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Sample records for development joint development

  1. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Joint Development: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration... the form of a circular, on joint development. This circular provides guidance to recipients of Federal... joint development. This circular: (1) Defines the term ``joint development''; ] (2) explains how...

  2. Signaling networks in joint development.

    PubMed

    Salva, Joanna E; Merrill, Amy E

    2017-04-01

    Here we review studies identifying regulatory networks responsible for synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joint development. Synovial joints, characterized by the fluid-filled synovial space between the bones, are found in high-mobility regions and are the most common type of joint. Cartilaginous joints such as the intervertebral disc unite adjacent bones through either a hyaline cartilage or a fibrocartilage intermediate. Fibrous joints, which include the cranial sutures, form a direct union between bones through fibrous connective tissue. We describe how the distinct morphologic and histogenic characteristics of these joint classes are established during embryonic development. Collectively, these studies reveal that despite the heterogeneity of joint strength and mobility, joint development throughout the skeleton utilizes common signaling networks via long-range morphogen gradients and direct cell-cell contact. This suggests that different joint types represent specialized variants of homologous developmental modules. Identifying the unifying aspects of the signaling networks between joint classes allows a more complete understanding of the signaling code for joint formation, which is critical to improving strategies for joint regeneration and repair. Developmental Dynamics 246:262-274, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Successfully Developing Joint Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    least for the ROTC aspect of the Navy commissioning source, this is about to change at the University of South Florida (USF). In fact the “Joint...get their training over a six- month period at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. A Marine aviator will go through Pensacola Naval Air Station, Florida alongside...MCAS Beaufort, he served in Afghanistan as “Commanding Officer of Taskforce Panther , a joint coalition taskforce in support of OEF” (http

  4. Early Developments in Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    Joint action, critical to human social interaction and communication, has garnered increasing scholarly attention in many areas of inquiry, yet its development remains little explored. This paper reviews research on the growth of joint action over the first 2 years of life to show how children become progressively more able to engage deliberately, autonomously, and flexibly in joint action with adults and peers. It is suggested that a key mechanism underlying the dramatic changes in joint action over the second year of life is the ability to reflect consciously on oneself and one’s behavior and volition and correspondingly, on the behavior, goals, and intentions of others. PMID:23087769

  5. Joint Minorities Development Program (JMDP). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organizing and Supportive Agency, Inc., Ithaca, NY.

    The Joint Minorities Development Program (JMDP) was a joint enterprise of Organizing and Supportive Agency, Inc. (OSA) and Human Interest Regarding Employment/Minorities Action Coalition (HIRE/MAC) to train black construction workers and organize them into a self-supportive construction cooperative. JMDP evolved in three stages. The first phase…

  6. Developing Joint Information Operations Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-13

    the spectrum of conflict more than ever before. Information dominance has always been important, but the speed and methods at which it can be sent... information dominance . The analysis begins with a quick review of joint IO doctrine, Service approaches to IO, and IO personnel management. Next, IO

  7. Development of the human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Mérida-Velasco, J A; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Espín-Ferra, J; Jiménez-Collado, J

    1999-05-01

    A great deal of research has been published on the development of the human temporomandibularjoint (TMJ). However, there is some discordance about its morphological timing. The most controversial aspects concern the moment of the initial organization of the condyle and the squamous part of the temporal bone, the articular disc and capsule and also the cavitation and onset of condylar chondrogenesis. Serial sections of 70 human specimens between weeks 7 and 17 of development were studied by optical microscopy (25 embryos and 45 fetuses). All specimens were obtained from collections of the Institute of Embryology of the Complutense University of Madrid and the Department of Morphological Sciences of the University of Granada. Three phases in the development of the TMJ were identified. The first is the blastematic stage (weeks 7-8 of development), which corresponds with the onset of the organization of the condyle and the articular disc and capsule. During week 8 intramembranous ossification of the temporal squamous bone begins. The second stage is the cavitation stage (weeks 9-11 of development), corresponding to the initial formation of the inferior joint cavity (week 9) and the start condylar chondrogenesis. Week 11 marks the initiation of organization of the superior joint cavity. And the third stage is the maturation stage (after week 12 of development). This work establishes three phases in TMJ development: 1) the blastematic stage (weeks 7-8 of development); 2) the cavitation stage (weeks 9-11 of development); and 3) the maturation stage (after week 12 of development). This study identifies the critical period of TMJ morphogenesis as occurring between weeks 7 and 11 of development.

  8. Spherical Joint Piston and Connecting Rod Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy, the NASA Lewis Research Center manages a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Technology (HDET) research program. The overall program objectives are to reduce fuel consumption through increased engine efficiency, reduce engine exhaust emissions, and provide options for the use of alternative fuels. The program is administered with a balance of research contracts, university research grants, and focused in-house research. The Cummins Engine Company participates in the HDET program under a cost-sharing research contract. Cummins is researching and developing in-cylinder component technologies for heavy-duty diesel engines. An objective of the Cummins research is to develop technologies for a low-emissions, 55-percent thermal efficiency (LE-55) engine. The best current-production engines in this class achieve about 46-percent thermal efficiency. Federal emissions regulations are driving this technology. Regulations for heavy duty diesel engines were tightened in 1994, more demanding emissions regulations are scheduled for 1998, and another step is planned for 2002. The LE-55 engine emissions goal is set at half of the 1998 regulation level and is consistent with plans for 2002 emissions regulations. LE-55 engine design requirements to meet the efficiency target dictate a need to operate at higher peak cylinder pressures. A key technology being developed and evaluated under the Cummins Engine Company LE-55 engine concept is the spherical joint piston and connecting rod. Unlike conventional piston and connecting rod arrangements which are joined by a pin forming a hinged joint, the spherical joint piston and connecting rod use a ball-and-socket joint. The ball-and-socket arrangement enables the piston to have an axisymmetric design allowing rotation within the cylinder. The potential benefits of piston symmetry and rotation are reduced scuffing, improved piston ring sealing, improved lubrication, mechanical and thermal

  9. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Joint Community Development Program... Grants § 570.411 Joint Community Development Program. (a) General. Grants under this section will be... program may be called the Joint CD Program. (b) Definitions. Demonstrated capacity to carry out...

  10. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Joint Community Development Program... Grants § 570.411 Joint Community Development Program. (a) General. Grants under this section will be... program may be called the Joint CD Program. (b) Definitions. Demonstrated capacity to carry out...

  11. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Joint Community Development Program... Grants § 570.411 Joint Community Development Program. (a) General. Grants under this section will be... program may be called the Joint CD Program. (b) Definitions. Demonstrated capacity to carry out...

  12. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint Community Development Program... Grants § 570.411 Joint Community Development Program. (a) General. Grants under this section will be... program may be called the Joint CD Program. (b) Definitions. Demonstrated capacity to carry out...

  13. Flat H Redundant Frangible Joint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Orion and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partners have chosen to use frangible joints for certain separation events. The joints currently available are zero failure tolerant and will be used in mission safety applications. The goal is to further develop a NASA designed redundant frangible joint that will lower flight risk and increase reliability. FY16 testing revealed a successful design in subscale straight test specimens that gained efficiency and supports Orion load requirements. Approach / Innovation A design constraint is that the redundant joint must fit within the current Orion architecture, without the need for additional vehicle modification. This limitation required a design that changed the orientation of the expanding tube assemblies (XTAs), by rotating them 90deg from the standard joint configuration. The change is not trivial and affects the fracture mechanism and structural load paths. To address these changes, the design incorporates cantilevered arms on the break plate. The shock transmission and expansion of the XTA applies force to these arms and creates a prying motion to push the plate walls outward to the point of structural failure at the notched section. The 2014 test design revealed that parts could slip during functioning wasting valuable energy needed to separate the structure with only a single XTA functioning. Dual XTA functioning fully separated the assembly showing a discrepancy can be backed up with redundancy. Work on other fully redundant systems outside NASA is limited to a few patents that have not been subjected to functionality testing Design changes to prevent unwanted slippage (with ICA funding in 2015) showed success with a single XTA. The main goal for FY 2016 was to send the new Flat H RFJ to WSTF where single XTA test failures occurred back in 2014. The plan was to gain efficiency in this design by separating the Flat H RFJ with thicker ligaments with dimensions baselined in 2014. Other modifications included geometry

  14. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Vision 2020 (JV 2020 ) is the conceptual template established to guide the transformation of America’s Armed Forces. According to this template, the...of Staff. Joint Vision 2020 , (Washington DC. Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Electronic Library, February 2001):1. 2 Ibid...Staffs of Staff, 2011. __________. Joint Vision 2020 .Washington DC. Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Electronic Library

  15. Joint Attention and Vocabulary Development: A Critical Look

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nameera; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Joint attention – parents’ and children’s coordinated attention to each other and to a third object or event – is believed to play a causal and critical role in early word learning. However, joint attention, as conventionally defined and measured, relies only on overt indicators of attention, is studied predominantly in the visual modality, and varies by culture. Moreover, word learning can occur without joint attention in typical development, in autistic development, and in Williams syndrome, and joint attention can occur without commensurate word learning in Down syndrome. Thus, the assumption that joint attention is a necessary and sufficient precursor to vocabulary learning is not universally supported. PMID:25505491

  16. Development and test of the ITER SC conductor joints

    SciTech Connect

    Gung, C. Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Michael, P.; Minervini, J.; Randall, A.

    1998-08-05

    Joints for the ITER superconducting Central Solenoid should perform in rapidly varying magnetic field with low losses and low DC resistance. This paper describes the design of the ITER joint and presents its assembly process. Two joints were built and tested at the PTF facility at MIT. Test results are presented; losses in transverse and parallel field and the DC performance are discussed. The developed joint demonstrates sufficient margin for baseline ITRR operating scenarios.

  17. [The development of research in tribology of artificial joints].

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhendong; Gong, Juanqing

    2006-06-01

    Aseptic loosening of the prosthesis is a major form for the failure of artificial joints, which results in the conglomeration of wear particles at the bone-implant interface. This paper briefly reviews the recent development of tribology of artificial joints preserving good lubrication, enhancing the wear resistance of materials for the joints, reducing the generation of sensitive-size particles and depressing the debris-tissue reactions. Suggestion for improvement in the design of artificial joints is presented.

  18. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  19. Developing a pharmaceutical formulary for joint military medical operations.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Marc L

    2005-02-01

    This article describes the development of a standardized formulary for medical contingency operations for any theater of operations. The article compares peacetime health care systems within the Department of Defense and the formulary systems developed and used within the fixed facility environment with Department of Defense contingency health care operations systems and the complications encountered while attempting formulary development for the deployed environment. Despite great difficulties, the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board developed, published, and marketed a jointly approved, standardized, modernized formulary to assist forces deploying for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The process used by the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board during formulary development is described in detail, giving readers an understanding of the foundations of the Joint Deployment Formulary. The military departments will experience the benefits of enhanced supply chain predictability and responsiveness, increased clinician satisfaction, and improved patient safety and health care quality by implementing the Joint Deployment Formulary for their forces engaged in contingency operations.

  20. Implementing Joint Operational Access: From Concept to Joint Force Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    multiple DOTMLPF-P gover - nance processes across the Department of Defense (DOD). Finally, pulling all of the various activities together related to JOA...eral Martin E . Dempsey signed the Joint Concept for Entry Operations (JCEO) on April 7, 2014. 5 Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership, 5. 6 JOAC, 33–36

  1. Temperamental and Joint Attentional Predictors of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda J.; Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in child temperament have been associated with individual differences in language development. Similarly, relationships have been reported between early nonverbal social communication (joint attention) and both temperament and language. The present study examined whether individual differences in joint attention might…

  2. Faculty Practice in Joint Appointments: Implications for Nursing Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Janice M.; Heinzer, Marjorie M.

    2000-01-01

    Nursing faculty's joint appointments may involve clinical, research, or administrative roles. These dual responsibilities have many benefits but pose challenges in prioritizing work and dealing with workload increases and fatigue. Joint appointments give faculty the opportunity to provide staff development to clinical nurses. (SK)

  3. The Development of Action Planning in a Joint Action Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus.…

  4. Development of design and analysis methodology for composite bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Peter; Sawicki, Adam

    1991-05-01

    This paper summarizes work performed to develop composite joint design methodology for use on rotorcraft primary structure, determine joint characteristics which affect joint bearing and bypass strength, and develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of such characteristics in structural joints. Experimental results have shown that bearing-bypass interaction allowables cannot be defined using a single continuous function due to variance of failure modes for different bearing-bypass ratios. Hole wear effects can be significant at moderate stress levels and should be considered in the development of bearing allowables. A computer program has been developed and has successfully predicted bearing-bypass interaction effects for the (0/+/-45/90) family of laminates using filled hole and unnotched test data.

  5. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  6. Joint Concept Development and Experimentation: A Force Development Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Defence R& D Canada Centre for Operational Research and Analysis Warfare Centre Science Team Canadian Forces Warfare Centre Joint Concept...Warfare Centre Sciences Team Lead DRDC CORA Defence R& D Canada – CORA Technical Memorandum DRDC CORA TM 2012-036 February 2012...Scientist, DRDC CORA Defence R& D Canada – Centre for Operational Research and Analysis (CORA) © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as

  7. Joint Exchange Development Initiative (JEDI) with the SKA Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oozeer, Nadeem; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The teaching is a process whereby one mediates between another person and the materials. There exists many teaching models from lectures, discussion, questioning, to independent learning and self-teaching. The Joint Exchange Development Initiative (JEDI) is a way to maximize on the teaching methodologies. The JEDI is a concept to enhance development and education via direct transfer of skills and expertise in any specific field. It is an initiative to provide development via joint exchange among stakeholders. In this paper, we describe the various JEDI workshops carried out in the Square Kilometre Array (SKA Africa) partner countries and demonstrate how these workshops are proving to be successful.

  8. Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs...Navy Contract Management Processes Rene Rendon, Associate Professor, NPS Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development ...mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 374 - Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs Andrew Philip

  9. Development of restraint material and tucked fabric joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmullen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and select a suitable restraint material for the exterior of space suits pressurized to 4.0 PSID for normal operations, and to develop and improve tucked fabric joints for motions associated with the human shoulder, elbow, knee, waist, hip, ankle, and wrist. The many attributes of the end items are summarized to include structural integrity, simplicity, low maintenance, lightweight, high durability, low elongation, full range mobility, long life, and resistance to degradation in the operational environment.

  10. The joint DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Repa, J.V. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The joint Department of Defense (DoD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Munitions Technology Development Program is a cooperative, jointly funded effort of research and development to improve nonnuclear munitions technology across all service mission areas. This program is enabled under a Memorandum of Understanding, approved in 1985 between the DoD and the DOE, that tasks the nuclear weapons laboratories of the DOE to solve problems in conventional defense. The selection of the technical areas to be investigated is based on their importance to the military services, the needs that are common to the conventional and nuclear weapons programs, the expertise of the performing organization, and the perceived benefit to the overall national defense efforts. The research benefits both DoD and DOE programs; therefore, funding, planning, and monitoring are joint activities. Technology Coordination Groups (TCGs), organized by topical areas, serve as technology liaisons between the DoD and DOE for the exchange of information. The members of the TCGs are technical experts who meet semiannually in an informal workshop format to coordinate multiagency requirements, establish project plans, monitor technical activity, and develop classification guidance. A technical advisory committee of senior DoD and DOE managers administers the program and provides guidance on policy and strategy. The abstracts in this volume were collected from the technical progress report for fiscal year 1993. The annual report is organized by major technology areas. Telephone and fax numbers for the principal contacts are provided with each abstract.

  11. Temporomandibular joint computed tomography: development of a direct sagittal technique

    SciTech Connect

    van der Kuijl, B.; Vencken, L.M.; de Bont, L.G.; Boering, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders. Different techniques are used with computed tomography offering simultaneous imaging of bone and soft tissues. It is therefore suited for visualization of the articular disk and may be used in patients with suspected internal derangements and other disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Previous research suggests advantages to direct sagittal scanning, which requires special positioning of the patient and a sophisticated scanning technique. This study describes the development of a new technique of direct sagittal computed tomographic imaging of the temporomandibular joint using a specially designed patient table and internal light visor positioning. No structures other than the patient's head are involved in the imaging process, and misleading artifacts from the arm or the shoulder are eliminated. The use of the scanogram allows precise correction of the condylar axis and selection of exact slice level.

  12. Development of a Lubricant Therapy to Prevent Development of Osteoarthritis after Acute Injury of Synovial Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0562 TITLE: Development of a Lubricant Therapy to Prevent Development of Osteoarthritis after Acute...Injury of Synovial Joints PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert L. Sah RECIPIENT: Dr. Prem Yadav, Ph.D. REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT...PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4

  13. Development of a knee joint motion simulator to evaluate deep knee flexion of artificial knee joints.

    PubMed

    Takano, Y; Ueno, M; Kiguchi, K; Ito, J; Mawatari, M; Hotokebuchi, T

    2008-01-01

    A purpose of this study is to examine the effect that quadriceps femoris force gives to rotation angle and joint reaction force of total knee prosthesis during deep knee flexion such as a unique sitting style called 'seiza' in Japanese. For the evaluation, we developed the knee motion simulator which could bend to 180 degrees continually simulating the passive flexion performed by clinicians. A total knee prosthesis, which is a specially-devised posterior stabilized type and capable of flexion up to 180 degrees, was inserted into bone model. And this prosthesis pulled by three kinds of quadriceps femoris forces to perform parameter study. The results obtained in this study were showed the same tendency with those in the past cadaveric experiment. It is suggested that the rotation angle and joint reaction force of total knee prosthesis are affected by shape of prosthesis, a vector of quadriceps femoris force, and bony aliments during deep knee flexion.

  14. A Longitudinal Analysis of Joint Attention and Language Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime

    2010-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), which occurs when two individuals focus on the same object or event, plays a critical role in social and language development. Two major kinds of joint attention have been observed: response to joint attention (RJA), in which children follow the attentional focus of their social partners, and initiation of joint attention…

  15. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  16. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  17. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  18. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  19. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The...

  20. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  1. Development of Common International Specifications to Support Future Joint Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine

    Scientific exploration of the solar system is becoming more complex and costly, while featuring both astrobiologically compelling targets and the need for increasingly capable scientific instru-mentation and spacecraft. Recently, an increasing number of countries are joining the club of spacefaring nations, providing a greater base of capabilities in space exploration from which to work. Both trends are positive and may be expected to lead to both an increased number of cooperative missions. A focus on "better" future cooperative missions to Mars and the Outer Planets satellites—with a concentration on the potential of these bodies to support life—will necessarily require con-tinued attention to the planetary protection policies that govern their exploration. Agencies conducting joint missions to these worlds have long recognized the utility of COSPAR's plane-tary protection policy as the international consensus standard applied to support their scientific exploration. As such, a formal role for COSPAR's policy in joining agency efforts is expected to continue, while in an informal sense COSPAR will also continue to work to harmonize the technical side of requirements among space agencies and to provide an international forum to develop future thinking on planetary protection issues. In this way, COSPAR can help to aid agencies to develop bilateral and multilateral cooperative efforts, such as the 2007 agreement reached by NASA and ESA, as well as to expand the level of coordination among space agencies of other spacefaring nations. Such coordination and the successful implementation of COSPAR requirements on joint mis-sions suggests the need for frequent exchanges of information among the planetary protection authorities of the respective spacefaring nation and the COSPAR planetary protection panel. To be effective, such exchanges should ideally start already before mission categorization and continue until the end-of-mission report. This is considered of

  2. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following four panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one hour at...

  3. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  4. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  5. Southeast Asian seas: joint development of hydrocarbons in overlapping claim areas

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, M.J.; Miyoshi, M.

    1986-01-01

    There are ocean areas of overlapping claims in Southeast Asia with significant petroleum potential which appear to be candidates for joint development, a process in which boundary disputes are set aside and the claimants jointly explore and exploit any hydrocarbon resources in such areas. Factors influencing the choice of joint development are delineated and described. The best candidate areas for joint development in Southeast Asia are the areas of overlap between Vietnam and Kampuchea in the eastern Gulf of Thailand and the Timor gap between Indonesia and Australia. The overlap between Vietnam and China in the Gulf of Tonkin and parts of the Dangerous Ground could become candidates for joint development if political relations change. Joint development schemes include agreement on the extent of the area in question, on the contractual system, and on the degree of autonomy and authority of the joint development body. Hypothetical schemes for joint development of some candidate areas are described. Although joint development is neither the optimal nor the permanent solution to unresolved boundaries, it will look increasingly attractive if the need for oil intensifies and precedents mount. 5 figures.

  6. [Development of the normal infantile hip joints assessed by MRI].

    PubMed

    Wierusz-Kozłowska, M; Ziemiański, A; Kruczyński, J; Borkowski, W

    2000-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the time of appearance of the secondary ossification centers and closure of the growth plates of the acetabulum and proximal epiphysis of the femur: the triradiate cartilage, the acetabular roof growth cartilage, the subcapital growth cartilage, the growth cartilage of the major trochanter, the growth cartilage of the minor trochanter. The study is based upon 62 MRI scans of healthy hips in 45 patients aged 3-21. The examined hips showed no pathologic traits--neither in the MRI scan nor in X-ray investigation. In Spin Echo and Turbo Spin Echo sequential imaging all obtained slices were used, on GRADIENT ECHO: FISP 3D, FLASH 2D, and FLASH 3D FAT SAT only chosen slices were included in the study. This way the following results were obtained: the ossification center of the major trochanter appears at the age of 3 in girls and at the age of 6 in boys, while the ossification center of the minor trochanter appears at the age of 6 in both sexes. The times of complete ossification of following growth cartilages were observed: for the triradiate cartilage ossification was observed at age 12-15 in girls and 15-16 in boys; for the cartilage of the acetabular roof ossification was noted at age 12-15 in girls and 15-18 in boys; ossification in the subcapital growth cartilage occurred at age 15-17 in girls and 16-18 in boys; the major trochanter growth cartilage ossifies at age 15-16 in girls and 16-18 in boys; for the minor trochanter ossification of the growth cartilage occurs at age 14-16 in girls and at age 16-18 in boys. The secondary ossification center of the pubic bone appears at age 9-11 in girls and 13-16 in boys and the secondary ossification center of the acetabular roof appears at age 13-17 in girls and boys. This study expand our knowledge on the development of the hip joint and facilitate the assessment of hip pathology.

  7. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  8. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  9. 75 FR 23847 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and ] Development Services Scientific Merit.... Clinical Research Program June 9, 2010 *VA Central Office. Oncology June 10-11, 2010....... L'Enfant...

  10. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  11. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  12. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at...

  13. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  14. Genetic Influences on Temporomandibular Joint Development and Growth.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Robert J; Jing, Junjun; Feng, Jian Q

    2015-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a small synovial joint at which the mandible articulates with the skull during movements involved in speaking and mastication. However, the secondary cartilage lining its joint surfaces is indicative of a very different developmental history than limb cartilages. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genes that regulate the formation of primary components of the TMJ, as well as genes that regulate postnatal growth of the TMJ. Although the TMJ is regulated by some of the same genes that are important in limb joints, others appear unique to the TMJ or have different actions. Runx2, Sox9, and members of the TGF-β/BMP family are critical drivers of chondrogenesis during condylar cartilage morphogenesis, and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is important for formation of the articular disc and cavitation. Osterix (Osx) is a critical regulator of endochondral bone formation during postnatal TMJ growth.

  15. High current density, cryogenically cooled sliding electrical joint development

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.

    1986-09-01

    In the past two years, conceptual designs for fusion energy research devices have focussed on compact, high magnetic field configurations. The concept of sliding electrical joints in the large magnets allows a number of technical advantages including enhanced mechanical integrity, remote maintainability, and reduced project cost. The rationale for sliding electrical joints is presented. The conceptual configuration for this generation of experimental devices is highlghted by an approx. 20 T toroidal field magnet with a flat top conductor current of approx. 300 kA and a sliding electrical joint with a gross current density of approx. 0.6 kA/cm/sup 2/. A numerical model was used to map the conductor current distribution as a function of time and position in the conductor. A series of electrical joint arrangements were produced against the system code envelope constraints for a specific version of the Ignition Studies Project (ISP) which is designated as 1025.

  16. Development of 345-kV capacitive-graded joint. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, E.M.

    1980-09-01

    The design of a 345-kV prefabricated capacitive-graded joint for oil-filled cables and the manufacture and testing of prototype joints are described. Tests on prototype No. 4 demonstrated the adequacy of the printed circuit design. It was not possible to consistently obtain high-quality capacitive sheets and substantial effort is required to remedy this problem. Advantages of these prefabricated joints are summarized, and specific recommendations are made for further development of the concept.

  17. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  18. Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.; Raver, Sharon A.; Michalek, Anne M. P.; Wilson, Corinne L.

    2013-01-01

    All eligible infants and toddlers who receive early intervention services under Part C of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are entitled to service coordination. To examine the effectiveness of one state's service coordination training and its impact on knowledge and skill development, a pretest--posttest design with follow-up survey was…

  19. Partnerships between Public Schools and Private Developers. A Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoudian, Maria

    The California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee investigated several "joint venture" partnerships between school districts and the private sector to develop school district-owned properties to determine the feasibility of such innovative school construction projects. This report presents findings from seven of these…

  20. Development of assembly and joint concepts for erectable space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemin, G. G.; Bluck, R. M.; Grotbeck, G. H.; Johnson, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    The technology associated with the on-orbit assembly of tetrahedral truss platforms erected of graphite epoxy tapered columns is examined. Associated with the assembly process is the design and fabrication of nine member node joints. Two such joints demonstrating somewhat different technology were designed and fabricated. Two methods of automatic assembly using the node designs were investigated, and the time of assembly of tetrahedral truss structures up to 1 square km in size was estimated. The effect of column and node joint packaging on the Space Shuttle cargo bay is examined. A brief discussion is included of operating cost considerations and the selection of energy sources. Consideration was given to the design assembly machines from 5 m to 20 m. The smaller machines, mounted on the Space Shuttle, are deployable and restowable. They provide a means of demonstrating the capabilities of the concept and of erecting small specialized platforms on relatively short notice.

  1. Development of a Enhanced Thermal Barrier for RSRM Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P. H.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber rope is being considered as replacement for the RTV thermal barrier that is currently used to protect o-rings in RSRM nozzle joints, Performance requirements include its ability to cool propellant gases filter slag and particulates, and conform to various joint assembly conditions as well as dynamic flight motion. Testing has shown its superior heat resistance, even in oxidative and corrosive environments. Testing has also demonstrated excellent performance of this system in sub-scale motors. Cold flow testing, has demonstrated its ability to conform to motor dynamics. Manufacture and assembly testing have demonstrated the ease of gland machining as well as assembly in a full-scale nozzle.

  2. The National Guard: Recommendations to Develop the Joint Future Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    author of this paper, is a requirement to educate the military personnel on total force and joint concepts from the earliest stages. Aristotle once...8 Phillip S. Meilinger, American Airpower Biography : A Survey of the Field Air and Space Power (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press

  3. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unit of general local government. Institution of higher education means a college or university.... Department of Education. (c) Eligible applicants. Institutions of higher education or States and units of..., without the joint participation of a State or unit of general local government. States or unit of...

  4. Organisational Learning in International Joint Ventures: Implications for Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrell, Mike; Gloet, Marianne; Wright, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Malaysian and Australian managers enrolled in a training program exhibited differences attributed to national culture in their approaches to learning, influences on management behavior, and ways of knowing. National culture had greater influence on management development and organizational learning than did organizational or systems cultures.…

  5. Minority Business Participation in Public/Private Partnerships: A Manual on Joint Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Celestino M.; And Others

    The Urban Mass Transportation Association promotes Commercial real estate development projects in and adjacent to transit facilities as a means of generating additional revenues to defray part of local transit agency operating cost. Transit-related real estate development, or joint development, provides unique financial benefits for investors and…

  6. Development of Synovial Membrane in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, R.C.; Arraéz-Aybar, L.A.; Klein, O.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities. PMID:26708184

  7. Development of molded, coated fabric joints: Fabric construction criteria for a spacesuit elbow joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a molded, coated fabric elbow joint capable of operating reliably at 8 psi internal pressure for extended periods of flexure is considered. The overall design of the joint includes: (1) selection of heatsettable fiber of sufficient strengths; (2) choosing an optimum fabric construction; (3) a fatigue resistant; flexible coating; and (4) a molding technique. A polyester yarn of type 56 Dacron and a urethane coating system were selected. The relationships between yarn and weave parameters which lead to an optimum fabric construction for the 8 psi elbow joint are defined.

  8. Cartilage morphogenetic proteins: role in joint development, homoeostasis, and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage homoeostasis is critical for joint function. The steady state homoeostasis of articular cartilage is a balance between anabolic morphogens such as cartilage derived morphogenetic proteins (CDMPs) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) of the BMP family and catabolic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1, IL17, and tumour necrosis factor α. Although bone and articular cartilage are adjacent tissues, there is a profound difference in their regeneration potential. Bone has the highest potential for regeneration. On the other hand, articular cartilage is recalcitrant to repair. Objective: To examine the hypothesis that the feeble innate regeneration ability of cartilage is due to the preponderance of catabolic cytokines such as IL1 and IL17. Results: During a systematic investigation of CDMPs and cytokines IL17B (chondroleukin) was found in bovine articular cartilage. Discussion and conclusions: BMP-7 and IL17B are present in articular cartilage and synthesised in chondrocytes as shown by northern blots and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The coexistence of anabolic morphogens and catabolic cytokines in articular cartilage has important implications for cartilage homoeostasis and regeneration. The networks of signalling systems of morphogens and cytokines determine the net capacity for regenerative morphogenesis of articular cartilage. Finally, the feeble innate capacity for articular cartilage may be improved by targeted therapy by soluble receptors to block catabolic cytokines. PMID:14532155

  9. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  10. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Development of New Capabilities Requires Continued Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-26

    F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Development of New Capabilities Requires Continued Oversight Statement of Michael J...Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities, GAO-16-390 (Washington, D.C.: April 14, 2016) Letter...modernization as part of the existing program baseline, which has oversight implications. DOD has begun planning and funding significant new

  11. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  12. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to became more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children’s symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across four years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver’s actions. PMID:24266591

  13. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction as a reason for the development of acetabular retroversion: a new theory.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Acetabular retroversion has been recently implicated as an important factor in the development of femoral acetabular impingement and hip osteoarthritis. The proper function of the hip joint requires that the anatomic features of the acetabulum and femoral head complement one another. In acetabular retroversion, the alignment of the acetabulum is altered where it opens in a posterolaterally instead of anterior direction. Changes in acetabular orientation can occur with alterations in pelvic tilt (anterior/posterior), and pelvic rotation (left/right). An overlooked problem that alters pelvic tilt and rotation, often seen by physical therapists, is sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A unique feature that develops in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) is asymmetry between the left and right innominate bones that can alter pelvic tilt and rotation. This article puts forth a theory suggesting that acetabular retroversion may be produced by sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

  14. Development of a physical model of the human elbow joint using polyacrylonitrile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Thielman, Jeffrey L.

    1998-07-01

    A physical model of the human elbow joint was designed using the polymer fiber polyacrylonitrile (PAN), developed at the University of New Mexico. The elbow model uses six PAN fiber bundles, as artificial muscles, to create the forces needed for elbow movement. These six fiber bundles were designed to imitate the major muscles that cross the human elbow joint. Four distinct movement tasks (elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination) were designed into the physical mode. Several steps were taken to meet this objective. First, the mechanical properties of the PAN fibers were characterized using the techniques developed by A. V. Hill, and compared with his results. The results show that the fiber mechanical properties have similarities to human muscle properties, and thus permitting a realistic elbow model to be developed. Second, a method of encasing the individual bundles of fibers was developed. The encasing lengthens and shortens with the fibers, prevents fluid leakage, and does not deteriorate given the acid and base fluid components. Third, a method of supplying and removing the activating fluids was developed. This system is chemically resistant, provides a method for controlling inlet and exit fluid flow, and allows for complete fluid exchange in less than 5 seconds. Finally, a microcontroller was incorporated to provide joint position and velocity control based on joint potentiometers and provide real-time feedback of joint positions. Using these components, a human elbow joint system was developed that allows movement in two degrees of freedom. Due to the characteristics of the PAN fiber bundles, the elbow joint was slower and weaker than originally designed. System improvements relate closely to increasing fiber bundle force and decreasing the reaction time constant.

  15. Forces in bolted joints: analysis methods and test results utilized for nuclear core applications (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, P.J.; Keller, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    Analytical methods and test data employed in the core design of bolted joints for the LWBR core are presented. The effects of external working loads, thermal expansion, and material stress relaxation are considered in the formulation developed to analyze joint performance. Extensions of these methods are also provided for bolted joints having both axial and bending flexibilities, and for the effect of plastic deformation on internal forces developed in a bolted joint. Design applications are illustrated by examples.

  16. The development of auto-sealing system for field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Yoshihiro; Shoji, Norio; Namioka, Toshiyuki; Komura, Minoru

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the development of a system to create high quality, automatic sealing of field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines. The system uses a combination of electrically heated shrink sleeves and a low pressure chamber. The self-heating shrink sleeves include electric wires and heat themselves when connected to electricity. A method was developed to eliminate air trapped between the sleeve and steel pipe by shrinking the sleeves under low pressure. The low pressure condition was automatically and easily attained by using a vacuum chamber. The authors verified that the system produces high quality sealing of field joints.

  17. Development of a finger joint phantom for evaluation of frequency domain measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Netz, Uwe J; Scheel, Alexander K; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2006-01-01

    For development and test of new optical imaging devices, phantoms are widely used to emulate the tissue to be imaged. Phantom design gets more difficult the more complex the tissue is structured. We report on developing and testing a solid, stable finger joint phantom to simulate transillumination of finger joints in frequency-domain imaging systems. The phantom consists of the bone, capsule, skin, the capsule volume, and the joint gap. Silicone was used to build the solid parts and a glycerol-water solution for the fluid in the capsule volume and joint gap. The system to test the phantom is an optical frequency-domain scanning set-up. Different stages of joint inflammation as they occur in rheumatoid arthritis (BA) were emulated by assembling the phantom with capsule and fluid having different optical properties. Reliability of the phantom measurement was investigated by repeated assembling. The results show clear discrimination between different stages of joints within the signal deviation due to reassembling of the phantom.

  18. Functional data analysis of joint coordination in the development of vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A J; Ryan, W; Hayes, K

    2007-05-01

    Mastery of complex motor skills requires effective development of inter-segment coordination patterns. These coordination patterns can be described and quantified using various methods, including descriptive angle-angle diagrams, conjugate cross-correlations, vector coding, normalized root mean squared error techniques and, as in this study, functional data analysis procedures. Lower limb kinematic data were obtained for 49 children performing the vertical jump. Participants were assigned to developmental stages using the criteria of Gallahue and Ozmun . Inter-segment joint coordination data consisting of pairs of joint angle-time data were smoothed using B-splines and the resulting bivariate functions were analysed using functional principal component analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the knee-hip joint coordination pattern was most effective at discriminating between developmental stages. The results provide support for the application of functional data analysis techniques in the analysis of joint coordination or time series type data.

  19. Morphogen-based simulation model of ray growth and joint patterning during fin development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Paquette, Mathieu; Tweedle, Valerie; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée

    2012-03-01

    The fact that some organisms are able to regenerate organs of the correct shape and size following amputation is particularly fascinating, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) caudal fin has emerged as a model system for the study of bone development and regeneration. The fin comprises 16 to 18 bony rays, each containing multiple joints along its proximodistal axis that give rise to segments. Experimental observations on fin ray growth, regeneration and joint formation have been described, but no unified theory has yet been put forward to explain how growth and joint patterns are controlled. We present a model for the control of fin ray growth during development and regeneration, integrated with a model for joint pattern formation, which is in agreement with published, as well as new, experimental data. We propose that fin ray growth and joint patterning are coordinated through the interaction of three morphogens. When the model is extended to incorporate multiple rays across the fin, it also accounts for how the caudal fin acquires its shape during development, and regains its correct size and shape following amputation.

  20. Finite element modelling predicts changes in joint shape and cell behaviour due to loss of muscle strain in jaw development

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Lucy H.; Norton, Joanna L.; Bright, Jen A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Using zebrafish, in which we can image all joint musculoskeletal tissues at high resolution, we show that removal of muscle activity through anaesthetisation or genetic manipulation causes a change to the shape of the joint between the Meckel's cartilage and Palatoquadrate (the jaw joint), such that the joint develops asymmetrically leading to an overlap of the cartilage elements on the medial side which inhibits normal joint function. We identify the time during which muscle activity is critical to produce a normal joint. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), to model the strains exerted by muscle on the skeletal elements, we identify that minimum principal strains are located at the medial region of the joint and interzone during mouth opening. Then, by studying the cells immediately proximal to the joint, we demonstrate that biomechanical strain regulates cell orientation within the developing joint, such that when muscle-induced strain is removed, cells on the medial side of the joint notably change their orientation. Together, these data show that biomechanical forces are required to establish symmetry in the joint during development. PMID:26253758

  1. Development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Hutchins, E. L.; Barr, Ronald E.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model that represents human elbow flexion-extension and forearm pronation-supination. The length, velocity, and moment arm for each of the eight musculotendon actuators were based on skeletal anatomy and position. Musculotendon parameters were determined for each actuator and verified by comparing analytical torque-angle curves with experimental joint torque data. The parameters and skeletal geometry were also utilized in the musculoskeletal model for the analysis of ballistic elbow joint complex movements. The key objective was to develop a computational model, guided by parameterized optimal control, to investigate the relationship among patterns of muscle excitation, individual muscle forces, and movement kinematics. The model was verified using experimental kinematic, torque, and electromyographic data from volunteer subjects performing ballistic elbow joint complex movements.

  2. Early Interests and Joint Engagement in Typical Development, Autism, and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Deckner, Deborah F.; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by…

  3. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2014-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner), [Adamson, L. B., 2004], were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages…

  4. Design and technical support for development of a molded fabric space suit joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. Howard

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has under design a new joint or element for use in a space suit. The design concept involves molding a fabric to a geometry developed at Ames. Unusual characteristics of this design include the need to produce a fabric molding draw ratio on the order of thirty percent circumferentially on the surface. Previous work done at NASA on molded fabric joints has shown that standard, NASA qualified polyester fabrics as are currently available in the textile industry for use in suits have a maximum of about fifteen percent draw ratio. NASA has done the fundamental design for a prototype joint and of a mold which would impart the correct shape to the fabric support layer of the joint. NASA also has the capability to test a finished product for suitability and reliability. Responsibilities resting with Georgia Tech in the design effort for this project are textile related, namely fiber selection, fabric design to achieve the properties of the objective design, and determining production means and sources for the fabrics. The project goals are to produce a prototype joint using the NASA design for evaluation of effectiveness by NASA, and to establish the sources and specifications which would allow reliable and repeatable production of the joint.

  5. Development of Bonded Joint Technology for a Rigidizable-Inflatable Deployable Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2006-01-01

    Microwave and Synthetic Aperture Radar antenna systems have been developed as instrument systems using truss structures as their primary support and deployment mechanism for over a decade. NASA Langley Research Center has been investigating fabrication, modular assembly, and deployment methods of lightweight rigidizable/inflatable linear truss structures during that time for large spacecraft systems. The primary goal of the research at Langley Research Center is to advance these existing state-of-the-art joining and deployment concepts to achieve prototype system performance in a relevant space environment. During 2005, the development, fabrication, and testing of a 6.7 meter multi-bay, deployable linear truss was conducted at Langley Research Center to demonstrate functional and precision metrics of a rigidizable/inflatable truss structure. The present paper is intended to summarize aspects of bonded joint technology developed for the 6.7 meter deployable linear truss structure while providing a brief overview of the entire truss fabrication, assembly, and deployment methodology. A description of the basic joint design, surface preparation investigations, and experimental joint testing of component joint test articles will be described. Specifically, the performance of two room temperature adhesives were investigated to obtain qualitative data related to tube folding testing and quantitative data related to tensile shear strength testing. It was determined from the testing that a polyurethane-based adhesive best met the rigidizable/inflatable truss project requirements.

  6. Supporting the joint warfighter by development, training, and fielding of man-portable UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Kenneth A.; Stratton, Benjamin V.

    2005-05-01

    The Robotic Systems Pool (RSP), sponsored by the Joint Robotics Program (JRP), is an inventory of small robotic systems, payloads, and components intended to expedite the development and integration of technology into effective, supportable, fielded robotic assets. The RSP loans systems to multiple users including the military, first-responders, research organizations, and academia. These users provide feedback in their specific domain, accelerating research and development improvements of robotic systems, which in turn allow the joint warfighter to benefit from such changes more quickly than from traditional acquisition cycles. Over the past year, RSP assets have been used extensively for pre-deployment operator and field training of joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams, and for the training of Navy Reservist repair technicians. These Reservists are part of the Robotic Systems Combat Support Platoon (RSCSP), attached to Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. The RSCSP maintains and repairs RSP assets and provides deployable technical support for users of robotic systems. Currently, a small team from the RSCSP is deployed at Camp Victory repairing and maintaining man-portable unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) used by joint EOD teams in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The focus of this paper is to elaborate on the RSP and RSCSP and their role as invaluable resources for spiral development in the robotics community by gaining first-hand technical feedback from the warfighter and other users.

  7. Analysis of EDZ Development of Columnar Jointed Rock Mass in the Baihetan Diversion Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xian-Jie; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Due to the time dependency of the crack propagation, columnar jointed rock masses exhibit marked time-dependent behaviour. In this study, in situ measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), back-analysis method and numerical simulations are presented to study the time-dependent development of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around underground diversion tunnels in a columnar jointed rock mass. Through in situ measurements of crack propagation and EDZ development, their extent is seen to have increased over time, despite the fact that the advancing face has passed. Similar to creep behaviour, the time-dependent EDZ development curve also consists of three stages: a deceleration stage, a stabilization stage, and an acceleration stage. A corresponding constitutive model of columnar jointed rock mass considering time-dependent behaviour is proposed. The time-dependent degradation coefficient of the roughness coefficient and residual friction angle in the Barton-Bandis strength criterion are taken into account. An intelligent back-analysis method is adopted to obtain the unknown time-dependent degradation coefficients for the proposed constitutive model. The numerical modelling results are in good agreement with the measured EDZ. Not only that, the failure pattern simulated by this time-dependent constitutive model is consistent with that observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in situ observation, indicating that this model could accurately simulate the failure pattern and time-dependent EDZ development of columnar joints. Moreover, the effects of the support system provided and the in situ stress on the time-dependent coefficients are studied. Finally, the long-term stability analysis of diversion tunnels excavated in columnar jointed rock masses is performed.

  8. Early Interests and Joint Engagement in Typical Development, Autism, and Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deckner, Deborah F.; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by diagnosis and relatively stable across intermissions. In autism, interest in people tended to be low and to decline rapidly, and the balance of interests favored familiar objects over people. Lower interest in people and in unfamiliar objects was associated with less coordinated joint engagement and with less steep developmental trajectories for symbol-infused joint engagement. These findings suggest that variations in interests may contribute to differences in the child’s engagement during social interactions that facilitate the acquisition of language. PMID:20012678

  9. Development of High Temperature Dissimilar Joint Technology for Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is developing fission surface power (FSP) system technology as a potential option for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. The goal is to design a robust system that takes full advantage of existing materials data bases. One of the key components of the power conversion system is the hot-side Heat Exchanger (HX). One possible design for this heat exchanger requires a joint of the dissimilar metals 316L stainless steel and Inconel 718, which must sustain extended operation at high temperatures. This study compares two joining techniques, brazing and diffusion bonding, in the context of forming the requisite stainless steel to superalloy joint. The microstructures produced by brazing and diffusion bonding, the effect of brazing cycle on the mechanical tensile properties of the alloys, and the strength of several brazed joints will be discussed.

  10. Development of a persistent superconducting joint between Bi-2212/Ag-alloy multifilamentary round wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Trociewitz, Ulf P.; Davis, Daniel S.; Bosque, Ernesto S.; Hilton, David K.; Kim, Youngjae; Abraimov, Dmytro V.; Starch, William L.; Jiang, Jianyi; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting joints are one of the key components needed to make Ag-alloy clad Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) superconducting round wire (RW) successful for high-field, high-homogeneity magnet applications, especially for nuclear magnetic resonance magnets in which persistent current mode operation is highly desired. In this study, a procedure for fabricating superconducting joints between Bi-2212 RWs during coil reaction was developed. Melting temperatures of Bi-2212 powder with different amounts of Ag addition were investigated by differential thermal analysis so as to provide information for selecting the proper joint matrix. Test joints of 1.3 mm dia. wires heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen using the typical partial melt Bi-2212 heat treatment (HT) had transport critical currents I c of ˜900 A at 4.2 K and self-field, decreasing to ˜480 A at 14 T evaluated at 0.1 μV cm-1 at 4.2 K. Compared to the I c of the open-ended short conductor samples with identical 1 bar HT, the I c values of the superconducting joint are ˜20% smaller than that of conductor samples measured in parallel field but ˜20% larger than conductor samples measured in perpendicular field. Microstructures examined by scanning electron microscopy clearly showed the formation of a superconducting Bi-2212 interface between the two Bi-2212 RWs. Furthermore, a Bi-2212 RW closed-loop solenoid with a superconducting joint heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen showed an estimated joint resistance below 5 × 10-12 Ω based on its field decay rate. This value is sufficiently low to demonstrate the potential for persistent operation of large inductance Bi-2212 coils.

  11. Structural development of laminar flow control aircraft chordwise wing joint designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.; Jerstad, N. M.; Gallimore, F. H., Jr.; Pollard, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    For laminar flow to be achieved, any protuberances on the surface must be small enough to avoid transition to turbulent flow. However, the surface must have joints between the structural components to allow assembly or replacement of damaged parts, although large continuous surfaces can be utilized to minimize the number the number of joints. Aircraft structural joints usually have many countersunk bolts or rivets on the outer surface. To maintain no mismatch on outer surfaces, it is desirable to attach the components from the inner surface. It is also desirable for the panels to be interchangeable, without the need for shims at the joint, to avoid surface discontinuities that could cause turbulence. Fabricating components while pressing their outer surfaces against an accurate mold helps to ensure surface smoothness and continuity at joints. These items were considered in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the joint design concepts. After evaluating six design concepts, two of the leading candidates were fabricated and tested using many small test panels. One joint concept was also built and tested using large panels. The small and large test panel deflections for the leading candidate designs at load factors up to +1.5 g's were well within the step and waviness requirements for avoiding transition.The small panels were designed and tested for compression and tension at -65 F, at ambient conditions, and at 160 F. The small panel results for the three-rib and the sliding-joint concepts indicated that they were both acceptable. The three-rib concept, with tapered splice plates, was considered to be the most practical. A modified three-rib joint that combined the best attributes of previous candidates was designed, developed, and tested. This improved joint met all of the structural strength, surface smoothness, and waviness criteria for laminar flow control (LFC). The design eliminated all disadvantages of the initial three-rib concept except for

  12. Research Review: Social motivation and oxytocin in autism – implications for joint attention development and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Scope The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Methods Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms “oxytocin”, and “autism”; the same databases were used for separate searches for “joint attention”, “intervention”, and “autism”, using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Findings Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. Conclusions The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile

  13. First Phase Development of Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator and Its Current Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    The first phase of the Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator (KJJVC) development has been completed and installed to correlate the observed data from KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) in October 2009. KJJVC is able to process 16 stations, a maximum of 8 Gbps/station, and 8,192 output channels for VLBI data. The system configuration, the experimental results, and future plans are introduced in this paper.

  14. Development of an Arthroscopic Joint Capsule Injury Model in the Canine Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David; Baker, Andrew R.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Kim, Myung-Sun; Ricchetti, Eric T.; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The natural history of rotator cuff tears can be unfavorable as patients develop fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy that is often associated with a loss of muscle strength and shoulder function. To facilitate study of possible biologic mechanisms involved in early degenerative changes to rotator cuff muscle and tendon tissues, the objective of this study was to develop a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder using arthroscopy. Methods Arthroscopic surgical methods for performing a posterior joint capsulectomy in the canine shoulder were first defined in cadavers. Subsequently, one canine subject underwent bilateral shoulder joint capsulectomy using arthroscopy, arthroscopic surveillance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and gross and histologic examination of the joint at 10 weeks. Results The canine subject was weight-bearing within eight hours after index and follow-up surgeries and had no significant soft tissue swelling of the shoulder girdle or gross lameness. Chronic synovitis and macroscopic and microscopic evidence of pathologic changes to the rotator cuff bony insertions, tendons, myotendinous junctions and muscles were observed. Conclusions This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept for a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder. Future work is needed to define the observed pathologic changes and their role in the progression of rotator cuff disease. Ultimately, better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of early progression of rotator cuff disease may lead to clinical interventions to halt or slow this process and avoid the more advanced and often irreversible conditions of large tendon tears with muscle fatty atrophy. PMID:26808837

  15. Expression of tenascin in joint-associated tissues during development and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Mackie, E J; Ramsey, S

    1996-02-01

    The extracellular matrix protein, tenascin, is selectively expressed in a variety of connective tissues during development. In this study, the distribution of tenascin in tissues contributing to the knee joint during embryonic development and postnatal growth in the rat has been investigated by immunohistochemistry. In recently formed embryonic knee joints, tenascin expression was abundant in the territorial matrix of superficial articular cartilage. Site of attachment of cruciate and patellar ligaments to cartilage were strongly stained; staining of ligaments weakened with distance from the attachment site. In rapidly growing 4-wk-old rats, tenascin was present in a fine line on the surface of articular cartilage, but at 10 wk of age tenascin staining was absent from most of the articular surface. In postnatal rats, there was strong tenascin staining of the synovial lining, but not of subintimal tissue. Cruciate ligaments were histologically fibrocartilaginous in 4 and 10-wk-old rats; within these ligaments strong pericellular tenascin staining was seen in association with rounded chondrocyte-like cells. Tenascin was absent from the cartilaginous growth plates of 4 and 10-wk-old rats, but intense tenascin staining was seen at the junction between epiphyseal bone and growth plate. Within the metaphysis, tenascin staining on bone surfaces increased with distance from the hypertrophic chondrocytes. Osteocytes within epiphyseal trabecular bone were strongly stained for tenascin, whereas those in the metaphysis were mostly unstained. The results presented here demonstrate that tenascin expression in joint-associated tissues changes markedly with cell type and stage of differentiation.

  16. The influence of elbow joint angle on different phases of force development during maximal voluntary contraction.

    PubMed

    Jaskólski, A; Kisiel, K; Adach, Z; Jaskólska, A

    2000-12-01

    The first aim of the study was to find an elbow joint angle at which muscle can produce maximum voluntary force (Lo(MVC)) and to compare that angle with an angle at which the fastest rates of force development occur (Lo). The second aim of the study was to find if changes in MVC and force development speed at an angle smaller (Ls) and larger (Ll) than the optimal angle depend on whether Ls and Ll were compared to Lo or Ls and Ll to Lo(MVC). Twenty-four male physical education students were tested four times using the BIODYNA dynamometer to measure torque versus time at an optimal length, as well as at lengths that were shorter (Ls = optimal -30 degrees) and longer (Ll = optimal +50 degrees). The average values of optimal angles for force development indices (Lo) were similar to the angle at which maximum force was produced (Lo(MVC)); however, there was a small (5-10 degrees) difference between Lo and Lo(MVC) in the majority of subjects. The results showed that during elbow flexion with the forearm in the midrange position, the difference between Lo and Lo(MVC) was small and did not affect MVC; however, it had a significant effect on the relation between joint angle and force development speed.

  17. Early Predictors of Communication Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Joint Attention, Imitation, and Toy Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Karen; Munson, Jeffrey; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the unique contributions of joint attention, imitation, and toy play to language ability and rate of development of communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty preschool-aged children with ASD were assessed using measures of joint attention, imitation, toy play, language, and…

  18. Structural tests and development of a laminar flow control wing surface composite chordwise joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program beginning in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplished under NAS1-16235 Laminar-Flow-Control (LFC) Wing Panel Structural Design and Development (WSSD); design, manufacturing, and testing activities. An in-depth preliminary design of the baseline 1993 LFC wing was accomplished. A surface panel using the Lockheed graphite/epoxy integrated LFC wing box structural concept was designed. The concept was shown by analysis to be structurally efficient and cost effective. Critical details of the surface and surface joint was demonstrated by fabricating and testing complex, concept selection specimens. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments, Development of LFC Wind Surface Composite Structures (WSCS), are documented. Tests were conducted on two CV2 panels to verify the static tension and fatigue strength of LFC wing surface chordwise joints.

  19. Hif-1α regulates differentiation of limb bud mesenchyme and joint development

    PubMed Central

    Provot, Sylvain; Zinyk, Dawn; Gunes, Yasemin; Kathri, Richa; Le, Quynh; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Johnson, Randall S.; Longaker, Michael T.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Schipani, Ernestina

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low oxygen tension (hypoxia) may control fetal development and differentiation. A crucial mediator of the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia is the transcription factor Hif-1α. In this study, we provide evidence that mesenchymal condensations that give origin to endochondral bones are hypoxic during fetal development, and we demonstrate that Hif-1α is expressed and transcriptionally active in limb bud mesenchyme and in mesenchymal condensations. To investigate the role of Hif-1α in mesenchymal condensations and in early chondrogenesis, we conditionally inactivated Hif-1α in limb bud mesenchyme using a Prx1 promoter-driven Cre transgenic mouse. Conditional knockout of Hif-1α in limb bud mesenchyme does not impair mesenchyme condensation, but alters the formation of the cartilaginous primordia. Late hypertrophic differentiation is also affected as a result of the delay in early chondrogenesis. In addition, mutant mice show a striking impairment of joint development. Our study demonstrates a crucial, and previously unrecognized, role of Hif-1α in early chondrogenesis and joint formation. PMID:17470636

  20. Joint Commission on International Accreditation workshop: Planning, development and provision of laboratory services.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Inci

    2009-03-01

    Throughout the world, the oversight of health care quality is accomplished through professionally based accrediting bodies and state regulatory agencies. These organizations set standards or define regulations that address important organizational functions. The Joint Commission, a private sector United States-based non-profit organization, is the forerunner and best known among healthcare accreditation groups. One of the functions assessed by the standards of the JCI Clinical Laboratory Accreditation Program is the planning, development and provision of laboratory services. The standards related to this issue address the necessary processes that should be in place prior to performing patient testing.

  1. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  2. Frequency of occurrence, mode of development, and significance or rice bodies in rheumatoid joints.

    PubMed Central

    Popert, A J; Scott, D L; Wainwright, A C; Walton, K W; Williamson, N; Chapman, J H

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of rice bodies (RB) in synovial effusions has been studied in 36 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 12 patients with seronegative inflammatory arthritis (7 cases of Still's disease, 3 of psoriatic arthritis, and 2 of ankylosing spondylitis). In the RA group 50 joints were aspirated before and after saline lavage with a specially designed wide-bore needle. RB were found in 72% overall of the joints studied in this group, 14% on initial simple aspiration and an additional 58% after lavage. In contrast no rice bodies were found in 31 aspirations with lavage by an identical technique in the 12 patients with seronegative synovitis. The RB in RA synovitis occurred both early and late in the course of the disease and were not related to the severity of clinical or radiological changes. However, removal of rice bodies was accompanied by clinical improvement and reduction of synovitis. Macroscopically RB varied in shape and size, some being so large as to preclude effective removal by needles of the gauge customarily employed for joint aspirations. Microscopically the majority of RB were composed of coarsely reticular material reacting immunologically with antifibrinogen and antifibronectin and containing mononuclear cells. Some showed vacuolation suggestive of fibrinolysis, but many showed organisation like that seen in established connective tissues, with the formation of mature collagen, reticulin, and elastin. These findings are discussed in relation to the origin, development, and significance of rice bodies in rheumatoid synovitis. Images PMID:6176192

  3. On the development, morphology and function of the temporomandibular joint in the light of the orofacial system.

    PubMed

    Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint has a key role in the biocybernetic functional cycle of the orofacial system. It has developed as a "secondary joint" and displays a number of features relating to the articular tubercle, the mandibular condyle, the articular disc, the joint cartilage and the retroarticular pad. The joint cartilage of the mandibular condyle is a primary compensatory growth centre also comprising distant effects. The coordinate course of the mandibular movements is controlled by a complex reflex mechanism and neuronal controller cycles. Morphology, function and clinical aspects are of equal interest to both physicians and dentists.

  4. Development and validation of a 3-D model to predict knee joint loading during dynamic movement.

    PubMed

    McLean, S G; Su, A; van den Bogert, A J

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subject-specific 3-D model of the lower extremity to predict neuromuscular control effects on 3-D knee joint loading during movements that can potentially cause injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. The simulation consisted of a forward dynamic 3-D musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity, scaled to represent a specific subject. Inputs of the model were the initial position and velocity of the skeletal elements, and the muscle stimulation patterns. Outputs of the model were movement and ground reaction forces, as well as resultant 3-D forces and moments acting across the knee joint. An optimization method was established to find muscle stimulation patterns that best reproduced the subject's movement and ground reaction forces during a sidestepping task. The optimized model produced movements and forces that were generally within one standard deviation of the measured subject data. Resultant knee joint loading variables extracted from the optimized model were comparable to those reported in the literature. The ability of the model to successfully predict the subject's response to altered initial conditions was quantified and found acceptable for use of the model to investigate the effect of altered neuromuscular control on knee joint loading during sidestepping. Monte Carlo simulations (N = 100,000) using randomly perturbed initial kinematic conditions, based on the subject's variability, resulted in peak anterior force, valgus torque and internal torque values of 378 N, 94 Nm and 71 Nm, respectively, large enough to cause ACL rupture. We conclude that the procedures described in this paper were successful in creating valid simulations of normal movement, and in simulating injuries that are caused by perturbed neuromuscular control.

  5. Developing and piloting a multifactorial intervention to address participation and quality of life in nursing home residents with joint contractures (JointConImprove): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Bartoszek, Gabriele; Beutner, Katrin; Klingshirn, Hanna; Saal, Susanne; Stephan, Anna-Janina; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint contractures are common problems in frail older people in nursing homes. Irrespective of the exact extent of older individuals in geriatric care settings living with joint contractures, they appear to be a relevant problem. Also, the new emphasis on the syndrome of joint contractures, e. g. by the German statutory long term care insurance, led to an increase in assessment and documentation efforts and preventive interventions in clinical care. However, more attention should be paid to the actual situation of older individuals in nursing homes with prevalent joint contractures, particularly their experience of related activity limitations and participation restrictions. Thus, the aim of this study is 1) to develop a tailored intervention to improve functioning, and especially participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes and 2) to test the feasibility of the intervention accompanied by a rigorous process evaluation. Methods: The complex intervention, which will be developed in this project follows the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework and integrates the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development process will comprise a systematic literature review, reanalysis of existing data and the integration of the knowledge of the affected individuals and experts. The developed intervention including a comprehensive process evaluation will be pilot tested with residents with joint contractures in three nursing homes. Discussion: The projected study will provide a tailored intervention to improve functioning, participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes. With this focus, the intervention will support patient relevant outcomes. The pilot study including process evaluation will offer a first opportunity to indicate the size of the intervention’s effect and prepare

  6. Foundation-industry relationships--a new business model joint-venture philanthropy in therapy development.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    The business model for medical therapy development has changed drastically. Large companies that once conducted their own Research and Development (R&D) and funded all the preclinical studies, all phases of clinical development and marketing of the products are increasingly turning to others for more and more of the earlier work in hopes of being able to in-license a de-risked program well downstream, take it through the final phases of clinical development and into the marketplace. This new paradigm has required patient-advocacy foundations, especially in the rare-disease space, to become far more effective in building relationships with all the players along the therapy-development pathway -- academic scientists, government agencies, other foundations with overlapping interests, biotechs, small biopharmaceutical entities and even the larger industry companies. From the perspective of the patient-advocacy community, these increasingly essential public-private partnerships have taken on the nature of what could be called joint-venture philanthropy and involve a broad spectrum of collaborations and financial relationships between foundations and industry partners that are not without concerns about potential conflicts of interest.

  7. Mouse limb skeletal growth and synovial joint development are coordinately enhanced by Kartogenin.

    PubMed

    Decker, Rebekah S; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Maye, Peter; Rowe, David; Zhu, Shoutian; Schultz, Peter G; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-11-15

    Limb development requires the coordinated growth of several tissues and structures including long bones, joints and tendons, but the underlying mechanisms are not wholly clear. Recently, we identified a small drug-like molecule - we named Kartogenin (KGN) - that greatly stimulates chondrogenesis in marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhances cartilage repair in mouse osteoarthritis (OA) models. To determine whether limb developmental processes are regulated by KGN, we tested its activity on committed preskeletal mesenchymal cells from mouse embryo limb buds and whole limb explants. KGN did stimulate cartilage nodule formation and more strikingly, boosted digit cartilaginous anlaga elongation, synovial joint formation and interzone compaction, tendon maturation as monitored by ScxGFP, and interdigit invagination. To identify mechanisms, we carried out gene expression analyses and found that several genes, including those encoding key signaling proteins, were up-regulated by KGN. Amongst highly up-regulated genes were those encoding hedgehog and TGFβ superfamily members, particularly TFGβ1. The former response was verified by increases in Gli1-LacZ activity and Gli1 mRNA expression. Exogenous TGFβ1 stimulated cartilage nodule formation to levels similar to KGN, and KGN and TGFβ1 both greatly enhanced expression of lubricin/Prg4 in articular superficial zone cells. KGN also strongly increased the cellular levels of phospho-Smads that mediate canonical TGFβ and BMP signaling. Thus, limb development is potently and harmoniously stimulated by KGN. The growth effects of KGN appear to result from its ability to boost several key signaling pathways and in particular TGFβ signaling, working in addition to and/or in concert with the filamin A/CBFβ/RUNX1 pathway we identified previously to orchestrate overall limb development. KGN may thus represent a very powerful tool not only for OA therapy, but also limb regeneration and tissue repair strategies.

  8. Spontaneously developed osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint in STR/ort mice.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Satsuki; Kanri, Yoriaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Fujii, Keisuke; Wake, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Hamada, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis is typically a slowly progressive asymmetric disease. Little is known regarding the natural destruction of TMJ articular tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological changes in the TMJ of STR/ort mice, known to be the model for spontaneous osteoarthritis in the knee joint, and to evaluate STR/ort mice as a suitable animal model for TMJ osteoarthritis. TMJs from 32 STR/ort mice euthanized at 30, 40, 50 or 60 weeks of age, and from 6 CBA mice euthanized at 30, 40 or 60 weeks of age were examined. Toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were used to assess histological changes in the articular cartilage. Morphological changes in the articular cartilage of the TMJ were evaluated using microcomputed tomography. At the age of 40-50 weeks, 17 (68%) of the 25 STR/ort mice had loss of articular cartilage on histology, with cavitation and erosion of the exposed bone and gradual changes in condylar shape. Furthermore, osteoarthritic morphological changes, and structural alterations were observed by microcomputed tomography. The STR/ort mouse strain appears to develop spontaneous osteoarthritis-like lesions in the TMJ with age, and would be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of TMJ osteoarthritis.

  9. Spontaneously developed osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint in STR/ort mice

    PubMed Central

    KUMAGAI, KENICHI; SUZUKI, SATSUKI; KANRI, YORIAKI; MATSUBARA, RYOTA; FUJII, KEISUKE; WAKE, MASAHIRO; SUZUKI, RYUJI; HAMADA, YOSHIKI

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis is typically a slowly progressive asymmetric disease. Little is known regarding the natural destruction of TMJ articular tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological changes in the TMJ of STR/ort mice, known to be the model for spontaneous osteoarthritis in the knee joint, and to evaluate STR/ort mice as a suitable animal model for TMJ osteoarthritis. TMJs from 32 STR/ort mice euthanized at 30, 40, 50 or 60 weeks of age, and from 6 CBA mice euthanized at 30, 40 or 60 weeks of age were examined. Toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were used to assess histological changes in the articular cartilage. Morphological changes in the articular cartilage of the TMJ were evaluated using microcomputed tomography. At the age of 40–50 weeks, 17 (68%) of the 25 STR/ort mice had loss of articular cartilage on histology, with cavitation and erosion of the exposed bone and gradual changes in condylar shape. Furthermore, osteoarthritic morphological changes, and structural alterations were observed by microcomputed tomography. The STR/ort mouse strain appears to develop spontaneous osteoarthritis-like lesions in the TMJ with age, and would be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of TMJ osteoarthritis. PMID:26171147

  10. Ukrainian Virtual Observatory: Current Status and Perspectives of Development of Joint Archives of Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, I. B.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Virun, N. V.; Kashuba, S. G.; Pikhun, A. I.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Mazhaev, A. E.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Shlyapnikov, A. A.; Shulga, A. V.; Zolotukhina, A. V.; Sergeeva, T. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. P.; Andronov, I. L.; Breus, V. V; Virnina, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The current state of the observational data archives of seven observatories of Ukraine which were created from 1898 to 2010 is considered in respect to their suitability for including into the Ukrainian Virtual Observatory (UkrVO) database. In accordance with a current UkrVO conception approved by the Ukrainian Astronomical Association, the database of astro negatives is the main scientific component of the UkrVO. The database will include all the photo plates accumulated in Ukraine and combine them into the Joint Digitized Archive (JDA). This will provide for a user an easy access to textual data and images using web interface and a corresponding search engine. The data archives obtained from CCD and radio observations in Ukraine are also discussed as scientific components of the UkrVO. Some prospects of the JDA development are formulated.

  11. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent–child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children’s oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale–4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children’s oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL. PMID:25309136

  12. A joint clinical research center in Thailand: role in HIV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Patricia A; Chinaworapong, Suchada; Excler, Jean-Louis; Wongkamheng, Siriluck; Triampon, Attapon; Buapunth, Puangmalee; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Michael, Rodney A; Singharaj, Pricha; Brown, Arthur E

    2003-03-01

    In 1992 the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand, collaborated with the Phramongkutklao Army Medical Center to set up the Joint Clinical Research Center (JCRC). The purpose of the Center is to conduct clinical research in support of HIV vaccine development and testing. To date, eight HIV vaccine-related research protocols have been conducted at the JCRC, involving 1,668 volunteers. The JCRC has been, and continues to be, a key site for the transfer of clinical trial expertise to new sites at universities, government clinics and hospitals in Thailand and other countries. Overall rates of follow-up have been excellent, while protocol violations and data clarification errors have been minimal.

  13. Development of a rotary joint fluid coupling for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costulis, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The design and development is described of a rotary joint fluid coupling for Space Station Freedom. The function of this fluid coupling is to transfer a heat rejection fluid between stationary and rotating interfaces with the Space Station thermal bus system. The design of this coupling incorporates a modular type design to allow maximum flexibility, two types of seals (mechanical face seals and shaft lip seals) for redundancy, materials with excellent ammonia compatibility, and coatings that enhance seal wear resistance and increased protection against corrosion. This design was thoroughly tested and met all design requirements. Potential applications of this hardware include uses in gun turrets, coal slurries, farming equipment, and any other applications that require the low leakage transfer of fluids between stationary and rotating interfaces.

  14. Development of a truss joint for robotic assembly of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed study of mechanical fasteners which were designed to facilitate robotic assembly of structures. Design requirements for robotic structural assembly were developed, taking into account structural properties and overall system design, and four candidate fasteners were designed to meet them. These fasteners were built and evaluated in the laboratory, and the Hammer-Head joint was chosen as superior overall. It had a high reliability of fastening under misalignments of 2.54 mm (0.1 in) and 3 deg, the highest end fixity (2.18), the simplest end effector, an integral capture guide, good visual verification, and the lightest weight (782 g, 1.72 lb). The study found that a good design should incorporate chamfers sliding on chamfers, cylinders sliding on chamfers, and hard surface finishes on sliding surfaces. The study also comments on robot flexibility, sag, hysteresis, thermal expansion, and friction which were observed during the testing.

  15. Development of 1-DOF manipulator with variable rheological joint for instantaneous force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majima, T.; Nagai, S.; Tomori, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-02-01

    Highly rigid actuators such as a geared motor or hydraulic actuator are widely used in industrial robots. To obtain high-speed motion, actuators need to increase the actuator output. However, to increase high-rigidity actuators output, it is necessary to make actuators larger. In contrast, humans perform motions with instantaneous force such as jumping or throwing by using muscles. These instantaneous forces are realized by accumulating potential energy to the muscles and the muscles releasing the energy in a short time. Therefore, in this study a 1-DOF manipulator with variable rheological joint for instantaneous force using an artificial muscle and a magnetorheological (MR) brake was developed. In this paper, the method of generating instantaneous force for this manipulator was proposed. Further, the experiment of the proposed method was also conducted. As a result, generating instantaneous force by proposed method was realized.

  16. Early predictors of communication development in young children with autism spectrum disorder: joint attention, imitation, and toy play.

    PubMed

    Toth, Karen; Munson, Jeffrey; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-11-01

    This study investigated the unique contributions of joint attention, imitation, and toy play to language ability and rate of development of communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty preschool-aged children with ASD were assessed using measures of joint attention, imitation, toy play, language, and communication ability. Two skills, initiating protodeclarative joint attention and immediate imitation, were most strongly associated with language ability at age 3-4 years, whereas toy play and deferred imitation were the best predictors of rate of communication development from age 4 to 6.5 years. The implications of these results for understanding the nature and course of language development in autism and for the development of targeted early interventions are discussed.

  17. Development and application of biomimetic electrospun nanofibers in total joint replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei

    Failure of osseointegration (direct anchorage of an implant by bone formation at the bone-implant surface) and implant infection (such as that caused by Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus) are the two main causes of implant failure and loosening. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. A better understanding of the key factors that influence cell fate decisions at the bone-implant interface is required. Our study is to develop a class of "bone-like" nanofibers (NFs) that promote osseointegration while preventing bacterial colonization and subsequent infections. This research goal is supported by our preliminary data on the preparation of coaxial electrospun NFs composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers arranged in a core-sheath shape. The PCL/PVA NFs are biocompatible and biodegradable with appropriate fiber diameter, pore size and mechanical strength, leading to enhanced cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells. The objective is to develop functionalized "bone-like" PCL/PVA NFs matrix embedded with antibiotics (doxycycline (Doxy), bactericidal and anti-osteoclastic) on prosthesis surface. Through a rat tibia implantation model, the Doxy incorporated coaxial NFs has demonstrated excellent in promoting osseointegration and bacteria inhibitory efficacy. NFs coatings significantly enhanced the bonding between implant and bone remodeling within 8 weeks. The SA-induced osteomyelitis was prevented by the sustained release of Doxy from NFs. The capability of embedding numerous bio-components including proteins, growth factors, drugs, etc. enables NFs an effective solution to overcome the current challenged issue in Total joint replacement. In summary, we proposed PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers as promising biomaterials that can be applied on

  18. Joint development normal to regional compression during flexural-flow folding: the Lilstock buttress anticline, Somerset, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelder, Terry; Peacock, David C. P.

    2001-02-01

    Alpine inversion in the Bristol Channel Basin includes reverse-reactivated normal faults with hanging wall buttress anticlines. At Lilstock Beach, joint sets in Lower Jurassic limestone beds cluster about the trend of the hinge of the Lilstock buttress anticline. In horizontal and gently north-dipping beds, J3 joints ( 295-285° strike) are rare, while other joint sets indicate an anticlockwise sequence of development. In the steeper south-dipping beds, J3 joints are the most frequent in the vicinity of the reverse-reactivated normal fault responsible for the anticline. The J3 joints strike parallel to the fold hinge, and their poles tilt to the south when bedding is restored to horizontal. This southward tilt aims at the direction of σ 1 for Alpine inversion. Finite-element analysis is used to explain the southward tilt of J3 joints that propagate under a local σ 3 in the direction of σ 1 for Alpine inversion. Tilted principal stresses are characteristic of limestone-shale sequences that are sheared during parallel (flexural-flow) folding. Shear tractions on the dipping beds generate a tensile stress in the stiffer limestone beds even when remote principal stresses are compressive. This situation favors the paradoxical opening of joints in the direction of the regional maximum horizontal stress. We conclude that J3 joints propagated during the Alpine compression caused the growth of the Lilstock buttress anticline.

  19. Normal radiological unossified hip joint space and femoral head size development during growth in 675 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Veronika; Jorysz, Gabriele; Arnoldi, Andreas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Heimkes, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of hip joint space width during child growth is important to aid in the early diagnosis of hip pathology in children. We established reference values for hip joint space and femoral head size for each age. Hip joint space development during growth was retrospectively investigated medial and cranial in 1350 hip joints of children using standard anteroposterior supine plain pelvic radiographs. Maximum capital femoral epiphysis diameter and femoral radii were further more investigated. Hip joint space values show a slow decline during growth. Joint space was statistically significantly (p < 0.006) larger in boys than girls. Our hip joint space measurements on supine subjects seem slightly larger than those reported by Hughes on standing subjects. Evaluation of the femoral head diameter and the radii showed a size curve quite parallel to the known body growth charts. Radii medial and perpendicular to the physis are not statistically significantly different. We recommend to compare measurements of hip joint space at two locations to age dependent charts using the same imaging technique. During growth, a divergence in femoral head size from the expected values or loss of the spherical shape should raise the question of hip disorder. Clin. Anat. 30:267-275, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Joint Fire Support in 2020: Development of a Future Joint Fires Systems Architecture for Immediate, Unplanned Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    assessments of existing and planned command and control systems and organizations, a Centralized Joint Fire Support Network that incorporates and...simulation, and qualitative assessments of existing and planned command and control systems and organizations, a Centralized Joint Fire Support...Carrier Battle Group CWC Composite Warfare Commander DAFS Dynamic Allocation of Fires and Sensors DASC Direct Air Support Center DD Spruance

  1. Baseline sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and male sex predict the development of radiographic sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Akar, Servet; Isik, Sibel; Birlik, Bilge; Solmaz, Dilek; Sari, Ismail; Onen, Fatos; Akkoc, Nurullah

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the baseline sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the development of radiographic sacroiliitis and tested their prognostic significance in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. Patients who had undergone an SIJ MRI at the rheumatology department were identified. Individuals for whom pelvic X-rays were available after at least 1 year of MRI were included in the analysis. All radiographs and MRI examinations were scored by two independent readers. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain potentially relevant demographic and clinical data. We identified 1,069 SIJ MRIs, and 328 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Reliability analysis revealed moderate to good inter- and intra-observer agreement. On presentation data, 14 cases were excluded because they had unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis at baseline. After a mean of 34.8 months of follow-up, 24 patients developed radiographic sacroiliitis. The presence of active sacroiliitis (odds ratio (OR) 15.1) and structural lesions on MRI (OR 8.3), male sex (OR 4.7), fulfillment of Calin's inflammatory back pain criteria (P = 0.001), and total MRI activity score (P < 0.001) were found to be related to the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. By regression modeling, the presence of both active inflammatory and structural damage lesions on MRI and male sex were found to be predictive factors for the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. Our present results suggest that the occurrence of both active inflammatory and structural lesions in SIJs revealed by MRI is a significant risk factor for radiographic sacroiliitis, especially in male patients with early inflammatory back pain.

  2. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    SciTech Connect

    West, S.L.; Nelson, D.Z.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed.

  3. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities...Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities Why GAO Did This Study With estimated acquisition costs of nearly $400 billion, the F...future aircraft. Both courses of action have oversight implications. DOD has begun planning and funding significant new development work to add to the F

  4. Studies on the role of Cux1 in regulation of the onset of joint formation in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Gail; Lichtler, Alexander; Upholt, William B; Kosher, Robert A

    2002-03-01

    Joint formation, the onset of which is characterized by the segmentation of continuous skeletal rudiments into two or more separate elements, is a fundamental aspect of limb pattern formation, playing a critical role in determining the size, shape, and number of individual skeletal elements. Joint formation is initiated by conversion of differentiated chondrocytes at sites of presumptive joints into densely packed nonchondrogenic cells of the joint interzone. This conversion is accompanied by loss of Alcian blue-staining cartilage matrix and downregulation of cartilage-specific gene expression. Here, we report that Cux1, which encodes a transcription factor containing a homeodomain and other DNA-binding motifs, is highly expressed at all of the discrete sites of incipient joint formation in the developing limb concomitant with conversion of differentiated chondrocytes into interzone tissue. Moreover, differentiated limb chondrocytes in micromass cultures infected with a Cux1 retroviral expression vector are converted into nonchondrogenic cells which exhibit loss of Alcian blue cartilage matrix and downregulation of cartilage-specific gene expression as occurs at the onset of normal joint formation. These results suggest that Cux1 is involved in regulating the onset of joint formation by facilitating conversion of chondrocytes into nonchondrogenic cells of the interzone.

  5. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  6. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1f/f and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-cateninf/f mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. PMID:21185280

  7. JOINT-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP TO DEVELOP A HOLLOW SPHERE DUAL-GRADIENT DRILLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; Colin Ruan; Greg Deskins

    2003-05-01

    Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI) formed a joint-industry partnership to fund the development of a hollow sphere dual-gradient drilling (DGD) system. Phase I consisted of collecting, compiling, analyzing, and distributing information and data regarding a new DGD system for use by the oil and gas industry. Near the end of Phase I, DOE provided funding to the project that was used to conduct a series of critical follow-on tests investigating sphere separation in weighted waterbase and oilbase muds. Drilling costs in deep water are high because seawater pressure on the ocean floor creates a situation where many strings of casing are required due to the relatively close spacing between fracture and pore pressure curves. Approximately $100 million have been spent during the past five years on DGD systems that place pumps on the seafloor to reduce these drilling problems by reducing the annulus fluid pressure at the bottom of the riser. BP estimates that a DGD system can save $9 million per well in the Thunderhorse Field and Conoco estimates it can save $5 to $15 million per well in its deepwater operations. Unfortunately, previous DGD development projects have been unsuccessful due to the high costs ($20 to $50 million) and reliability problems with seafloor pump systems. MTI has been developing a simple DGD system concept that would pump hollow glass spheres into the bottom of the riser to reduce density of the mud in the riser. This eliminates the requirement for seafloor pumps and replaces them with low cost mud pumps, shale shakers, and other oilfield equipment that can be operated on the rig by conventional crews. A $1.8 million Phase I joint-industry project funded by five service companies and three operators showed that hollow spheres could be pumped well, but difficulties were encountered in separating the spheres from a polymer mud supplied by Halliburton due to the high viscosity of this mud at the low shear rates encountered on oilfield shale shaker screens. As a

  8. Gravity model development for TOPEX/POSEIDON: Joint gravity models 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Marshall, J. A.; Pavlis, E. C.; Putney, B. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) prelaunch Joint Gravity Model-1 (JGM-1) and the postlaunch JGM-2 Earth gravitational models have been developed to support precision orbit determination for T/P. Each of these models is complete to degree 70 in spherical harmonics and was computed from a combination of satellite tracking data, satellite altimetry, and surface gravimetry. While improved orbit determination accuracies for T/P have driven the improvements in the models, the models are general in application and also provide an improved geoid for oceanographic computations. The postlaunch model, JGM-2, which includes T/P satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking data, introduces radial orbit errors for T/P that are only 2 cm RMS with the commission errors of the marine geoid for terms to degree 70 being +/- 25 cm. Errors in modeling the nonconservative forces acting on T/P increase the total radial errors to only 3-4 cm root mean square (RMS), a result much better than premission goals. While the orbit accuracy goal for T/P has been far surpassed geoid errors still prevent the absolute determination of the ocean dynamic topography for wavelengths shorter than about 2500 km. Only a dedicated gravitational field satellite mission will likely provide the necessary improvement in the geoid.

  9. Development of temper-bead technique applied to dissimilar welded joints of nuclear pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Makoto; Umemoto, Tadahiro; Matsusita, Akitake; Shiraiwa, Takanori

    1996-06-01

    When nuclear pressure vessels made of low-alloy steel (P-3 Group 3) need repair or modification, technical standards for welding of electrical structures should be applied, and then postweld heat treatment (PWHT) should be done. However, cases in which PWHT is impractical are theoretically possible due to a variety of restrictions. To deal with such a problem, there is a regulation for repair weld technique, without PWHT, in accordance with ASME B and PV Code. This method is called temper-bead technique, which gives the weldments sufficient toughness by tempering the hardened zone of the heat-affected zone on the first layer of the base metal using the heat of the following weld beads. Because there is no regulation in Japan covering this method, a procedure is required to perform it under a special license, after a verification test has been passed. An attempt has been made to develop a method, on the supposition that the temper-bead technique is adopted for replacement of what is called dissimilar welded joints, so that a nickel base alloy is buildup welded at the tip of the nozzle of the low-alloy steel pressure vessel, and a stainless steel pipe is butt welded.

  10. National GHG inventories: Recent developments under the IPCC/OECD Joint Programme.

    PubMed

    Morlot, J C; Schwengels, P; Lurding, S

    1994-05-01

    This paper summarises key results of the Joint IPCC/OECD Programme, in particular the draft IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories to be released in January 1994. The focus is on how these results are likely to improve the availability and the quality of national inventories of anthropogenic GHG emission sources and removals by sinks. The IPCC/OECD has already received nearly 50 inventories from 35 countries. Most of the data are for 1988, but some reports cover 1989 and 1990. In addition to CO2, many of these inventories include CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, and NMVOC. Detailed analyses of these inventories have provided valuable insights about the strengths and weaknesses of the national inventories, differences in approach to estimation, reporting, available methods and data. These results in turn, have facilitated the development of the draft Guidelines, most notably the proposed reporting system, and also on estimation methods for the different anthropogenic sources and sinks of GHG. The paper previews key aspects of the draft Guidelines for non-CO2 GHG. Experts are urged to actively participate in the IPCC/OECD Programme to continue to improve inventory methods and overall the Guidelines.

  11. Skeletal development of hallucal tarsometatarsal joint curvature and angulation in extant apes and modern humans.

    PubMed

    Gill, Corey M; Bredella, Miriam A; DeSilva, Jeremy M

    2015-11-01

    The medial cuneiform, namely the curvature and angulation of its distal facet with metatarsal 1, is crucial as a stabilizer in bipedal locomotion and an axis upon which the great toe medially deviates during arboreal locomotion in extant apes. Previous work has shown that facet curvature and angulation in adult dry-bone specimens can distinguish African apes from Homo, and can even distinguish among species of Gorilla. This study provides the first ontogenetic assessment of medial cuneiform curvature and angulation in juvenile (n = 68) and adult specimens (n = 102) using computed tomography in humans and extant ape specimens, including Pongo. Our data find that modern human juveniles initially have a convex and slightly medially oriented osseous surface of the developing medial cuneiform distal facet that flattens and becomes more distally oriented with age. The same pattern (though of a different magnitude) occurs developmentally in the chimpanzee medial cuneiform, but not in Gorilla or Pongo, whose medial cuneiform facet angulation remains unchanged ontogenetically. These data suggest that the medial cuneiform ossifies in a distinguishable pattern between Pongo, Gorilla, Pan, and Homo, which may in part be due to subtle differences in the loading environment at the hallucal tarsometatarsal joint-a finding that has important implications for interpreting fossil medial cuneiforms.

  12. [Development of the ceramic sandwich cup used for the hip joint prosthesis.].

    PubMed

    Konvicková, S; Cech, O

    1995-01-01

    The abrasion of the polyethylene seems to be the most important factor participating on the endoprosthesis loosening. From this reason, the ceramics (AI2O3) was introduced for the both parts of the prosthesis, i. e. the head and the cup. It appears that the friction resistance is an important factor for the comparison of the hitherto applied endoprosthesis designs with the new developed type. The frictional resistance in the hip joint total prosthesis was measured by means of a testing device which allowed a swinging motion of the ceramic ball in the tested cup in the range of +/-25 degrees . This measurement was carried out at the loading levels being 0; 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 N. For the comparison of the frictional resistance of single measured couples "cup-head", the energy consumed was ascertained which was necessary for including a swinging motion over the time interval of 35 sec. Ceramic cups manufactured by a. s. DIAS Turnov were used for the measurement. Altogether eight couples "ceramics-ceramics" having the diameter differences ranging from 0,022 mm to 0,137 mm and one friction couple "polyethylene cup-ceramics ball" were measured. The research of influence of different lubricants was also done. Key words: sandwich cup, total prosthesis, ceramics--ceramics, bioceramics, frictional resistance.

  13. The influence of exercise on the composition of developing equine joints.

    PubMed

    van de Lest, Chris H A; Brama, Pieter A J; Van Weeren, P René

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given of the direct and long-term effects of exercise on the biochemical characteristics of cartilage and subchondral bone, and on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in the juvenile horse. In the experimental setup 43 foals were reared until weaning at 5 months of age under similar conditions, except for the type and amount of exercise. Fifteen foals remained at pasture (Pasture group and also control group), 14 foals were kept in box stalls (Box group), and 14 foals were kept in the same box stalls but were subjected daily to an increasing number of gallop sprints (Training group). After weaning 8 foals from each group were euthanised. All remaining 19 animals were housed together in a loose box with access to a small paddock to study a possible reversibility of exercise-induced effects. Post mortem subchondral bone and cartilage samples were collected and analysed for bone morphogenic enzymes, matrix composition, chondrocyte metabolic activity, and bone mineral density. It resulted that lack of exercise leads to a retardation of the normal development of the joint. This is largely compensated for when afterwards a more normal exercise regimen is followed. Most parameters in the Training group approximated those of the pastured foals at age 5 months. However, at age 11 months there were indications for a reduced performance of the investigated tissues in this group. It is concluded that regular, sub-maximal loading, as occurred in the Pasture group, seems best for an optimal development of the musculoskeletal tissues. The combination of short bouts of heavy exercise superimposed on a basic box rest regimen appears to have adverse effects on long-term viability of the tissues and may hence lead to an impaired resistance to injury.

  14. Decorin binding proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi promote arthritis development and joint specific post-treatment DNA persistence in mice.

    PubMed

    Salo, Jemiina; Jaatinen, Annukka; Söderström, Mirva; Viljanen, Matti K; Hytönen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B) of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria.

  15. Joint Attention in Parent-Child Dyads Involving Children with Selective Mutism: A Comparison between Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint…

  16. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's…

  17. Development and Applications of a Self-Contained, Non-Invasive EVA Joint Angle and Muscle Fatigue Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranniger, C. U.; Sorenson, E. A.; Akin, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory, as a participant in NASA's INSTEP program, is developing a non-invasive, self-contained sensor system which can provide quantitative measurements of joint angles and muscle fatigue in the hand and forearm. The goal of this project is to develop a system with which hand/forearm motion and fatigue metrics can be determined in various terrestrial and zero-G work environments. A preliminary study of the prototype sensor systems and data reduction techniques for the fatigue measurement system are presented. The sensor systems evaluated include fiberoptics, used to measure joint angle, surface electrodes, which measure the electrical signals created in muscle as it contracts; microphones, which measure the noise made by contracting muscle; and accelerometers, which measure the lateral muscle acceleration during contraction. The prototype sensor systems were used to monitor joint motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint and muscle fatigue in flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris in subjects performing gripping tasks. Subjects were asked to sustain a 60-second constant-contraction (isometric) exercise and subsequently to perform a repetitive handgripping task to failure. Comparison of the electrical and mechanical signals of the muscles during the different tasks will be used to evaluate the applicability of muscle signal measurement techniques developed for isometric contraction tasks to fatigue prediction in quasi-dynamic exercises. Potential data reduction schemes are presented.

  18. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at...

  19. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  20. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5–10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  1. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  2. The early development of joint attention in infants with autistic disorder using home video observations and parental interview.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Sally M; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2008-05-01

    The aim in the current study was to investigate the early development of joint attention, eye contact and affect during the first 2 years of life, by using retrospective parental interviews and analyses of home videos of infants who were later diagnosed with Autistic Disorder (AD). The 36 children with AD and the 27 matched control children were all aged between 3 and 5 years at recruitment. Reported anomalies in gaze and affect emerged in the children with AD as early as the first 6 months of life, generally becoming more severe just prior to the second birthday. Video data confirmed these anomalies from as early as the first year. Joint attention impairments were found throughout the second year of life. The results suggest that early dyadic behaviours-eye contact and affect-may play a role in the joint attention impairment in AD.

  3. Joint attention in parent-child dyads involving children with selective mutism: a comparison between anxious and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Matilda E; Tasker, Susan L; Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela E; Edison, Shannon; Pierre, Jeff St; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2011-02-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint attention measures coded from direct observations with their parent during an unstructured free play task and two structured tasks. As predicted, the SM dyads established significantly fewer episodes of joint attention through parental initiation acts than the MA and CC dyads during the structured tasks. Findings suggest that children with SM may withdraw from their parents during stressful situations, thus missing out on opportunities for learning other coping skills. We discuss the implications of the present findings for understanding the maintenance and treatment of SM.

  4. Recent Developments To The RAL Joint IASI+GOME-2 Ozone Profile Retrievals Using TIR, UV And Visible Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Georgina; Siddans, Richard; Latter, Barry; Kerridge, Brian; Waterfall, Alison

    2013-12-01

    We present results from recent developments of the RAL Ozone Profile optimal estimation retrieval scheme. The algorithm produces both a GOME-2 only and a joint IASI and GOME-2 profile product, both of which have sensitivity to tropospheric ozone. The joint product has been selected for the ESA Climate Change Initiative Ozone nadir prototype product, for which data will be disseminated to the climate modelling community. Time-series and highlights from several years of the single and joint MetOp-A GOME-2 and IASI retrievals are presented. We further present results of the introduction of measurements from the Chappuis ozone bands to add near-surface ozone information to the retrieval under certain atmospheric and surface conditions.

  5. Shortchanging the Joint Fight? An Airman’s Assessment of FM 3-24 and the Case for Developing Truly Joint COIN Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    3-24 and the Case for Developing Truly Joint COIN Doctrine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air University Monograph,131 W Shumacher Ave...Maxwell AFB,AL,36112-6615 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  6. Joint Military Education: Actions Needed to Implement DOD Recommendations for Enhancing Leadership Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    outcomes; (2) joint education continuums; (3) lifelong learning and advancements in learning technologies; and (4) faculty quality. See appendix III... educational outcomes; (2) joint education continuums; (3) lifelong learning and advancements in learning technologies; and (4) faculty quality. Several...opportunities to implement elements of lifelong learning in support of joint education . The study should examine: Current service efforts toward

  7. Development of a statistical shape model of the patellofemoral joint for investigating relationships between shape and function.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Baldwin, Mark A; Laz, Peter J; FitzPatrick, David P; Lerner, Amy L; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2011-09-02

    Patellofemoral (PF)-related pathologies, including joint laxity, patellar maltracking, cartilage degradation and anterior knee pain, affect nearly 25% of the population. Researchers have investigated the influence of articular geometry on kinematics and contact mechanics in order to gain insight into the etiology of these conditions. The purpose of the current study was to create a three-dimensional statistical shape model of the PF joint and to characterize relationships between PF shape and function (kinematics and contact mechanics). A statistical shape model of the patellar and femoral articular surfaces and their relative alignment was developed from magnetic resonance images. Using 15 shape parameters, the model characterized 97% of the variation in the training set. The first three shape modes primarily described variation in size, patella alta-baja and depth of the sulcus groove. A previously verified finite element model was used to predict kinematics and contact mechanics for each subject. Combining the shape and joint mechanics data, a statistical shape-function model was developed that established quantitative relations of how changes in the shape of the PF joint influence mechanics. The predictive capability of the shape-function model was evaluated by comparing statistical model and finite element predictions, resulting in kinematic root mean square errors of less than 3° and 2.5 mm. The key results of the study are dually in the implementation of a novel approach linking statistical shape and finite element models and the relationships elucidated between PF articular geometry and mechanics.

  8. Development of brazing process for W-EUROFER joints using Cu-based fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prado, J.; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2016-02-01

    A successful joint between W and EUROFER using high temperature brazing technique has been achieved for structural application in future fusion power plants. Cu-based powder alloy mixed with a polymeric binder has been used as filler. Microstructural analysis of the joints revealed that the joint consisted mainly of primary phases and acicular structures in a Cu matrix. Interaction between EUROFER and filler took place at the interface giving rise to several Cu-Ti-Fe rich layers. A loss of hardness at the EUROFER substrate close to the joint due to a diffusion phenomenon during brazing cycle was measured; however, the joints had an adequate shear strength value.

  9. Observing the development of the temporomandibular joint in embryonic and post-natal mice using various staining methods

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a specialized synovial joint that is essential for the movement and function of the mammalian jaw. The TMJ develops from two mesenchymal condensations, and is composed of the glenoid fossa that originates from the otic capsule by intramembranous ossification, the mandibular condyle of the temporal bone and a fibrocartilagenous articular disc derived from a secondary cartilaginous joint by endochondral ossification. However, the development of the TMJ remains unclear. In the present study, the formation and development of the mouse TMJ was investigated between embryonic day 13.5 and post-natal day 180 in order to elucidate the morphological and molecular alterations that occur during this period. TMJ formation appeared to proceed in three stages: Initiation or blastema stage; growth and cavitation stage; and the maturation or completion stage. In order to investigate the activity of certain transcription factors on TMJ formation and development, the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM), sex determining region Y-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2, Indian hedgehog homolog, Osterix, collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan, total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), MMP-9 and MMP-13 were detected in the TMJ using in situ and/or immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the transcription factors, ECM and MMP serve critical functions in the formation and development of the mouse TMJ. In summary, the development of the mouse TMJ was investigated, and the molecular regulation of mouse TMJ formation was partially characterized. The results of the present study may aid the systematic understanding of the physiological processes underlying TMJ formation and development in mice. PMID:26893634

  10. The bHLH-PAS Transcription Factor Dysfusion Regulates Tarsal Joint Formation in Response to Notch Activity during Drosophila Leg Development

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Sergio; Estella, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic of all arthropods is the presence of flexible structures called joints that connect all leg segments. Drosophila legs include two types of joints: the proximal or “true” joints that are motile due to the presence of muscle attachment and the distal joints that lack musculature. These joints are not only morphologically, functionally and evolutionarily different, but also the morphogenetic program that forms them is distinct. Development of both proximal and distal joints requires Notch activity; however, it is still unknown how this pathway can control the development of such homologous although distinct structures. Here we show that the bHLH-PAS transcription factor encoded by the gene dysfusion (dys), is expressed and absolutely required for tarsal joint development while it is dispensable for proximal joints. In the presumptive tarsal joints, Dys regulates the expression of the pro-apoptotic genes reaper and head involution defective and the expression of the RhoGTPases modulators, RhoGEf2 and RhoGap71E, thus directing key morphogenetic events required for tarsal joint development. When ectopically expressed, dys is able to induce some aspects of the morphogenetic program necessary for distal joint development such as fold formation and programmed cell death. This novel Dys function depends on its obligated partner Tango to activate the transcription of target genes. We also identified a dedicated dys cis-regulatory module that regulates dys expression in the tarsal presumptive leg joints through direct Su(H) binding. All these data place dys as a key player downstream of Notch, directing distal versus proximal joint morphogenesis. PMID:25329825

  11. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  12. Development of molecular docking-based binding energy to predict the joint effect of BPA and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Chang; Hu, Xia-Lin; Yin, Da-Qiang; Lin, Zhi-Fen

    2011-04-01

    A general proposal for predicting the joint effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals by examining binding energy models was developed in this study. 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA) and 11 of its analogs were chosen, and the estrogenic activity of each compound was measured by determining its EC50 value using a recombinant gene yeast assay. Binding energies (BEs) were calculated using Surflex-Docking software. The analysis of the relationship between EC50 values and BEs showed that there is a linear correlation between the BEs and EC50 values. Furthermore, the analysis of the given binary and quaternary mixtures of BPA and three of its analogs showed that the joint effects of the mixtures were affected by the proportions of the chemicals in each mixture and their relative binding energy. The correlation between the joint effects of mixtures and the binding energy of the individual compounds has been described using one formula, which can be used to predict the joint effects of other mixtures.

  13. Disseminated bone and joint tuberculosis 25 years after development of lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    White, J P; Kang, S; Kilpatrick, G S

    1985-06-01

    A case of extensive bone and joint tuberculosis is reported in a 62-year-old caucasian woman who had a 25 year history of inadequately treated facial lupus vulgaris. In spite of a good response to standard anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy there was extensive residual joint destruction.

  14. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research...

  15. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research...

  16. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research...

  17. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research...

  18. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Assistance to United States Industry-Led Joint Research and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research...

  19. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: implications of beef heifer development systems and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Endecott, R L; Funston, R N; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J

    2013-03-01

    Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has indicated that developing heifers to a lighter target BW at breeding (i.e., 50 to 57% of mature BW compared with 60 to 65% BW) reduced development costs and did not impair reproductive performance. Research published through the late 1980s demonstrated greater negative effects of limited postweaning growth on age at puberty and pregnancy rates whereas more recent studies demonstrate less of a negative impact of delayed puberty on pregnancy rate. A limitation of most research concerning influences of nutrition on heifer development and cow reproductive performance is little or limited consideration of long-term implications. Longevity has relatively low heritability; therefore, heifer development and other management strategies have a greater potential to impact cow retention. Establishing the impact of heifer development protocols on longevity is complex, requiring consideration of nutritional factors after the start of breeding and through subsequent calvings. Lower-input heifer development, where all heifers are managed together after the postweaning period, did not impair rebreeding, but continued subsequent restriction in the form of marginal winter supplementation resulted in decreased retention in the breeding herd. Therefore, the compensatory BW gain period for restricted-growth heifers may be important to longevity and lifetime productivity. Adequate growth and development to ensure minimal calving difficulty can be of critical importance for longevity; however, providing additional supplemental feed during postweaning development to accomplish this may be less efficient than later in development. Restricting gain during postweaning development by limiting DMI or developing heifers on dormant winter forage resulted

  20. The Joint Space Operations Center Mission System and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment Status Update 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Howard, Samantha; Sabol, Chris; Kim, Richard; Echeverry, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is a service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) performed at the US-led JSpOC. The Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE) is a test-bed maintained and operated by the Air Force to (1) serve as a centralized test-bed for all research and development activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support JMS Program Office-led market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. In this paper we will share with the international remote sensing community some of the recent JMS and ARCADE developments that may contribute to greater SSA at the JSpOC in the future, and share technical areas still in great need.

  1. Development of an Underactuated 2-DOF Wrist Joint using McKibben PAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S. P.; Jain, S.; Ramasubramanian, S. N.; Johnson, B. V.; Dwivedy, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, model of an underactuated 2-DOF wrist joint with pneumatically actuated muscles is proposed. For the joint, McKibben-type artificial muscles are used in parallel configuration for the actuation. For each Degree of Freedom (DOF) one agonist-antagonist pair arrangement is usually used with a pulley mechanism. A mathematical model of wrist joint is derived using conventional forward kinematic analysis. The static model relating pressure in the muscle with the orientation of the wrist joint is obtained by combining the experimental data and mathematical model. Regulation of pressure can be achieved by pulse width modulation control of on/off solenoid valves. A set of free vibration experiments are done for the dynamic identification of the muscle characteristics.

  2. Nuclear propulsion technology development - A joint NASA/Department of Energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the conceptual development of spacecraft nuclear propulsion systems with DOE support, in order to establish the bases for Space Exploration Initiative lunar and Mars missions. This conceptual evolution project encompasses nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. A technology base exists for NTP in the NERVA program files; more fundamental development efforts are entailed in the case of NEP, but this option is noted to offer greater advantages in the long term.

  3. Development of Intra-Articular Drug Delivery to Alter Progression of Arthritis Following Joint Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    increased intra-articular fracture severity in the mouse knee . Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2011. 19(7): p. 864-73. 5. Ward, B.D., et al., Absence of...The work in this study addresses the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) and seeks to develop a basis for future therapeutic...symptomatic osteoarthritis patients are post-traumatic [1]. At the present time, the state of the art treatment for displaced articular fractures in

  4. Jointing around magmatic dikes as a precursor to the development of volcanic plugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Meredith; Pollard, David D.; Johnson, Kendra; Culha, Cansu

    2015-10-01

    Basaltic volcanic eruptions typically initiate as fissures fed by dikes. In some cases, eruptions become localized through discrete vents, until the flow is sustained through a single vent underlain by a volcanic plug, at which point, the eruption is capable of delivering much greater volumes of magma to the surface. Existing theories to explain flow localization focus on the relationship between non-uniform dike thickness and variations in magma flow rates. Here, we propose a mechanism for conduit widening that precedes flow localization, and we present geologic evidence from an Oligocene-aged dike-plug system at Ship Rock, New Mexico. We use techniques of structure from motion to map 621 joints in the sedimentary rock adjacent to the intrusions and find that these joints are part of a systematic set oriented perpendicular to the dikes and localized to within a meter of the dike contacts. This joint set, along with a set of dike-parallel joints and the bedding planes, divides the strata into rectangular blocks that subsequently are entrained in the flowing magma to widen the dikes. Using field and lab data and a stress analysis, we show that the dike-perpendicular joints are intimately associated with the emplacement of magma and thermal pressurization of pore fluids in the host rock. This fracturing process is a precursor to entrainment of the host rock and sustained flow through discrete vents.

  5. Development of molded joints and terminals for 230-kV extruded cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bahder, G.; Bopp, L.A.; Eager, G.S. Jr.; Katz, C.; Knott, A.; Schmidt, G.A.

    1985-04-01

    The reliability of extruded-dielectric transmission systems depends to a great extent on the quality of joints and terminals. Detailed procedures developed in this study for field-molding high-stress 230-kV cable joints can ensure the stability of critical interfaces over many years.

  6. Development of a body joint angle measurement system using IMU sensors.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saba; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Davidson, Bradley S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for measuring and monitoring human body joint angles using inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. This type of monitoring is beneficial for therapists and physicians because it facilitates remote assessment of patient activities. In our approach, two IMUs are mounted on the upper leg and the lower leg to measure the Euler angles of each segment. The Euler angles are sent via Bluetooth protocols to a pc for calculating the knee joint angle. In our experiments, we utilized a motion capture system to accurately measure the knee joint angle and used this as the ground truth to assess the accuracy of the IMU system. The range of average error of the system across a variety of motion trials was 0.08 to 3.06 degrees. In summary, the accuracy of the IMU measurement system currently outperforms existing wearable systems such as conductive fiber optic sensors and flex-sensors.

  7. [Development of a testing device for knee joint kinematics parameters of patients with strokes].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulin; Ji, Xuefei; Xu, Xijiao; Zhao, Hongyao

    2013-04-01

    This article is aimed to present a design of a testing device for knee joint kinematics parameters of patients with strokes. We used Auto CAD to design the knee joint sensor device, and applied multifunction data acquisition card to collect sensor data. Then we transferred the data to the computer to quantitatively detect and analyze the joint angle, angular velocity and other parameters. The software system used Visual C+ + MFC frame and shared database Access, and used ADO technology to realize the collection between the software system and patient information system. After a preliminary test of 20 healthy subjects, the result showed that intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was more than 0.8, indicating a good reliability of the instrument.

  8. Design and development of high-temperature superconducting magnet system with joint-winding for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Ito, S.; Terazaki, Y.; Seino, Y.; Hamaguchi, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2015-05-01

    An innovative winding method is developed by connecting high-temperature superconducting (HTS) conductors to enable efficient construction of a magnet system for the helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. A large-current capacity HTS conductor, referred to as STARS, is being developed by the incorporation of several innovative ideas, such as the simple stacking of state-of-the-art yttrium barium copper oxide tapes embedded in a copper jacket, surrounded by electrical insulation inside a conductor, and an outer stainless-steel jacket cooled by helium gas. A prototype conductor sample was fabricated and reached a current of 100 kA at a bias magnetic field of 5.3 T with the temperature at 20 K. At 4.2 K, the maximum current reached was 120 kA, and a current of 100 kA was successfully sustained for 1 h. A low-resistance bridge-type mechanical lap joint was developed and a joint resistance of 2 nΩ was experimentally confirmed for the conductor sample.

  9. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  10. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Background Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). Methods An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. Results This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. Conclusion SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints. PMID:27583436

  11. Note: Development of a compact electromagnetic hydraulic pump for a microrobot joint driving system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Naijian; Wang, Sun'an; Zhang, Jinhua

    2010-04-01

    This note describes a compact electromagnetic hydraulic pump (EMHP) designed primarily to build a microdriving system for a robot joint actuator. A characteristic mathematical model integrating electricity, magnetism, and hydraulics is constructed to represent the working process of the EMHP. Tests show that a volumetric flow rate of up to 430 cm(3)/min and load pressure of up to 2.5 MPa can be achieved. The prototype pump can supply stable pressure of 0-2.4 MPa and acceleration of 1.2 MPa/s for the robot joint actuator.

  12. Exploratory Development of Design Data on Joints Using Fatigue-Improvement Fasteners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Boeing Split Sleeve/Mandrel system. c Interference-fit fastener after cold work expansion of holes. 8 TABLE 4. INSTALLATION TORQUEa Bolt Material PH13 -8Mo...Bolt Material PH13 -8Mo D Titanium V Bolt Head Type Flush Head F Protruding Head P Bolt Diameter (in 1/16’s) None 0 0.190 3 0.375 6 0.500 8 Joint... PH13 -8Mo flush-head, 3/ 8 -inch-diameter fastener is installed in a low-load-transfer joint made of Ti-6Al-4V. The specimen would be used for the seventh

  13. Preface: Joint Discussion JD5 From Meteors and Meteorites to their Parent Bodies: Current Status and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    The Joint Discussion 5 entitled "From Meteors and Meteorites to their Parent Bodies: Current Status and Future Developments" within the IAU GA 2012 was organized with the coordination of the IAU Division III Planetary Systems Sciences and the IAU Commission N. 22 Meteors, Meteorites & Interplanetary Dust, together with the supports by Divisions I Fundamental Astronomy, Division XII Union-Wide Activities, Commission 4 Ephemerides, Commission 6 Astronomical Telegrams, Commission 8 Astrometry, Commission 15 Physical Study of Comets & Minor Planets, and Commission 20 Positions & Motions of Minor Planets, Comets & Satellites.

  14. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  15. Learning to Look for Language: Development of Joint Attention in Young Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Joint attention between hearing children and their caregivers is typically achieved when the adult provides spoken, auditory linguistic input that relates to the child's current visual focus of attention. Deaf children interacting through sign language must learn to continually switch visual attention between people and objects in order to achieve…

  16. Development of Y-branch Joint for 275kV XLPE and Fluid Filled Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Sakamaki, Masatoshi

    When a new UHV substation is built in an urban region, generally, an existing underground transmission line shall be diverted and drawn into the new substation. Compared with above mentioned construction method, enormous cost reduction of switching facilities and cable construction is expected with applying a Y-Branch Joint (YJ) which is able to be a 3-way joint. The YJ has already been applied for 154kV class circuit, however, it has not been investigated for 275kV class circuit. Since both XLPE and Fluid-Filled cable are presently used in 275kV class underground cable line, an universal design YJ for both cables have been investigated. The YJ was applied a compact design which was based on our sophisticated electrical stress control technology for 500kV prefabricated type joint. Furthermore, the design was based on its prefabricated assembling technology. The YJ was verified its electrical and mechanical performance as 275kV cable joint by completion of its assembling test and a long term electrical test.

  17. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This progress report discusses the status and progress made in joint international programs including: 1) WEGENER; 2) Arabian Peninsula program; 3) Asia-Pacific Space Geodynamics (APSG) program; 4) the Fourteenth International Workshop on Laser Ranging; 5) the International Laser Ranging Service; and 6) current support for the NASA network.

  18. Develop virtual joint laboratory for education like distance engineering system for robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinovic, T. S.; Deaconu, S. I.; Latinović, M. T.; Malešević, N.; Barz, C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper work with a new system that provides distance learning and online training engineers. The purpose of this paper is to develop and provide web-based system for the handling and control of remote devices via the Internet. Remote devices are currently the industry or mobile robots [13]. For future product development machine in the factory will be included in the system. This article also discusses the current use of virtual reality tools in the fields of science and engineering education. One programming tool in particular, virtual reality modeling language (VRML) is presented in the light of its applications and capabilities in the development of computer visualization tool for education. One contribution of this paper is to present the software tools and examples that can encourage educators to develop a virtual reality model to improve teaching in their discipline. [12] This paper aims to introduce a software platform, called VALIP where users can build, share, and manipulate 3D content in cooperation with the interaction processes in a 3D context, while participating hardware and software devices can be physical and / or logical distributed and connected together via the Internet. VALIP the integration of virtual laboratories to appropriate partners; therefore, allowing access to all laboratories in any of the partners in the project. VALIP provides advanced laboratory for training and research within robotics and production engineering, and thus, provides a great laboratory facilities with only having to invest a limited amount of resources at the local level to the partner site.

  19. In Support of Access and Inclusion: Joint Professional Development for Science and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusca-Vega, Rita; Alexander, Jan; Kamin, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative professional development of science and special educators leads to improved access and inclusion of students with disabilities. Yet, despite poor science achievement of students with disabilities, their increasing presence in general education science classrooms, and research that demonstrates effective teaching strategies for…

  20. Joint Development of Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Relations to Delinquency and Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Arseneault, Louise; Brendgen, Mara; Fontaine, Nathalie; Maughan, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The study measures the development of bullying and victimization in early to mid-adolescence, the relations between the developmental trajectories, and their associations with delinquency and self-harm. Evidence suggests youths victimized by peers are at increased risk of victimizing others.

  1. Overcoming Resistance: Developing an Influence Strategy for the Joint Force Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-13

    Complexity” http://comops.org/publications.php (accessed December 7, 2009), 9. 18 Sociologist Niklas Luhmann , they developed what is known as the...receiver know about each other, the less likely they will understand each other. This is why Niklas Luhmann believes social systems based on communications...the techniques of information saturation of an audience. 50 Luhmann theories concentrate

  2. To the development of an automated system of assessment of radiological images of joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechikhin, A. I.; Grunina, E. A.; Karetnikova, I. R.

    2008-03-01

    An algorithm developed for the adaptive automated computer processing of radiological images of hands and feet in order to assess the degree of bone and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis is described. A set of new numeral signs was proposed in order to assess a degree of arthritis radiological progression.

  3. Towards a Socio-Cultural Framework for the Analysis of Joint Student-Teacher Development over Technology-Based Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a framework, an extension of Valsiner's "zone theory", for the analysis of joint student-teacher development over a series of technology-based mathematics lessons. The framework is suitable for developing research studies over a moderately long period of time and considers interrelated student-teacher development as…

  4. Administrative and Technical Support for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command Joint Working Group on Medical Chemical Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Development Command Joint Working I PR 3M463807D % Group on Medical Chemical Defense (U) TA 993BO Ai UTHRioS) WU 045 -Mr. Marvin L. Fitts VUDA3O4920...performance from medical treatment and pretreatment drugs used to counter chemical warfare agents. Me ters Industries, Inc. provided administritive and...for the U. S. Army Medical Research and Development Command Joint Working Group on Medical Chemical Defense. FINAL REPORT Marvin L Fitts, MS Cynthia L

  5. Detecting Key Inter-Joint Distances and Anthropometry Effects for Static Gesture Development using Microsoft Kinect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    length; and chest, waist , and bicep circumference with respect to inter-joint differences while performing 15 postures. The postures were acquired...and elbow-to- shoulder length; chest, waist , and bicep circumference . Naturally, there are two genders: male and female. Traditionally, body mass...5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles of the average U.S. population for 40-year old males and females [13] [14]. The waist circumference data was gathered

  6. Development of Intra-Articular Drug Delivery to Alter Progression of Arthritis Following Joint Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Arthritis Following Joint Injury Steven A. Olson, M.D. W81XWH-10-1-0890 Duke University Durham, NC 27705 15 September 2011 - 14 March ...4 Appendices – Abstract accepted for presentation at ORASI ( Osteoarthritis Research Society International) meeting in...NC 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC PURPOSE: Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a form of osteoarthritis (OA

  7. The hip joint: the fibrillar collagens associated with development and ageing in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    BLAND, YVETTE S.; ASHHURST, DOREEN E.

    2001-01-01

    The fibrillar collagens associated with the articular cartilages, joint capsule and ligamentum teres of the rabbit hip joint were characterised from the 17 d fetus to the 2-y-old adult by immunohistochemical methods. Initially the putative articular cartilage contains types I, III and V collagens, but when cavitation is complete in the 25 d fetus, type II collagen appears. In the 17 d fetus, the cells of the chondrogenous layers express type I collagen mRNA, but not that of type II collagen. Types III and V collagens are present throughout life, particularly pericellularly. Type I collagen is lost. In all respects, the articular cartilage of the hip joint is similar to that of the knee. The joint capsule contains types I, III and V collagens. In the fetus the ligamentum teres contains types I and V collagens and the cells express type I collagen mRNA; type III collagen is confined mainly to its surface and insertions. After birth, the same distribution remains, but there is more type III collagen in the ligament, proper. The attachment to the cartilage of the head of the femur is marked only by fibres of type I collagen traversing the cartilage; the attachment cannot be distinguished in preparations localising types III and V collagens. The attachment to the bone at the lip of the acetabulum is via fibres of types I and V collagens and little type III is present. The ligament is covered by a sheath of types III and V collagens. Type II collagen was not located in any part of the ligamentum teres. The distribution of collagens in the ligamentum teres is similar to that in the collateral ligaments of the knee. Its insertions are unusual because no fibrocartilage was detected. PMID:11215763

  8. Pre-Operative Status and Quality of Life Following Total Joint Replacement in a Developing Country: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Nina N.; Collins, Jamie E.; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Alcantara Abreu, Luis; Ghazinouri, Roya; Okike, Kanu; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of medical relief organizations have launched programs to perform total joint replacements in the developing world. There is a paucity of data on the clinical outcomes of these procedures. We documented pre- and post-operative pain and functional status in a group of low income Dominicans who underwent total hip or knee replacement performed by an American relief organization. Methods: In March 2009 and 2010, we surveyed patients participating in Operation Walk Boston, a medical relief organization that provides total joint replacements to patients in the Dominican Republic. Questionnaires included the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index scales and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scales for physical activity and mental health. Scores were transformed to a 0 - 100 point scale (100 is best). Results: 81 individuals (mean age 61 years, 60% female) completed the pre-operative questionnaires. Twenty eight of the 35 who completed preoperative forms in 2009 also completed follow up forms in 2010 (follow-up rate 80%). Patients reported poor pre-operative WOMAC function (mean = 33.6, sd = 22.0) and WOMAC pain (mean = 38.4, sd = 22.9) scores preoperatively. Mean post-operative WOMAC pain and function scores were 86.4 (sd = 13.1) and 88.1 (sd = 11.4) respectively. Improvement in pain and function was similar for patients undergoing hip (n=11) and knee (n=17) replacements. Conclusion: Total joint replacement was effective in relieving pain and restoring function in this program. These results are useful for comparison to outcomes in developed countries and for establishing benchmarks for future programs. PMID:21886686

  9. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities.

  10. Development of In-Mold Assembly Methods for Producing Mesoscale Revolute Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    positioning methods to realize cavity shape change to avoid damage to delicate mesoscale parts created during molding, (3) developing a method to...premolded component, this process may lead to irreparable damages to the first stage part. As a result, cavity morphing methods are the only feasible... damage to the part. Figure 4.3 Mold design iterations for second stage injection When the mesoscale pin is molded first, there is a concern that the

  11. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  12. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  13. Development and validation of a computational model of the knee joint for the evaluation of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mootanah, R.; Imhauser, C.W.; Reisse, F.; Carpanen, D.; Walker, R.W.; Koff, M.F.; Lenhoff, M.W.; Rozbruch, S.R.; Fragomen, A.T.; Dewan, Z.; Kirane, Y.M.; Cheah, Pamela A.; Dowell, J.K.; Hillstrom, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) knee joint computational model was developed and validated to predict knee joint contact forces and pressures for different degrees of malalignment. A 3D computational knee model was created from high-resolution radiological images to emulate passive sagittal rotation (full-extension to 65°-flexion) and weight acceptance. A cadaveric knee mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom robot was subjected to matching boundary and loading conditions. A ligament-tuning process minimised kinematic differences between the robotically loaded cadaver specimen and the finite element (FE) model. The model was validated by measured intra-articular force and pressure measurements. Percent full scale error between EE-predicted and in vitro-measured values in the medial and lateral compartments were 6.67% and 5.94%, respectively, for normalised peak pressure values, and 7.56% and 4.48%, respectively, for normalised force values. The knee model can accurately predict normalised intra-articular pressure and forces for different loading conditions and could be further developed for subject-specific surgical planning. PMID:24786914

  14. Development and validation of a computational model of the knee joint for the evaluation of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Mootanah, R; Imhauser, C W; Reisse, F; Carpanen, D; Walker, R W; Koff, M F; Lenhoff, M W; Rozbruch, S R; Fragomen, A T; Dewan, Z; Kirane, Y M; Cheah, K; Dowell, J K; Hillstrom, H J

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) knee joint computational model was developed and validated to predict knee joint contact forces and pressures for different degrees of malalignment. A 3D computational knee model was created from high-resolution radiological images to emulate passive sagittal rotation (full-extension to 65°-flexion) and weight acceptance. A cadaveric knee mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom robot was subjected to matching boundary and loading conditions. A ligament-tuning process minimised kinematic differences between the robotically loaded cadaver specimen and the finite element (FE) model. The model was validated by measured intra-articular force and pressure measurements. Percent full scale error between FE-predicted and in vitro-measured values in the medial and lateral compartments were 6.67% and 5.94%, respectively, for normalised peak pressure values, and 7.56% and 4.48%, respectively, for normalised force values. The knee model can accurately predict normalised intra-articular pressure and forces for different loading conditions and could be further developed for subject-specific surgical planning.

  15. MeProRisk - a Joint Venture for Minimizing Risk in Geothermal Reservoir Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, C.; Marquart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Exploration and development of geothermal reservoirs for the generation of electric energy involves high engineering and economic risks due to the need for 3-D geophysical surface surveys and deep boreholes. The MeProRisk project provides a strategy guideline for reducing these risks by combining cross-disciplinary information from different specialists: Scientists from three German universities and two private companies contribute with new methods in seismic modeling and interpretation, numerical reservoir simulation, estimation of petrophysical parameters, and 3-D visualization. The approach chosen in MeProRisk consists in considering prospecting and developing of geothermal reservoirs as an iterative process. A first conceptual model for fluid flow and heat transport simulation can be developed based on limited available initial information on geology and rock properties. In the next step, additional data is incorporated which is based on (a) new seismic interpretation methods designed for delineating fracture systems, (b) statistical studies on large numbers of rock samples for estimating reliable rock parameters, (c) in situ estimates of the hydraulic conductivity tensor. This results in a continuous refinement of the reservoir model where inverse modelling of fluid flow and heat transport allows infering the uncertainty and resolution of the model at each iteration step. This finally yields a calibrated reservoir model which may be used to direct further exploration by optimizing additional borehole locations, estimate the uncertainty of key operational and economic parameters, and optimize the long-term operation of a geothermal resrvoir.

  16. [The role of occlusal disorders in development of temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Arsenina, O I; Popova, A V; Gus, L A

    2014-01-01

    Currently Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a very highly discussed topic by both researchers and clinicians. the incidence of the of TMJ is dysfunctions still not very well established because of heterogeneity of the diagnostic criteria used by different authors. This article is dedicated to the analysis of basic theories of the etiology of the aforementioned pathology, including overview of main pathophysiological mechanisms of the TMJ, dysfunctions occlusive disorders in particular. The main problem being analyzed is the use and efficacy of the electronic axiography in successful diagnostic and therapy of the TMJ dysfunction.

  17. Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

  18. Development of an Intelligent Stretching Device for Ankle Joints With Contracture/Spasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    7] T. G. Olmstead, H. W. Wevers, J. T. Bryant, and G. J. Gouw, "Effect of Muscular Activity on Valgus /Varus Laxity and Stiffness of the Knee ," J...Biomech., vol. 19, pp. 565-577, 1986. [8] L.-Q. Zhang and G. Wang, " Dynamic and Static Control of the Human Knee Joint in Abduction-Adduction," J...casting, dynamic splinting and traction, the continuous passive motion (CPM) device, and advanced robot-aided devices [3-6]. However, existing devices

  19. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George

    2015-03-30

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  20. Review: emerging developments in the use of bioactive glasses for treating infected prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Huang, Wenhai

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of implanted orthopedic prostheses is a serious complication that requires prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy, major surgery to remove infected implants, bone reconstruction, and considerable morbidity. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement as the carrier, along with systemic antibiotics, is the standard treatment. However, PMMA is not biodegradable, and it can present a surface on which secondary bacterial infection can occur. PMMA spacers used to treat deep implant infections must be removed after resolution of the infection. Alternative carrier materials for antibiotics that could also restore deficient bone are therefore of interest. In this article, the development of bioactive glass-based materials as a delivery system for antibiotics is reviewed. Bioactive glass is osteoconductive, converts to hydroxyapatite, and heals to hard and soft tissues in vivo. Consequently, bioactive glass-based carriers can provide the combined functions of controlled local antibiotic delivery and bone restoration. Recently-developed borate bioactive glasses are of particular interest since they have controllable degradation rates coupled with desirable properties related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Such glasses have the potential for providing a new class of biomaterials, as substitutes for PMMA, in the treatment of deep bone infections.

  1. Development of the 50 TW laser for joint experiments with 1 MA z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiewior, P. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Chalyy, O.

    2010-08-01

    A 50 TW high-intensity laser (aka "Leopard" laser) was developed for experiments with the 1 MA z-pinch generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The laser produces short pulses of 0.35 ps; energy is 15 J. Long pulses are 1 ns; energy is 30 J. The output beam diameter is 80 mm. The Leopard laser applies chirped pulse amplification technology. The laser is based on the 130 fs Ti:Sapphire oscillator, Öffner-type stretcher, Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier, mixed Nd:glass rod and disk amplifiers, and vacuum grating compressor. An adaptive optics system ameliorates focusing ability and augments the repetition rate. Two beam terminals are available for experiments: in the vacuum chamber of the z-pinch generator (aka "Zebra"), and a laser-only vacuum chamber (aka "Phoenix" chamber). The Leopard laser coupled to the Zebra z-pinch generator is a powerful diagnostic tool for dense z-pinch plasma. We outline the status, design, architecture and parameters of the Leopard laser, and its coupling to Zebra. We present the methods of laser-based z-pinch plasma diagnostics, which are under development at the University of Nevada, Reno.

  2. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Methods Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Key Results Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Conclusions Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. PMID:25452250

  3. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  4. Preliminary results on the development of vacuum brazed joints for cryogenic wind tunnel aerofoil models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.; Sandefur, P. G., Jr.; Lawing, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of initial experiments show that high-strength void-free bonds can be formed by vacuum brazing of stainless steels using copper and nickel-based filler metals. In Nitronic 40, brazed joints have been formed with strengths in excess of the yield strength of the parent metal, and even at liquid nitrogen temperatures the excellent mechanical properties of the parent metal are only slightly degraded. The poor toughness of 15-5 P.H. stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures is lowered even further by the presence of the brazed bonds investigated. It is highly unlikely that the technique would be used for any critical areas of aerofoil models intended for low-temperature service. Nevertheless, the potential advantages of this simplified method of construction still have attractions for use at ambient temperatures.

  5. Joint Prediction of Longitudinal Development of Cortical Surfaces and White Matter Fibers from Neonatal MRI.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Yap, Pew-Thian; Chen, Geng; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-03-08

    The human brain can be modeled as multiple interrelated shapes (or a multishape), each for characterizing one aspect of the brain, such as the cortex and white matter pathways. Predicting the developing multishape is a very challenging task due to the contrasting nature of the developmental trajectories of the constituent shapes: smooth for the cortical surface and non-smooth for white matter tracts due to changes such as bifurcation. We recently addressed this problem and proposed an approach for predicting the multishape developmental spatiotemporal trajectories of infant brains based only on neonatal MRI data using a set of geometric, dynamic, and fiber-to-surface connectivity features. In this paper, we propose two key innovations to further improve the prediction of multishape evolution. First, for a more accurate cortical surface prediction, instead of simply relying on one neonatal atlas to guide the prediction of the multishape, we propose to use multiple neonatal atlases to build a spatially heterogeneous atlas using the multidirectional varifold representation. This individualizes the atlas by locally maximizing its similarity to the testing baseline cortical shape for each cortical region, thereby better representing the baseline testing cortical surface, which founds the multishape prediction process. Second, for temporally consistent fiber prediction, we propose to reliably estimate spatiotemporal connectivity features using low-rank tensor completion, thereby capturing the variability and richness of the temporal development of fibers. Experimental results confirm that the proposed variants significantly improve the prediction performance of our original multishape prediction framework for both cortical surfaces and fiber tracts shape at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Our pioneering model will pave the way for learning how to predict the evolution of anatomical shapes with abnormal changes. Ultimately, devising accurate shape evolution prediction models

  6. Development of a Joint Hydrogen and Syngas Combustion Mechanism Based on an Optimization Approach.

    PubMed

    Varga, Tamás; Olm, Carsten; Nagy, Tibor; Zsély, István Gy; Valkó, Éva; Pálvölgyi, Róbert; Curran, Henry J; Turányi, Tamás

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive and hierarchical optimization of a joint hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanism has been carried out. The Kéromnès et al. (Combust Flame, 2013, 160, 995-1011) mechanism for syngas combustion was updated with our recently optimized hydrogen combustion mechanism (Varga et al., Proc Combust Inst, 2015, 35, 589-596) and optimized using a comprehensive set of direct and indirect experimental data relevant to hydrogen and syngas combustion. The collection of experimental data consisted of ignition measurements in shock tubes and rapid compression machines, burning velocity measurements, and species profiles measured using shock tubes, flow reactors, and jet-stirred reactors. The experimental conditions covered wide ranges of temperatures (800-2500 K), pressures (0.5-50 bar), equivalence ratios (ϕ = 0.3-5.0), and C/H ratios (0-3). In total, 48 Arrhenius parameters and 5 third-body collision efficiency parameters of 18 elementary reactions were optimized using these experimental data. A large number of directly measured rate coefficient values belonging to 15 of the reaction steps were also utilized. The optimization has resulted in a H2/CO combustion mechanism, which is applicable to a wide range of conditions. Moreover, new recommended rate parameters with their covariance matrix and temperature-dependent uncertainty ranges of the optimized rate coefficients are provided. The optimized mechanism was compared to 19 recent hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanisms and is shown to provide the best reproduction of the experimental data.

  7. Development of a Joint Hydrogen and Syngas Combustion Mechanism Based on an Optimization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Tamás; Olm, Carsten; Nagy, Tibor; Zsély, István Gy.; Valkó, Éva; Pálvölgyi, Róbert; Curran, Henry. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A comprehensive and hierarchical optimization of a joint hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanism has been carried out. The Kéromnès et al. (Combust Flame, 2013, 160, 995–1011) mechanism for syngas combustion was updated with our recently optimized hydrogen combustion mechanism (Varga et al., Proc Combust Inst, 2015, 35, 589–596) and optimized using a comprehensive set of direct and indirect experimental data relevant to hydrogen and syngas combustion. The collection of experimental data consisted of ignition measurements in shock tubes and rapid compression machines, burning velocity measurements, and species profiles measured using shock tubes, flow reactors, and jet‐stirred reactors. The experimental conditions covered wide ranges of temperatures (800–2500 K), pressures (0.5–50 bar), equivalence ratios (ϕ = 0.3–5.0), and C/H ratios (0–3). In total, 48 Arrhenius parameters and 5 third‐body collision efficiency parameters of 18 elementary reactions were optimized using these experimental data. A large number of directly measured rate coefficient values belonging to 15 of the reaction steps were also utilized. The optimization has resulted in a H2/CO combustion mechanism, which is applicable to a wide range of conditions. Moreover, new recommended rate parameters with their covariance matrix and temperature‐dependent uncertainty ranges of the optimized rate coefficients are provided. The optimized mechanism was compared to 19 recent hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanisms and is shown to provide the best reproduction of the experimental data. PMID:27840549

  8. Development of ASTM Standard for SiC-SiC Joint Testing Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, George; Back, Christina

    2015-10-30

    As the nuclear industry moves to advanced ceramic based materials for cladding and core structural materials for a variety of advanced reactors, new standards and test methods are required for material development and licensing purposes. For example, General Atomics (GA) is actively developing silicon carbide (SiC) based composite cladding (SiC-SiC) for its Energy Multiplier Module (EM2), a high efficiency gas cooled fast reactor. Through DOE funding via the advanced reactor concept program, GA developed a new test method for the nominal joint strength of an endplug sealed to advanced ceramic tubes, Fig. 1-1, at ambient and elevated temperatures called the endplug pushout (EPPO) test. This test utilizes widely available universal mechanical testers coupled with clam shell heaters, and specimen size is relatively small, making it a viable post irradiation test method. The culmination of this effort was a draft of an ASTM test standard that will be submitted for approval to the ASTM C28 ceramic committee. Once the standard has been vetted by the ceramics test community, an industry wide standard methodology to test joined tubular ceramic components will be available for the entire nuclear materials community.

  9. ULI/UMTA (Urban Land Institute/Urban Mass Transportation Administration) Policy Forum of Joint Development of Rail-Transit Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dunphy, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ULI/UMTA Policy Forum on Joint Development of Rail Transit Facilities convened June 11-12, 1986. The participants included a representative group of developers, transit operators, local government officials, lenders, and public-interest groups concerned with transportation and urban development. Workshops at the forum elicited a consensus that UMTA should establish policies to advance, support, and reinforce joint development. They also recommended development of a set of guidelines that would address zoning and planning for density and traffic problems. It was also recommended that land-use changes at, near, or on development sites need to be made before construction begins, in part to preclude parties involved from changing their minds. The report includes general session presentations on the Hong Kong and Dulles DART projects, workshop summaries, and resource papers presented.

  10. The joint influence of photoperiod and temperature during growth cessation and development of dormancy in white spruce (Picea glauca).

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill A; El Kayal, Walid; Hart, Ashley T; Runcie, Daniel E; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-11-01

    Timely responses to environmental cues enable the synchronization of phenological life-history transitions essential for the health and survival of north-temperate and boreal tree species. While photoperiodic cues will remain persistent under climate change, temperature cues may vary, contributing to possible asynchrony in signals influencing developmental and physiological transitions essential to forest health. Understanding the relative contribution of photoperiod and temperature as determinants of the transition from active growth to dormancy is important for informing adaptive forest management decisions that consider future climates. Using a combination of photoperiod (long = 20 h or short = 8 h day lengths) and temperature (warm = 22 °C/16 °C and cool = 8 °C/4 °C day/night, respectively) treatments, we used microscopy, physiology and modeling to comprehensively examine hallmark traits of the growth-dormancy transition-including bud formation, growth cessation, cold hardiness and gas exchange-within two provenances of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] spanning a broad latitude in Alberta, Canada. Following exposure to experimental treatments, seedlings were transferred to favorable conditions, and the depth of dormancy was assessed by determining the timing and ability of spruce seedlings to resume growth. Short photoperiods promoted bud development and growth cessation, whereas longer photoperiods extended the growing season through the induction of lammas growth. In contrast, cool temperatures under both photoperiodic conditions delayed bud development. Photoperiod strongly predicted the development of cold hardiness, whereas temperature predicted photosynthetic rates associated with active growth. White spruce was capable of attaining endodormancy, but its release was environmentally determined. Dormancy depth varied substantially across experimental treatments suggesting that environmental cues experienced within one season could affect growth

  11. Development of phased array ultrasonic testing in lieu of radiography for testing complete joint penetration (CJP) welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldipur, P.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-04-01

    The past decade has seen new, emerging innovation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT). Specifically, multiple manufacturers have produced Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) systems. The PAUT systems embed a matrix of multiple (some up to 128) single transducers into one probe used for scanning elastic materials. Simultaneously exciting multiple transducers offers distinct advantages; depending on the sequencing of transducer excitation, the ultrasonic beam could be steered within the material and multiple beams help develop extra dimensional data to assist with visualization of possible flaws including the discontinuity size, shape and location. Unfortunately, there has not been broad acceptance of PAUT in the bridge fabrication industry because it is currently not a recognized inspection technology in AWS D1.5. One situation in which the technology would excel would be inspection of Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) butt welds. Currently, AWS D1.5 required CJP welds subjected to tensile or reversal stresses only be inspected by Radiographic Testing (RT). However, discontinuities normally seen by RT can also be seen with PAUT. Until specification language is adopted into D1.5, there will continue to be hesitancy to use PAUT for the inspection of CJP butt welds. Developmental work must first be performed to develop the acceptance criteria and the specification language. The developmental work from the inspections carried out on butt-weld specimens and transition butt-weld specimens are presented in this paper. Specific scan plans were developed using the ES-Beam simulation software for each of the test specimens. In depth analysis of PAUT data obtained to determine exact location and sizing information of the defects was performed. The results also present the comparison of results from PAUT to those obtained using conventional UT and radiography.

  12. Army-Marine Corps Logistics Integration: Is Current Doctrine, Training and Education Sufficient to Develop Joint Logisticians?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-11

    side in a joint fight that requires intersetvice logistics support at the tactical level in order to operate effectively in a distributed...for Marine Corps logisticians impedes their ability to operate effectively in the joint logistics environment. Service and joint publications must...education necessary to create effective joint logisticians. Existing Marine Corps courses should inculcate joint logistics training and education as

  13. A research experiment on facilitation and formation of joint research and development programs between government, industry, and universities: Overview, preliminary findings, and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.

    1992-01-01

    Presented is an overview of an experiment to explore the free-market approach to public-private collaboration through the development and implementation of a joint venture mechanism to enable formation of R&D projects between government, industry and academia. Some preliminary results related to time-to-commercialization and economic competitiveness are discussed.

  14. Maximum voluntary joint torque as a function of joint angle and angular velocity: model development and application to the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of human strength can be important during analyses of physical activities. Such measurements have often taken the form of the maximum voluntary torque at a single joint angle and angular velocity. However, the available strength varies substantially with joint position and velocity. When examining dynamic activities, strength measurements should account for these variations. A model is presented of maximum voluntary joint torque as a function of joint angle and angular velocity. The model is based on well-known physiological relationships between muscle force and length and between muscle force and velocity and was tested by fitting it to maximum voluntary joint torque data from six different exertions in the lower limb. Isometric, concentric and eccentric maximum voluntary contractions were collected during hip extension, hip flexion, knee extension, knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. Model parameters are reported for each of these exertion directions by gender and age group. This model provides an efficient method by which strength variations with joint angle and angular velocity may be incorporated into comparisons between joint torques calculated by inverse dynamics and the maximum available joint torques.

  15. Agriculture and Community Development Interface. Joint Meeting of the Southern Region State Leaders for Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development Proceedings (October 8-11, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Paul D., Ed.; Campbell, Raymond, Ed.

    This document is a summary of remarks presented at a joint meeting of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development state leaders in 1989. The focus of the meeting was economic viability, rural extension and education, water quality, waste management, biotechnology, low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA), and rural…

  16. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  17. Development Of an Experimental Animal Model For Lower Back Pain By Percutaneous Injury-Induced Lumbar Facet Joint Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Ahmadinia, Kasra; Li, Xin; Hamilton, John L; Andrews, Steven; Haralampus, Chris A.; Xiao, Guozhi; Sohn, Hong-Moon; You, Jae-Won; Seo, Yo-Seob; Stein, Gary S.; Wijnen, Andre J Van; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    We report generation and characterization of pain-related behavior in a minimally-invasive facet joint degeneration (FJD) animal model in rats. FJD was produced by a non-open percutaneous puncture-induced injury on the right lumbar FJs at three consecutive levels. Pressure hyperalgesia in the lower back was assessed by measuring the vocalization response to pressure from a force transducer. After hyperalgesia was established, pathological changes in lumbar FJs and alterations of intervertebral foramen size were assessed by histological and imaging analyses. To investigate treatment options for lumber FJ osteoarthritis-induced pain, animals with established hyperalgesia were administered with analgesic drugs, such as morphine, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (ketorolac), or pregabalin. Effects were assessed by behavioral pain responses. One week after percutaneous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs, ipsilateral primary pressure hyperalgesia developed and was maintained for at least 12 weeks without foraminal stenosis. Animals showed decreased spontaneous activity, but no secondary hyperalgesia in the hind paws. Histopathological and microfocus X-ray computed tomography analyses demonstrated that the percutaneous puncture injury resulted in osteoarthritis-like structural changes in the FJs cartilage and subchondral bone. Pressure hyperalgesia was completely reversed by morphine. The administration of celecoxib produced moderate pain reduction with no statistical significance while the administration of ketorolac and pregabalin produced no analgesic effect on FJ osteoarthritis-induced back pain. Our animal model of non-open percutanous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs in rats shows similar characteristics of low back pain produced by human facet arthropathy. PMID:25858171

  18. The effect of the dimensions of the distal femur and proximal tibia joint surfaces on the development of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Işik, Derya; Işik, Çetin; Apaydin, Nihal; Üstü, Yusuf; Uğurlu, Mahmut; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dimensions of the distal femur and proximal tibia joint surfaces affect the etiology of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study comprised the records of 1,324 patients who had been admitted to hospital with knee pain. Anterioposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs of the knee were taken. Using the Kellgren-Lawrence Scale, the patient group comprised Stages 2, 3, and 4 radiographs and the controls comprised Stages 0 and 1 radiographs. Four lengths were measured for each patient in both groups: femur mediolateral (femur ML), tibia mediolateral (tibia ML), femur anteroposterior (femur AP), and tibia anteroposterior (tibia AP). Osteophytes were not included in the measurements in the patient group. All the measurements were repeated by two researchers at two different times. The groups were compared in terms of these measurements and the correlations between them. The mean femur ML length was significantly greater in the patient group than the control group (P = 0.032) and the mean femur AP length was significantly less (P = 0.037). In addition, the difference between the femur ML and AP lengths was significantly high in the patient group (P < 0.001). The difference between the tibia and femur ML lengths was significantly high in the patient group (P < 0.001) and the difference between the tibia and femur AP lengths was higher in the control group (P = 0.001). A longer femur ML and a shorter femur AP, together with a greater difference between these two lengths and a greater difference between the tibia ML and femur ML lengths, could be a risk factor for developing knee OA. More extensive anatomical and biomechanical studies in the future will enable these results to be corroborated.

  19. Leg joint power output during progressive resistance FES-LCE cycling in SCI subjects: developing an index of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Stephenie A; Faghri, Pouran D; Adams, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the hip, knee and ankle during a progressive resistance cycling protocol in an effort to detect and measure the presence of muscle fatigue. It was hypothesized that knee power output can be used as an indicator of fatigue in order to assess the cycling performance of SCI subjects. Methods Six spinal cord injured subjects (2 incomplete, 4 complete) between the ages of twenty and fifty years old and possessing either a complete or incomplete spinal cord injury at or below the fourth cervical vertebra participated in this study. Kinematic data and pedal forces were recorded during cycling at increasing levels of resistance. Ankle, knee and hip power outputs and resultant pedal force were calculated. Ergometer cadence and muscle stimulation intensity were also recorded. Results The main findings of this study were: (a) ankle and knee power outputs decreased, whereas hip power output increased with increasing resistance, (b) cadence, stimulation intensity and resultant pedal force in that combined order were significant predictors of knee power output and (c) knowing the value of these combined predictors at 10 rpm, an index of fatigue can be developed, quantitatively expressing the power capacity of the knee joint with respect to a baseline power level defined as fatigue. Conclusion An index of fatigue was successfully developed, proportionalizing knee power capacity during cycling to a predetermined value of fatigue. The fatigue index value at 0/8th kp, measured 90 seconds into active, unassisted pedaling was 1.6. This indicates initial power capacity at the knee to be 1.6 times greater than fatigue. The fatigue index decreased to 1.1 at 2/8th kp, representing approximately a 30% decrease in the knee's power capacity within a 4 minute timespan. These findings suggest that the present cycling protocol is not sufficient for a rider to gain the benefits of FES and thus raises speculation as to

  20. Project proposals on the creation of Russian-American joint enterprise for investigation, development and manufacture of power plants on the basis of solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smotrov, N.V.; Kleschev, Yu.N.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a joint Russian-American enterprise for performing scientific investigations, development, and manufacture of fuel cell power plants on the basis of the solid oxide fuel cell. RASOFCo. Russian-American Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Company. RASOFCo will provide the series output of the electrochemical generator (ECG) of 1kW power, then of 5kW and 10kW as well as the development and the output of 10kW power plant with the subsequent output of a power plant of greater power. An ECG based on solid oxide fuel cells uses methane as a fuel. Predicted technical characteristics, market analysis, assessment of potential demands for power plants of low power for Tyumentransgas, participants of the joint enterprise and their founding contributions, strategy for manufacture and financing, and management of RASOFCo are discussed.

  1. The acute effects of static stretching on peak force, peak rate of force development and muscle activity during single- and multiple-joint actions in older women.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raquel; Gurjão, André Luiz Demantova; Jambassi Filho, José Claudio; Farinatti, Paulo De Tarso Veras; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the acute effects of static stretching on peak force, peak rate of force development and integrated electromyography (iEMG) in 27 older women (65 ± 4 years; 69 ± 9 kg; 157 ± 1 cm; 28 ± 4 kg · m(-2)). The participants were tested during two exercises (leg press and knee extension) after two conditions: stretching and control. The data were collected on four days (counterbalanced with a 24-hour rest period). In the stretching condition, the quadriceps muscle was stretched (knee flexion) for three sets of 30 s with 30 s rest intervals. No significant difference was detected for peak force and peak rate of force development during the single- and multiple-joint exercises, regardless of the following interactions: condition (stretching and control) vs. time (pre x post x 10 x 20 x 30 minutes post; P > 0.05) and exercise vs. time (P > 0.05). Additionally, no significant interaction was found for the iEMG activity (condition vs. time; P > 0.05) in the single- and multiple-joint exercises. In conclusion, a small amount of stretching of an agonist muscle (quadriceps) did not affect the peak force, peak rate of force development and EMG activity in older women during single- and multiple-joint exercises.

  2. Joint development and tectonic stress field evolution in the southeastern Mesozoic Ordos Basin, west part of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lin; Qiu, Zhen; Wang, Qingchen; Guo, Yusen; Wu, Chaofan; Wu, Zhijie; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    Major joint sets trending E-W (J1), ENE-WSW (J2), NE-SW (J3), N-S (J4), NNW-SSE (J5), NNE-SSW (J6), NW-SE (J7), and WNW-ESE (J8) respectively are recognized in Mesozoic strata within the southeast of Ordos Basin. Among them, the J1, J2 and J3 joint sets are systematic joints, while the other five joint sets (J4, J5, J6, J7, J8) are nonsystematic joints. There are three groups of orthogonal joint systems (i.e. J1 and J4 sets, J2 and J5 sets, and J6 and J8 sets) and two groups of conjugate shear fractures (ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW) in the study area. Joint spacing analysis indicates that: (1) layer thickness has an effect on the joint spacing, but the correlation of joint spacing and layer thickness is low; (2) joint density of systematic joints is greater than nonsystematic joints, and the joint density of a thin layer is also greater than that of a thick layer; and (3) the joints of Mesozoic strata in the basin are the result of tectonic events affected by multiple stress fields. All these joints in the Mesozoic strata are formed in the two main tectonic events since Late Mesozoic times. One is the westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasia Plate, which formed the approximately E-W-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J1 joint set (E-W) and the bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (E-W). The other stress field is related to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, which formed the NE-SW-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J3 joint set and bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (NE-SW). Finally, we conclude that the J1 and J4 sets are formed in the E-W-trending compressive stress field, and the J2, J3, J5, J6, J7 and J8 sets are formed in the NE

  3. M3FT-16OR020202112 - Report on viability of hydrothermal corrosion resistant SiC/SiC Joint development

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kiggans Jr, James O.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2016-06-30

    Hydrothermal corrosion of four types of the silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC plate joints were investigated under PWR and BWR relevant chemical conditions without irradiation. The joints were formed by metal diffusion bonding using molybdenum or titanium interlayer, reaction sintering using Ti-Si-C system, and SiC nanopowder sintering. Most of the formed joints withstood the corrosion tests for five weeks. The recession of the SiC substrates was limited. Based on the recession rate of the bonding layers, it was concluded that all the joints except for the molybdenum diffusion bond are promising under the reducing activity environments. The SiC nanopowder sintered joint was the most corrosion tolerant under the oxidizing activity environment among the four joints.

  4. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project.

  5. Development of Flow and Heat Transfer Models for the Carbon Fiber Rope in Nozzle Joints of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q.; Ewing, M. E.; Mathias, E. C.; Heman, J.; Smith, C.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for modeling both gas dynamics and heat transfer inside the carbon fiber rope (CFR) for applications in the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motor joints. Specifically, the CFR is modeled using an equivalent rectangular duct with a cross-section area, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient such that this duct has the same amount of mass flow rate, pressure drop, and heat transfer rate as the CFR. An equation for the friction factor is derived based on the Darcy-Forschheimer law and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from pipe flow correlations. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas inside the CFR are calculated using the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Various subscale tests, both cold flow and hot flow, have been carried out to validate and refine this CFR model. In particular, the following three types of testing were used: (1) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle-to-case joint geometry, (2) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle joint No. 2 geometry, and (3) hot flow in a RSRM nozzle joint environment simulator. The predicted pressure and temperature history are compared with experimental measurements. The effects of various input parameters for the model are discussed in detail.

  6. Comparison of Extensive Thermal Cycling Effects on Microstructure Development in Micro-alloyed Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Boesenberg, Adam; Harringa, Joel; Riegner, David; Steinmetz, Andrew; Hillman, David

    2011-09-28

    Pb-free solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic have promise for widespread adoption across assembly conditions and operating environments, but enhanced microstructural control is needed. Micro-alloying with elements such as Zn was demonstrated for promoting a preferred solidification path and joint microstructure earlier in simple (Cu/Cu) solder joints studies for different cooling rates. This beneficial behavior now has been verified in reworked ball grid array (BGA) joints, using dissimilar SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, wt.%) solder paste. After industrial assembly, BGA components joined with Sn-3.5Ag-0.74Cu-0.21Zn solder were tested in thermal cycling (-55 C/+125 C) along with baseline SAC305 BGA joints beyond 3000 cycles with continuous failure monitoring. Weibull analysis of the results demonstrated that BGA components joined with SAC + Zn/SAC305 have less joint integrity than SAC305 joints, but their lifetime is sufficient for severe applications in consumer, defense, and avionics electronic product field environments. Failure analysis of the BGA joints revealed that cracking did not deviate from the typical top area (BGA component side) of each joint, in spite of different Ag3Sn blade content. Thus, SAC + Zn solder has not shown any advantage over SAC305 solder in these thermal cycling trials, but other characteristics of SAC + Zn solder may make it more attractive for use across the full range of harsh conditions of avionics or defense applications.

  7. Some Ways in Which Neighborhoods, Nuclear Families, Friendship Groups, and Schools Jointly Affect Changes in Early Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Herman, Melissa R.; Phillips, Meredith; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed how schools, neighborhoods, nuclear families, and friendship groups jointly contribute to positive change during early adolescence. Analyses showed that the four context indices modestly intercorrelated at the individual student level, but clustered more tightly at the school and neighborhood levels. Joint influence of all four…

  8. Joint Use of Public Schools: Developing a New Social Contract for the Shared Use of Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filardo, Mary; Vincent, Jeff M.; Allen, Marni; Franklin, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the 21st Century School Fund and the Center for Cities and Schools at the University of California Berkeley provide a conceptual frame for the joint use of PK-12 public school buildings. There is a growing conversation about and demand for joint use as a way to provide services to children and families in convenient locations,…

  9. The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Development of Inflammation in Lungs, Gut and Joints of TNFΔARE Mice

    PubMed Central

    Debusschere, Karlijn; Verschuere, Stephanie; Maes, Tania; De Smet, Rebecca; Conickx, Griet; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby; Joos, Guy F.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Elewaut, Dirk; Cuvelier, Claude A.; Bracke, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is a central mediator in many immune-mediated diseases, such as Crohn’s disease (CD), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking (CS) is a prominent common risk factor in these TNF-dependent diseases. We exposed TNFΔARE mice; in which a systemic TNF-α overexpression leads to the development of inflammation; to 2 or 4 weeks of air or CS. We investigated the effect of deregulated TNF expression on CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and the effect of CS exposure on the initiation and progression of gut and joint inflammation. Upon 2 weeks of CS exposure, inflammation in lungs of TNFΔARE mice was significantly aggravated. However, upon 4 weeks of CS-exposure, this aggravation was no longer observed. TNFΔARE mice have no increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a diminished neutrophil response in the lungs after 4 weeks of CS exposure. In the gut and joints of TNFΔARE mice, 2 or 4 weeks of CS exposure did not modulate the development of inflammation. In conclusion, CS exposure does not modulate gut and joint inflammation in TNFΔARE mice. The lung responses towards CS in TNFΔARE mice however depend on the duration of CS exposure. PMID:26523550

  10. The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Development of Inflammation in Lungs, Gut and Joints of TNFΔARE Mice.

    PubMed

    Allais, Liesbeth; Kumar, Smitha; Debusschere, Karlijn; Verschuere, Stephanie; Maes, Tania; De Smet, Rebecca; Conickx, Griet; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby; Joos, Guy F; Brusselle, Guy G; Elewaut, Dirk; Cuvelier, Claude A; Bracke, Ken R

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is a central mediator in many immune-mediated diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking (CS) is a prominent common risk factor in these TNF-dependent diseases. We exposed TNFΔARE mice; in which a systemic TNF-α overexpression leads to the development of inflammation; to 2 or 4 weeks of air or CS. We investigated the effect of deregulated TNF expression on CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and the effect of CS exposure on the initiation and progression of gut and joint inflammation. Upon 2 weeks of CS exposure, inflammation in lungs of TNFΔARE mice was significantly aggravated. However, upon 4 weeks of CS-exposure, this aggravation was no longer observed. TNFΔARE mice have no increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a diminished neutrophil response in the lungs after 4 weeks of CS exposure. In the gut and joints of TNFΔARE mice, 2 or 4 weeks of CS exposure did not modulate the development of inflammation. In conclusion, CS exposure does not modulate gut and joint inflammation in TNFΔARE mice. The lung responses towards CS in TNFΔARE mice however depend on the duration of CS exposure.

  11. Ontogeny of joint mechanics in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis): functional implications for mammalian limb growth and locomotor development

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jesse W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Juvenile animals must often compete against adults for common resources, keep pace during group travel and evade common predators, despite reduced body size and an immature musculoskeletal system. Previous morphometric studies of a diverse array of mammals, including jack rabbits, cats and capuchin monkeys, have identified growth-related changes in anatomy, such as negative allometry of limb muscle mechanical advantage, which should theoretically permit young mammals to overcome such ontogenetic limits on performance. However, it is important to evaluate the potential impact of such `compensatory' growth trajectories within the context of developmental changes in locomotor behavior. I used standard kinematic and kinetic techniques to investigate the ontogenetic scaling of joint postures, substrate reaction forces, joint load arm lengths and external joint moments in an ontogenetic sample of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Results indicated that young squirrel monkeys were frequently able to limit forelimb and hind limb joint loading via a combination of changes in limb posture and limb force distribution, potentially compensating for limited muscularity at younger ages. These results complement previous morphometric studies and suggest that immature mammals may utilize a combination of behavioral and anatomical mechanisms to mitigate ontogenetic limits on locomotor performance. However, ontogenetic changes in joint posture, not limb length per se, explained most of the variation in load arm lengths and joint loading in growing squirrel monkeys, indicating the importance of incorporating both anatomical and performance measures when studying the ontogeny of limb joint mechanics. PMID:19411552

  12. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  13. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US $39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

  14. Hyaluronic acid attenuates osteoarthritis development in the anterior cruciate ligament-transected knee: Association with excitatory amino acid release in the joint dialysate.

    PubMed

    Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Hsieh, Shih-Peng; Wu, Ching-Tang; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2006-05-01

    We previously reported increased release of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, during the early stage of experimental osteoarthritis (OA). Our present objective was to study the effect of intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) on OA development, and to analyze concomitant changes in EAA levels in dialysates of anterior cruciate ligament-transected (ACLT) knee joints. OA was induced in Wistar rats by ACLT of one hindlimb; the knee of the other hindlimb was used as the sham-operated control. HA group (n = 12) were injected intraarticularly in the ACLT knee with 1 mg of HA once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting at 8 weeks after surgery. Saline group (n = 12) were injected as above with normal saline. The sham-operated group, underwent arthrotomy, but not ACLT, and received no treatment (n = 14). Twenty weeks after surgery, knee joint dialysates were collected by microdialysis and EAA levels assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and gross morphological examination and histopathological evaluation were performed on the medial femoral condyles and synovia. Rats receiving intraarticular HA injections showed a significantly lower degree of cartilage degeneration on the medial femoral condyle at both the macroscopic level and on the Mankin grading scale than rats receiving saline injections. Intraarticular HA treatment also suppressed synovitis. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate levels were significantly reduced in the HA group compared to the saline group. Intraarticular injection of HA limits articular cartilage and synovium damage and OA formation, and, in parallel, reduces EAA levels in ACLT joint dialysates. This study suggests that the underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of HA is to inhibit glutamate and aspartate release in ACLT knee joints, which attenuates the early development of OA.

  15. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments.

  16. Effects of exercise and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan on the development of osteoarthritis in equine carpal joints with osteochondral defects.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, R J; Freeman, K P; Yeager, A E; Lust, G

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of postoperative exercise and intra-articular polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) on the repair of osteochondral defects in the carpal joints of ponies. Eighteen ponies with normal carpi had osteochondral defects (mean dimensions 2.4 cm x 0.9 cm) created arthroscopically on the dorsal aspect of the distal articular surface of the radial carpal bone. The ponies were randomized (while balancing for age [range, 2 to 15 years; median, 5.0 years]) to two groups--nine ponies were exercised and nine were stall confined. Beginning at surgery, six ponies in each group received five weekly intra-articular injections of PSGAG (250 mg) in one joint and lactated Ringer's solution in the contralateral joint; the remaining three ponies in each group received lactated Ringer's solution in both joints. The incremental exercise schedule on a circular, rotating walker was begun six days after surgery and occurred twice daily, reaching a maximum of 0.7 miles of walking and 2.7 miles of trotting by the third postoperative month. The effects of treatment on the joint tissues were determined by weekly lameness examinations and measurement of the range of carpal joint motion, carpal radiographs at six and 17 weeks after surgery, synovial fluid analysis, and cytologic evaluation of alcohol-fixed synovial fluid specimens at weeks 1 through 4 and week 17, and histology of the synovial membrane. Ultrasound images of the carpi were acquired before operation and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 13, and 17. Ponies were euthanatized 17 weeks after surgery. Exercise, without medication, caused more lameness throughout the study compared with no exercise. Exercised, nonmedicated ponies had the greatest limitation to carpal flexion (more painful joints), and nonexercised, nonmedicated (control) ponies had the least limitation to flexion. Radiographic scores indicated that the exercised, nonmedicated ponies had significantly (p < .05) more signs of osteoarthritis than

  17. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  18. Joint research and development and exchange of technology on toxic material emergency response between LLNL and ENEA. 1985 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Caracciolo, R.

    1986-01-31

    For the past six years, the US Department of Energy, LLNL, and the ENEA, Rome, Italy, have participated in cooperative studies for improving a systems approach to an emergency response following nuclear accidents. Technology exchange between LLNL and the ENEA was initially confined to the development, application, and evaluation of atmospheric transport and diffusion models. With the emergence of compatible hardware configurations between LLNL and ENEA, exchanges of technology and ideas for improving the development and implementation of systems are beginning to emerge. This report describes cooperative work that has occurred during the past three years, the present state of each system, and recommendations for future exchanges of technology.

  19. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvez, Carlos Sabu; Carvalho de Moraes, Luis Otavio; Marques, Sergio R.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Harb, Leandro J. C.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose F.; Mérida-Velasco, Jose R.; Alonso, Luis Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. PMID:24527214

  20. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development.

    PubMed

    Alvez, Carlos Sabu; Carvalho de Moraes, Luis Otavio; Marques, Sergio R; Tedesco, Roberto C; Harb, Leandro J C; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose F; Mérida-Velasco, Jose R; Alonso, Luis Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial.

  1. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  2. Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Meghan R.; Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically…

  3. A serial study on the development of the temporomandibular joint in the fetal mouse--in particular on the fibrous component in the condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, M

    1990-06-01

    The development of the temporomandibular joint of 400 fetal mice at stages ranging from the 13th to the 20th day after insemination was investigated under the light, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopes. The differentiation and development of a cartilaginous tissue were observed at the supero-posterior end of the mandible at the 13 days after insemination. This tissue grew backward, upward and lateralward continuously and maintained a constant articulation with the squamosal part of the temporal bone. Seventeen days after insemination, cell layers in the condylar process and articular disc were arranged regularly. An supero- and inferno-directional cellular differentiation initiated from the subfibrous (SF) layer toward the articular spaces and cartilaginous layer was observed. The perichondrial ossification had taken place with the invasion of capillaries and the differentiation of osteoblasts in the SF layer, and was followed with a hypertrophic degeneration and endochondral ossification in the condylar process. Such a bi-directional growth of collagen and elastic fibers starting from the SF layer was also observed. Observation under SEM and TEM on the autoclaved condylar process revealed a complicated network consisted of main elastic fibers running in the sagittal direction. These fibers as well as the proteoglycan which contributes to the resilient property of the condylar cartilage and the ability to endure tensile or compressive stress from surrounding tissues during the growth and development of the mandibular condyle. The developing cartilaginous tissue was stimulated with the pressure from the masticatory muscles to initiate an active differentiation of the fibrous layer, which was invaded by the blood capillary system closely related with the subsequent endochondral ossification. These results elucidate that the development of the temporomandibular joint has closely kept relations with the functional influences from surrounding

  4. A Smooth Trajectory: Developing Continuity and Progression between Primary and Secondary Science Education through a Jointly-Planned Projectiles Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; McMahon, Kendra

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a two-year project--'Improving Science Together'--undertaken in 20 primary and four secondary schools in and around Bristol, UK. The project was funded by the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca PLC as part of their national Science Teaching Trust initiative, and had as one of its aims the development of…

  5. OSMOSIS: a new joint laboratory between SOFRADIR and ONERA for the development of advanced DDCA with integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druart, Guillaume; Matallah, Noura; Guerineau, Nicolas; Magli, Serge; Chambon, Mathieu; Jenouvrier, Pierre; Mallet, Eric; Reibel, Yann

    2014-06-01

    Today, both military and civilian applications require miniaturized optical systems in order to give an imagery function to vehicles with small payload capacity. After the development of megapixel focal plane arrays (FPA) with micro-sized pixels, this miniaturization will become feasible with the integration of optical functions in the detector area. In the field of cooled infrared imaging systems, the detector area is the Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assembly (DDCA). SOFRADIR and ONERA have launched a new research and innovation partnership, called OSMOSIS, to develop disruptive technologies for DDCA to improve the performance and compactness of optronic systems. With this collaboration, we will break down the technological barriers of DDCA, a sealed and cooled environment dedicated to the infrared detectors, to explore Dewar-level integration of optics. This technological breakthrough will bring more compact multipurpose thermal imaging products, as well as new thermal capabilities such as 3D imagery or multispectral imagery. Previous developments will be recalled (SOIE and FISBI cameras) and new developments will be presented. In particular, we will focus on a dual-band MWIR-LWIR camera and a multichannel camera.

  6. Development and application of a photogrammetric endoscopic system for measurement of misalignment and internal profile of welded joints in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.; Hofmann, Allan C.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Santos, João M. C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a new optical system to measure internal cylindrical surfaces combining photogrammetry and fringe projection. The device uses two identical cameras, equipped with spherical and conical lenses, facing each other and aligned with the optical axis. A 360° helical fringe projector is used to project a sequence of phase shifted helical fringe pattern in the inner surface to be measured. The phase patterns are used to identify corresponding points and to reconstruct the surface in a regular cylindrical mesh using an alternative approach. A prototype was built, calibrated and tested. The paper presents the results of an application where two welded joints were measured in a 150 mm (6") diameter pipe. The goal was to inspect for defects in the internal part of the welding seams and to measure the transversal misalignment between the jointed parts.

  7. Conducting a Competitive Prototype Acquisition Program: An Account of the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) Technology Development Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Manager Joint Light Tactical Vehicle PMR Program Management Review RFP Request For Proposal RM Risk Management RMAP Requirements Management and...weekly PM meetings, briefing Program Management Reviews ( PMRs ), and chairing meetings. The Functional IPTs sought face-to-face opportunities to...components of project execution were the quarterly PMRs that were held quarterly throughout the contract. Many were held in conjunction with another review

  8. Development of an innovative method to predict and to characterize the performances of Ti-6Al-4V LBW joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberini, Mariacira; Esposito, Sara; Reshad, Kambitz; Previtali, Barbara; Viola, Marco; Squillace, Antonino

    2016-10-01

    Every manufacturing process leaves on the surface of the piece a typical "technology signature". In particular, the laser welding leaves a feature at the edge of the weld bead called "undercut". In this work an experimental campaign has been conducted on Ti6Al4V butt joints. In particular a Central Composite Design (CCD) with the central point repeated three times has been investigated. In the CCD there are two factors (power and speed of the fiber laser) and five levels for each factor. This paper deals with the investigation about the correlation between the severity of the undercut and the process parameters of the laser welding. In particular, through the confocal microscopy, the original geometry of the joint was accurately acquired and rebuilt in order to make a FEM model and simulate the mechanical behavior using Ansys14.5. Moreover, response surfaces and level curves were carried out to understand and predict the depth and the width of the undercut starting from the power and the speed of the laser. At last a mathematic and geometry regression was performed in order to find a unique conical curve that interpolates all the different undercuts and that varies its parameters according to the process parameters. It is established that the process with higher speed minimizes and optimizes the undercut in the joints.

  9. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  10. Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazu; Li, Yingcui; Jakuba, Caroline; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Sayo, Tetsuya; Okuno, Misako; Dealy, Caroline N; Toole, Bryan P; Takeda, Junji; Yamaguchi, Yu; Kosher, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a structural component of extracellular matrices and also interacts with cell surface receptors to directly influence cell behavior. To explore functions of HA in limb skeletal development, we conditionally inactivated the gene for HA synthase 2, Has2, in limb bud mesoderm using mice that harbor a floxed allele of Has2 and mice carrying a limb mesoderm-specific Prx1-Cre transgene. The skeletal elements of Has2-deficient limbs are severely shortened, indicating that HA is essential for normal longitudinal growth of all limb skeletal elements. Proximal phalanges are duplicated in Has2 mutant limbs indicating an involvement of HA in patterning specific portions of the digits. The growth plates of Has2-deficient skeletal elements are severely abnormal and disorganized, with a decrease in the deposition of aggrecan in the matrix and a disruption in normal columnar cellular relationships. Furthermore, there is a striking reduction in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes and in the expression domains of markers of hypertrophic differentiation in the mutant growth plates, indicating that HA is necessary for the normal progression of chondrocyte maturation. In addition, secondary ossification centers do not form in the central regions of Has2 mutant growth plates owing to a failure of hypertrophic differentiation. In addition to skeletal defects, the formation of synovial joint cavities is defective in Has2-deficient limbs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HA has a crucial role in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and synovial joint formation in the developing limb.

  11. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... developed the f… Series Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Each of these age-based handouts are based ... report from the National Academy of Sciences on child and brain development. Podcast Nurturing Brain Development From Birth to Three ...

  12. Interleukin 1 beta, hand and foot bone mineral content and the development of joint erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    North, J; Situnayake, R D; Tikly, M; Cremona, A; Nicoll, J; Kumararatne, D S; Nuki, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relationship between plasma levels of the cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Two subgroups of patients, one with persistently raised ESR (>/= 50 mm/hour, n = 16, group A) and one with persistently low ESR (joint damage was measured over 12 months, together with plasma IL-1 beta and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. RESULTS--Significant progression of joint damage occurred in both subgroups over one year (p < 0.0001, paired t test) though progression was significantly less in the subgroup with low ESR (p < 0.05, ANOVA). Hand and foot bone mineral content decreased by almost 10% in the subgroup with raised ESR (p < 0.005, paired t test). Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed significant independent relationships between radiographic progression over one year and plasma IL-1 beta and ESR (multiple R 0.674, F = 11.64, p < 0.0002). No such relationships were observed for changes in bone mineral content parameters. CONCLUSIONS--Plasma IL-1 beta levels correlate weakly with progression of joint damage though not with loss of peripheral bone density in RA. A significant reduction in peripheral bone mineral content occurs over one year in patients with active RA with persistently raised ESR. PMID:7944642

  13. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research. PMID:22438711

  14. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  16. Joint Influence of Protein Supplements, Soft Drinks and Extreme Physical Activity on the Development of Acute Renal Failure and Hypokalaemia.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, S; Kitic, D; Kostic, M; Apostolovic, B; Brankovic, S; Ciric, I M; Velickovic-Radovanovic, R

    2015-11-13

    We present a case of a 33-year old man who complained of weakness, fever and decreased urinating. A personal history revealed a consumption of creatine, protein supplements, soft drinks containing caffeine and stevia, and extreme physical activity which included lifting of heavy weights. The patient developed anuria, uraemia, fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and paradoxical hypokalaemia. After the patient had seven successive dialysis treatments, normal kidney function was restored. The report presents the first case of acute renal failure followed by hypokalaemia due to the combined action of the excessive consumption of supplements, soft drinks with stevia and caffeine, and extreme physical activity.

  17. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  18. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the rat trigeminal ganglion during the development of temporomandibular joint inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, G.C.; Rizzi, E.; Gerlach, R.F.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain is a prevalent symptom in modern society. Some musculoskeletal orofacial pain is caused by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). This condition has a multi-factorial etiology, including emotional factors and alteration of the masticator muscle and temporomandibular joints (TMJs). TMJ inflammation is considered to be a cause of pain in patients with TMD. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes, specifically the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been shown to modulate inflammation and pain. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the expression and level of gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the trigeminal ganglion are altered during different stages of temporomandibular inflammation, as determined by gelatin zymography. This study also evaluated whether mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia, induced by the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the TMJ capsule, were altered by an MMP inhibitor (doxycycline, DOX). TMJ inflammation was measured by plasma extravasation in the periarticular tissue (Evans blue test) and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the synovial fluid (myeloperoxidase enzyme quantification). MMP expression in the trigeminal ganglion was shown to vary during the phases of the inflammatory process. MMP-9 regulated the early phase and MMP-2 participated in the late phase of this process. Furthermore, increases in plasma extravasation in periarticular tissue and myeloperoxidase activity in the joint tissue, which occurred throughout the inflammation process, were diminished by treatment with DOX, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor. Additionally, the increases of mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia were attenuated by the same treatment. PMID:24270905

  19. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  20. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  1. U.S.– India Joint Center for Building Energy Research and Development (CBERD) Caring for the Energy Health of Healthcare Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Reshma; Mathew, Paul; Granderson, Jessica; Srivastava, Rohini; Shukla, Rash

    2016-03-01

    The U.S.-India Joint Center for Building Energy Research & Development (CBERD), created through the Partnership to Accelerate Clean Energy (PACE) agreement between the United States and India, is a research and development (R&D) center with over 30 institutional and industry partners from both nations. This five-year presidential initiative is jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Government of India. CBERD aims to build upon a foundation of collaborative knowledge, tools, and technologies, and human capabilities that will increase development of high-performance buildings. To reach this goal, the R&D focuses on energy use reduction throughout the entire life cycle of buildings—i.e., design, construction, and operations. During the operations phase of buildings, even with best-practice energy-efficient design, actual energy use can be much higher than the design intent. Every day, much of the energy consumed by buildings serves no purpose (Roth et al. 2005). Building energy information systems (EIS) are commercially available systems that building owners and facility managers use to assess their building operations, measure, visualize, analyze, and report energy cost and consumption. Energy information systems can enable significant energy savings by tracking energy use, identifying consumption patterns, and benchmarking performance against similar buildings, thereby identifying improvement opportunities. The CBERD team has identified potential energy savings of approximately 2 quads of primary energy in the United States, while industry building energy audits in India have indicated potential energy savings of up to 30 percent in commercial buildings such as offices. Additionally, the CBERD team has identified healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals, clinics), hotels, and offices as the three of the highest-growth sectors in India that have significant energy consumption, and that would benefit the most from implementation of EIS.

  2. Coalbed gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties.

  3. Development of Torque Sensor with High Sensitivity for Joint of Robot Manipulator Using 4-Bar Linkage Shape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Ryoo, Young-Jae; Byun, Kyung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The torque sensor is used to measure the joint torque of a robot manipulator. Previous research showed that the sensitivity and the stiffness of torque sensors have trade-off characteristics. Stiffness has to be sacrificed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor. In this research, a new torque sensor with high sensitivity (TSHS) is proposed in order to resolve this problem. The key idea of the TSHS comes from its 4-bar linkage shape in which the angular displacement of a short link is larger than that of a long link. The sensitivity of the torque sensor with a 4-bar link shape is improved without decreasing stiffness. Optimization techniques are applied to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. An actual TSHS is constructed to verify the validity of the proposed mechanism. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of TSHS can be increased 3.5 times without sacrificing stiffness. PMID:27376304

  4. Yardang Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. A newly developed snow vehicle (SM100S) for Antarctica. Part 3: Low temperature toughness of the welded joints of the structural steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakui, Shin; Nakajima, Masashi

    1992-11-01

    For the purpose of developing a new snow vehicle (common use at temperature about -50 C) for the deep ice coring project at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, the low temperature toughness of the welded joints of structural steel was investigated. It is empirically well known that in case of vehicles employed in a cold air temperature of about -50 C, the low temperature brittle fracture of the structural members does not take place, if one uses semi-killed or killed steel, for which 50 percent FATT's (fracture appearance transition temperature) of the Charpy impact test is about -50 C and Charpy impact values at -50 C are 20 to 29 J/sq cm. In the present report, the Charpy impact test has been performed for both single pass SMAW (shield metal arc welding) and CO2 arc welded joints of JIS (Japan Industrial Standards) steels of SS400, SL2N255, STPL380, and STPL450. The test results show that the JIS steels of SL2N255 and STPL450 can be used for the new vehicle, considering their toughness.

  6. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junfen; Curtis, Neil; Fitton, Laura C; O'Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J

    2012-10-07

    An accurate, dynamic, functional model of the skull that can be used to predict muscle forces, bite forces, and joint reaction forces would have many uses across a broad range of disciplines. One major issue however with musculoskeletal analyses is that of muscle activation pattern indeterminacy. A very large number of possible muscle force combinations will satisfy a particular functional task. This makes predicting physiological muscle recruitment patterns difficult. Here we describe in detail the process of development of a complex multibody computer model of a primate skull (Macaca fascicularis), that aims to predict muscle recruitment patterns during biting. Using optimisation criteria based on minimisation of muscle stress we predict working to balancing side muscle force ratios, peak bite forces, and joint reaction forces during unilateral biting. Validation of such models is problematic; however we have shown comparable working to balancing muscle activity and TMJ reaction ratios during biting to those observed in vivo and that peak predicted bite forces compare well to published experimental data. To our knowledge the complexity of the musculoskeletal model is greater than any previously reported for a primate. This complexity, when compared to more simple representations provides more nuanced insights into the functioning of masticatory muscles. Thus, we have shown muscle activity to vary throughout individual muscle groups, which enables them to function optimally during specific masticatory tasks. This model will be utilised in future studies into the functioning of the masticatory apparatus.

  7. Digital correction of magnification in pelvic x rays for preoperative planning of hip joint replacements: Theoretical development and clinical results of a new protocol

    SciTech Connect

    The, B.; Diercks, R.L.; Stewart, R.E.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2005-08-15

    The introduction of digital radiological facilities leads to the necessity of digital preoperative planning, which is an essential part of joint replacement surgery. To avoid errors in the preparation and execution of hip surgery, reliable correction of the magnification of the projected hip is a prerequisite. So far, no validated method exists to accomplish this. We present validated geometrical models of the x-ray projection of spheres, relevant for the calibration procedure to correct for the radiographic magnification. With help of these models a new calibration protocol was developed. The validity and precision of this procedure was determined in clinical practice. Magnification factors could be predicted with a maximal margin of error of 1.5%. The new calibration protocol is valid and reliable. The clinical tests revealed that correction of magnification has a 95% margin of error of -3% to +3%. Future research might clarify if a strict calibration protocol, as presented in this study, results in more accurate preoperative planning of hip joint replacements.

  8. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a 10-minute videotaped free play task with parents. Engagement states ranged from the lowest (unengaged) to the highest level (symbol-infused coordinated). Standardized language measures were administered. Results Multivariate analyses were conducted between the groups, stratified by chronological and language age. Children who were deaf (Deaf) spent less time in total symbol-infused JE than children with normal hearing (NH) across all ages. The majority of the Deaf group (83%) fell in the lowest language age group, in comparison to 35% of the NH group, and spent significantly less time in symbol-infused JE than hearing children. These delays were also observed in the Deaf group, who fell into the 18-36 month language age. No children in the Deaf group had achieved a language age of >36 months. Conclusions Young children with and without hearing had different developmental trajectories of JE, which were related to oral language skills. PMID:24845423

  9. The Development of the Joint NASA GSFC and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Geopotential Model EGM96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Kenyon, S.C.; Factor, J. K.; Trimmer, R. G.; Pavlis, N. K.; Chinn, D. S.; Cox, C. M.; Klosko, S. M.; Luthcke, S. B.; Torrence, M. H.; Wang, Y. M.; Williamson, R. G.; Pavlis, E. C.; Rapp, R. H.; Olson, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), and The Ohio State University (OSU) have collaborated to develop an improved spherical harmonic model of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360. The new model, Earth Gravitational Model 1996 (EGM96), incorporates improved surface gravity data, altimeter-derived gravity anomalies from ERS-1 and from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM), extensive satellite tracking data-including new data from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), the Global Postioning System (GPS), NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the French DORIS system, and the US Navy TRANET Doppler tracking system-as well as direct altimeter ranges from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), ERS-1, and GEOSAT. The final solution blends a low-degree combination model to degree 70, a block-diagonal solution from degree 71 to 359, and a quadrature solution at degree 360. The model was used to compute geoid undulations accurate to better than one meter (with the exception of areas void of dense and accurate surface gravity data) and realize WGS84 as a true three-dimensional reference system. Additional results from the EGM96 solution include models of the dynamic ocean topography to degree 20 from T/P and ERS-1 together, and GEOSAT separately, and improved orbit determination for Earth-orbiting satellites.

  10. Interaction of Cutibacterium ( formerly Propionibacterium) acnes with bone cells: a step toward understanding bone and joint infection development

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Baud’huin, Marc; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Brion, Régis; Gouin, François; Lepelletier, Didier; Jacqueline, Cédric; Heymann, Dominique; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) is recognized as a pathogen in foreign-body infections (arthroplasty or spinal instrumentation). To date, the direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells has never been explored. The clade of 11 C. acnes clinical isolates was determined by MLST. Human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were infected by live C. acnes. The whole genome sequence of six isolates of this collection was analyzed. CC36 C. acnes strains were significantly less internalized by osteoblasts and osteoclasts than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes strains (p ≤ 0.05). The CC18 C. acnes ATCC6919 isolate could survive intracellularly for at least 96 hours. C. acnes significantly decreased the resorption ability of osteoclasts with a major impact by the CC36 strain (p ≤ 0.05). Genome analysis revealed 27 genes possibly linked to these phenotypic behaviors. We showed a direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells, providing new explanations about the development of C. acnes foreign-body infections. PMID:28218305

  11. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  12. Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly drive forest development after fire in the North American boreal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N. J.; Bergeron, Y.; Xu, X.; Welp, L. R.; Medvigy, D.

    2016-09-01

    Previous empirical work has shown that feedbacks between fire severity, soil organic layer thickness, tree recruitment, and forest growth are important factors controlling carbon accumulation after fire disturbance. However, current boreal forest models inadequately simulate this feedback. We address this deficiency by updating the ED2 model to include a dynamic feedback between soil organic layer thickness, tree recruitment, and forest growth. The model is validated against observations spanning monthly to centennial time scales and ranging from Alaska to Quebec. We then quantify differences in forest development after fire disturbance resulting from changes in soil organic layer accumulation, temperature, nitrogen availability, and atmospheric CO2. First, we find that ED2 accurately reproduces observations when a dynamic soil organic layer is included. Second, simulations indicate that the presence of a thick soil organic layer after a mild fire disturbance decreases decomposition and productivity. The combination of the biological and physical effects increases or decreases total ecosystem carbon depending on local conditions. Third, with a 4°C temperature increase, some forests transition from undergoing succession to needleleaf forests to recruiting multiple cohorts of broadleaf trees, decreasing total ecosystem carbon by ˜40% after 300 years. However, the presence of a thick soil organic layer due to a persistently mild fire regime can prevent this transition and mediate carbon losses even under warmer temperatures. Fourth, nitrogen availability regulates successional dynamics; broadleaf species are less competitive with needleleaf trees under low nitrogen regimes. Fifth, the boreal forest shows additional short-term capacity for carbon sequestration as atmospheric CO2 increases.

  13. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors

  14. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  15. Development of a mediated whole cell-based electrochemical biosensor for joint toxicity assessment of multi-pollutants using a mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanyue; Qian, Jun; Fang, Deyu; Yu, Yuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2016-06-14

    Since most risk assessment for toxicants is based on individual single-species test, the deduction of such results to ecosystem evaluation is afflicted with uncertainties. Herein, we successfully developed a p-benzoquinone mediated whole-cell electrochemical biosensor for multi-pollutants toxicological analysis by co-immobilizing mixed strains of microorganism, including Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive bacteria) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (fungus). The individual and combined toxicities of heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Cd(2+)), phenol (3,5-dichlorophenol) and pesticides (Ametryn, Acephate) were examined. The experimental results showed that the order of toxicity for individual toxicant was ranked as Cu(2+) > 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) > Ametryn > Cd(2+) > Acephate. Then the toxic unit (TU) model was applied to determine the nature of toxicological interaction of the toxicants which can be classified as concentration additive (IC50mix = 1TU), synergistic (IC50mix < 1TU) and antagonistic (IC50mix > 1TU) responses. The binary combination of Cu(2+) + Cd(2+), Cu(2+) + DCP, Cu(2+) + Acephate, DCP + Acephate, Acephate + Ametryn were analyzed and the three kind of joint toxicity effects (i.e. additive, synergistic and antagonistic) mentioned above were observed according to the dose-response relationship. The results indicate that the whole-cell electrochemical biosensor based on mixed microbial consortium is more reasonable to reflect the joint biotoxicity of multi-pollutants existing in real wastewater, and combined effects of toxicants is extremely necessary to be taken into account in ecological risk assessment. Thus, present study has provided a promising approach to the quality assessment of wastewater and a reliable way for early risk warning of acute biotoxicity.

  16. Development of a Joint Inversion Technique using Gravimetric and Muon-radiographic Data for Resolving Three-dimensional Density Structure of a Gigantic Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, R.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Okubo, S.; Oshima, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a method of analyzing gravimetric and muon-radiographic data for visualizing a three-dimensional density structure of a volcano. The method searches for a density structure that best explains the muon and gravity data simultaneously. For finding a solution, techniques in least-squares inversion were employed. According to the model simulation we have conducted, this new method was proved to have higher potential than previous gravimetric inversion and previous muon tomography [Taira,2010; Tanaka et al.,2010]. As a demonstration, we applied this method to Mt. Showa-Shinzan lava dome, Hokkaido, Japan. At this site, muon observation has already been performed with emulsion cloud chamber (ECC). The effective area of ECC was 1200 cm2, and the exposure time was 4 month.Tanaka et al.,[2007] calculated the amount of matter on the muon trajectories in the unit of gcm-2 (density times length). In addition to the muon data, we newly collected gravity data at 35 stations on / around the lava dome. The data was measured by using a LaCoste Romberg Gravimeter (G-875). Position of a gravity station was determined by GPS interferometry between a reference station and a moving station. Thereby, we conducted joint inversion of the muon and gravity data. The joint inversion yielded us the three-dimensional density profile of Mt.Showa-Shinzan. The density profile suggested the two features of the dome. Firstly, lava had intruded beneath the dome in a cylindrical shape whose diameter was 300 meter. This is inferred by the existence of high density(ρ > 2.4g/cc) region localized at an altitude of 220 ~ 260 meter. Secondly, we found a ultra high density region which was suspected to be a spine spreading vertically near the top of the dome.

  17. Limited joint mobility is associated with the presence but does not predict the development of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arkkila, P E; Kantola, I M; Viikari, J S; Rönnemaa, T; Vähätalo, M A

    1996-09-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that limited joint mobility (LJM) is associated with microvascular complications in diabetic patients. This study was performed to see whether LJM predicts the development of other diabetic complications and which factors predispose to the development of LJM. A total of 206 Type 1 diabetic patients (mean age 30.0 +/- 9.5 (SD) years) was studied at baseline. The follow-up study was performed 5 years later in 167 of 206 (81.1%) patients. At the baseline the presence of LJM was assessed by asking patients to approximate the palmar surfaces of fingers in a praying position with fingers fanned and the wrists maximally flexed. LJM was confirmed by passive extension. At the follow-up LJM was first reassessed by the same method and then further studied by goniometer and classified by the method of Rosenbloom. The diabetic patients were assessed in terms of the following complications: background and proliferative retinopathy, peripheral symmetrical polyneuropathy, and clinical nephropathy. The prevalence of LJM was 52.9% at baseline. The odds ratio for proliferative retinopathy was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and for neuropathy 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-5.3) in diabetic patients with LJM compared to patients without LJM, when the confounding effect of the duration of diabetes, age and the body mass index was excluded. LJM developed in 30 patients during the 5-year follow-up (7% per year) and its development was not predicted by any of the microvascular complications at baseline. Proliferative retinopathy developed in 4 of 51 (7.8%) patients with and 3 of 63 (4.8%) patients without LJM at baseline (p = 0.3). Nephropathy developed in 11 of 56 (19.6%) patients with and 11 of 66 (16.7%) patients without LJM at baseline (p = 0.7) and peripheral symmetrical neuropathy in 14 of 45 (31.1%) and 20 of 64 (31.3%) patients respectively (p = 1.0). LJM did not predict diabetic microvascular complications or vice versa. Since

  18. Toddler development

    MedlinePlus

    Toddlers are children ages 1 to 3. CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Cognitive (thought) development skills typical for toddlers include: Early use of instruments or tools Following visual (then later, invisible) displacement (moving from ...

  19. Preschooler development

    MedlinePlus

    ... little differently. If you are concerned about your child's development, talk to your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Development Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  1. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  2. Developer Network

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  3. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of…

  4. Resume Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    This paper presents a step-by-step guide for developing a resume as part of a job search campaign. The paper presents the following information: purposes of the resume; steps in resume development; resume formats; resume headings; and some "do's and some "don't's." The paper also includes a list of 161 action verbs for use in resume development, a…

  5. Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Eight conference papers on language teacher development are presented, including: "Mosaics of Teacher Development and Socialization" (Andrew Barfield, Paul A. Beaufait, Sean Conley, Tim Murphey, Katsura Haruko), a panel presentation on aspects of and experiments in teacher development; "Questions About Teaching? Answers from…

  6. Instructional Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of conditions that combine to influence the selection and implementation of instructional development as an approach to solving educational problems in developing nations focuses on prevailing traditions, economics, and internal and external politics. (MBR)

  7. A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2009-06-03

    With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

  8. The joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure: development and cross-validation of a six-factor model of cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Price, Larry R

    2003-06-01

    During the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (3rd ed.; WMS-III) the participants in the normative study completed both scales. This "co-norming" methodology set the stage for full integration of the 2 tests and the development of an expanded structure of cognitive functioning. Until now, however, the WAIS-III and WMS-III had not been examined together in a factor analytic study. This article presents a series of confirmatory factor analyses to determine the joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach, a 6-factor model that included verbal, perceptual, processing speed, working memory, auditory memory, and visual memory constructs provided the best model fit to the data. Allowing select subtests to load simultaneously on 2 factors improved model fit and indicated that some subtests are multifaceted. The results were then replicated in a large cross-validation sample (N = 858).

  9. JPRS Report Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    biological methods for improvement of soil, chemical spray. Insect control through baits has been nitrogen fixation, better utilisation of biomass...Temperature Reactor ...................................................... 32 Joint Research and Development [Frankfurt/Main FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 3 Nov...Brazil, Indonesia telling others not to acquire that capacity while they obtained their first research reactor , as Dr. Shamsideen JPRS-TND-88-003 25

  10. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding international differences from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    Cauley, Jane A; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada; Arabi, Asma; Fujiwara, Saeko; Ragi-Eis, Sergio; Calderon, Andrew; Chionh, Siok Bee; Chen, Zhao; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Danielson, Michelle E; Hanley, David A; Kroger, Heikki; Kung, Annie W C; Lesnyak, Olga; Nieves, Jeri; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; El Rassi, Rola; Silverman, Stuart; Schott, Anne-Marie; Rizzoli, Rene; Luckey, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious worldwide epidemic. Increased risk of fractures is the hallmark of the disease and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and economic burden. FRAX® is a web-based tool developed by the Sheffield WHO Collaborating Center team, that integrates clinical risk factors, femoral neck BMD, country specific mortality and fracture data and calculates the 10 year fracture probability in order to help health care professionals identify patients who need treatment. However, only 31 countries have a FRAX® calculator at the time paper was accepted for publication. In the absence of a FRAX® model for a particular country, it has been suggested to use a surrogate country for which the epidemiology of osteoporosis most closely approximates the index country. More specific recommendations for clinicians in these countries are not available. In North America, concerns have also been raised regarding the assumptions used to construct the US ethnic specific FRAX® calculators with respect to the correction factors applied to derive fracture probabilities in Blacks, Asians and Hispanics in comparison to Whites. In addition, questions were raised about calculating fracture risk in other ethnic groups e.g., Native Americans and First Canadians. In order to provide additional guidance to clinicians, a FRAX® International Task Force was formed to address specific questions raised by physicians in countries without FRAX® calculators and seeking to integrate FRAX® into their clinical practice. The main questions that the task force tried to answer were the following: The Task Force members conducted appropriate literature reviews and developed preliminary statements that were discussed and graded by a panel of experts at the ISCD-IOF joint conference. The statements approved by the panel of experts are discussed in the current paper.

  11. [Implementation of the program of "Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education to Train Pharmacists in Leadership" under the joint operation of the pharmaceutical departments in fourteen national universities].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazumasa; Tamura, Satoru; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2012-01-01

    "Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education Program to Train Pharmacists with Leadership" applied jointly by the pharmaceutical departments of fourteen national universities was selected to receive the special expenditure support of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for fiscal year 2010 under "the Training of Highly Skillful Professionals and Improvement of the Quality of the Function of Professional Education". This project is to promote the collaborative development of the educational program which will make it possible to further advance and substantiate the education of pharmacists in the six year course of the pharmaceutical department for the ultimate purpose to introduce pharmacists with leadership who can play an active role and fill in a leadership position in a wide range of responsibilities into the society which, more and more, has come to expect pharmacy to take the initiative in acting against health hazards caused by infections, foods and environmental pollution as well as to meet the diversification of healthcare. To be more specific, this project is to try and evaluate the following programs repeatedly based on the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle: 1) Practical medical and pharmaceutical education program; 2) Program concerning research on long term themes and advanced education; 3) Program concerning training and education of SPs (standardized patients or simulated patients) and PBL (problem-based learning) tutorial education; and 4) Program concerning the method of evaluation of education. Through this repeated trial and evaluation, this project ultimately seeks to construct a highly effective practical educational program which integrates each university's achievements and educational attempts rich in originality.

  12. In Focus: Are the Social Partners in Central and Eastern Europe Ready To Follow the French Example of Developing a Joint Inter-Sectoral Mechanism for the Accreditation of Qualifications? Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deij, Arjen

    2002-01-01

    The French employers federation (MEDEF) has taken the initiative to develop a joint inter-sectoral mechanism for accreditation of occupational competences. The approach analyzes occupations at a more abstract level than the tasks performed within a specific job to facilitate comparison of different occupations from different sectors and allow…

  13. Program Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  14. Developing Regionalized Models of Lithospheric Thickness and Velocity Structure Across Eurasia and the Middle East from Jointly Inverting P-Wave and S-Wave Receiver Functions with Rayleigh Wave Group and Phase Velocities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    DEVELOPING REGIONALIZED MODELS OF LITHOSPHERIC THICKNESS AND VELOCITY STRUCTURE ACROSS EURASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST FROM JOINTLY INVERTING P-WAVE...09NA293221 and DE-AC52-07NA273442 Proposal No. BAA09-13 ABSTRACT The main goal of this project is to develop models of lithospheric velocity...of the lithosphere are key for accurately modeling not only travel times but also surface-wave dispersion velocities and full waveforms at regional

  15. KENO developments

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Modifications and developments to the series of KENO multigroup, criticality safety transport codes are very briefly summarized. Three areas are addressed: (1) modifications to KENO-V.a, (2) development of KENO-VI, (3) modifications to the CSAS4 sequence of the SCALE package, and (4) future work on KENO related programs. Minor changes have been made to KENO-V.a, primarily for maintenance. KENO-VI has been developed and will be released soon. A new search type is being developed in SCALE to allow CSAS4 to do a concentration search on a mixture component.

  16. [Toddler Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme newsletter issue presents seven articles describing toddler behavior and development, services for toddlers, and toddlers with special needs. The first article, "Toddlers: Themes and Variations" (Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen Small) focuses on variations in toddler development, noting emerging skills, language, and the caregiver role.…

  17. Talent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on talent development in students who are gifted or have special talents contains several feature articles, editorials, and a calendar of events. Articles have the following titles and authors: "Talent Development in Education" (John F. Feldhusen) proposes four domains for fostering talent in all youth:…

  18. Developing Computation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Alistair

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of a state project that focused on the effect of developing informal written computation processes through Years 2-4. The "developing computation" project was conducted in Tasmania over the two years 2002-2003 and involved nine schools: five government schools, two Catholic schools, and…

  19. Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  20. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  1. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This serial issue contains 12 articles on the theme of "Professional Development," specifically about how teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network (BLRTN) are fostering their own and each other's development as teachers. The BLRTN consists of approximately 260 rural teachers in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky,…

  2. Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management development. "LMX (Leader-Member Exchange) Theory, Personality Type, and Management Development" (Janet Z. Burns) reports the results of a study on the similarities and differences in personality type (as outlined in the theories of Carl Jung and Isabel Myers) and its relationship…

  3. Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reusswig, James, Ed.; Ponzio, Richard, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Eight essays are presented which reflect current problems, issues, and practices related to the development of teacher and administrator expertise. The authors are school district and public school administrators, faculty of schools of education, and a director of staff development in a state department of education. The topics treated are: (1)…

  4. Powerstick development

    SciTech Connect

    Borshchevsky, A.; Chmielewski, A.; Chen-Kuo, H.; Bass, J.; Bugby, D.; Pustovalov, A.; Gusev, V.

    1997-12-31

    A device called a Powerstick is being developed to satisfy the requirements of several potential solar system exploration missions. The Powerstick is a small power source consisting of three major components: a space qualified heat source (RHU), a thermopile (thermoelectric converter) and a set of rechargeable batteries. The Powerstick merges several devices developed earlier by the space power programs. The RHU was developed by DOE for the Galileo and Ulysses missions, the thermopile is a combination of the early RTG technology and pace maker technology with new packaging techniques, and a lithium-ion rechargeable battery is currently being developed for space applications. NASA has recently awarded a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) contract to Hi-Z Technology, Inc. of San Diego to manufacture a miniaturized thermopile and provide a preliminary design of the Powerstick. JPL`s Solar System Exploration Program funded Powerstick prototype design and fabrication contract with Swales and Associates, Inc. The Swales unit and the Hi-Z thermopile will be integrated at JPL. This integrated prototype with the thermopile, rechargeable batteries and electrical RHU simulator will be tested at JPL. At the same time JPL is pursuing a ruggedized Powerstick development with the Russian company BIAPOS. BIAPOS is to independently design, build and deliver to JPL for testing their own version of the Powerstick. According to the technology development road map for small space sources the American and Russian efforts will lead to the development of an engineering and qualification Powerstick unit by the end of the century.

  5. Validation of hip joint center localization methods during gait analysis using 3D EOS imaging in typically developing and cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Assi, Ayman; Sauret, Christophe; Massaad, Abir; Bakouny, Ziad; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-07-01

    Localization of the hip joint center (HJC) is essential in computation of gait data. EOS low dose biplanar X-rays have been shown to be a good reference in evaluating various methods of HJC localization in adults. The aim is to evaluate predictive and functional techniques for HJC localization in typically developing (TD) and cerebral palsy (CP) children, using EOS as an image based reference. Eleven TD and 17 CP children underwent 3D gait analysis. Six HJC localization methods were evaluated in each group bilaterally: 3 predictive (Plug in Gait, Bell and Harrington) and 3 functional methods based on the star arc technique (symmetrical center of rotation estimate, center transformation technique and geometrical sphere fitting). All children then underwent EOS low dose biplanar radiographs. Pelvis, lower limbs and their corresponding external markers were reconstructed in 3D. The center of the femoral head was considered as the reference (HJCEOS). Euclidean distances between HJCs estimated by each of the 6 methods and the HJCEOS were calculated; distances were shown to be lower in predictive compared to functional methods (p<0.0001). Contrarily to findings in adults, functional methods were shown to be less accurate than predictive methods in TD and CP children, which could be mainly due to the shorter thigh segment in children. Harrington method was shown to be the most accurate in the prediction of HJC (mean error≈18mm, SD=9mm) and quasi-equivalent to the Bell method. The bias for each method was quantified, allowing its correction for an improved HJC estimation.

  6. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, O.; Dufresne, A.; Pédrot, M.; Chatton, E.; Labasque, T.; Ben Maamar, S.; Burté, L.; de la Bernardie, J.; Guihéneuf, N.; Lavenant, N.; Petton, C.; Bour, O.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydro-logical systems. Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is observed in an 130m deep artesian well. Borehole video logs show an important colonization of the well by the biofilm in the shallower part (0 to 60m), while it is inexistent in the deeper part (60 to 130m). As flow is localized in a few deep and shallow fractures, we presume that the spatial distribution of biofilm is controlled by mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. To verify this hypothesis we conducted a field campaign with joint characterization of the flow and chemical composition of water flowing from the different fractures, as well as the microbiological composition of the biofilm at different depth, using pyrosequencing techniques. We will discuss in this presentation the results of this interdisciplinary dataset and their implications for the occurrence of hotspots of microbiological activity in the subsurface.

  7. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated.

  8. Technology development.

    PubMed

    Gomory, R E

    1983-05-06

    In technology development significant advances are as often the result of a series of evolutionary steps as they are of breakthroughs. This is illustrated by the examples of the steam engine and the computer. Breakthroughs, such as the transistor, are relatively rare, and are often the result of the introduction of new knowledge coming from a quite different area. Technology development is often difficult to predict because of its complexity; practical considerations may far outweigh apparent scientific advantages, and cultural factors enter in at many levels. In a large technological organization problems exist in bringing scientific knowledge to bear on development, but much can be done to obviate these difficulties.

  9. Demonstration-site development and phytoremediation processes associated with trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale phytoremediation demonstration study was initiated in 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, at a site on Naval Air StationJoint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) adjacent to Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) in Fort Worth, Tex. (fig. 1). Trichloroethene (TCE) has been used at AFP4 in aircraft manufacturing processes for decades; spills and leaks from tanks in the manufacturing building have resulted in shallow ground-water contamination on-site and downgradient from the facility (Eberts and others, 2003). The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in decreasing the mass of dissolved TCE in ground water through phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a process by which plants decrease the mass of a contaminant through a variety of chemical, physical, and biological means. Before development of the phytoremediation demonstration site, natural attenuation of TCE at the site occurred by sorption, dispersion, dilution, and possibly volatilization (Eberts and others, 2003).Long-term, field-scale monitoring and evaluation of this site contribute to the understanding of the processes associated with phytoremediation and provide practical information about field-scale applications of the method. This fact sheet briefly summarizes the development of the phytoremediation demonstration site at NAS–JRB and describes some of the physical and chemical processes associated with phytoremediation. The phytoremediation demonstration site is on the southern edge of the central lobe of a TCE plume in the surficial (alluvial) aquifer. The plume originates at AFP4 about 0.9 mile upgradient from the site (fig. 1). The 9.5-acre site is in the northwestern corner of the golf course on NAS–JRB. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer, which is composed of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, ranges from about 1.5 to 5 feet at the site. The total thickness of the alluvial

  10. Toddler Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... watch your toddler learn new skills. The normal development of children aged 1-3 includes several areas: Gross motor - walking, running, climbing Fine motor - feeding themselves, drawing Sensory - seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, and smelling Language - saying ...

  11. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  12. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  13. Organisational development.

    PubMed

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the NHS Improvement national leadership and improvement strategy is to encourage leaders at all levels to develop leadership skills in their staff and themselves. It focuses on fostering compassionate, collaborative and inclusive leadership.

  14. Development risks

    SciTech Connect

    Riedy, M.; Desai, S.

    1996-04-01

    Risks associated with hydropower production development in India are discussed in this article. A project prospectus for the development of India`s estimated 84,044 MW(e) hydropower potential is given which accounts for environmental and regulatory concerns. Regulations issued by the Government of Industry regarding private investment in hydropower are outlined, and additional policies which are expected to be instituted are discussed.

  15. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  16. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2002-01-01

    The shoot system is the basic unit of development of seed plants and is composed of a leaf, a stem, and a lateral bud that differentiates into a lateral shoot. The most specialized organ in angiosperms, the flower, can be considered to be part of the same shoot system since floral organs, such as the sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel, are all modified leaves. Scales, bracts, and certain kinds of needle are also derived from leaves. Thus, an understanding of leaf development is critical to an understanding of shoot development. Moreover, leaves play important roles in photosynthesis, respiration and photoperception. Thus, a full understanding of leaves is directly related to a full understanding of seed plants. The details of leaf development remain unclear. The difficulties encountered in studies of leaf development, in particular in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Henyn., are derived from the complex process of leaf development, during which the division and elongation of cells occur at the same time and in the same region of the leaf primordium (Maksymowych, 1963; Poethig and Sussex, 1985). Thus, we cannot divide the entire process into unit processes in accordance with the tenets of classical anatomy. Genetic approaches in Arabidopsis, a model plant (Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1985), have provided a powerful tool for studies of mechanisms of leaf development in dicotyledonous plants, and various aspects of the mechanisms that control leaf development have been revealed in recent developmental and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis (for reviews, see Tsukaya, 1995 and 1998; Van Lijsebettens and Clarke, 1998; Sinha, 1999; Van Volkenburgh, 1999; Tsukaya, 2000; Byrne et al., 2001; Dengler and Kang, 2001; Dengler and Tsukaya, 2001; Tsukaya, 2001). In this review, we shall examine the information that is currently available about various mechanisms of leaf development in Arabidopsis. Vascular patterning is also an important factor in the

  17. Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.

    PubMed

    Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

    1999-08-01

    Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were

  18. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  19. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ARCADE enclave is hosted at AFRL /RV, physically located at Kirtland AFB. All of the described enclaves are accessible through the internet at...partnership with AFRL /RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL /RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development...process. AFRL /RV and AFRL /RD have created development environments that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources

  20. Superconductor developments

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, D.

    1989-04-05

    I will cover the technology of the new oxide supeconductors and how they might relate to the existing superconductors. Fermilab and the high energy physics community in general have had much to do with the development of the ''old'' superconductors. Bednorz and M/umlt u/ller must be credited with the idea of setting out on the search for the new superconductors.

  1. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlsson, Ed.; Rabusicova, Milada; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The development of early childhood education (ECE) in Europe and beyond is inextricably linked with women's roles and power in society. Towards the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century in a context of urbanisation and industrialisation the need for some sort of public childcare became apparent in many countries. Whereas…

  2. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlson; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Pirard, Florence; Peeters, Jan; Alvestad, Marit

    2009-01-01

    New developments and challenges regarding early childhood education (ECE) policy and practice in Norway and in the Flemish and French communities in Belgium are presented in this issue. There are clear differences between the countries when comparing systems they have chosen for ECE. In Belgium, supervision and responsibilities for education,…

  3. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  4. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  5. Trends Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier Service, 1981

    1981-01-01

    This issue contains extracts from twenty-one country reports and case studies presented to the Unesco Regional Seminar on Adult Education and Development in Bangkok, November 24-December 4, 1980. The excerpts have an emphasis on innovations in adult education in the region. Countries and programs discussed include (1) community…

  6. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  7. Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on work force development. "Effects of Two Different Learning Paths on School-to-Work Transition" (Esther Van Der Schoot) discusses a Dutch study documenting that the following items make a difference in the school-to-work transition: learning path, curriculum characteristics, individual…

  8. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  9. DEVELOP Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    DEVELOP team members at Stennis Space Center for the summer 2007 term are (from left): front row, students Deirdra Boley, Jason Jones, Lauren Childs, Craig Matthews and Denise Spindel; back row, advisers Cheri Miller of NASA, Kenton Ross of Science Systems and Applications Inc., Andra Johnson of Southern University and Roxzana Moore, SSAI.

  10. Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The 1974 Educational Testing Service (ETS) Measurement Award was presented to J.P. Guilford at the ETS Invitational Conference. Irving Kristol, in "Moral and Ethical Development in a Democratic Society," called for the restoration of authority within our major social institutions, especially schools. Martin Trow examined the effects of the college…

  11. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Gordon I.; Jervis, Robert

    Resulting in part from a project designed to identify and describe comprehensive programs of excellence in career education, this booklet is the eighth in a series describing current, successful career education practices. A successful career education program is dependent upon professional development. Based on this premise, the monograph: (1)…

  12. Electrifying Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With technical assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center and Kennedy Space Center, Protective Cable and Wire developed Lightning Retardant Cable (LRC). LRC improves lightning protection over standard coaxial cable by 100 percent. The LRC design keeps lightning from traveling through the cable, preventing damage to satellites, antennas, and cable systems. LRC is now being used in homes as well as airports.

  13. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, James; Sayre, Janette S.

    1982-01-01

    Through professional development activities, physical education faculty members can meet important challenges in their field: (1) keep current in their subjects; (2) learn additional skills; (3) take on new tasks; (4) perform old tasks in different ways; (5) increase scholarship; and (6) increase instructional competence. (CJ)

  14. Management Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    They apply to training in specific skills as well as In broad educational domains; to present job or future career. They should be understood In the...performance by Imparting knowledge, modifying attitudes, or Increasing skills (House, 1967, P. 13). These attempts range from completely formal...the organization. Training or Education? Traditionally, training (management development Included) connoted teaching skills for a specific purpose

  15. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  16. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  17. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson-Lohmander, Maelis

    2005-01-01

    A growing number of countries have recognised the importance of high quality early childhood provision for the development of the young child and the impact on economic growth and prosperity. What shapes Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in an expanding Europe of today? Many factors clearly influence policy decisions and program…

  18. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  19. CAREER DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baltimore Summit Project on Career Development/PERFORMS Enhancement/360 Evaluations for All has made some progress. We have identified the fact that we cannot change the current Pass/Fail PERFORMS system to a tiered system. The current pass/fail system does not have a mechani...

  20. Developing Regionalized Models of Lithospheric Thickness and Velocity Structure Across Eurasia and the Middle East from Jointly Inverting P-Wave and S-Wave Receiver Functions with Rayleigh Wave Group and Phase Velocities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    DEVELOPING REGIONALIZED MODELS OF LITHOSPHERIC THICKNESS AND VELOCITY STRUCTURE ACROSS EURASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST FROM JOINTLY INVERTING P-WAVE... lithospheric velocity structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East. We expect the regionalized models will improve...important differences in lithospheric structure between the cratonic regions of Eastern Europe and the tectonic regions of Western Europe and the

  1. Oh, Develop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2003-01-01

    In a mature view of the subject, career development is not simply four years of college or a week at training, culminating in a diploma or a certificate to hang on an office wall. That's why we wanted to take a broad look at career development in this issue of ASK. Take for example, Dr. Gerald Mulenburg s contribution, Fly on the Wall. When Mulenburg and other members of a knowledge-sharing group at Ames were invited to observe an upcoming project review, Mulenburg thought it would be interesting to learn how another project does its reviews. Note that Mulenburg is no fresh out who's never attended a NASA project review. Not only has he been through a fair share of them as the reviewed, he has also been on the other side of the table as a reviewer. This experienced project manager recognizes that at any stage of a career there is room to grow and develop one's repertoire. Too often people associate career development with textbooks and role classroom training, far removed from project life. But classroom training need not be like this, as you'll find in our Special Feature, The Enterprise Project by Wendy Dolci, which sprung out of an APPL Advanced Project Management class in July 2003 at Ames Research Center. In addition to Dolci, some of her classmates contribute to the story. Mike Sander of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, project manager for the Mars Science Laboratory mission, who provided the assignment on which the story is based, also has a cameo in the story. We think Dolci's story is an inspiring example of what classroom training can be if it's approached imaginatively and made to serve a practical purpose. Another story from Ames, by Frank Larsen, takes a different twist on career development. At the annual Experimental Aircraft Association Fly-in in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Larsen represented Ames at a NASA booth. While there, Larsen met a colleague from Glenn Research Center. Months later on a project with a quick turnaround, he remembered his colleague from

  2. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runco, A.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Murray-Krezan, J.

    2014-09-01

    The JSpOC Mission System is a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA). The JMS program has already delivered Increment 1 in April 2013 as initial capability to operations. The programs current focus, Increment 2, will be completed by 2016 and replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. Post 2016, JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources with more agility. In 2012, the JMS Program Office entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD have created development environments at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources. The unclassified ARCADE utilizes the Maui high performance computing (HPC) Portal, and can be accessed using a CAC or Kerberos using Yubikey. This environment gives developers a sandbox

  3. Professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  4. Developing ADHD.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental disturbance--but much remains to be done to translate understanding into practice. More effective treatment may come from identifying and treating more specific components of disorder and by a focus on identifying the factors determining course in the longer term so that they, as well as the core features of disorder, can become targets for intervention.

  5. Bone development

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Agnes D.; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the vertebrate skeleton reflects its evolutionary history. Cartilage formation came before biomineralization and a head skeleton evolved before the formation of axial and appendicular skeletal structures. This review describes the processes that result in endochondral and intramembranous ossification, the important roles of growth and transcription factors, and the consequences of mutations in some of the genes involved. Following a summary of the origin of cartilage, muscle, and tendon cell lineages in the axial skeleton, we discuss the role of muscle forces in the formation of skeletal architecture and assembly of musculoskeletal functional units. Finally, ontogenetic patterning of bones in response to mechanical loading is reviewed. PMID:26453494

  6. Energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Jones, L.L.C.; Lovich, R. L.; Halama, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of the desert southwest are currently developed or being evaluated for construction of utility-scale renewable energy projects. These projects include numerous solar and wind energy facilities some of which will be massive. Unfortunately, peer-reviewed scientific publications are not yet available to evaluate the potential effects of solar-based utility-scale renewable energy development (USRED) on any species of wildlife, including amphibians and reptiles (herpetofauna). Scientific publications on the effects of wind-based USRED and operation (USREDO) are focused almost exclusively on flying wildlife including birds and bats. To the best of our knowledge the only publications on the effects of wind-based USREDO on herpetofauna are three publications on desert tortoise ecology at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California. Those studies suggested that not all effects of USREDO were detrimental in the short-term. However, additional research is required to determine if wind energy operation is compatible with conservation of this long-lived species over longer periods of time.

  7. Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

  8. Nozzle development

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, F.T.; Dodge, L.G.; Johnson, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this program has been the development of experimental techniques and data processing procedures to allow for the characterization of multi-phase fuel nozzles using laboratory tests. Test results were to be used to produce a single value coefficient-of-performance that would predict the performance of the fuel nozzles independent of system application. Several different types of fuel nozzles capable of handling multi-phase fuels have been characterized for: (a) fuel flow rate versus delivery pressure, (b) fuel-air ratio throughout the fuel spray or plume and the effective cone angle of the injector, and (c) fuel drop- or particle-size distribution as a function of fluid properties. Fuel nozzles which have been characterized on both single-phase liquids and multi-phase liquid-solid slurries include a variable-film-thickness nozzle, a commercial coal-water slurry (CWS) nozzle, and four diesel injectors of different geometries (tested on single-phase fluids only). Multi-phase mixtures includes CWS with various coal loadings, surfactant concentrations, and stabilizer concentrations, as well as glass-bead water slurries with stabilizing additives. Single-phase fluids included glycerol-water mixtures to vary the viscosity over a range of 1 to 1500 cP, and alcohol-water mixtures to vary the surface tension from about 22 to 73 dyne/cm. In addition, tests were performed to characterize straight-tube gas-solid nozzles using two differences size distributions of glass beads in air. Standardized procedures have been developed for processing measurements of spray drop-size characteristics and the overall cross-section average drop or particle size. 43 refs., 60 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Development of the TFX F-111 in the Department of Defense’s Search for Multi-Mission, Joint-Service Aerial Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In 1961, the new Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara directed a joint...Hollister, M.A. Accepted this 10th day of June 2011 by: , Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. The opinions and...new Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara directed a joint aircraft acquisition program called the TFX, which would produce the first common aerial

  10. Methodology for Developing Evidence-Based Clinical Imaging Guidelines: Joint Recommendations by Korean Society of Radiology and National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sol Ji; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jo, Ae Jeong; Choi, Jin A; Kim, Min-Jeong; Lee, Min; Jung, Seung Eun; Do, Kyung Hyun; Yong, Hwan Seok; Sheen, Seungsoo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the methodology including protocol used to develop evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) in Korea, led by the Korean Society of Radiology and the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This is the first protocol to reflect the process of developing diagnostic guidelines in Korea. The development protocol is largely divided into the following sections: set-up, process of adaptation, and finalization. The working group is composed of clinical imaging experts, and the developmental committee is composed of multidisciplinary experts to validate the methodology. The Korean CIGs will continue to develop based on this protocol, and these guidelines will act for decision supporting tools for clinicians as well as reduce medical radiation exposure. PMID:28096730

  11. Estimation of the Joint Patient Condition Occurrence Frequencies from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Volume I: Development of Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    Freedom Volume 1: Development of Methodology James Zouris Edwin D’Souza Trevor Elkins Jay Walker Vern Wing Carrie Brown Document No. 11-9I...and Operation Enduring Freedom Volume I: Development of Methodology James Zouris Edwin D’Souza Trevor Elkins Jay Walker Vern Wing ...Closed FRAC CL SHOULDER & UPPER ARM 811 Fracture of Scapula , Closed FRAC CL SHOULDER & UPPER ARM 812 Fracture of Unspecified Part of Upper End of

  12. Signposts to Literacy for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The two studies included in this volume, both dealing with the subject of literacy and sustainable development, are joint winners of the 2004-2005 International Award for Literacy Research, sponsored jointly by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, Hamburg, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and the Canadian…

  13. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  14. MPAS-Ocean Development Update

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Ringler, Todd D.; Petersen, Mark R.; Jones, Philip W.; Maltrud, Mathew E.

    2012-06-13

    The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a modeling framework developed jointly between NCAR and LANL, built to allow core developers to: rapidly develop new dynamical cores, and leverage improvements made to shared codes. MPAS-Ocean (MPAS-O) is a functioning ocean model capable of high resolution, or highly vairable resolution simulations. The first MPAS-O publication is expected by the end of the year.

  15. [Development of meniscus biomaterial].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Ken; Mae, Tatsuo; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Matsuo, Tomohiko; Tachibana, Yuta; Kanamoto, Takashi; Kita, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    Meniscus is one of the most important tissues in knee joint from the biomechanical point of view. Meniscus injury is well known to cause osteoarthritis. At moment, there is a limitation of operative repair procedure especially for the meniscus injury with defect. We have been investigating the development of meniscus biomaterials. Meniscus substitute made of atelo-collagen was proved to be one of the candidates of meniscus biomaterial by our experiments using human cell culture, three-dimensional cultured tissue, and animal study.

  16. RDBE Development and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niell, A.; Bark, M.; Beaudoin, C.; Brisken, W.; Frej, H. Ben; Doeleman, S.; Durand, S.; Guerra, M.; Hinton, A.; Luce, M.; McWhirter, R.; Morris, K.; Peck, G.; Revnell, M.; Rogers, A.; Romney, J.; Ruszczyk, C.; Taveniku, M.; Walker, R.; Whitney, A.

    2010-01-01

    A digital backend based on the ROACH board has been developed jointly by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and MIT Haystack Observatory. The RDBE will have both Polyphase Filterbank and Digital Downconverter personalities. The initial configuration outputs sixteen 32-MHz channels, comprised of half the channels from the PFB processing of the two IF inputs, for use in the VLBI2010 geodetic system and in the VLBA sensitivity upgrade project. The output rate is 2x109 bits/second (1x10(exp 9) bits/sec = 1 Gbps) over a 10 GigE connection to the Mark 5C with the data written in Mark 5B format on disk.

  17. Mobile Router Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  18. (Global energy development)

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, A.W.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-11-21

    This is the report of foreign travel by Alvin W. Trivelpiece and William Fulkerson who were part of a US delegation of ten individuals who visited the Soviet Union for two weeks as part of a joint activity between the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Academy of Sciences (AS) of the USSR. Trivelpiece headed the US delegation. The trip was sponsored by the NAS under a grant from the MacArthur Foundation. It consisted of three parts: (1) a tour of energy facilities and laboratories in Siberia, including the cities of Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Nazarovo, Achinsk, Bratsk, and Irkutsk; (2) a joint seminar in Moscow called Global Energy Development and Associated Ecological (Environmental) Impacts''; and (3) a workshop to discuss areas of potential future collaboration and cooperation. A Memorandum of Record was signed on the final day. It recommended that the Presidents of the two Academies establish a joint committee for ...coordinating, recommending, and encouraging activities in accordance with this memorandum.'' Projects for possible collaboration were identified in the areas of energy data and models, global warming, technologies for more efficient use of energy, clean coal, gas turbines, tools for assessing environmental impacts, and analysis of approaches to energy decision making.

  19. Role of endochondral ossification of articular cartilage and functional adaptation of the subchondral plate in the development of fatigue microcracking of joints.

    PubMed

    Muir, P; McCarthy, J; Radtke, C L; Markel, M D; Santschi, E M; Scollay, M C; Kalscheur, V L

    2006-03-01

    The mechanisms that regulate functional adaptation of the articular ends of long bones are poorly understood. However, endochondral ossification of articular cartilage and modeling/remodeling of the subchondral plate and epiphyseal trabeculae are important components of the adaptive response. We performed a histologic study of the distal end of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone of Thoroughbreds after bones were bulk-stained in basic fuchsin and calcified sections were prepared. The Thoroughbred racehorse is a model of an extreme athlete which experiences particularly high cyclic strains in distal limb bones. The following variables were quantified: microcrack boundary density in calcified cartilage (N.Cr/B.Bd); blood vessel boundary density in calcified cartilage (N.Ve/B.Bd); calcified cartilage width (Cl.Cg.Wi); duplication of the tidemark; and bone volume fraction of the subchondral plate (B.Ar/T.Ar). Measurements were made in five joint regions (lateral condyle and condylar groove; sagittal ridge; medial condylar and condylar groove). N.Cr/B.Bd was site-specific and was increased in the condylar groove region; this is the joint region from which parasagittal articular fatigue (condylar) fractures are typically propagated. Formation of resorption spaces in the subchondral plate was co-localized with microcracking. N.Ve/B.Bd was also site-specific. In the sagittal ridge region, N.Ve/B.Bd was increased, Cl.Cg.Wi was decreased, and B.Ar/T.Ar was decreased, when compared with the other joint regions. Multiple tidemarks were seen in all joint regions. Cumulative athletic activity was associated with a significant decrease in B.Ar/T.Ar in the condylar groove regions. N.Cr/B.Bd was positively correlated with B.Ar/T.Ar (P < 0.05, r(s) = 0.29) and N.Ve/B.Bd was negatively correlated with B.Ar/T.Ar (P < 0.005, r2 = 0.14) and Cl.Cg.Wi (P < 0.05, r2 = 0.07). We conclude that endochondral ossification of articular cartilage and modeling/remodeling of the subchondral plate

  20. Development of Fatigue and Crack Propagation Design and Analysis Methodology in a Corrosive Environment for Typical Mechanically-Fastened Joints. Volume 1. Phase I Documentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Time-To-Crack-Initiation TYFI Tim-To-Falure ** To be determined FAST I service life in 2 days SUPW 1 service life In 16 days 1 I 171 ,I .*1i, " e -D...JOINTS VOLUME I - PHASE I DOCUMENTATION - Y. H. Kim S. M. Speaker D. E . Gordon S. D. Manning STRUCTURES AND DESIGN DEPARTMENT GENERAL DYNAMICS FORT...PERFoRING OTG. REPORT NUMDER ically Fastened Joints’Vol.I- Phase I ,Dpg9tat~nI. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMMER(s) Y. H. Kim, R. P. Wei, D. E . Gordon, S. M

  1. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  2. Development of Kevlar parachute webbings

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Kevlar webbings for parachute applications. Evaluation of existing webbings and a study of the effects of filling yarn denier and pick count on tensile and joint strength provided data for fabric design. Measurements of warp crimp as a function of filling denier and pick count demonstrated the relationship between warp crimp and strength. One newly developed webbing had higher strength efficiency and another had higher joint efficiency than comparable existing webbings. Both new webbings had overall efficiencies over 5% higher than values for existing webbings. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Study for Agricultural Engineering Development in Brazil. Summary Report of Joint Study Group on Agricultural Engineering in Brazil (July 24-August 12, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The joint study group was established to identify the most urgent research and training needs in agricultural engineering in Brazil and to recommend how best to meet those needs. Specific recommendations are given for a long-term program to establish quality programs in education and research in agricultural engineering in Brazil and means to gain…

  4. Joint-Working as a Policy for Reducing Inequalities in Access to Information: Developing Culturally Appropriate Sex and Relationships Education for Young Bangladeshis in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Teena; Chapman, Jenifer; Estcourt, Claudia S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Despite government support of culturally appropriate sex and relationships education (SRE), young people's access to information is limited and sexual health needs are not being met, particularly among youth from black and minority ethnic groups. Joint-working between health, education, voluntary sectors and parents has been heralded…

  5. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…

  6. Military Personnel: Joint Officer Development Has Improved, But a Strategic Approach Is Needed. Report to the Subcommittee on Military Personnel, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In response to the need of military leaders to be better prepared to plan, support, and conduct joint (multi-service and multi-national) operations, Congress enacted the Goldwater- Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. Positive steps were taken to implement provisions in the Act that address the education, assignment, and…

  7. Workforce Development and West Virginia: The West Virginia University Approach. Presented to the West Virginia Legislature Joint Education Committee, September 14, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, David C., Jr.

    This report highlights the services and programs for workforce development that are available through West Virginia University's (WVU) statewide network of schools, colleges, regional campuses, extension offices, and research units, but does not include four-year undergraduate or graduate programs. Specific sections address the following services,…

  8. How to Develop College Students' Autonomous English Learning Skills--Take Reading Course in Joint-Program in HCFT as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    The studies on autonomous learning based on the theories of constructivism and the advantages of technology propose valuable ideas for modern teaching theories and practices. In this paper, we put forward ways and methods in developing learner awareness, learning strategies and habits of autonomous learning in Henan College of Finance and Taxation…

  9. You Get What You Get and You Don't Throw a Fit!: Emotion Socialization and Child Physiology Jointly Predict Early Prosocial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior in early childhood is a precursor to later adaptive social functioning. This investigation leveraged mother-reported, physiological, and observational data to examine children's prosocial development from age 2 to age 4 (N = 125). Maternal emotion socialization (ES) strategies and children's parasympathetic regulation have each…

  10. Quality of Rural Economic Development Data. Testimony to the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation, Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Ninth Congress (June 13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    Although the private sector has the primary role for job generation in the U.S. market economy, local community leaders can play a significant part in creating a growth-stimulating economic environment. A comprehensive economic development strategy appropriate to a community's specific goals and conditions requires careful analysis of the…

  11. Interprofessional Learning – Development and Implementation of Joint Medical Emergency Team Trainings for Medical and Nursing Students at Universitätsmedizin Greifswald

    PubMed Central

    Partecke, Maud; Balzer, Claudius; Finkenzeller, Ingmar; Reppenhagen, Christiane; Hess, Ulrike; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Meissner, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Interprofessional collaboration is of great importance in clinical practice, particularly in the field of emergency medicine. The professions involved in providing emergency care must work hand in hand, and tasks and routines must be coordinated effectively. However, medical and nursing students have only few opportunities to experience interprofessional cooperation during their formal training. Addressing this situation, the Department of Anesthesiology and the Vocational School of Greifswald University Medical School initiated a project to increase patient safety by integrating interprofessional human factor training into the curriculum of both health professions. This manuscript addresses how an interprofessional course module focusing on clinical emergency medicine can be taught with an emphasis on competency and problem-solving. In addition, it was important to identify suitable instruments for systematic quality development and assurance of this teaching and learning format. Project description: The aim of the project, which took place from October 2013 to September 2015, was the development, implementation and evaluation of a simulation-based, interprofessional course module on clinical emergency medicine. Target groups were medical and nursing students. Modern pedagogical models and methods were applied to the design and teaching of the course content. The project was carried out in separate phases: definition, planning, practical implementation, evaluation and documentation. The project was accompanied by systematic quality development. Established guidelines for quality-centered school development were applied to quality development, assurance and evaluation. Results: Over two years, a 16 credit-hour course module was developed and then taught and evaluated during the 2014 and 2015 summer semesters. A total of 120 medical students and 120 nursing students participated in the course module. Eighteen teachers from medicine and nursing were

  12. The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System: Can Procedures Be Developed to Support the Requirements of the Land and Air Component Commanders?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-04

    ability to process a low to medium resolution image of static objects on the ground. The image appears in a vertical perspective, much like a photograph...FINITE ABILITY TO EXPAND PROBABLY LIMITED TO A TWO THEATER CONFLICT 62 A similar evaluation can be made against the Air Force Characteristics stated in...doctrine of both services. From a purely Army perspective however, there is another way to determine Joint STARS worth, evaluating the system within the

  13. Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China: report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Feng Roger; Ding, Jian; Chen, Helen X.; Liu, Hao; Fung, Man-Cheong; Koehler, Maria; Armand, Jean Pierre; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Li; Qian, Pascal; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and full development of novel cancer medicines in China. PMID:25418191

  14. The Russian-U.S. Experience with Development Joint Medical Support Procedures for Before and After Long-Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgun, V. V.; Voronin, L. I.; Kaspransky, R. R.; Pool, S. L.; Barratt, M. R.; Novinkov, O. L.

    1999-01-01

    As the Russian Space Agency (RSA) and the U.S. National Aviation and Space Administration (NASA) began in the mid 1990s to plan a preliminary cooperative flight program in anticipation of the International Space Station, programmatic and philosophical differences became apparent in the technical and medical approaches of the two agencies. This paper briefly describes some of these differences and the process by which the two sides resolved differences in their approaches to the medical selection and certification of Shuttle-Mir crew members. These negotiations formed the basis for developing policies on other aspects of the medical support function for international missions, including crew training, preflight and postflight data collection, and rehabilitation protocols. The experience gained through this cooperative effort has been invaluable for developing medical care capabilities for the International Space Station.

  15. Joint federal research and development process to meet state and local needs. Part 1. Science and technology and political decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, H F; Smith, L K; Einsweiler, R C; Jensen, D E

    1980-10-01

    This part of the handbook addresses the basic how to do it - how states and local governments can identify complex and cross-cutting issues and develop and manage scientific and technical resources in seeking policy solutions to such issues. The following subjects are discussed: background statement of the issue; the research/decision-making process; defining problems and identifying research components; research and decision-making strategies; how to identify existing knowledge or ongoing research in the area of policy concern; and managing multi-disciplinary research. The fourteen agencies involved in this effort include: US Departments of Energy, Agriculture, Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, Environmental Protection Agency, and National Science Foundation. (PSB)

  16. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing: Weld Optimization for Aluminum 6061, Development of Scarf Joints for Aluminum Sheet Metal, and Joining of High Strength Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolcott, Paul J.

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a low temperature, solid-state manufacturing process that enables the creation of layered, solid metal structures with designed anisotropies and embedded materials. As a low temperature process, UAM enables the creation of active composites containing smart materials, components with embedded sensors, thermal management devices, and many others. The focus of this work is on the improvement and characterization of UAM aluminum structures, advancing the capabilities of ultrasonic joining into sheet geometries, and examination of dissimilar material joints using the technology. Optimized process parameters for Al 6061 were identified via a design of experiments study indicating a weld amplitude of 32.8 synum and a weld speed of 200 in/min as optimal. Weld force and temperature were not significant within the levels studied. A methodology of creating large scale builds is proposed, including a prescribed random stacking sequence and overlap of 0.0035 in. (0.0889 mm) for foils to minimize voids and maximize mechanical strength. Utilization of heat treatments is shown to significantly increase mechanical properties of UAM builds, within 90% of bulk material. The applied loads during the UAM process were investigated to determine the stress fields and plastic deformation induced during the process. Modeling of the contact mechanics via Hertzian contact equations shows that significant stress is applied via sonotrode contact in the process. Contact modeling using finite element analysis (FEA), including plasticity, indicates that 5000 N normal loads result in plastic deformation in bulk aluminum foil, while at 3000 N no plastic deformation occurs. FEA studies on the applied loads during the process, specifically a 3000 N normal force and 2000 N shear force, show that high stresses and plastic deformation occur at the edges of a welded foil, and base of the UAM build. Microstructural investigations of heat treated foils confirms

  17. Testing patients during seizures: A European consensus procedure developed by a joint taskforce of the ILAE - Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Neufeld, Miri; Diehl, Beate; Dobesberger, Judith; Trinka, Eugen; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Rheims, Sylvain; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Craiu, Dana; Pressler, Ronit; Krysl, David; Lebedinsky, Angelina; Tassi, Laura; Rubboli, Guido; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    There is currently no international consensus procedure for performing comprehensive periictal testing of patients in the epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). Our primary goal was to develop a standardized procedure for managing and testing patients during and after seizures in EMUs. The secondary goal was to assess whether it could be implemented in clinical practice (feasibility). A taskforce was appointed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE)-Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association, to develop a standardized ictal testing battery (ITB) based on expert opinion and experience with various local testing protocols. ITB contains a comprehensive set of 10 items that evidence the clinically relevant semiologic features, and it is adaptive to the dynamics of the individual seizures. The feasibility of the ITB was prospectively evaluated on 250 seizures from 152 consecutive patients in 10 centers. ITB was successfully implemented in clinical practice in all 10 participating centers and was considered feasible in 93% of the tested seizures. ITB was not feasible for testing seizures of very short duration.

  18. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  19. DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF THE MPC&A OPERATIONS MONITORING (MOM) SYSTEM AT THE JOINT INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH (JINR) DUBNA, RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kartashov,V.V.; Pratt,W.; Romanov, Y.A.; Samoilov, V.N.; Shestakov, B.A.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2009-07-12

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Operations Monitoring (MOM) systems handling at the International Intergovernmental Organization - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) is described in this paper. Category I nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) is used in JINR research reactors, facilities and for scientific and research activities. A monitoring system (MOM) was installed at JINR in April 2003. The system design was based on a vulnerability analysis, which took into account the specifics of the Institute. The design and installation of the MOM system was a collaborative effort between JINR, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Financial support was provided by DOE through BNL. The installed MOM system provides facility management with additional assurance that operations involving nuclear material (NM) are correctly followed by the facility personnel. The MOM system also provides additional confidence that the MPC&A systems continue to perform effectively.

  20. VAP Development: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Collis, Fast, J; Flynn, C; Mather, J; McFarlane, S; Monroe, J; Sivaraman, C; Xie, S

    2011-02-23

    This white paper provides a plan to formalize the evaluation of newly developed VAPs and a framework for the development of value-added products through four different stages: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release.

  1. Space Structure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The duration of my Summer 2015 Internship Tour at NASA's Johnson Space Center was spent working in the Structural Engineering Division's Structures Branch. One of the two main roles of the Structures Branch, ES2, is to ensure the structural integrity of spacecraft vehicles and the structural subsystems needed to support those vehicles. The other main objective of this branch is to develop the lightweight structures that are necessary to take humans beyond Low-Earth Orbit. Within ES2, my four projects involved inflatable space structure air bladder material testing; thermal and impact material testing for spacecraft windows; structural analysis on a joint used in the Boeing CST-100 airbag system; and an additive manufacturing design project.

  2. Engaging teachers, interpreters and emergency management educators in disaster preparedness and EarthScope science through joint professional development workshops (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Lillie, R. J.; Butler, R. F.; Hunter, N.; Magura, B.; Groom, R.; Hedeen, C. D.; Johnson, J. A.; Ault, C.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The same geological forces that form the spectacular beaches and headlands of the Pacific Northwest also threaten lives and infrastructure with earthquakes and tsunamis. A new project called the Cascadia EarthScope, Earthquake, and Tsunami Education Program (CEETEP), is helping to mitigate the effects of these potential disasters through collaboration building and professional development for K-12 teachers, park and museum interpreters, and emergency management outreach educators in communities along the Oregon and Washington coast. Tens of thousands of Oregon and Washington residents live within severe earthquake-shaking and tsunami-inundation zones, and millions of tourists visit state and federal parks in these same areas each year. Teachers in the K-12 school systems convey some basics about geological hazards to their students, and park rangers and museum educators likewise engage visitors at their sites. Emergency management educators make regular presentations to local residents about disaster preparedness. CEETEP is strengthening these efforts by providing community-based workshops that bring together all of these professionals to review the basic science of earthquakes and tsunamis, learn about EarthScope and other research efforts that monitor the dynamic Earth in the region, and develop ways to collectively engage students and the general public on the mitigation of coastal geologic hazards. As part of a nationwide effort, the NSF EarthScope Program has been deploying hundreds of seismic, GPS, and other geophysical instruments to measure movement of the Earth's crust and detect earthquakes along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. These instruments provide detail for ongoing research showing that coastal regions are storing energy that will be released in the next great Cascadia earthquake, with the resulting tsunami arriving onshore in 30 minutes or less. CEETEP is helping to convey these cutting-edge findings to coastal educators and fulfill Earth

  3. You Get What You Get and You Don’t Throw A Fit!: Emotion Socialization and Child Physiology Jointly Predict Early Prosocial Development

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior in early childhood is a precursor to later adaptive social functioning. This investigation leveraged mother-reported, physiological, and observational data to examine children’s prosocial development from age 2 to age 4 (N = 125). Maternal emotion socialization (ES) strategies and children’s parasympathetic regulation have each been implicated in prosocial behavior, but are rarely examined together or prospectively. Given the transactional nature of parent-child relationships, the effects of maternal ES strategies on children’s prosocial behavior are likely moderated by children’s individual differences in parasympathetic regulation. As predicted, mothers’ reported use of problem-focused ES strategies predicted prosocial behavior at age 4. Additionally, children who showed parasympathetic reactivity consistent with more effective emotion regulation during a lab-based disappointment task were rated as more prosocial at age 4. Several interactions with maternal ES strategies emerged. Children’s parasympathetic regulation moderated the relations between observed physical comfort or cognitive reframing and prosocial behavior. Observed distraction (either behavioral or cognitive) moderated the link between mothers’ reported use of problem-focused ES strategies and children’s prosocial behavior. Findings suggest that children’s emerging prosocial behavior is shaped by the interactive contributions of inter-personal maternal ES as well as intra-personal intrinsic physiological regulation. PMID:26569566

  4. Relational schemas and the developing self: perceptions of mother and of self as joint predictors of early adolescents' self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Tiina; Perry, David G

    2007-11-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined early adolescents' (N=278, age 11-13 years) perceptions of their mother's behavior (affection, knowledge of child's activities, and psychological control) and of how they react to their mother (trust in mother, defiance, and debilitation) as predictors of self-esteem among peers. Perceived maternal affection predicted self-esteem for girls; perceived psychological control forecast lower self-esteem for boys. Perceptions of self as untrusting, defiant, or debilitated led to lower self-esteem. Furthermore, perceived maternal behavior interacted with perceived self-reactions to predict self-esteem: Perceived debilitation led to reduced self-esteem only under high perceived maternal psychological control; perceived defiance predicted lower self-esteem only under low perceived maternal knowledge. The prediction of self-esteem is clearly enhanced when perceived self-reactions are included along with perceived maternal behavior as predictors. Combinations of perceived maternal behavior and perceived self-reactions--relational schemas--warrant increased attention as possible influences on the developing self.

  5. Joint development of evidence-based medical record by doctors and patients through integrated Chinese and Western medicine on digestive system diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Gao, Hong-yang; Gao, Rui; Zhao, Ying-pan; Li, Qing-na; Zhao, Yang; Tang, Xu-dong; Shang, Hong-cai

    2016-02-01

    Building the clinical therapeutic evaluation system by combing the evaluation given by doctors and patients can form a more comprehensive and objective evaluation system. A literature search on the practice of evidence-based evaluation was conducted in key biomedical databases, i.e. PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database, China Biology Medicine disc and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. However, no relevant study on the subjects of interest was identified. Therefore, drawing on the principles of narrative medicine and expert opinion from systems of Chinese medicine and Western medicine, we propose to develop and pilot-test a novel evidence-based medical record format that captures the perspectives of both patients and doctors in a clinical trial. Further, we seek to evaluate a strategic therapeutic approach that integrates the wisdom of Chinese medicine with the scientific basis of Western medicine in the treatment of digestive system disorders. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of remedies under the system of Chinese medicine is an imperative ongoing research. The present study intends to identify a novel approach to assess the synergistic benefits achievable from an integrated therapeutic approach combining Chinese and Western system of medicine to treat digestive system disorders.

  6. You get what you get and you don't throw a fit!: Emotion socialization and child physiology jointly predict early prosocial development.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Meghan B; Davis, Elizabeth L; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behavior in early childhood is a precursor to later adaptive social functioning. This investigation leveraged mother-reported, physiological, and observational data to examine children's prosocial development from age 2 to age 4 (N = 125). Maternal emotion socialization (ES) strategies and children's parasympathetic regulation have each been implicated in prosocial behavior, but are rarely examined together or prospectively. Given the transactional nature of parent-child relationships, the effects of maternal ES strategies on children's prosocial behavior are likely moderated by children's individual differences in parasympathetic regulation. As expected, mothers' reported use of problem-focused ES strategies predicted prosocial behavior at age 4. Additionally, children who showed parasympathetic reactivity consistent with more effective emotion regulation during a lab-based disappointment task were rated as more prosocial at age 4. Several interactions with maternal ES strategies emerged. Children's parasympathetic regulation moderated the relations between observed physical comfort or cognitive reframing and prosocial behavior. Observed distraction (either behavioral or cognitive) moderated the link between mothers' reported use of problem-focused ES strategies and children's prosocial behavior. Findings suggest that children's emerging prosocial behavior is shaped by the interactive contributions of interpersonal maternal ES as well as intrapersonal intrinsic physiological regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. The development of a four-way linking framework in Egypt: an example of the FAO, OIE and WHO joint activities to facilitate national risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Forcella, Simona; El-din El Tantawy, Nasr; Yilma, Jobre; AbdelNabi, Amira; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectoral assessment of health risks arising or existing at the human-animal interface is crucial to identifying and implementing effective national disease control measures. This requires availability of information from 4 functional information 'streams' - epidemiological, laboratory, animal, and human health. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/ World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/ World Health Organization (WHO) Four-Way Linking (4WL) project promotes the establishing of a national-level joint framework for data sharing, risk assessment, and risk communication, in order to both improve communications within and among governmental public health and animal health influenza laboratories, epidemiology offices, national partners, with the aim of strengthening the national capacity to detect, report and assess risks arising from emerging influenza viruses. The project is currently being implemented in countries where H5N1 avian influenza is endemic and where human cases have been reported. The project is comprised of two main activities at country level: a 'review mission', which is the project launch in the country and has the objective to assess the existing situation; and a 'scenario based workshop', with the scope to bring together key national partners and build relationships among people working in the 4 information streams and to improve understanding of national strengths and gaps. During the workshop the delegates engaged in interactive sessions on basic risk assessment and devoted to specify the needs and roles of the 4 different streams. The participants work through a mock influenza outbreak scenario, which practically illustrates how risk assessment and communication of an emergency at the animal-human interface is more effective when there is linking of the 4 streams, collaboration, communication, and coordinated action. In 2010, Egypt was the first country where the project was successfully implemented

  8. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  9. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  10. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations in the

  11. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  12. Comparing Spiritual Development and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Patrick G.

    2002-01-01

    Three spiritual development theories and theorists (i.e., Parks, Fowler, and Helminiak) were compared with traditional cognitive development theory and theorists. The analysis reveals both commonalities between the two sets of theories and unique contributions to an understanding of student development on the part of spiritual development theory.…

  13. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  14. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research projects... the REE Agency's ADODR shall jointly develop the following documentation: (a) Project plan. A...

  15. Psychological Evaluation and Prescription Development Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County School Corp., Terre Haute, IN.

    Developed to aid children with learning difficulties, from mental retardation or brain injury to maladjustment or physical or environmental handicaps, the joint school services program provides psychological evaluation and prescription development. The handbook reviews theories of child development and surveys behavior modification and…

  16. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research projects... the REE Agency's ADODR shall jointly develop the following documentation: (a) Project plan. A...

  17. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research projects... the REE Agency's ADODR shall jointly develop the following documentation: (a) Project plan. A...

  18. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research projects... the REE Agency's ADODR shall jointly develop the following documentation: (a) Project plan. A...

  19. Child Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C., Ed.

    Previously published articles on child development and learning are collected in this textbook for college students. Topics include cognitive development, achievement behavior, and social development. (SBT)

  20. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  1. Advanced Launch Development Program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgrove, Roger

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System is a joint NASA - Air Force program originally directed to define the concept for a modular family of launch vehicles, to continue development programs and preliminary design activities focused primarily on low cost to orbit, and to offer maturing technologies to existing systems. The program was restructed in the spring of 1990 as a result of funding reductions and renamed the Advanced Launch Development Program. This paper addresses the program's status following that restructuring and as NASA and the Air Force commence a period of deliberation over future space launch needs and the budgetary resources available to meet those needs. The program is currently poised to protect a full-scale development decision in the mid-1990's through the appropriate application of program resources. These resources are concentrated upon maintaining the phase II system contractor teams, continuing the Space Transportation Engine development activity, and refocusing the Advanced Development Program demonstrated activities.

  2. Developing a Climate of Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the contemporary world and ancient Greece, and lays the groundwork for the powerful bond between a policy of strategic engagement and the philosophy ...9283 14. ABSTRACT Mission command is the leadership philosophy that will allow the U.S. Army to operate successfully in the future security...environment, and remain strategically relevant. The philosophy of mission command is vital to the development of Joint Force 2020, and provides the Army

  3. Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Joint and Operations Analysis Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TN–1492 ABSTRACT In this report we describe the development of...and Operations Analysis Division Defence Science and Technology Group 506 Lorimer St, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207, Australia Telephone: 1300 333...Cascading Style Sheet CSV comma separated values DST Group Defence Science and Technology Group ETL extract, transform and load EWRD Electronic

  4. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    vii DEDICATION This thesis work is dedicated to my loving wife, Dawn, who has been a constant source...especially, editing. This work is also dedicated to my children, Matthew, Bob, Sarah, and Bethany for their unconditional love , never-ending support, and

  5. Development and Prevention of Running-Related Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guo-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the effect of running on risk for developing osteoarthritis at weight-bearing joints have reported with conflicting results. Generally, moderate-level running is not likely detrimental to joint health. However, many factors may be associated with the increased risk of developing osteoarthritis in runners. Factors often implicated in the development of osteoarthritis comprise those that increase joint vulnerability and those which increase joint loading. It is therefore suggested that running has different effects on different people. Efforts should be made to identify those with joint vulnerability and joint loading, and measures should be taken to have those factors and/or their running programs modified to run safely. Further investigations are needed to examine the effect of running on joint health under different conditions to confirm the association between exposure to risk factors and development of osteoarthritis, as well as to validate the effectiveness of measures for preventing running-related osteoarthritis.

  6. ASRM case insulation design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Matthew S.; Tam, William F. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the achievements made on the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case insulation design and development program. The ASRM case insulation system described herein protects the metal case and joints from direct radiation and hot gas impingement. Critical failure of solid rocket systems is often traceable to failure of the insulation design. The wide ranging accomplishments included the development of a nonasbestos insulation material for ASRM that replaced the existing Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) along with a performance gain of 300 pounds, and improved reliability of all the insulation joint designs, i.e., segmented case joint, case-to-nozzle and case-to-igniter joint. The insulation process development program included the internal stripwinding process. This process advancement allowed Aerojet to match to exceed the capability of other propulsion companies.

  7. ASRM case insulation design and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Matthew S.; Tam, William F. S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the achievements made on the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case insulation design and development program. The ASRM case insulation system described herein protects the metal case and joints from direct radiation and hot gas impingement. Critical failure of solid rocket systems is often traceable to failure of the insulation design. The wide ranging accomplishments included the development of a nonasbestos insulation material for ASRM that replaced the existing Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) along with a performance gain of 300 pounds, and improved reliability of all the insulation joint designs, i.e., segmented case joint, case-to-nozzle and case-to-igniter joint. The insulation process development program included the internal stripwinding process. This process advancement allowed Aerojet to match to exceed the capability of other propulsion companies.

  8. Developing New Academic Developers: Doing before Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Brailsford, Ian; Gossman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A small group of new academic developers reflected on their induction into the profession and wondered if things could have been done differently. The researchers decided to question the directors of three tertiary academic development units about how they recruited new developers, what skills and competences they looked for and how they inducted…

  9. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Editorial developments Editorial developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    We are delighted to announce that from January 2009, Professor Murray T Batchelor of the Australian National University, Canberra will be the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Murray Batchelor has been Editor of the Mathematical Physics section of the journal since 2007. Prior to this, he served as a Board Member and an Advisory Panel member for the journal. His primary area of research is the statistical mechanics of exactly solved models. He holds a joint appointment in mathematics and physics and has held visiting positions at the Universities of Leiden, Amsterdam, Oxford and Tokyo. We very much look forward to working with Murray to continue to improve the journal's quality and interest to the readership. We would like to thank our outgoing Editor-in-Chief, Professor Carl M Bender. Carl has done a magnificent job as Editor-in-Chief and has worked tirelessly to improve the journal over the last five years. Carl has been instrumental in designing and implementing strategies that have enhanced the quality of papers published and service provided by Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Notably, under his tenure, we have introduced the Fast Track Communications (FTC) section to the journal. This section provides a venue for outstanding short papers that report new and timely developments in mathematical and theoretical physics and offers accelerated publication and high visibility for our authors. During the last five years, we have raised the quality threshold for acceptance in the journal and now reject over 60% of submissions. As a result, papers published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical are amongst the best in the field. We have also maintained and improved on our excellent receipt-to-first-decision times, which now average less than 50 days for papers. We have recently announced another innovation; the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. These prizes will honour excellent papers

  10. Modeling forest development after fire disturbance: Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly affect forest canopy species and long-term ecosystem carbon accumulation in the North American boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N.; Bergeron, Y.; Xu, X.; Welp, L.; Medvigy, D.

    2015-12-01

    less able to compete with needleleaf trees under low nitrogen regimes. We conclude that a joint regulation between the soil organic layer, temperature, and nitrogen will likely play an important role in influencing boreal forests development after fire in future climates, and should be represented in models.

  11. Dynamic Development of Hydrofracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Irfan; Koehn, Daniel; Toussaint, Renaud; Passchier, Cees Willem

    2013-11-01

    Many natural examples of complex joint and vein networks in layered sedimentary rocks are hydrofractures that form by a combination of pore fluid overpressure and tectonic stresses. In this paper, a two-dimensional hybrid hydro-mechanical formulation is proposed to model the dynamic development of natural hydrofractures. The numerical scheme combines a discrete element model (DEM) framework that represents a porous solid medium with a supplementary Darcy based pore-pressure diffusion as continuum description for the fluid. This combination yields a porosity controlled coupling between an evolving fracture network and the associated hydraulic field. The model is tested on some basic cases of hydro-driven fracturing commonly found in nature, e.g., fracturing due to local fluid overpressure in rocks subjected to hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic tectonic loadings. In our models we find that seepage forces created by hydraulic pressure gradients together with poroelastic feedback upon discrete fracturing play a significant role in subsurface rock deformation. These forces manipulate the growth and geometry of hydrofractures in addition to tectonic stresses and the mechanical properties of the porous rocks. Our results show characteristic failure patterns that reflect different tectonic and lithological conditions and are qualitatively consistent with existing analogue and numerical studies as well as field observations. The applied scheme is numerically efficient, can be applied at various scales and is computational cost effective with the least involvement of sophisticated mathematical computation of hydrodynamic flow between the solid grains.

  12. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of…

  13. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  14. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  15. Overview--Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a contractor-owned, government-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the 3,600-acre facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. Environmental data collected at AFP4 and NAS–JRB during 1993–2002 created the need for consolidation of the data into a comprehensive temporal and spatial geodatabase. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Environmental Management Directorate, developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental data associated with the hydrogeologic units beneath the facility. A three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase was designed concurrently. Three hydrogeologic units—from land surface downward, the alluvial aquifer, the GoodlandWalnut confining unit, and the Paluxy aquifer—compose the subsurface of interest at AFP4 and NAS–JRB. The alluvial aquifer consists primarily of clay and silt with sand and gravel channel deposits that might be interconnected or interfingered. The Goodland-Walnut confining unit directly underlies the alluvial aquifer and consists of limestone, marl, shale, and clay. The Paluxy aquifer is composed of dense mudstone and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone

  16. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 'alternative facts,' science can reliably inform policy. Child development research advises that a sense of security provided ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ...

  17. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ... changed; or goes to sleep ) Movement and Physical Development moves in response to sights and sounds rooting ...

  18. Naval Perspectives for Military Doctrine Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-08

    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in coordination with the combatant commands, Services, and Joint Staff" [emphasis added]. TrP comprise the bulk of...overall military doctrine and specific tactical doctrine. Tactical doctrine organizes TrPs -it is the "play book" from which tactics are chosen and... C42 Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC) 2042 Broadway, Suite 205 Quantico, VA 22134-5021 LTG I.B. Holley, USAFR (Ret.) Professor Emeritus

  19. Proposed IDEA Regulations. Joint Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, and the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on Examining the Department of Education's Development of the Regulations Necessary To Implement the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (Public Law 105-17). One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This is a transcript from a Joint Hearing of the U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and the Workforce that addresses the U.S. Department of Education's development of regulations necessary to implement the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of…

  20. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  1. Curriculum Development: Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    In order for curriculum development to be effective and schools to be successful, teachers must be involved in the development process. An effective curriculum should reflect the philosophy, goals, objectives, learning experiences, instructional resources, and assessments that comprise a specific educational program ("Guide to curriculum…

  2. Child Development Associate. Body Skills Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is intended to provide the intern with the knowledge and skills necessary for helping children develop their body skills. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics…

  3. Developing Teachers: Improving Professional Development for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Robert; Aloisi, Cesare; Higgins, Steve; Major, Lee Elliot

    2015-01-01

    This document is a summary of the report "What Makes Great Teaching". It argues that improved teacher ­development will positively impact on pupil attainment, particular those from disadvantaged backgrounds. "Developing Teachers" presents five policy recommendations which have been signed by 17 of Britain's leading headteachers…

  4. SIRU development. Volume 1: System development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. P.; Cooper, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A complete description of the development and initial evaluation of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) system is reported. System development documents the system mechanization with the analytic formulation for fault detection and isolation processing structure; the hardware redundancy design and the individual modularity features; the computational structure and facilities; and the initial subsystem evaluation results.

  5. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  6. Optimized Bolted Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.; Bunin, B. L.; Watts, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Computer technique aids joint optimization. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted composite joints computed by nonlinear-analysis computer program. Input to analysis was load-deflection data from 180 specimens tested as part of program to develop technology of structural joints for advanced transport aircraft. Bolt design optimization technique applicable to major joints in composite materials for primary and secondary structures and generally applicable for metal joints as well.

  7. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  8. Education and Development: A Developing Theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2002-03-01

    The following article is based on an analysis of selected examples from the approximately 2500 main articles that have been published in the International Review of Education ( IRE) since its inception in 1931 until the fall of 2001. The scope of the topic is education within developing countries and the promotion of such education by industrialised countries and development agencies. After an introduction on the growth of the concern over education and development over seven decades of the journal, three themes are looked at in some more detail: (1) The discussion on nationalism versus internationalism in education, a theme that bears clear relevance to the field "Education and Development" and has been with the journal from its inception but on which one finds more emphasis in the earlier volumes. (2) The language of instruction in developing countries. This theme has also been with the journal from its inception and it is still much debated. (3) The effects of external aid on the education sector in developing countries. Though massive economic aid in the form of grants or loans to the education sector in developing countries is of more recent nature external influence on the education sector has been there since colonial times.

  9. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  10. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  11. Energy Sources and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

  12. LGBT Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I would like to open a conversation with my HRD colleagues about the issues related to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) career development. This paper provides some insights about LGBT career development, analyzing the factors that distinguish LGBT career development from heterosexual career development.

  13. Directions in Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela, Ed.

    This collection of readings is intended to provide a source book on best practices in staff development in higher education within a British context. The 13 papers are grouped into three parts: part 1 presents the educational development tradition which has focused on development of staff as teachers; part 2 considers development of staff in…

  14. Software Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin County Community Coll., McKinney, TX.

    The Software Development Program described in this report was developed at Collin County Community College as a pilot associate degree program for the State of Texas. Drawing from an employer needs assessment and a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process, the two-year associate in applied science (AAS) program was developed to train scientific…

  15. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  16. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  17. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn Print A A A en español El ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  18. Leader Development of Cyber Soldiers through Mission Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    develop its cyber warriors and leaders? 2. Can a joint and/or “whole of government” approach be applied in the development of future cyber...2. Can a Joint and/or “Whole of Government” approach in the development of future cyber leaders? 3. How can the current Army and Cyber...the whole of government approach could assist in the development of cyber leaders, though primarily at the flag command level. Organizations like

  19. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Ernst, W.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Meacher, J.

    1985-01-01

    Development test activities on Mod I engines directed toward evaluating technologies for potential inclusion in the Mod II engine are summarized. Activities covered include: test of a 12-tube combustion gas recirculation combustor; manufacture and flow-distribution test of a two-manifold annular heater head; piston rod/piston base joint; single-solid piston rings; and a digital air/fuel concept. Also summarized are results of a formal assessment of candidate technologies for the Mod II engine, and preliminary design work for the Mod II. The overall program philosophy weight is outlined, and data and test results are presented.

  20. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  1. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  2. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. ); Yancey, E.F. )

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  6. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  7. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  8. Developing the plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic sequence in the planning development process is discussed. Alternative ways of satisfying estimated needs, and the selection of an alternative are described along with the development of a plan to implement the selected alternative.

  9. CHP Project Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information and tools to support the CHP project development process, including identifying if your facility is a good fit for CHP, the steps involved with CHP project development, and policies and incentives supportive of CHP.

  10. Growth and Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Tots Understanding Puberty Your Child's Changing Voice Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) Your Child's Growth ...

  11. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  12. Hypoxia, HIFs and bone development

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Elisa; Schipani, Ernestina

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen is not only an obviously important substrate, but it is also a regulatory signal that controls expression of a specific genetic program. Crucial mediator of the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia is the family of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors (HIFṣ. The fetal growth plate, which is an avascular structure of mesenchymal origin, has a unique out-in gradient of oxygenation. HIF-1α is necessary for chondrogenesis in vivo by controlling a complex homeostatic response that allows chondrocytes to survive and differentiate in a hypoxic environment. Moreover, HIFs are also essential in osteogenesis and joint development. This brief Perspective summarizes the critical role of HIFs in endochondral bone development. PMID:20444436

  13. AVOSS Development Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1997-01-01

    A concept is presented for development and implementation of prototype Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The purpose of the AVOSS is to provide dynamical, weather dependent wake vortex separation criteria to ATC facilities with adequate stability and lead time for use in establishing arrival scheduling. This current paper discusses AVOSS development approach. The discussion includes: system model, AVOSS R&D effort scope, major development issues, concept system development process, AVOSS system testing, and concept demonstration.

  14. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  15. Development Communication Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Andrea, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" focus on the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people about various social issues as well as the field of development communication itself. Agricultural communication is the theme of the first issue which contains the…

  16. Moral Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  17. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  18. Curriculum Development in Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the context of present curriculum development in geomorphology and the way in which it has developed in recent years. Discusses the content of the geomorphology curriculum in higher education and the consequences of curriculum development together with a consideration of future trends and their implications. (GEA)

  19. PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM DEVELOPER

    DOEpatents

    Berry, F.G.

    1958-06-24

    S>An improved photographic developer is presented having very high energy development fine grain characteristics and a long shelf life. These characteristics are obtained by the use of aminoacetic acid in the developer, the other constituents of which are: sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, sodiunn borate, boric acid and potassium bromide, 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone.

  20. Leadership Development. Symposium 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Leadership Development: A Review of the Theory and Literature" (Susan A. Lynham) has four parts that analyze the leadership development process: the present state of the available body of knowledge on leadership…

  1. Teachers as Course Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kathleen, Ed.

    The collection of essays on teachers as course developers is designed to help teachers understand how to develop courses or modify existing ones using their own experience and the experiences and theories of others. It attempts to capture this process through the stories of six teachers who have developed courses. Each narrative focuses on a…

  2. World Development Report 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report, seventh in a series of annual publications, examines the relationship between population change and development, showing why continuing rapid population growth in developing countries is likely to mean a lower quality of life for millions of people. The first part of the report concludes that the economies of developing countries can…

  3. HRD Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These three papers are from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) professional development. "Mentoring as a Tool for Faculty Development: Predicting Positive Outcomes for Mentors" (Ellen J. Mullen, John Van Ast, Harry Grant) describes a study of the relationship between mentoring outcomes and mentoring activities and mentor and mentee…

  4. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  5. Does Educational Development Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This essay provides reflections on the growth and influence of educational development, and the changes in approaches to teaching in universities. It also identifies some areas in which educational development and developers face challenges for the future, including educational technology, leadership and resistance to change.

  6. Collection Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuby, Mary

    Undertaken to provide data on the current status of collection development in selected academic libraries, this study also analyzed the structure of the collection development function at Chicago Academic Library Council (CALC) institutions and outlined a formal collection development policy for Chicago State University's Douglas Library.…

  7. Folk Media in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Technology Report, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This issue is dedicated to folk media. Using Indonesia for his case study, Dr. Nat Colletta analyzes traditional culture as a medium for development. Juan Diaz Bordenave expresses doubts about adapting folk media to development objectives; Susan Hostetler and Arthur Gillette report on uses of the theater to promote development objectives; and…

  8. Prodder's Development Annual, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kooy, R. J. W., Ed.

    This collection of reports examines the current state of development in southern Africa, in general, and in South Africa, in particular. The introduction, "A Development Perspective of Southern Africa" (R. J. W. van der Kooy), briefly reviews the history of southern African development, and discusses purposes, approaches, and progress.…

  9. Terrorism, Governance, and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-13

    science research on national security issues. A primary objective was to develop better theories about the impact of aid programs on terrorist and...SUBJECT TERMS Terrorism, counterinsurgency, economics, development, foreign aid , governance, insurgent, national security, political science, political...9 • Optimal Scale and Design of Development and Military Aid

  10. Development of Advanced Centrifugal Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.

    2009-09-30

    A CRADA project was performed between BNL and Flowserve, California, under the auspices of Initiative for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) with the DOE support. The purpose was to jointly support a team of Russian institutes led by Kurchatov Institute to develop technology to increase operating life of centrifugal pumps. The work was performed from March 1, 2002 to September 30, 2009. The project resulted in development and validation the total cost of the sub-contract with Kurchatov Institute was $700,000, with matching fund from the industrial partner, Flowserve. The technical objective of this project is to develop advanced centrifugal pumps for the power, petroleum, chemical and water services industries by increasing the reliability of pumping equipment without a corresponding increase in life cycle cost. This major market need can be served by developing centrifugal pumps that generate only modest forces on the mechanical system even when operating under significant off-design conditions. This project is focused towards understanding the origin of hydraulic forces (both radial and axial, steady and time-dependent) and to develop design options, which reduce these forces over a broad flow range. This focus will include the force generation due to cavitation inside the pump as the operating conditions extend to low suction pressures. The results of research will reduce the inception of cavitation that leads to surface erosion and to find passive method of reducing peaks in axial thrust during whole range of flow rates.

  11. Plasma thrusters development in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfo, André; Cadiou, Anne; Secheresse, O.; Dumazert, P.; Gounot, V.; Ragot, X.; Mattei, N.; Grassin, T.; Garnero, P.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the FRENCH plasma propulsion activities. The main existing and future projects are described. The field of application of plasma propulsion is the station keeping and the orbit raising of geostationary telecommunication satellites (STENTOR) and the transfer of interplanetary vehicles such as Mars Sample Return. The works done in the frame of the preparation of the first commercial spacecraft as well as the preparation of the future and the associated Research and Technology program are described. The scientific activity supporting the development of Hall thrusters is on-going in the frame of the GDR (Groupement de Recherche) CNRS/CNES/Snecma Moteurs /ONERA on Plasma Propulsion. Several Russian entities are also involved: the MIREA (Moscow Institute of Radioelectronics and Automatics), of the RIAME MAI (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics and Electrodynamics - Moscow Aviation Institute) and of the SPT « father å Professor MOROZOV The industrial development activities are jointly conducted by Snecma Moteurs and Russian manufacturer FAKEL. The future developments are mainly dedicated to the use of electric propulsion for the orbit raising of telecommunications satellites which leads to the development of thrusters with higher thrust than those existing today. Works are also performed to develop and improve the tools necessary to evaluate the plume effects of plasma thrusters.

  12. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  13. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  14. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Editorial developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    We are delighted to announce that from January 2009, Professor Murray T Batchelor of the Australian National University, Canberra will be the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Murray Batchelor has been Editor of the Mathematical Physics section of the journal since 2007. Prior to this, he served as a Board Member and an Advisory Panel member for the journal. His primary area of research is the statistical mechanics of exactly solved models. He holds a joint appointment in mathematics and physics and has held visiting positions at the Universities of Leiden, Amsterdam, Oxford and Tokyo. We very much look forward to working with Murray to continue to improve the journal's quality and interest to the readership. We would like to thank our outgoing Editor-in-Chief, Professor Carl M Bender. Carl has done a magnificent job as Editor-in-Chief and has worked tirelessly to improve the journal over the last five years. Carl has been instrumental in designing and implementing strategies that have enhanced the quality of papers published and service provided by Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Notably, under his tenure, we have introduced the Fast Track Communications (FTC) section to the journal. This section provides a venue for outstanding short papers that report new and timely developments in mathematical and theoretical physics and offers accelerated publication and high visibility for our authors. During the last five years, we have raised the quality threshold for acceptance in the journal and now reject over 60% of submissions. As a result, papers published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical are amongst the best in the field. We have also maintained and improved on our excellent receipt-to-first-decision times, which now average less than 50 days for papers. We have recently announced another innovation; the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. These prizes will honour excellent papers

  15. Initiation of vascular development.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-06-01

    The initiation of vascular development occurs during embryogenesis and the development of lateral organs, such as lateral roots and leaves. Understanding the mechanism underlying the initiation of vascular development has been an important goal of plant biologists. Auxin flow is a crucial factor involved in the initiation of vascular development. In addition, recent studies have identified key factors that regulate the establishment of vascular initial cells in embryos and roots. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in this field and discuss the initiation of vascular development.

  16. Geothermal development attitudes surveyed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has conducted several surveys on public opinion towards the development of geothermal energy. The latest poll was designed to: measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development for electrical power supplied to Island of Hawaii residents only; measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development of electricity to be exported for use on Oahu; and identify barriers to, and opportunities for energy conservation programs, including geothermal development. In general, the residents of the County of Hawaii favor some form of geothermal development. Issues on geothermal development of concern to the public were similar to those mentioned in the 1982 study. Basically, the issues amount to a trade-off between the economic advantages and the environmental problems of geothermal development. The strong points in favor of development include a perceived need for more energy, a strong preference for alternate energy forms over petroleum, perceived benefits for the local economy and the employment rates, and the possibility that development may reduce or contain utility bills. On the other hand, it appears that geothermal development will cause health problems for those who live near the wells, be hazardous to flora and fauna in the Puna area, and create noise and odor above tolerable levels. These are oversimplified statements of the reasons behind both support and opposition for geothermal development.

  17. Site Development Planning Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The Handbook provides facility managers and site planners at DOE organizations responsible for planning site developments and facilities utilization a step-by-step planning checklist to ensure that planners at each site are focusing on Department-wide goals and objectives. It begins with a brief discussion of a site development-by-objectives program design to promote, recognize, and implement opportunities for improvements in site utilization through planning. Additional information is included on: assembling existing data, plans, programs, and procedures; establishing realistic objectives; identifying site problems, opportunities; and development needs; determining priorities among development needs; developing short and long-range plans; choosing the right development solutions and meeting minimum legal site restrictions; presenting the plan; implementing elements of the plan; monitoring and reporting plan status; and modifying development program plans. (MCW)

  18. Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath air force plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field at Fort Worth, Texas, constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from AFP4, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. The U.S. Geological Survey developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the hydrogeologic units (alluvial aquifer, Goodland-Walnut confining unit, and Paluxy aquifer) beneath the facility and a three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase. The geodatabase design uses a thematic layer approach to create layers of feature data using a geographic information system. The various features are separated into relational tables in the geodatabase on the basis of how they interact and correspond to one another. Using the geodatabase, geographic data at the site are manipulated to produce maps, allow interactive queries, and perform spatial analyses. The conceptual model for the study area comprises computer-generated, three-dimensional block diagrams of the hydrogeologic units. The conceptual model provides a platform for visualization of hydrogeologic-unit sections and surfaces and for subsurface environmental analyses. The conceptual model is based on three structural surfaces and two thickness configurations of the study area. The three structural surfaces depict the altitudes of the tops of the three hydrogeologic units. The two thickness configurations are those of the alluvial aquifer and the Goodland-Walnut confining unit. The surface of the alluvial aquifer was created using a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model. The 2,130 point altitudes of the top of the Goodland-Walnut unit were compiled from lithologic logs from existing wells, available soil

  19. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    PubMed

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  20. Toxic torts and environmental law: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, W.F.; Murphy, J.; Cross, A.

    1994-12-31

    This article describes recent developments in environmental law including the following: in Toxic tort issues: standards for expert testimony; punitive damages; preemption; failure to warn and strict liability; the unavoidably unsafe defense; in Hazardous waste issues: joint and several liability; petroleum exclusion; recoverable costs; causation; owner or operator and successor liability; contribution; commerce; RCRA land bar; criminal conviction.

  1. Common Guidelines for Education Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Education Sciences, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, a Joint Committee of representatives from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) began work to establish cross-agency guidelines for improving the quality, coherence, and pace of knowledge development in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. Although the…

  2. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that contribute to REE program objectives and help carry out the REE mission. The Cooperator's PI and... Cooperator's PI and the awarding Agency's ADODR consisting of the following: (1) Objective (2) Approach (3... shall be jointly developed by the REE ADODR and the Cooperator PI outlining the following...

  3. Development. The decade of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Jessell, T M; Sanes, J R

    2000-10-01

    Our understanding of neural development has advanced dramatically over the past decade. Significant insights have now been obtained into seven fundamental developmental processes: first, induction of the neural plate; second, regionalization of the neural tube along the dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes; third, generation of neurons and glia from multipotential precursors; fourth, apoptotic cell death; fifth, migration of neurons; sixth, guidance of axons to their targets; and seventh, formation of synapses.

  4. ICPP Waste Management Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.; Knecht, D.A.; Bonkoski, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), a Spent fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan was developed jointly by DOE and WINCO.

  5. The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    On 16 April 2011 the IAU's Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) was launched jointly by the President of the IAU and the South African Minister of Science and Technology, at the South African Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town. This OAD was set up to realise the IAU's strategic plan which aims to use astronomy as a tool for development. Communicating astronomy with the public is one of the OAD's focus areas.

  6. Solar concentrator development in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, D. J.; Mancini, T. R.; Houser, R. M.; Crossman, J. W.; Schissel, P.; Carasso, M.; Jorgensen, G.; Scheve, M.

    Sandia National Laboratories leads the U.S. Department of Energy's solar concentrator development program in a joint effort with the Solar Energy Research Institute. The goal of DOE's program is to develop, build and test solar concentrators that are low in cost, have high performance, and long lifetimes. Efforts are currently focused on three areas: low-cost heliostats, point-focus parabolic dishes, and durable reflective films. The status and future plans of DOE's program in each area are reviewed.

  7. Solar concentrator development in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, D. J.; Mancini, T. R.; Houser, R. M.; Grossman, J. W.; Schissel, P.; Carasso, M.; Jorgensen, G.; Scheve, M.

    1991-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories leads the US Department of Energy's solar concentrator development program in a joint effort with the Solar Energy Research Institute. The goal of DOE's program is to develop, build, and test solar concentrations that are low cost, have high performance, and long lifetimes. Efforts are currently focused on three areas: low-cost heliostats, point-focus parabolic dishes, and durable reflective films. The status and future plans of DOE's program in each area are reviewed.

  8. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  9. Development of mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2014-06-01

    Pre-natal and early post-natal ovarian development has become a field of increasing importance over recent years. The full effects of perturbations of ovarian development on adult fertility, through environmental changes or genetic anomalies, are only now being truly appreciated. Mitigation of these perturbations requires an understanding of the processes involved in the development of the ovary. Herein, we review some recent findings from mice, sheep, and cattle on the key events involved in ovarian development. We discuss the key process of germ cell migration, ovigerous cord formation, meiosis, and follicle formation and activation. We also review the key contributions of mesonephric cells to ovarian development and propose roles for these cells. Finally, we discuss polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, and pre-natal undernutrition; three key areas in which perturbations to ovarian development appear to have major effects on post-natal fertility.

  10. Aquaporins in Fetal Development.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nora; Damiano, Alicia E

    2017-01-01

    Water homeostasis during fetal development is of crucial physiologic importance. The successful formation and development of the placenta is critical to maintain normal fetal growth and homeostasis. The expression of several aquaporins (AQPs ) was found from blastocyst stages to term placenta and fetal membranes. Therefore, AQPs are proposed to play important roles in normal pregnancy, fetal growth, and homeostasis of amniotic fluid volume, and water handling in other organs. However, the functional importance of AQPs in fetal development remains to be elucidated.

  11. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  12. Thallium Mercury Laser Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman FINAL REPORT (PHASE III) (Period between Feb. 1, 1980 and Jan. 31, 1981) 0 Contract No...Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 Approved for public release;IDistribution Unlimited 1/i;THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT * , , IS C. S./Liu tRD. W /eldman...9 ’ t4 THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman Westinghouse R&D Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 1

  13. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  14. NASA develops Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Space Station program's planning stage began in 1982, with a view to development funding in FY1987 and initial operations within a decade. An initial cost of $8 billion is projected for the continuously habitable, Space Shuttle-dependent system, not including either operational or scientific and commercial payload-development costs. As a customer-oriented facility, the Space Station will be available to foreign countries irrespective of their participation in the development phase.

  15. Renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  16. Processes and process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, H. L.

    1986-02-01

    Silicon material research in the Republic of China (ROC) parallels its development in the electronic industry. A brief outline of the historical development in ROC silicon material research is given. Emphasis is placed on the recent Silane Project managed by the National Science Council, ROC, including project objectives, task forces, and recent accomplishments. An introduction is also given to industrialization of the key technologies developed in this project.

  17. Thallium Mercury Laser Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-17

    AD-A9 840 WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER PITTSBU--ETC F/A 20/5 THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT .(U) APR 80 C S LIU, D W FELDMAN, J L...PACK NO001I78-C-0131 lIlrt A nEQE-WOTFX-R NL THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman and J. L. Pack FINAL REPORT (PHASE II...PERIOD COVERED Thallium Mercury Laser Development -T- Final Report (Phase II) Feb. 1, 1979 to Jan. 31, 1980 77a. w-atF. -REPORT NUMBER _,___C2-OTEX

  18. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  19. Developing Good Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sharon E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses some good oral reading concepts that teachers should consider when developing new classroom practices, including: round robin reading, silent reading before oral reading, shared reading, etc. (NL)

  20. Halbach Magnetic Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has a wealth of experience in Halbach array technology through the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The goals of the program include improving aircraft efficiency, reliability, and safety. The concept of a Halbach magnetically levitated electric aircraft motor will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels, increase efficiency and reliability, reduce maintenance and decrease operating noise levels. Experimental hardware systems were developed in the GRC Engineering Development Division to validate the basic principles described herein and the theoretical work that was performed. A number of Halbach Magnetic rotors have been developed and tested under this program. A separate test hardware setup was developed to characterize each of the rotors. A second hardware setup was developed to test the levitation characteristics of the rotors. Each system focused around a unique Halbach array rotor. Each rotor required original design and fabrication techniques. A 4 in. diameter rotor was developed to test the radial levitation effects for use as a magnetic bearing. To show scalability from the 4 in. rotor, a 1 in. rotor was developed to also test radial levitation effects. The next rotor to be developed was 20 in. in diameter again to show scalability from the 4 in. rotor. An axial rotor was developed to determine the force that could be generated to position the rotor axially while it is rotating. With both radial and axial magnetic bearings, the rotor would be completely suspended magnetically. The purpose of this report is to document the development of a series of Halbach magnetic rotors to be used in testing. The design, fabrication and assembly of the rotors will be discussed as well as the hardware developed to test the rotors.