family counselor, the pediatrician must understand and consider the emotional development of parents in relation to their child's development; otherwise, his advice and counsel do not “take” and he becomes tired and frustrated and angry. Parents progress through definite stages of development: Stage 1: Learning the cues—the struggle of the parents to interpret the infant's needs. Stage 2: Learning to accept growth and development—the parent learning to accept some loss of control of the toddler. Stage 3: Learning to separate—the parent learning to allow the child to develop independently. Stage 4: Learning to accept rejection, without deserting—the struggle of the parents not to intrude and yet to be there when needed. Stage 5: Learning to build a new life having been thoroughly discredited by one's teenager—the parent learning to live independently while the teenager struggles to develop his own identity. The pediatrician who is accepting, sensitive and a good listener and who keeps in mind that parents as well as children have capacities for growth and development, will be a potent factor in promoting good parent-child relationships and many times more effective in dealing with the child in health and disease. PMID:13383387

  6. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  7. Sustainable development is healthy development.

    PubMed

    Litsios, S

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth has brought with it substantial environmental damage. Nature has been abused and little consideration has been given to the consequences, among them the adverse effects on health. Healthy people are vital for local development that is both economically and ecologically sound. The health sector should be actively involved in the movement for sustainable development. What this would require in practice is considered below, with particular reference to the quality of life in regions of tropical forest.

  8. Sustainable development is healthy development.

    PubMed

    Litsios, S

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth has brought with it substantial environmental damage. Nature has been abused and little consideration has been given to the consequences, among them the adverse effects on health. Healthy people are vital for local development that is both economically and ecologically sound. The health sector should be actively involved in the movement for sustainable development. What this would require in practice is considered below, with particular reference to the quality of life in regions of tropical forest. PMID:8018295

  9. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  10. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  11. Sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Dudani, A T

    1996-01-01

    Many attempts have been made over the last decade to define sustainable development (SD). However, it is much easier to describe one's expectations of SD. The discussion over SD grew in the wake of the Brundlandt Commission report, Our Common Future (OCF), which describes SD as a process of change in which resources, the direction of investment, orientation of technological development, and institutional change all enhance the potential to meet human needs today and in the future. The OCF stresses the interrelationship between SD and economic development such that nothing can be at the expense of environmental destruction. Close cooperation is needed at the domestic and international political, social, and economic levels and spheres in order to achieve long-term SD. The author discusses the state of affairs in the US and sustainable agriculture and SD.

  12. Defining "Development".

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Laplane, Lucie; Prévot, Karine; Hoquet, Thierry; Reynaud, Valentine; Fusco, Giuseppe; Minelli, Alessandro; Orgogozo, Virginie; Vervoort, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition is indeed possible and useful, which definition(s) can be considered as the most satisfactory.

  13. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runco, A.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Murray-Krezan, J.

    2014-09-01

    The JSpOC Mission System is a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA). The JMS program has already delivered Increment 1 in April 2013 as initial capability to operations. The programs current focus, Increment 2, will be completed by 2016 and replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. Post 2016, JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources with more agility. In 2012, the JMS Program Office entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD have created development environments at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources. The unclassified ARCADE utilizes the Maui high performance computing (HPC) Portal, and can be accessed using a CAC or Kerberos using Yubikey. This environment gives developers a sandbox

  14. Development of a superconducting joint between a GdBa2Cu3O7-δ-coated conductor and YBa2Cu3O7-δ bulk: towards a superconducting joint between RE (Rare Earth) Ba2Cu3O7-δ-coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xinzhe; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Maeda, Hideaki; Takano, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    We have started to develop a superconducting bridge joint between two GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (Gd123)-coated conductors, where both conductors are placed in an end-to-end arrangement on the surface of a melt-textured YBCO (including Y2BaCuO5 and YBa2Cu3O7-δ) bulk, which acts as a superconducting medium between the coated conductors. As a first step in the development, one half of the bridge joint assembly was modeled and investigated. Experimental results achieved are as follows: (a) the higher-melting-temperature textured Gd123-coated conductor acts as a seed for the melt texture of the YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) bulk, and (b) the superconducting phase continues across the Y123/Gd123 boundary. The critical current of the joint model is 10 A, which is about 10% of the original Gd123-coated conductor, at 77 K in a self-magnetic field. These results are considered to be extensible to the superconducting bridge joint between the Gd123-coated conductors.

  15. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  16. Spacelab's development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignier, M.

    1983-11-01

    Significant events in the international cooperation between ESA members and NASA in the development of Spacelab are outlined. The agreement to develop Spacelab in Europe was formalized in a MOU between NASA and ESRO in 1972, and was followed by configuration studies in both Europe and the U.S. It was decided in 1973 that ESA would build the hardware and turn it over to NASA, which would fly Spacelab on the Shuttle and buy a second Spacelab manned module. Once delivered, all responsibility for Spacelab would be transferred to NASA. A total of 10 European countries participated in the design, construction, and testing, performed by a project team of 100 engineers and 40 industrial companies. Design reviews were performed until 1981, in concert with hardware development of both Spacelab and pallets. The Eureca free-flying platform is being developed as a follow-on project, and studies are being conducted for activities in the future, such as participation in a space station.

  17. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  18. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  19. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson-Lohmander, Maelis

    2005-01-01

    A growing number of countries have recognised the importance of high quality early childhood provision for the development of the young child and the impact on economic growth and prosperity. What shapes Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in an expanding Europe of today? Many factors clearly influence policy decisions and program…

  20. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  1. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  2. CAREER DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baltimore Summit Project on Career Development/PERFORMS Enhancement/360 Evaluations for All has made some progress. We have identified the fact that we cannot change the current Pass/Fail PERFORMS system to a tiered system. The current pass/fail system does not have a mechani...

  3. Interorganizational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Interorganizational development is the application of social science knowledge to the creation of planned, systematic and mutually beneficial cooperative relationships between otherwise autonomous organizations. This paper introduces the concept as a means of focusing attention on key action and research issues associated with interorganizational…

  4. Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Incorporating diverse viewpoints and featuring articles by teachers and administrators on both the university and the elementary-secondary levels, this focused journal issue offers useful practical suggestions and pragmatic guidance for all levels of curriculum development. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1)"Teaching Students to…

  5. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlson; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Pirard, Florence; Peeters, Jan; Alvestad, Marit

    2009-01-01

    New developments and challenges regarding early childhood education (ECE) policy and practice in Norway and in the Flemish and French communities in Belgium are presented in this issue. There are clear differences between the countries when comparing systems they have chosen for ECE. In Belgium, supervision and responsibilities for education,…

  6. Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on work force development. "Effects of Two Different Learning Paths on School-to-Work Transition" (Esther Van Der Schoot) discusses a Dutch study documenting that the following items make a difference in the school-to-work transition: learning path, curriculum characteristics, individual…

  7. Flower development.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Alvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  8. Envisioning Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on an important innovative development in new generation corporate university management. It addresses the thematic area of visual learning that is captured in the term "The Art of Minds-eye Management". It reflects upon experiences with groups of managers in enhancing perceptive competencies using visual awareness learning…

  9. Authoritarian Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Edward S.

    1978-01-01

    While modernizing along Western economic lines, developing nations have not adopted Western political forms. But the evolution of democracy in Europe occurred in a different socioeconomic milieu. The authoritarian governments of the Third World, based on nationalism and centralization, may better meet current needs for modernization. (SJL)

  10. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  11. Oh, Develop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2003-01-01

    In a mature view of the subject, career development is not simply four years of college or a week at training, culminating in a diploma or a certificate to hang on an office wall. That's why we wanted to take a broad look at career development in this issue of ASK. Take for example, Dr. Gerald Mulenburg s contribution, Fly on the Wall. When Mulenburg and other members of a knowledge-sharing group at Ames were invited to observe an upcoming project review, Mulenburg thought it would be interesting to learn how another project does its reviews. Note that Mulenburg is no fresh out who's never attended a NASA project review. Not only has he been through a fair share of them as the reviewed, he has also been on the other side of the table as a reviewer. This experienced project manager recognizes that at any stage of a career there is room to grow and develop one's repertoire. Too often people associate career development with textbooks and role classroom training, far removed from project life. But classroom training need not be like this, as you'll find in our Special Feature, The Enterprise Project by Wendy Dolci, which sprung out of an APPL Advanced Project Management class in July 2003 at Ames Research Center. In addition to Dolci, some of her classmates contribute to the story. Mike Sander of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, project manager for the Mars Science Laboratory mission, who provided the assignment on which the story is based, also has a cameo in the story. We think Dolci's story is an inspiring example of what classroom training can be if it's approached imaginatively and made to serve a practical purpose. Another story from Ames, by Frank Larsen, takes a different twist on career development. At the annual Experimental Aircraft Association Fly-in in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Larsen represented Ames at a NASA booth. While there, Larsen met a colleague from Glenn Research Center. Months later on a project with a quick turnaround, he remembered his colleague from

  12. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  13. Polarization developments

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.

  14. REGIONAL MANUFACTURING TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    EASON, H.A.

    1997-02-21

    This project covers four CRADAS (Cooperative Research and Development Agreements) which were initiated in 1991 and 1993. The two CRADAS with the state of Tennessee and the state of Florida were to provide technical assistance to small manufacturers in those states and the CRADA with the Tennessee Technology Foundation was to engage in joint economic development activities within the state. These three CRADAS do not fit the traditional definition of CRADAS and would be administered by other agreement mechanisms, today. But in these early days of technology transfer efforts, the CRADA mechanism was already developed and usable. The CRADA with Coors Ceramics is a good example of a CRADA and was used to develop nondestructive testing technology for ceramic component inspection. The report describes the background of this project, its economic impact, and its benefits to the U. S. Department of Energy.

  15. Professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  16. Faculty development.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Steven A

    2005-04-01

    As emergency medicine faculty, we are called upon to be skilled in a great number of different areas. Residency training prepares us to be knowledgeable clinicians, skillful at procedures, good communicators, and effective at multitasking. Rarely, however, does it prepare us as educators or in the nuances of career advancement in an academic environment. Faculty development is a term used to describe both our growth as clinician-educators and navigation of the tenure and promotion process. An important role of medical student educators is to assist in preparing themselves and the faculty to be good teachers. In addition, we all hope to have successful careers as clinician-educators. The goal of this report is 2-fold: to provide a guide for faculty to advance their skills as educators and to help teaching faculty to advance their academic career. The first section of this report presents an approach to becoming a skilled educator, and the second section focuses on career development as an educator in an academic setting.

  17. Ceramic heat pipe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrigan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Ceramic materials used in conventional brickwork heat exchanger configurations increase allowable temperatures; however, joint leakage problems limit use of these designs. Ceramic tube heat exchanger designs reduce these problems but still require sliding joints and compliant tube end seals. Ceramic heat pipe based recuperator designs eliminate the sealing problems that limited the high temperature heat recovery installations. Heat pipe recuperators offer high corrosion and abrasion resistance, high temperature capability, reduced leakage, element redundancy, and simplified replacement and cleaning. The development of ceramic heat pipe recuperator elements involves the selection and test of materials and fabrication techniques having production potential, evaluation of technology in subscale tests, design and test of components for full scale recuperator applications, and demonstration of heat pipes in subscale and full scale recuperator installation.

  18. Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

  19. Nozzle development

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, F.T.; Dodge, L.G.; Johnson, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this program has been the development of experimental techniques and data processing procedures to allow for the characterization of multi-phase fuel nozzles using laboratory tests. Test results were to be used to produce a single value coefficient-of-performance that would predict the performance of the fuel nozzles independent of system application. Several different types of fuel nozzles capable of handling multi-phase fuels have been characterized for: (a) fuel flow rate versus delivery pressure, (b) fuel-air ratio throughout the fuel spray or plume and the effective cone angle of the injector, and (c) fuel drop- or particle-size distribution as a function of fluid properties. Fuel nozzles which have been characterized on both single-phase liquids and multi-phase liquid-solid slurries include a variable-film-thickness nozzle, a commercial coal-water slurry (CWS) nozzle, and four diesel injectors of different geometries (tested on single-phase fluids only). Multi-phase mixtures includes CWS with various coal loadings, surfactant concentrations, and stabilizer concentrations, as well as glass-bead water slurries with stabilizing additives. Single-phase fluids included glycerol-water mixtures to vary the viscosity over a range of 1 to 1500 cP, and alcohol-water mixtures to vary the surface tension from about 22 to 73 dyne/cm. In addition, tests were performed to characterize straight-tube gas-solid nozzles using two differences size distributions of glass beads in air. Standardized procedures have been developed for processing measurements of spray drop-size characteristics and the overall cross-section average drop or particle size. 43 refs., 60 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Joint impact of physical activity and family history on the development of diabetes among urban adults in Mainland China: a pooled analysis of community-based prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Hong, Xin; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville

    2015-03-01

    To examine the joint influences of physical activity (PA) and family history (FH) of diabetes on subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2D), the authors pooled and analyzed data from 2 community-based urban adult prospective cohort studies in 2011 in Nanjing, China. Among 4550 urban participants, the 3-year cumulative incidence of T2D was 5.1%. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with those with FH+ and insufficient PA, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing T2D was 0.42 (0.18, 0.98) for participants with sufficient PA and FH+, 0.32 (0.22, 0.46) for participants with insufficient PA and FH-, and 0.15 (0.08, 0.28) for participants with sufficient PA and FH-. Such significant graduated associations between PA/FH and risk of developing T2D were also identified in either men or women, separately. Sufficient PA and FH- may jointly reduce the risk of developing T2D in urban Chinese adults.

  1. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa12

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. Objective: We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Methods: We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Results: Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, −1.31 cm (95% CI: −2.32, −0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [−0.56 cm (95% CI: −1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Conclusions: Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults. PMID:27335138

  2. Joint-Working as a Policy for Reducing Inequalities in Access to Information: Developing Culturally Appropriate Sex and Relationships Education for Young Bangladeshis in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Teena; Chapman, Jenifer; Estcourt, Claudia S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Despite government support of culturally appropriate sex and relationships education (SRE), young people's access to information is limited and sexual health needs are not being met, particularly among youth from black and minority ethnic groups. Joint-working between health, education, voluntary sectors and parents has been heralded…

  3. Case Study of Swiss-Migrant Joint Associations (Switzerland). The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Arlette

    Swiss-migrant joint associations are coordinating bodies for local services/agencies dealing with migrant problems, are recognized by local authorities, implement government policies toward migrants, and are politically neutral. Membership is drawn from local authorities, educational authorities, churches, political parties, employers'/employees'…

  4. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…

  5. Military Personnel: Joint Officer Development Has Improved, But a Strategic Approach Is Needed. Report to the Subcommittee on Military Personnel, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In response to the need of military leaders to be better prepared to plan, support, and conduct joint (multi-service and multi-national) operations, Congress enacted the Goldwater- Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. Positive steps were taken to implement provisions in the Act that address the education, assignment, and…

  6. Study for Agricultural Engineering Development in Brazil. Summary Report of Joint Study Group on Agricultural Engineering in Brazil (July 24-August 12, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The joint study group was established to identify the most urgent research and training needs in agricultural engineering in Brazil and to recommend how best to meet those needs. Specific recommendations are given for a long-term program to establish quality programs in education and research in agricultural engineering in Brazil and means to gain…

  7. USSR: Measures of Economic Growth and Development, 1950-80. Studies Prepared for the Use of the Joint Economic Committee, 97th Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Because the Soviet Union does not publish measures of economic growth and development comparable with those of Western countries, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided (by means of a large research effort carried out over many years) estimates of the value of the Soviet gross national product (GNP), its rate of growth, its size relative to…

  8. You Get What You Get and You Don't Throw a Fit!: Emotion Socialization and Child Physiology Jointly Predict Early Prosocial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior in early childhood is a precursor to later adaptive social functioning. This investigation leveraged mother-reported, physiological, and observational data to examine children's prosocial development from age 2 to age 4 (N = 125). Maternal emotion socialization (ES) strategies and children's parasympathetic regulation have each…

  9. Quality of Rural Economic Development Data. Testimony to the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation, Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Ninth Congress (June 13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    Although the private sector has the primary role for job generation in the U.S. market economy, local community leaders can play a significant part in creating a growth-stimulating economic environment. A comprehensive economic development strategy appropriate to a community's specific goals and conditions requires careful analysis of the…

  10. Workforce Development and West Virginia: The West Virginia University Approach. Presented to the West Virginia Legislature Joint Education Committee, September 14, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, David C., Jr.

    This report highlights the services and programs for workforce development that are available through West Virginia University's (WVU) statewide network of schools, colleges, regional campuses, extension offices, and research units, but does not include four-year undergraduate or graduate programs. Specific sections address the following services,…

  11. How to Develop College Students' Autonomous English Learning Skills--Take Reading Course in Joint-Program in HCFT as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    The studies on autonomous learning based on the theories of constructivism and the advantages of technology propose valuable ideas for modern teaching theories and practices. In this paper, we put forward ways and methods in developing learner awareness, learning strategies and habits of autonomous learning in Henan College of Finance and Taxation…

  12. Signposts to Literacy for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The two studies included in this volume, both dealing with the subject of literacy and sustainable development, are joint winners of the 2004-2005 International Award for Literacy Research, sponsored jointly by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, Hamburg, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and the Canadian…

  13. Interprofessional Learning – Development and Implementation of Joint Medical Emergency Team Trainings for Medical and Nursing Students at Universitätsmedizin Greifswald

    PubMed Central

    Partecke, Maud; Balzer, Claudius; Finkenzeller, Ingmar; Reppenhagen, Christiane; Hess, Ulrike; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Meissner, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Interprofessional collaboration is of great importance in clinical practice, particularly in the field of emergency medicine. The professions involved in providing emergency care must work hand in hand, and tasks and routines must be coordinated effectively. However, medical and nursing students have only few opportunities to experience interprofessional cooperation during their formal training. Addressing this situation, the Department of Anesthesiology and the Vocational School of Greifswald University Medical School initiated a project to increase patient safety by integrating interprofessional human factor training into the curriculum of both health professions. This manuscript addresses how an interprofessional course module focusing on clinical emergency medicine can be taught with an emphasis on competency and problem-solving. In addition, it was important to identify suitable instruments for systematic quality development and assurance of this teaching and learning format. Project description: The aim of the project, which took place from October 2013 to September 2015, was the development, implementation and evaluation of a simulation-based, interprofessional course module on clinical emergency medicine. Target groups were medical and nursing students. Modern pedagogical models and methods were applied to the design and teaching of the course content. The project was carried out in separate phases: definition, planning, practical implementation, evaluation and documentation. The project was accompanied by systematic quality development. Established guidelines for quality-centered school development were applied to quality development, assurance and evaluation. Results: Over two years, a 16 credit-hour course module was developed and then taught and evaluated during the 2014 and 2015 summer semesters. A total of 120 medical students and 120 nursing students participated in the course module. Eighteen teachers from medicine and nursing were

  14. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  15. MPAS-Ocean Development Update

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Ringler, Todd D.; Petersen, Mark R.; Jones, Philip W.; Maltrud, Mathew E.

    2012-06-13

    The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a modeling framework developed jointly between NCAR and LANL, built to allow core developers to: rapidly develop new dynamical cores, and leverage improvements made to shared codes. MPAS-Ocean (MPAS-O) is a functioning ocean model capable of high resolution, or highly vairable resolution simulations. The first MPAS-O publication is expected by the end of the year.

  16. RDBE Development and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niell, A.; Bark, M.; Beaudoin, C.; Brisken, W.; Frej, H. Ben; Doeleman, S.; Durand, S.; Guerra, M.; Hinton, A.; Luce, M.; McWhirter, R.; Morris, K.; Peck, G.; Revnell, M.; Rogers, A.; Romney, J.; Ruszczyk, C.; Taveniku, M.; Walker, R.; Whitney, A.

    2010-01-01

    A digital backend based on the ROACH board has been developed jointly by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and MIT Haystack Observatory. The RDBE will have both Polyphase Filterbank and Digital Downconverter personalities. The initial configuration outputs sixteen 32-MHz channels, comprised of half the channels from the PFB processing of the two IF inputs, for use in the VLBI2010 geodetic system and in the VLBA sensitivity upgrade project. The output rate is 2x109 bits/second (1x10(exp 9) bits/sec = 1 Gbps) over a 10 GigE connection to the Mark 5C with the data written in Mark 5B format on disk.

  17. Mobile Router Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  18. The Russian-U.S. Experience with Development Joint Medical Support Procedures for Before and After Long-Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgun, V. V.; Voronin, L. I.; Kaspransky, R. R.; Pool, S. L.; Barratt, M. R.; Novinkov, O. L.

    1999-01-01

    As the Russian Space Agency (RSA) and the U.S. National Aviation and Space Administration (NASA) began in the mid 1990s to plan a preliminary cooperative flight program in anticipation of the International Space Station, programmatic and philosophical differences became apparent in the technical and medical approaches of the two agencies. This paper briefly describes some of these differences and the process by which the two sides resolved differences in their approaches to the medical selection and certification of Shuttle-Mir crew members. These negotiations formed the basis for developing policies on other aspects of the medical support function for international missions, including crew training, preflight and postflight data collection, and rehabilitation protocols. The experience gained through this cooperative effort has been invaluable for developing medical care capabilities for the International Space Station.

  19. Joint federal research and development process to meet state and local needs. Part 1. Science and technology and political decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, H F; Smith, L K; Einsweiler, R C; Jensen, D E

    1980-10-01

    This part of the handbook addresses the basic how to do it - how states and local governments can identify complex and cross-cutting issues and develop and manage scientific and technical resources in seeking policy solutions to such issues. The following subjects are discussed: background statement of the issue; the research/decision-making process; defining problems and identifying research components; research and decision-making strategies; how to identify existing knowledge or ongoing research in the area of policy concern; and managing multi-disciplinary research. The fourteen agencies involved in this effort include: US Departments of Energy, Agriculture, Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Science Foundation. (PSB)

  20. Development of Kevlar parachute webbings

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Kevlar webbings for parachute applications. Evaluation of existing webbings and a study of the effects of filling yarn denier and pick count on tensile and joint strength provided data for fabric design. Measurements of warp crimp as a function of filling denier and pick count demonstrated the relationship between warp crimp and strength. One newly developed webbing had higher strength efficiency and another had higher joint efficiency than comparable existing webbings. Both new webbings had overall efficiencies over 5% higher than values for existing webbings. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  2. Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China: report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng Roger; Ding, Jian; Chen, Helen X; Liu, Hao; Fung, Man-Cheong; Koehler, Maria; Armand, Jean Pierre; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Li; Qian, Pascal; Yan, Li

    2014-12-01

    The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and full development of novel cancer medicines in China.

  3. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing: Weld Optimization for Aluminum 6061, Development of Scarf Joints for Aluminum Sheet Metal, and Joining of High Strength Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, Paul J.

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a low temperature, solid-state manufacturing process that enables the creation of layered, solid metal structures with designed anisotropies and embedded materials. As a low temperature process, UAM enables the creation of active composites containing smart materials, components with embedded sensors, thermal management devices, and many others. The focus of this work is on the improvement and characterization of UAM aluminum structures, advancing the capabilities of ultrasonic joining into sheet geometries, and examination of dissimilar material joints using the technology. Optimized process parameters for Al 6061 were identified via a design of experiments study indicating a weld amplitude of 32.8 synum and a weld speed of 200 in/min as optimal. Weld force and temperature were not significant within the levels studied. A methodology of creating large scale builds is proposed, including a prescribed random stacking sequence and overlap of 0.0035 in. (0.0889 mm) for foils to minimize voids and maximize mechanical strength. Utilization of heat treatments is shown to significantly increase mechanical properties of UAM builds, within 90% of bulk material. The applied loads during the UAM process were investigated to determine the stress fields and plastic deformation induced during the process. Modeling of the contact mechanics via Hertzian contact equations shows that significant stress is applied via sonotrode contact in the process. Contact modeling using finite element analysis (FEA), including plasticity, indicates that 5000 N normal loads result in plastic deformation in bulk aluminum foil, while at 3000 N no plastic deformation occurs. FEA studies on the applied loads during the process, specifically a 3000 N normal force and 2000 N shear force, show that high stresses and plastic deformation occur at the edges of a welded foil, and base of the UAM build. Microstructural investigations of heat treated foils confirms

  4. Testing patients during seizures: A European consensus procedure developed by a joint taskforce of the ILAE - Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Neufeld, Miri; Diehl, Beate; Dobesberger, Judith; Trinka, Eugen; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Rheims, Sylvain; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Craiu, Dana; Pressler, Ronit; Krysl, David; Lebedinsky, Angelina; Tassi, Laura; Rubboli, Guido; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    There is currently no international consensus procedure for performing comprehensive periictal testing of patients in the epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). Our primary goal was to develop a standardized procedure for managing and testing patients during and after seizures in EMUs. The secondary goal was to assess whether it could be implemented in clinical practice (feasibility). A taskforce was appointed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE)-Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association, to develop a standardized ictal testing battery (ITB) based on expert opinion and experience with various local testing protocols. ITB contains a comprehensive set of 10 items that evidence the clinically relevant semiologic features, and it is adaptive to the dynamics of the individual seizures. The feasibility of the ITB was prospectively evaluated on 250 seizures from 152 consecutive patients in 10 centers. ITB was successfully implemented in clinical practice in all 10 participating centers and was considered feasible in 93% of the tested seizures. ITB was not feasible for testing seizures of very short duration.

  5. Testing patients during seizures: A European consensus procedure developed by a joint taskforce of the ILAE - Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Neufeld, Miri; Diehl, Beate; Dobesberger, Judith; Trinka, Eugen; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Rheims, Sylvain; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Craiu, Dana; Pressler, Ronit; Krysl, David; Lebedinsky, Angelina; Tassi, Laura; Rubboli, Guido; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    There is currently no international consensus procedure for performing comprehensive periictal testing of patients in the epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). Our primary goal was to develop a standardized procedure for managing and testing patients during and after seizures in EMUs. The secondary goal was to assess whether it could be implemented in clinical practice (feasibility). A taskforce was appointed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE)-Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association, to develop a standardized ictal testing battery (ITB) based on expert opinion and experience with various local testing protocols. ITB contains a comprehensive set of 10 items that evidence the clinically relevant semiologic features, and it is adaptive to the dynamics of the individual seizures. The feasibility of the ITB was prospectively evaluated on 250 seizures from 152 consecutive patients in 10 centers. ITB was successfully implemented in clinical practice in all 10 participating centers and was considered feasible in 93% of the tested seizures. ITB was not feasible for testing seizures of very short duration. PMID:27440172

  6. DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF THE MPC&A OPERATIONS MONITORING (MOM) SYSTEM AT THE JOINT INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH (JINR) DUBNA, RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov,V.V.; Pratt,W.; Romanov, Y.A.; Samoilov, V.N.; Shestakov, B.A.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2009-07-12

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Operations Monitoring (MOM) systems handling at the International Intergovernmental Organization - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) is described in this paper. Category I nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) is used in JINR research reactors, facilities and for scientific and research activities. A monitoring system (MOM) was installed at JINR in April 2003. The system design was based on a vulnerability analysis, which took into account the specifics of the Institute. The design and installation of the MOM system was a collaborative effort between JINR, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Financial support was provided by DOE through BNL. The installed MOM system provides facility management with additional assurance that operations involving nuclear material (NM) are correctly followed by the facility personnel. The MOM system also provides additional confidence that the MPC&A systems continue to perform effectively.

  7. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent–child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order types, with HSJE involving greater reciprocity in toy play. We also examined parents’ follow-in utterances that co-occurred with each state. We found that only HSJE predicts later social communication and expressive language, while object engagement predicts receptive language. HSJE combined with follow-in utterances (HSJE+FI) predicts all three outcomes when controlling for HSJE+FI in other engagement states. When controlling for total HSJE, HSJE+FI is predictive of receptive language. PMID:24658867

  8. Faculty Development. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains the papers on faculty development from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference. Topics covered include: integration for ESL (English as a Second Language) success; changing roles of college faculty; inducing reflection on educational practice; a joint instructional technology and…

  9. Engaging teachers, interpreters and emergency management educators in disaster preparedness and EarthScope science through joint professional development workshops (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Lillie, R. J.; Butler, R. F.; Hunter, N.; Magura, B.; Groom, R.; Hedeen, C. D.; Johnson, J. A.; Ault, C.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The same geological forces that form the spectacular beaches and headlands of the Pacific Northwest also threaten lives and infrastructure with earthquakes and tsunamis. A new project called the Cascadia EarthScope, Earthquake, and Tsunami Education Program (CEETEP), is helping to mitigate the effects of these potential disasters through collaboration building and professional development for K-12 teachers, park and museum interpreters, and emergency management outreach educators in communities along the Oregon and Washington coast. Tens of thousands of Oregon and Washington residents live within severe earthquake-shaking and tsunami-inundation zones, and millions of tourists visit state and federal parks in these same areas each year. Teachers in the K-12 school systems convey some basics about geological hazards to their students, and park rangers and museum educators likewise engage visitors at their sites. Emergency management educators make regular presentations to local residents about disaster preparedness. CEETEP is strengthening these efforts by providing community-based workshops that bring together all of these professionals to review the basic science of earthquakes and tsunamis, learn about EarthScope and other research efforts that monitor the dynamic Earth in the region, and develop ways to collectively engage students and the general public on the mitigation of coastal geologic hazards. As part of a nationwide effort, the NSF EarthScope Program has been deploying hundreds of seismic, GPS, and other geophysical instruments to measure movement of the Earth's crust and detect earthquakes along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. These instruments provide detail for ongoing research showing that coastal regions are storing energy that will be released in the next great Cascadia earthquake, with the resulting tsunami arriving onshore in 30 minutes or less. CEETEP is helping to convey these cutting-edge findings to coastal educators and fulfill Earth

  10. You get what you get and you don't throw a fit!: Emotion socialization and child physiology jointly predict early prosocial development.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B; Davis, Elizabeth L; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior in early childhood is a precursor to later adaptive social functioning. This investigation leveraged mother-reported, physiological, and observational data to examine children's prosocial development from age 2 to age 4 (N = 125). Maternal emotion socialization (ES) strategies and children's parasympathetic regulation have each been implicated in prosocial behavior, but are rarely examined together or prospectively. Given the transactional nature of parent-child relationships, the effects of maternal ES strategies on children's prosocial behavior are likely moderated by children's individual differences in parasympathetic regulation. As expected, mothers' reported use of problem-focused ES strategies predicted prosocial behavior at age 4. Additionally, children who showed parasympathetic reactivity consistent with more effective emotion regulation during a lab-based disappointment task were rated as more prosocial at age 4. Several interactions with maternal ES strategies emerged. Children's parasympathetic regulation moderated the relations between observed physical comfort or cognitive reframing and prosocial behavior. Observed distraction (either behavioral or cognitive) moderated the link between mothers' reported use of problem-focused ES strategies and children's prosocial behavior. Findings suggest that children's emerging prosocial behavior is shaped by the interactive contributions of interpersonal maternal ES as well as intrapersonal intrinsic physiological regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Joint development of evidence-based medical record by doctors and patients through integrated Chinese and Western medicine on digestive system diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Gao, Hong-yang; Gao, Rui; Zhao, Ying-pan; Li, Qing-na; Zhao, Yang; Tang, Xu-dong; Shang, Hong-cai

    2016-02-01

    Building the clinical therapeutic evaluation system by combing the evaluation given by doctors and patients can form a more comprehensive and objective evaluation system. A literature search on the practice of evidence-based evaluation was conducted in key biomedical databases, i.e. PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database, China Biology Medicine disc and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. However, no relevant study on the subjects of interest was identified. Therefore, drawing on the principles of narrative medicine and expert opinion from systems of Chinese medicine and Western medicine, we propose to develop and pilot-test a novel evidence-based medical record format that captures the perspectives of both patients and doctors in a clinical trial. Further, we seek to evaluate a strategic therapeutic approach that integrates the wisdom of Chinese medicine with the scientific basis of Western medicine in the treatment of digestive system disorders. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of remedies under the system of Chinese medicine is an imperative ongoing research. The present study intends to identify a novel approach to assess the synergistic benefits achievable from an integrated therapeutic approach combining Chinese and Western system of medicine to treat digestive system disorders.

  12. The development of a four-way linking framework in Egypt: an example of the FAO, OIE and WHO joint activities to facilitate national risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Forcella, Simona; El-din El Tantawy, Nasr; Yilma, Jobre; AbdelNabi, Amira; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectoral assessment of health risks arising or existing at the human-animal interface is crucial to identifying and implementing effective national disease control measures. This requires availability of information from 4 functional information 'streams' - epidemiological, laboratory, animal, and human health. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/ World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/ World Health Organization (WHO) Four-Way Linking (4WL) project promotes the establishing of a national-level joint framework for data sharing, risk assessment, and risk communication, in order to both improve communications within and among governmental public health and animal health influenza laboratories, epidemiology offices, national partners, with the aim of strengthening the national capacity to detect, report and assess risks arising from emerging influenza viruses. The project is currently being implemented in countries where H5N1 avian influenza is endemic and where human cases have been reported. The project is comprised of two main activities at country level: a 'review mission', which is the project launch in the country and has the objective to assess the existing situation; and a 'scenario based workshop', with the scope to bring together key national partners and build relationships among people working in the 4 information streams and to improve understanding of national strengths and gaps. During the workshop the delegates engaged in interactive sessions on basic risk assessment and devoted to specify the needs and roles of the 4 different streams. The participants work through a mock influenza outbreak scenario, which practically illustrates how risk assessment and communication of an emergency at the animal-human interface is more effective when there is linking of the 4 streams, collaboration, communication, and coordinated action. In 2010, Egypt was the first country where the project was successfully implemented

  13. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN DRUG AND BIOMARKER DEVELOPMENT FOR NONALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM AN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF LIVER DISEASES (AASLD) - FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) JOINT WORKSHOP

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Arun J.; Friedman, Scott L.; McCullough, Arthur J.; Dimick, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America. It is a growing contributor to the burden of chronic liver disease requiring liver transplantation. Cirrhosis is also associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular cancer which may occur even in the absence of cirrhosis in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) the histological form of NAFLD associated with increased liver-related mortality. The diagnosis of NASH currently requires a liver biopsy. There are also no FDA-approved therapies for NASH. There is therefore a need to develop better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with NASH targeting both those with early stage disease as well as those with advanced liver fibrosis. There are unique challenges in the design of studies for these target populations. The long relatively asymptomatic time interval in the progression of NAFLD and NASH to cirrhosis and ultimately liver failure, along with gaps in knowledge regarding disease modifiers combine to present significant challenges in trial design. There is therefore an urgent need to develop methods to identify the populations at particular risk of disease progression and to validate endpoints that reflect meaningful changes in health status in this population. This manuscript summarizes the discussion at a joint workshop held September 5th and 6th, 2013, in Silver Spring, Maryland, sponsored by the FDA and the AASLD to develop guidance on diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for NASH. PMID:25557690

  14. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  15. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations in the

  16. Space Structure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The duration of my Summer 2015 Internship Tour at NASA's Johnson Space Center was spent working in the Structural Engineering Division's Structures Branch. One of the two main roles of the Structures Branch, ES2, is to ensure the structural integrity of spacecraft vehicles and the structural subsystems needed to support those vehicles. The other main objective of this branch is to develop the lightweight structures that are necessary to take humans beyond Low-Earth Orbit. Within ES2, my four projects involved inflatable space structure air bladder material testing; thermal and impact material testing for spacecraft windows; structural analysis on a joint used in the Boeing CST-100 airbag system; and an additive manufacturing design project.

  17. VAP Development: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Collis, Fast, J; Flynn, C; Mather, J; McFarlane, S; Monroe, J; Sivaraman, C; Xie, S

    2011-02-23

    This white paper provides a plan to formalize the evaluation of newly developed VAPs and a framework for the development of value-added products through four different stages: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release.

  18. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  19. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  20. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  1. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  2. Faculty Development as Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, B. Claude

    Faculty development is distinguished in this speech from the business model of human resource development on numerous issues including the fact that human resource development in business and industry values productivity, and higher education is not committed to making money. Faculty development is more concerned with the growth of individuals…

  3. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  4. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research projects... the REE Agency's ADODR shall jointly develop the following documentation: (a) Project plan. A...

  5. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research projects... the REE Agency's ADODR shall jointly develop the following documentation: (a) Project plan. A...

  6. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research projects... the REE Agency's ADODR shall jointly develop the following documentation: (a) Project plan. A...

  7. Psychological Evaluation and Prescription Development Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County School Corp., Terre Haute, IN.

    Developed to aid children with learning difficulties, from mental retardation or brain injury to maladjustment or physical or environmental handicaps, the joint school services program provides psychological evaluation and prescription development. The handbook reviews theories of child development and surveys behavior modification and…

  8. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... assist states, metropolitan planning organizations, local governments, and others to plan transportation... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... for Planning and Capital Projects Chapter III describes the eligibility requirements for an...

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  10. Modeling forest development after fire disturbance: Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly affect forest canopy species and long-term ecosystem carbon accumulation in the North American boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N.; Bergeron, Y.; Xu, X.; Welp, L.; Medvigy, D.

    2015-12-01

    less able to compete with needleleaf trees under low nitrogen regimes. We conclude that a joint regulation between the soil organic layer, temperature, and nitrogen will likely play an important role in influencing boreal forests development after fire in future climates, and should be represented in models.

  11. ASRM case insulation design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Matthew S.; Tam, William F. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the achievements made on the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case insulation design and development program. The ASRM case insulation system described herein protects the metal case and joints from direct radiation and hot gas impingement. Critical failure of solid rocket systems is often traceable to failure of the insulation design. The wide ranging accomplishments included the development of a nonasbestos insulation material for ASRM that replaced the existing Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) along with a performance gain of 300 pounds, and improved reliability of all the insulation joint designs, i.e., segmented case joint, case-to-nozzle and case-to-igniter joint. The insulation process development program included the internal stripwinding process. This process advancement allowed Aerojet to match to exceed the capability of other propulsion companies.

  12. What Is Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astle, Alec

    1989-01-01

    Reviews inequalities in development, a topic in the New Zealand Form Six Geography Syllabus. Explains the different perspectives from which to approach development: academic, ideological, political, or personal. Considers the various meanings of development to less developed countries. (GG)

  13. Drug Development Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... public. More Information More in The Drug Development Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical ...

  14. Developing New Academic Developers: Doing before Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Brailsford, Ian; Gossman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A small group of new academic developers reflected on their induction into the profession and wondered if things could have been done differently. The researchers decided to question the directors of three tertiary academic development units about how they recruited new developers, what skills and competences they looked for and how they inducted…

  15. Interleaved arrays antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Phase one and two of a program to further develop and investigate advanced graphite epoxy waveguides, radiators, and components with application to space antennas are discussed. The objective of the two phases were to demonstrate mechanical integrity of a small panel of radiators and parts procured under a previous contract and to develop alternate designs and applications of the technology. Most of the emphasis was on the assembly and test of a 5 x 5 element module. This effort was supported by evaluation of adhesives and waveguide joint configurations. The evaluation and final assembly considered not only mechanical performance but also producibility in large scale.

  16. Proposed IDEA Regulations. Joint Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, and the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on Examining the Department of Education's Development of the Regulations Necessary To Implement the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (Public Law 105-17). One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a transcript from a Joint Hearing of the U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and the Workforce that addresses the U.S. Department of Education's development of regulations necessary to implement the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of…

  17. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of preschool teachers…

  18. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  19. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  20. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  1. Curriculum Development: Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    In order for curriculum development to be effective and schools to be successful, teachers must be involved in the development process. An effective curriculum should reflect the philosophy, goals, objectives, learning experiences, instructional resources, and assessments that comprise a specific educational program ("Guide to curriculum…

  2. Developing Teachers: Improving Professional Development for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Robert; Aloisi, Cesare; Higgins, Steve; Major, Lee Elliot

    2015-01-01

    This document is a summary of the report "What Makes Great Teaching". It argues that improved teacher ­development will positively impact on pupil attainment, particular those from disadvantaged backgrounds. "Developing Teachers" presents five policy recommendations which have been signed by 17 of Britain's leading headteachers…

  3. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  4. SIRU development. Volume 1: System development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. P.; Cooper, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A complete description of the development and initial evaluation of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) system is reported. System development documents the system mechanization with the analytic formulation for fault detection and isolation processing structure; the hardware redundancy design and the individual modularity features; the computational structure and facilities; and the initial subsystem evaluation results.

  5. Ceramic brush seals development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: ceramic brush seals, research and development, manufacturing, brazed assembly development, controlling braze flow, fiber selection, and braze results.

  6. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  7. Education and Development: A Developing Theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2002-03-01

    The following article is based on an analysis of selected examples from the approximately 2500 main articles that have been published in the International Review of Education ( IRE) since its inception in 1931 until the fall of 2001. The scope of the topic is education within developing countries and the promotion of such education by industrialised countries and development agencies. After an introduction on the growth of the concern over education and development over seven decades of the journal, three themes are looked at in some more detail: (1) The discussion on nationalism versus internationalism in education, a theme that bears clear relevance to the field "Education and Development" and has been with the journal from its inception but on which one finds more emphasis in the earlier volumes. (2) The language of instruction in developing countries. This theme has also been with the journal from its inception and it is still much debated. (3) The effects of external aid on the education sector in developing countries. Though massive economic aid in the form of grants or loans to the education sector in developing countries is of more recent nature external influence on the education sector has been there since colonial times.

  8. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  9. Value Conflicts in Computing Developments: Developed and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Rob

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the value conflicts engendered by computing developments in two different institutional settings: electronic funds transfer systems and instructional computing in primary and secondary schools. While specific values depend upon culture and upon the character of the particular institutional setting studied, these two cases serve…

  10. LGBT Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I would like to open a conversation with my HRD colleagues about the issues related to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) career development. This paper provides some insights about LGBT career development, analyzing the factors that distinguish LGBT career development from heterosexual career development.

  11. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  12. Leadership Development. Symposium 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Leadership Development: A Review of the Theory and Literature" (Susan A. Lynham) has four parts that analyze the leadership development process: the present state of the available body of knowledge on leadership development; core…

  13. Developing Local Community Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Delwyn A.; Williams, Oscar M.

    The successful development of local leaders is the goal of leadership training and community development. Development involves defining and developing leadership. Although leader-centered leadership offers few chances of meeting the maintenance needs of the group as a whole, shared leadership allows the group to join in the decision-making…

  14. Energy Sources and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

  15. Directions in Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela, Ed.

    This collection of readings is intended to provide a source book on best practices in staff development in higher education within a British context. The 13 papers are grouped into three parts: part 1 presents the educational development tradition which has focused on development of staff as teachers; part 2 considers development of staff in…

  16. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Ernst, W.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Meacher, J.

    1985-01-01

    Development test activities on Mod I engines directed toward evaluating technologies for potential inclusion in the Mod II engine are summarized. Activities covered include: test of a 12-tube combustion gas recirculation combustor; manufacture and flow-distribution test of a two-manifold annular heater head; piston rod/piston base joint; single-solid piston rings; and a digital air/fuel concept. Also summarized are results of a formal assessment of candidate technologies for the Mod II engine, and preliminary design work for the Mod II. The overall program philosophy weight is outlined, and data and test results are presented.

  17. Chemical probe development versus drug development.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases as a class of proteins have recently attracted significant attention from the pharmaceutical industry. As our knowledge of this diverse family of proteins has grown, the relationship between phosphatases and human disease has clearly been established, with model systems proving much validation for the potential of some members of this family to be candidate drug targets. This, coupled with the fact that there have been a flood of successful drug development efforts over the past 10 years targeting protein kinases, has led some to propose that phosphatases as a class of enzymes might be equally as rich a source of drug targets as kinases. However to date there remain relatively few molecules targeting protein phosphatases in clinical development. This is less a reflection of their importance in key processes associated with disease, but rather seems to reflect inherent issues with developing drugs for many members of this family. This seems especially so for intracellular phosphatases where the development of selective, potent cell penetrant molecules with good drug-like properties has proven a formidable challenge. This chapter provides a brief outline of the two major processes that have resulted in the existing armament of chemical modulators of protein phosphatases, namely, chemical probe development and drug development. These two processes initially seem to be rather similar and while they do overlap, the stated goals of the two approaches at project initiation are distinct. PMID:23860644

  18. Chemical probe development versus drug development.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases as a class of proteins have recently attracted significant attention from the pharmaceutical industry. As our knowledge of this diverse family of proteins has grown, the relationship between phosphatases and human disease has clearly been established, with model systems proving much validation for the potential of some members of this family to be candidate drug targets. This, coupled with the fact that there have been a flood of successful drug development efforts over the past 10 years targeting protein kinases, has led some to propose that phosphatases as a class of enzymes might be equally as rich a source of drug targets as kinases. However to date there remain relatively few molecules targeting protein phosphatases in clinical development. This is less a reflection of their importance in key processes associated with disease, but rather seems to reflect inherent issues with developing drugs for many members of this family. This seems especially so for intracellular phosphatases where the development of selective, potent cell penetrant molecules with good drug-like properties has proven a formidable challenge. This chapter provides a brief outline of the two major processes that have resulted in the existing armament of chemical modulators of protein phosphatases, namely, chemical probe development and drug development. These two processes initially seem to be rather similar and while they do overlap, the stated goals of the two approaches at project initiation are distinct.

  19. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  20. Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath air force plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field at Fort Worth, Texas, constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from AFP4, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. The U.S. Geological Survey developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the hydrogeologic units (alluvial aquifer, Goodland-Walnut confining unit, and Paluxy aquifer) beneath the facility and a three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase. The geodatabase design uses a thematic layer approach to create layers of feature data using a geographic information system. The various features are separated into relational tables in the geodatabase on the basis of how they interact and correspond to one another. Using the geodatabase, geographic data at the site are manipulated to produce maps, allow interactive queries, and perform spatial analyses. The conceptual model for the study area comprises computer-generated, three-dimensional block diagrams of the hydrogeologic units. The conceptual model provides a platform for visualization of hydrogeologic-unit sections and surfaces and for subsurface environmental analyses. The conceptual model is based on three structural surfaces and two thickness configurations of the study area. The three structural surfaces depict the altitudes of the tops of the three hydrogeologic units. The two thickness configurations are those of the alluvial aquifer and the Goodland-Walnut confining unit. The surface of the alluvial aquifer was created using a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model. The 2,130 point altitudes of the top of the Goodland-Walnut unit were compiled from lithologic logs from existing wells, available soil

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  2. Modeling Tourism Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, O. A.; Shembeleva, E. A.

    The basic approaches to decision making and modeling tourism sustainable development are reviewed. Dynamics of a sustainable development is considered in the Forrester's system dynamics. Multidimensionality of tourism sustainable development and multicriteria issues of sustainable development are analyzed. Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) as an effective technique in examining and visualizing impacts of policies, sustainable tourism development strategies within an integrated and dynamic framework are discussed. Main modules that may be utilized for integrated modeling sustainable tourism development are proposed.

  3. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. ); Yancey, E.F. )

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  6. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  7. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  8. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  10. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  11. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  12. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  13. Developing the plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic sequence in the planning development process is discussed. Alternative ways of satisfying estimated needs, and the selection of an alternative are described along with the development of a plan to implement the selected alternative.

  14. Book Development in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabbi, Fazle

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development of book production in Bangladesh and discusses the situation in Bangladesh with regard to the economics of publishing, the relationship between publishing and library development, book distribution, copyright and translation, and book experts. (Author/JL)

  15. The Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Carla J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses neural activity and stimulation crucial in fetal brain development and the formation of the mind. Focuses on activity-dependent remodeling related to development of the visual system and retinal activity. (MCO)

  16. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  17. Development and Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubhashi, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of environmental issues in India concludes that educational institutions can contribute to sustainable development by promoting understanding of the ecosystem; assessing a community's natural wealth; developing strategies; and promoting participation in environmental preservation projects. (SK)

  18. Gammasphere software development

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  19. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  20. Plasma thrusters development in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfo, André; Cadiou, Anne; Secheresse, O.; Dumazert, P.; Gounot, V.; Ragot, X.; Mattei, N.; Grassin, T.; Garnero, P.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the FRENCH plasma propulsion activities. The main existing and future projects are described. The field of application of plasma propulsion is the station keeping and the orbit raising of geostationary telecommunication satellites (STENTOR) and the transfer of interplanetary vehicles such as Mars Sample Return. The works done in the frame of the preparation of the first commercial spacecraft as well as the preparation of the future and the associated Research and Technology program are described. The scientific activity supporting the development of Hall thrusters is on-going in the frame of the GDR (Groupement de Recherche) CNRS/CNES/Snecma Moteurs /ONERA on Plasma Propulsion. Several Russian entities are also involved: the MIREA (Moscow Institute of Radioelectronics and Automatics), of the RIAME MAI (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics and Electrodynamics - Moscow Aviation Institute) and of the SPT « father å Professor MOROZOV The industrial development activities are jointly conducted by Snecma Moteurs and Russian manufacturer FAKEL. The future developments are mainly dedicated to the use of electric propulsion for the orbit raising of telecommunications satellites which leads to the development of thrusters with higher thrust than those existing today. Works are also performed to develop and improve the tools necessary to evaluate the plume effects of plasma thrusters.

  1. Science and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger, Pierre

    1973-01-01

    The relation between science and socioeconomic development in both developed and developing countries is discussed. The interdependence of pure and applied science, technology and finance, knowledge and tradition, and national, regional, and world-wide efforts in behalf of progress are characterized. (BL)

  2. Evaluating Instructional Development Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    The effectiveness of instructional development evaluation programs is assessed. It is suggested that although it is a basic tenet in instructional development that teaching improvement is closely linked to effective evaluation, it is ironical that most instructional development programs have themselves been evaluated only superficially, if at all.…

  3. Folk Media in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Technology Report, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This issue is dedicated to folk media. Using Indonesia for his case study, Dr. Nat Colletta analyzes traditional culture as a medium for development. Juan Diaz Bordenave expresses doubts about adapting folk media to development objectives; Susan Hostetler and Arthur Gillette report on uses of the theater to promote development objectives; and…

  4. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  5. Moral Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  6. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  7. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  8. Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleymeyer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

  9. Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensel, R. Frank

    The contradictions of campus management are examined in this speech and applied to the problems of human resource development. The author suggests that human resource development cannot be considered fully without taking into account the state of the institution and institutional development. Since human resources represents 75 percent or more of…

  10. Teachers as Course Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kathleen, Ed.

    The collection of essays on teachers as course developers is designed to help teachers understand how to develop courses or modify existing ones using their own experience and the experiences and theories of others. It attempts to capture this process through the stories of six teachers who have developed courses. Each narrative focuses on a…

  11. Bilingualism and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraballo, Jose N.

    Research on the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development is reviewed, and two complementary models of bilingualism are developed to account for research results. It is suggested that research since 1960 shows a positive relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, at least for some types of bilingualism. The advantage or…

  12. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  13. Curriculum Development in Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the context of present curriculum development in geomorphology and the way in which it has developed in recent years. Discusses the content of the geomorphology curriculum in higher education and the consequences of curriculum development together with a consideration of future trends and their implications. (GEA)

  14. PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM DEVELOPER

    DOEpatents

    Berry, F.G.

    1958-06-24

    S>An improved photographic developer is presented having very high energy development fine grain characteristics and a long shelf life. These characteristics are obtained by the use of aminoacetic acid in the developer, the other constituents of which are: sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, sodiunn borate, boric acid and potassium bromide, 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone.

  15. HRD Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on professional development of human resource development (HRD) professionals. "Lifelong Learning and Performance: The Role of Key Qualifications in Human Resource Development" (Simone J. van Zolingen, Wim J. Nijhof) argues that, besides being of interest to employers, key qualifications are also…

  16. Prodder's Development Annual, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kooy, R. J. W., Ed.

    This collection of reports examines the current state of development in southern Africa, in general, and in South Africa, in particular. The introduction, "A Development Perspective of Southern Africa" (R. J. W. van der Kooy), briefly reviews the history of southern African development, and discusses purposes, approaches, and progress. Sixteen…

  17. World Development Report 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report, seventh in a series of annual publications, examines the relationship between population change and development, showing why continuing rapid population growth in developing countries is likely to mean a lower quality of life for millions of people. The first part of the report concludes that the economies of developing countries can…

  18. Collection Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuby, Mary

    Undertaken to provide data on the current status of collection development in selected academic libraries, this study also analyzed the structure of the collection development function at Chicago Academic Library Council (CALC) institutions and outlined a formal collection development policy for Chicago State University's Douglas Library.…

  19. Student Development as Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Russell R.

    Student development theory has been adopted as the guiding theoretical framework of the student affairs profession. Unfortunately this adoption has largely occurred without a critical analysis of the concept of student development as a gestalt. A case can be made that for the most part the theories of student development are logically coherent in…

  20. Staff Development Content Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Elizabeth A.

    1979-01-01

    Question clusters related to staff development content delivery are used to develop programs that will result in more productive professional development. The questions determine the focus of programs, analyze the target audience, discuss the selection of delivery modes, and identify future directions. (JMF)

  1. Molecular biology of development

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, E.H.; Firtel, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at a symposium on the molecular biology of development. Topics discussed include: cytoplasmic localizations and pattern formations, gene expression during oogenesis and early development, developmental expression of gene families molecular aspects of plant development and transformation in whole organisms and cells.

  2. Development Communication Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Andrea, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" focus on the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people about various social issues as well as the field of development communication itself. Agricultural communication is the theme of the first issue which contains the following…

  3. Management Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This document reports on a management development study within the Department of Transportation (DOT). The aim of the study was to develop a systematic approach to management development for military and civilian personnel. A variety of methods was used to gather data including having DOT staff members gather the information to be passed on to the…

  4. Educating for Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

    Basic career needs, management tasks, objectives, human development rationale, and implementation strategies for a career development education program are discussed in terms of the Minnesota Career Development Curriculum (CDC) project. Oriented toward teachers and counselors, the document contains six chapters: (1) The Challenge, presenting an…

  5. Initiation of vascular development.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-06-01

    The initiation of vascular development occurs during embryogenesis and the development of lateral organs, such as lateral roots and leaves. Understanding the mechanism underlying the initiation of vascular development has been an important goal of plant biologists. Auxin flow is a crucial factor involved in the initiation of vascular development. In addition, recent studies have identified key factors that regulate the establishment of vascular initial cells in embryos and roots. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in this field and discuss the initiation of vascular development.

  6. Common Guidelines for Education Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Education Sciences, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, a Joint Committee of representatives from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) began work to establish cross-agency guidelines for improving the quality, coherence, and pace of knowledge development in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. Although the…

  7. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... that contribute to REE program objectives and help carry out the REE mission. The Cooperator's PI and... Cooperator's PI and the awarding Agency's ADODR consisting of the following: (1) Objective (2) Approach (3... shall be jointly developed by the REE ADODR and the Cooperator PI outlining the following...

  8. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  9. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  10. The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    On 16 April 2011 the IAU's Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) was launched jointly by the President of the IAU and the South African Minister of Science and Technology, at the South African Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town. This OAD was set up to realise the IAU's strategic plan which aims to use astronomy as a tool for development. Communicating astronomy with the public is one of the OAD's focus areas.

  11. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  12. Renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  13. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  14. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  15. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  16. Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-12-06

    ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

  17. Infectious diarrhea in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; McDonald, Jay R; Thielman, Nathan M

    2005-10-01

    Diarrhea from gastrointestinal infection remains a common problem. In industrialized countries, management is aimed at reducing morbidity and defining groups that may benefit from further investigation. Most infectious diarrhea is self-limiting and only requires supportive management. Viral agents are increasingly recognized as causative agents of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea. In developing countries, diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in children. Oral rehydration therapy, guided by a clinical assessment of the degree of dehydration, is cheap, simple, and effective and remains the mainstay of management of infant diarrhea. Controversies focus on the optimal formulation of oral rehydration solution. A vaccine against rotavirus has the potential to save millions of lives worldwide.

  18. Recent Developments in Electrotaxis Assays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiandong; Lin, Francis

    2014-02-01

    Significance: A wide range of cell types can migrate in response to physiological or externally applied direct current electric field (dcEF), a process termed electrotaxis. In particular, electrotaxis of epithelial cells to wound-generated dcEF for mediating wound healing is a well-accepted mechanism. In addition, various immune cells have been demonstrated to undergo electrotaxis, suggesting a link between electrotaxis and inflammatory responses in wound healing. Electrotaxis research will generate important insight into the electrical guiding mechanism for cell migration thereby providing the scientific basis to further develop clinical applications for wound care. Development of advanced electrotaxis assays will critically enable in-depth experimental electrotaxis studies in vitro. Recent Advances: Recently, a number of new electrotaxis assays or new uses of previously developed assays for electrotaxis studies have been reported. These new developments provide improved solutions for experimental throughput, configuration of three-dimensional cell migration environments and coexisting guiding signals, measurements of collective electrotactic cell migration, and sorting electrotactic populations. Critical Issues: These new developments face the challenge of playing a more important role to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying electrotaxis, in addition to making a stronger impact on relevant applications. Future Directions: On one hand, specific electrotaxis assays should be further developed to improve its function and tested for a broader range of experimental conditions and electrotactic populations. On the other hand, joint efforts among electrotaxis researchers are needed to integrate the unique features of specific electrotaxis assays, allowing more advanced and efficient electrotaxis analyses to answer both basic science and clinical questions. PMID:24761355

  19. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  20. Halbach Magnetic Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has a wealth of experience in Halbach array technology through the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The goals of the program include improving aircraft efficiency, reliability, and safety. The concept of a Halbach magnetically levitated electric aircraft motor will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels, increase efficiency and reliability, reduce maintenance and decrease operating noise levels. Experimental hardware systems were developed in the GRC Engineering Development Division to validate the basic principles described herein and the theoretical work that was performed. A number of Halbach Magnetic rotors have been developed and tested under this program. A separate test hardware setup was developed to characterize each of the rotors. A second hardware setup was developed to test the levitation characteristics of the rotors. Each system focused around a unique Halbach array rotor. Each rotor required original design and fabrication techniques. A 4 in. diameter rotor was developed to test the radial levitation effects for use as a magnetic bearing. To show scalability from the 4 in. rotor, a 1 in. rotor was developed to also test radial levitation effects. The next rotor to be developed was 20 in. in diameter again to show scalability from the 4 in. rotor. An axial rotor was developed to determine the force that could be generated to position the rotor axially while it is rotating. With both radial and axial magnetic bearings, the rotor would be completely suspended magnetically. The purpose of this report is to document the development of a series of Halbach magnetic rotors to be used in testing. The design, fabrication and assembly of the rotors will be discussed as well as the hardware developed to test the rotors.

  1. Population, environment and development.

    PubMed

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994. PMID

  2. Population, environment and development.

    PubMed

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994.

  3. Shoulder Joint For Protective Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Smallcombe, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Shoulder joint allows full range of natural motion: wearer senses little or no resisting force or torque. Developed for space suit, joint offers advantages in protective garments for underwater work, firefighting, or cleanup of hazardous materials.

  4. Supporting Character Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janas, Monica; Nabors, Martha C.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies strategies early childhood educators can use to create an environment that encourages character development in young children. Provides reflective checklists for specific areas of character development and character education addressed: (1) content; (2) communication; (3) clarification; (4) community; (5) critical thinking; (6) context;…

  5. Developing Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an assignment that allows preservice health educators to learn how to develop fact sheets for communicating health information. The process of developing fact sheets involves selecting a topic, selecting a target audience, researching the topic, writing the message, constructing the draft, and pretesting the product. Strategies for…

  6. Language and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Tony, Ed.; Crewes, Geoffrey, Ed.

    A selection of papers presented at an international conference on the role of language in economic and social development includes: "Changing Paradigms: The Project Approach" (John McGovern); "Team Development of ELT Projects: A Case Study" (William M. Martin, Lynn P. Balabanis); "The Roles of Insiders and Outsiders in Evaluating English Language…

  7. Youth Development: Maori Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

  8. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  9. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  10. Understanding Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Fullan, Michael G., Ed.

    The 12 chapters in this book interpret teacher development in relation to self-development, teacher reflection, teacher biographies, cultures of teaching, teacher careers, teachers' work, gender identity, and classroom practice. The collection begins with an introductory chapter (Andy Hargreaves and Michael G. Fullan) and continues with 11…

  11. Technical Assistance to Developers

    SciTech Connect

    Rockward, Tommy; Borup, Rodney L.; Garzon, Fernando H.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Spernjak, Dusan

    2012-07-17

    This task supports the allowance of technical assistance to fuel-cell component and system developers as directed by the DOE. This task includes testing of novel materials and participation in the further development and validation of single cell test protocols. This task also covers technical assistance to DOE Working Groups, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability (U.S. Drive) Fuel Cell Technology Team. Assistance includes technical validation of new fuel cell materials and methods, single cell fuel cell testing to support the development of targets and test protocols, and regular advisory participation in other working groups and reviews. This assistance is made available to PEM fuel cell developers by request and DOE Approval. The objectives are to: (1) Support technically, as directed by DOE, fuel cell component and system developers; (2) Assess fuel cell materials and components and give feedback to developers; (3) Assist the DOE Durability Working Group with the development of various new material durability Testing protocols; and (4) Provide support to the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Fuel Cell Technology Team. FY2012 specific technical objectives are: (1) Evaluate novel MPL materials; (2) Develop of startup/ shutdown protocol; (3) Test the impact of hydrophobic treatment on graphite bi-polar plates; (4) Perform complete diagnostics on metal bi-polar plates for corrosion; and (5) Participate and lead efforts in the DOE Working Groups.

  12. Communication for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1984-01-01

    These reflections emerging from the Food and Agriculture Organization's long involvement in communication for development focus on lack of physical communication infrastructures accommodating development work; human dimension; more systematic media use; use of educational radio and portable video recorders; political considerations; and need for…

  13. Developing Our Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Adriaan

    1977-01-01

    Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

  14. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  15. Early Developments, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two 1998 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the Spring 1998 issue, articles highlight the Center's diverse cross-cultural projects and global research, training and…

  16. Steps in Intrauterine Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barra, H. Gensini; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of health care during the perinatal period, the topic for this issue of "Children in the Tropics" is prenatal development; this issue is intended for health educators for use in educating their clients about prenatal development, health care during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and the needs of the mother and neonate…

  17. Development Communication Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The four issues of the quarterly newsletter contained in this document focus on the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people about various social issues as well as the field of development communication itself. Environment and communication is the theme of the first issue, which includes articles on…

  18. Early Developments, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the three 2002 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center (FPG) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Articles in the Winter 2002 issue highlight some current work at FPG on factors that enhance or inhibit social and…

  19. Update on World Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a wealth of statistical information concerning the economic development and debt for a number of developing nations. Includes statistics on the gross national product growth of Cote d'lvoire, Guatemala, Malaysia, Korea, Colombia, and Nigeria, as well as, the gross domestic product growth and debt service for Latin America, Africa, and…

  20. Development of IVF Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Examines physical and psychological development of children conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF), focusing on questions related to risk of congenital defects or mental retardation and impact on the parent-child relationship. Concludes that no serious problems have arisen concerning the physical and psychological development of IVF…

  1. Personnel Training and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, John P.

    A comprehensive review of the literature on organizational training and development is undertaken in this report. Developments in learning, motivation, and attitude theory are discussed, with particular attention being paid to the theory and techniques of behavior modification and to General Systems Theory. Computer-assisted instruction and…

  2. Adolescent Development: Workshop II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Chiam Heng; And Others

    Workshops concerning adolescent development explored problems of adolescents, schooling and adolescence, preparation for adulthood, leisure and recreation, as well as values, culture, and change in relation to the development of youth. The discussion of adolescents' problems identified major problem areas, (emphasizing problems of communicating…

  3. Early Developments, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the three 2000 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Articles in the spring 2000 issue focus on a follow-up study of the Abecedarian Project, children of depressed mothers,…

  4. Successful Community Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    This paper sketches several successful community economic development programs that have implications for rural education. Case studies are used to discuss community characteristics that contribute to development success. In Virginia, a Community Certification Program offers statewide business recruitment services to communities that meet program…

  5. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  6. Facilitating Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwebel, Milton

    1985-01-01

    Human cognition research is shifting away from the importance of IQ and is emphasizing the stimulation and acceleration of a child's mental development. The emerging field of instructional psychology is trying to facilitate cognitive development. Current experimental programs--a university-school project in Belgium and a family project in…

  7. Developing Sustainable Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Developing and sustaining leaders is a major challenge for all those involved in education today. This book contains a collection of essays from recognized authors to provide insights, frameworks and ideas on how to sustain school leaders and develop values-based leadership. It also offers guidance on countering short-term management solutions,…

  8. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  9. Theme: International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of seven articles focusing on international agricultural education. Topics discussed include (1) international curriculum development, (2) programs for rural youth, (3) experiential training in international agriculture, (4) university/high school global exchange, (5) international development, and (5) the Association of International…

  10. Graphite technology development plan

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    This document presents the plan for the graphite technology development required to support the design of the 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR within the US National Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Besides descriptions of the required technology development, cost estimates, and schedules, the plan also includes the associated design functions and design requirements.

  11. PLATO Courseware Development Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, William A.; And Others

    This is an exploratory study of methods for the preparation of computer curriculum materials. It deals with courseware development procedures for the PLATO IV computer-based education system, and draws on interviews with over 100 persons engaged in courseware production. The report presents a five stage model of development: (1) planning, (2)…

  12. Hemovigilance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits has become an integral part of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) in the developed world and has contributed greatly to the development of the blood service. However developing countries are still grappling with donor recruitment and efforts towards sufficiency and safety of the blood supply. In these countries the BTS is generally fragmented and a national hemovigilance program would be difficult to implement. However a few developing countries have an effective and sustainable blood program that can deliver equitable, safe and sufficient blood supply to the nation. Different models of hemovigilance program have been introduced with variable success. There are deficiencies but the data collected provided important information that can be presented to the health authorities for effective interventions. Hemovigilance program modeled from developed countries require expertise and resources that are not available in many developing countries. Whatever resources that are available should be utilized to correct deficiencies that are already apparent and obvious. Besides there are other tools that can be used to monitor the blood program in the developing countries depending on the need and the resources available. More importantly the data collected should be accurate and are used and taken into consideration in formulating guidelines, standards and policies and to affect appropriate interventions. Any surveillance program should be introduced in a stepwise manner as the blood transfusion service develops.

  13. Child Development through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Elliott D., Ed.; And Others

    This volume is an attempt to provide literature that will enhance through vicarious experience and emotional involvement the adult's understanding of the principles of child development. The selections are organized into categories and cross-indexed with most of the standard texts in child development and psychology. It is divided into ten major…

  14. Character and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  15. Staff Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry Creek School District 5, Englewood, CO.

    This document lists staff development components in the Cherry Creek Schools of metropolitan Denver. A brief overview stresses that the establishment of the office of the Director of Staff Development in the Cherry Creek Schools reflects a recognition of the need for more active participation of local school districts as well as all interested…

  16. Adolescent Development Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Carol

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizes necessity of reconsideration of adolescent development, for these reasons: the view of childhood has changed; females have not been systematically studied; theories of cognitive development favor mathematical and scientific thinking over the humanities; and because the psychology of adolescence is anchored in separation and independence…

  17. Leadership and Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on leadership and management development moderated by Mark Porter at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Expanding Formative Experiences: A Critical Dimension of Leadership Deportment" (Gary D. Geroy, Jackie L. Jankovich) advocates focusing leadership…

  18. Child Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, J. Lynne; Garfield, Nancy

    The Education for Parenthood Child Development Guide is designed to encourage Girl Scouts to choose various activities relating to: observing and working with children; drawing conclusions based on their own experiences and evidence; choosing their own activities and projects; collecting their own evidence on child development; creating projects…

  19. Jamaica: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Jamaica is known mainly as a tourist playground and the home of Reggae music. This Jamaican teaching unit dispels stereotypes and shows Jamaica for what it really is--an economically-troubled, developing nation. The unit illustrates the challenges this island nation is facing in its struggle toward economic development. Contents are: Teacher…

  20. Development Communication Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The four 1991 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" are primarily concerned with the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people. Evaluation is the theme of the first issue, which contains the following articles: "Evaluating Communication Programs: Means and Ends,""Making a Splash: How…