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Sample records for development joint development

  1. Cases in Joint Force Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    forces in the future. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Force Development; Joint Force Development; Air War College Curriculum; Force Planning; Military Planning; Joint...6 1. Class Participation .....................................................................................7 2. Term ...Paper Prospectus ..............................................................................7 3. Term Paper

  2. Signaling networks in joint development.

    PubMed

    Salva, Joanna E; Merrill, Amy E

    2017-04-01

    Here we review studies identifying regulatory networks responsible for synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joint development. Synovial joints, characterized by the fluid-filled synovial space between the bones, are found in high-mobility regions and are the most common type of joint. Cartilaginous joints such as the intervertebral disc unite adjacent bones through either a hyaline cartilage or a fibrocartilage intermediate. Fibrous joints, which include the cranial sutures, form a direct union between bones through fibrous connective tissue. We describe how the distinct morphologic and histogenic characteristics of these joint classes are established during embryonic development. Collectively, these studies reveal that despite the heterogeneity of joint strength and mobility, joint development throughout the skeleton utilizes common signaling networks via long-range morphogen gradients and direct cell-cell contact. This suggests that different joint types represent specialized variants of homologous developmental modules. Identifying the unifying aspects of the signaling networks between joint classes allows a more complete understanding of the signaling code for joint formation, which is critical to improving strategies for joint regeneration and repair. Developmental Dynamics 246:262-274, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Successfully Developing Joint Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    least for the ROTC aspect of the Navy commissioning source, this is about to change at the University of South Florida (USF). In fact the “Joint...get their training over a six- month period at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. A Marine aviator will go through Pensacola Naval Air Station, Florida alongside...MCAS Beaufort, he served in Afghanistan as “Commanding Officer of Taskforce Panther , a joint coalition taskforce in support of OEF” (http

  4. Early Developments in Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    Joint action, critical to human social interaction and communication, has garnered increasing scholarly attention in many areas of inquiry, yet its development remains little explored. This paper reviews research on the growth of joint action over the first 2 years of life to show how children become progressively more able to engage deliberately, autonomously, and flexibly in joint action with adults and peers. It is suggested that a key mechanism underlying the dramatic changes in joint action over the second year of life is the ability to reflect consciously on oneself and one’s behavior and volition and correspondingly, on the behavior, goals, and intentions of others. PMID:23087769

  5. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration Joint Development: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration... the form of a circular, on joint development. This circular provides guidance to recipients of Federal... joint development. This circular: (1) Defines the term ``joint development''; ] (2) explains how to...

  6. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    small portion of the total joint force. Providing enlisted service members and government civilian employees with quality joint professional growth...enlisted service members and government civilian employees with quality joint professional growth opportunities is essential to the development of...their patience and guidance in shepherding me through the process of my research and writing. I am also profoundly grateful to all of the faculty and

  7. Synovial Joints: from Development to Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tieshi; Tagliafierro, Lidia; Temple, Joseph D.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Ye, Ping; Esposito, Alessandra; Xu, Fuhua; Spagnoli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Synovial joint morphogenesis occurs through the condensation of mesenchymal cells into a non-cartilaginous region known as interzone, and the specification of progenitor cells that commit to the articular fate. Although several signaling molecules are expressed by the interzone, the mechanism is poorly understood. For treatments of cartilage injuries, it is critical to discover the presence of joint progenitor cells in adult tissues and their expression gene pattern. Potential stem cells niches have been found in different joint regions, such as the surface zone of articular cartilage, synovium and groove of Ranvier. Inherited joint malformation as well as joint degenerating conditions are often associated with other skeletal defects, and may be seen as the failure of morphogenic factors to establish the correct microenvironment in cartilage and bone. Therefore, exploring how joints form can help us understand how cartilage and bone are damaged and to develop drugs to reactivate this developing mechanism. PMID:25431159

  8. Joint Minorities Development Program (JMDP). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organizing and Supportive Agency, Inc., Ithaca, NY.

    The Joint Minorities Development Program (JMDP) was a joint enterprise of Organizing and Supportive Agency, Inc. (OSA) and Human Interest Regarding Employment/Minorities Action Coalition (HIRE/MAC) to train black construction workers and organize them into a self-supportive construction cooperative. JMDP evolved in three stages. The first phase…

  9. Developing Joint Information Operations Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-13

    the spectrum of conflict more than ever before. Information dominance has always been important, but the speed and methods at which it can be sent... information dominance . The analysis begins with a quick review of joint IO doctrine, Service approaches to IO, and IO personnel management. Next, IO

  10. [Ontogenic development of the incudostapedial joint].

    PubMed

    Whyte Orozco, Jaime Rafael; Cisneros Gimeno, Ana Isabel; Yus Gotor, Carmen; Obón Nogues, Jesús Angel; Pérez Sanz, Raúl; Gañet Solé, José Francisco; Fraile Rodrigo, Jesús José

    2008-10-01

    To study the development of the incudostapedial joint in human embryos and foetuses. 46 temporal bones with specimens between 9 mm and newborns were studied. The preparations were sliced serially and dyed using the Martins trichrome technique. The incudostapedial joint takes on the characteristics of a spheroidal joint at 16 weeks of development. The cartilage covering the articular surfaces is formed by different strata that develop in succession: the superficial stratum at 19 weeks, the transitional between 20 and 23 weeks, and the radial from 24 weeks on. The subchondral bone develops after 29 weeks by the mechanisms of apposition and extension of the periosteal and endosteal bones, but it is not until week 34 that it completely covers the articular surfaces, following constitution of the bone fascicles transmitting the lines of force. The articular capsule is formed from the inter-zone, the surface zone develops the capsular ligament, and the internal surface develops the synovial membrane. At the time of birth, the incudostapedial joint is completely developed.

  11. Development of the human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Mérida-Velasco, J A; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Espín-Ferra, J; Jiménez-Collado, J

    1999-05-01

    A great deal of research has been published on the development of the human temporomandibularjoint (TMJ). However, there is some discordance about its morphological timing. The most controversial aspects concern the moment of the initial organization of the condyle and the squamous part of the temporal bone, the articular disc and capsule and also the cavitation and onset of condylar chondrogenesis. Serial sections of 70 human specimens between weeks 7 and 17 of development were studied by optical microscopy (25 embryos and 45 fetuses). All specimens were obtained from collections of the Institute of Embryology of the Complutense University of Madrid and the Department of Morphological Sciences of the University of Granada. Three phases in the development of the TMJ were identified. The first is the blastematic stage (weeks 7-8 of development), which corresponds with the onset of the organization of the condyle and the articular disc and capsule. During week 8 intramembranous ossification of the temporal squamous bone begins. The second stage is the cavitation stage (weeks 9-11 of development), corresponding to the initial formation of the inferior joint cavity (week 9) and the start condylar chondrogenesis. Week 11 marks the initiation of organization of the superior joint cavity. And the third stage is the maturation stage (after week 12 of development). This work establishes three phases in TMJ development: 1) the blastematic stage (weeks 7-8 of development); 2) the cavitation stage (weeks 9-11 of development); and 3) the maturation stage (after week 12 of development). This study identifies the critical period of TMJ morphogenesis as occurring between weeks 7 and 11 of development.

  12. Spherical Joint Piston and Connecting Rod Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy, the NASA Lewis Research Center manages a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Technology (HDET) research program. The overall program objectives are to reduce fuel consumption through increased engine efficiency, reduce engine exhaust emissions, and provide options for the use of alternative fuels. The program is administered with a balance of research contracts, university research grants, and focused in-house research. The Cummins Engine Company participates in the HDET program under a cost-sharing research contract. Cummins is researching and developing in-cylinder component technologies for heavy-duty diesel engines. An objective of the Cummins research is to develop technologies for a low-emissions, 55-percent thermal efficiency (LE-55) engine. The best current-production engines in this class achieve about 46-percent thermal efficiency. Federal emissions regulations are driving this technology. Regulations for heavy duty diesel engines were tightened in 1994, more demanding emissions regulations are scheduled for 1998, and another step is planned for 2002. The LE-55 engine emissions goal is set at half of the 1998 regulation level and is consistent with plans for 2002 emissions regulations. LE-55 engine design requirements to meet the efficiency target dictate a need to operate at higher peak cylinder pressures. A key technology being developed and evaluated under the Cummins Engine Company LE-55 engine concept is the spherical joint piston and connecting rod. Unlike conventional piston and connecting rod arrangements which are joined by a pin forming a hinged joint, the spherical joint piston and connecting rod use a ball-and-socket joint. The ball-and-socket arrangement enables the piston to have an axisymmetric design allowing rotation within the cylinder. The potential benefits of piston symmetry and rotation are reduced scuffing, improved piston ring sealing, improved lubrication, mechanical and thermal

  13. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint Community Development Program... Grants § 570.411 Joint Community Development Program. (a) General. Grants under this section will be... program may be called the Joint CD Program. (b) Definitions. Demonstrated capacity to carry out...

  14. Flat H Redundant Frangible Joint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Orion and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partners have chosen to use frangible joints for certain separation events. The joints currently available are zero failure tolerant and will be used in mission safety applications. The goal is to further develop a NASA designed redundant frangible joint that will lower flight risk and increase reliability. FY16 testing revealed a successful design in subscale straight test specimens that gained efficiency and supports Orion load requirements. Approach / Innovation A design constraint is that the redundant joint must fit within the current Orion architecture, without the need for additional vehicle modification. This limitation required a design that changed the orientation of the expanding tube assemblies (XTAs), by rotating them 90deg from the standard joint configuration. The change is not trivial and affects the fracture mechanism and structural load paths. To address these changes, the design incorporates cantilevered arms on the break plate. The shock transmission and expansion of the XTA applies force to these arms and creates a prying motion to push the plate walls outward to the point of structural failure at the notched section. The 2014 test design revealed that parts could slip during functioning wasting valuable energy needed to separate the structure with only a single XTA functioning. Dual XTA functioning fully separated the assembly showing a discrepancy can be backed up with redundancy. Work on other fully redundant systems outside NASA is limited to a few patents that have not been subjected to functionality testing Design changes to prevent unwanted slippage (with ICA funding in 2015) showed success with a single XTA. The main goal for FY 2016 was to send the new Flat H RFJ to WSTF where single XTA test failures occurred back in 2014. The plan was to gain efficiency in this design by separating the Flat H RFJ with thicker ligaments with dimensions baselined in 2014. Other modifications included geometry

  15. Flat H Redundant Frangible Joint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Orion and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partners have chosen to use frangible joints for certain separation events. The joints currently available are zero failure tolerant and will be used in mission safety applications. The goal is to further develop a NASA designed redundant frangible joint that will lower flight risk and increase reliability. FY16 testing revealed a successful design in subscale straight test specimens that gained efficiency and supports Orion load requirements. Approach / Innovation A design constraint is that the redundant joint must fit within the current Orion architecture, without the need for additional vehicle modification. This limitation required a design that changed the orientation of the expanding tube assemblies (XTAs), by rotating them 90deg from the standard joint configuration. The change is not trivial and affects the fracture mechanism and structural load paths. To address these changes, the design incorporates cantilevered arms on the break plate. The shock transmission and expansion of the XTA applies force to these arms and creates a prying motion to push the plate walls outward to the point of structural failure at the notched section. The 2014 test design revealed that parts could slip during functioning wasting valuable energy needed to separate the structure with only a single XTA functioning. Dual XTA functioning fully separated the assembly showing a discrepancy can be backed up with redundancy. Work on other fully redundant systems outside NASA is limited to a few patents that have not been subjected to functionality testing Design changes to prevent unwanted slippage (with ICA funding in 2015) showed success with a single XTA. The main goal for FY 2016 was to send the new Flat H RFJ to WSTF where single XTA test failures occurred back in 2014. The plan was to gain efficiency in this design by separating the Flat H RFJ with thicker ligaments with dimensions baselined in 2014. Other modifications included geometry

  16. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Joint Forces Staff College Joint Advanced Warfighting School...FORCES STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL JOINTNESS FOR THE REST OF US...staff of the Joint Advance Warfighting School and the Joint Forces Staff College for their support during the academic year. Special thanks to my

  17. An Atypical Molecular Profile for Joint Development in the Avian Costal Joint

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, B. B.; Burke, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Development of synovial joints involves generation of cartilaginous anlagen, formation of interzones between cartilage anlagen, and cavitation of interzones to produce fluid filled cavities. Interzone development is not fully understood, but interzones are thought to develop from skeletogenic cells that are inhibited from further chondrogenic development by a cascade of gene expression including Wnt and Bmp family members. We examined the development of the rarely studied avian costal joint to better understand mechanisms of joint development. The costal joint is found within ribs, is morphologically similar to the metatarsophalangeal joint, and undergoes cavitation in a similar manner. In contrast to other interzones, Wnt14/9a, Gdf5, Chordin, Barx1, and Bapx1 are absent from the costal joint interzone, consistent with the absence of active β-catenin and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. However Autotaxin and Noggin are expressed. The molecular profile of the costal joint suggests there are alternative mechanisms of interzone development. PMID:20730871

  18. Joint Attention and Vocabulary Development: A Critical Look

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nameera; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Joint attention – parents’ and children’s coordinated attention to each other and to a third object or event – is believed to play a causal and critical role in early word learning. However, joint attention, as conventionally defined and measured, relies only on overt indicators of attention, is studied predominantly in the visual modality, and varies by culture. Moreover, word learning can occur without joint attention in typical development, in autistic development, and in Williams syndrome, and joint attention can occur without commensurate word learning in Down syndrome. Thus, the assumption that joint attention is a necessary and sufficient precursor to vocabulary learning is not universally supported. PMID:25505491

  19. Development and test of the ITER conductor joints

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N., LLNL

    1998-05-14

    Joints for the ITER superconducting Central Solenoid should perform in rapidly varying magnetic field with low losses and low DC resistance. This paper describes the design of the ITER joint and presents its assembly process. Two joints were built and tested at the PTF facility at MIT. Test results are presented, losses in transverse and parallel field and the DC performance are discussed. The developed joint demonstrates sufficient margin for baseline ITER operating scenarios.

  20. Development and test of the ITER SC conductor joints

    SciTech Connect

    Gung, C. Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Michael, P.; Minervini, J.; Randall, A.

    1998-08-05

    Joints for the ITER superconducting Central Solenoid should perform in rapidly varying magnetic field with low losses and low DC resistance. This paper describes the design of the ITER joint and presents its assembly process. Two joints were built and tested at the PTF facility at MIT. Test results are presented; losses in transverse and parallel field and the DC performance are discussed. The developed joint demonstrates sufficient margin for baseline ITRR operating scenarios.

  1. [The development of research in tribology of artificial joints].

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhendong; Gong, Juanqing

    2006-06-01

    Aseptic loosening of the prosthesis is a major form for the failure of artificial joints, which results in the conglomeration of wear particles at the bone-implant interface. This paper briefly reviews the recent development of tribology of artificial joints preserving good lubrication, enhancing the wear resistance of materials for the joints, reducing the generation of sensitive-size particles and depressing the debris-tissue reactions. Suggestion for improvement in the design of artificial joints is presented.

  2. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  3. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Joint Community Development Program. 570.411 Section 570.411 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Joint Community Development Program. 570.411 Section 570.411 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Joint Community Development Program. 570.411 Section 570.411 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 24 CFR 570.411 - Joint Community Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Joint Community Development Program. 570.411 Section 570.411 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Developing a pharmaceutical formulary for joint military medical operations.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Marc L

    2005-02-01

    This article describes the development of a standardized formulary for medical contingency operations for any theater of operations. The article compares peacetime health care systems within the Department of Defense and the formulary systems developed and used within the fixed facility environment with Department of Defense contingency health care operations systems and the complications encountered while attempting formulary development for the deployed environment. Despite great difficulties, the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board developed, published, and marketed a jointly approved, standardized, modernized formulary to assist forces deploying for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The process used by the Joint Readiness Clinical Advisory Board during formulary development is described in detail, giving readers an understanding of the foundations of the Joint Deployment Formulary. The military departments will experience the benefits of enhanced supply chain predictability and responsiveness, increased clinician satisfaction, and improved patient safety and health care quality by implementing the Joint Deployment Formulary for their forces engaged in contingency operations.

  8. Implementing Joint Operational Access: From Concept to Joint Force Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    multiple DOTMLPF-P gover - nance processes across the Department of Defense (DOD). Finally, pulling all of the various activities together related to JOA...eral Martin E . Dempsey signed the Joint Concept for Entry Operations (JCEO) on April 7, 2014. 5 Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership, 5. 6 JOAC, 33–36

  9. Development Requirements for Spacesuit Elbow Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Functional Requirements for spacesuit elbow joint:1) The system is a conformal, single-axis spacesuit pressurized joint that encloses the elbow joint of the suited user and uses a defined interface to connect to the suit systems on either side of the joint.2) The system shall be designed to bear the loads incurred from the internal pressure of the system, as well as the expected loads induced by the user while enabling the user move the joint through the required range of motion. The joint torque of the system experienced by the user shall remain at or below the required specification for the entire range of motion.3) The design shall be constructed, at a minimum, as a two-layer system. The internal, air-tight layer shall be referred to as the bladder, and the layer on the unpressurized side of the bladder shall be referred to as the restraint. The design of the system may include additional features or layers, such as axial webbing, to meet the overall requirements of the design.

  10. Temperamental and Joint Attentional Predictors of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda J.; Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in child temperament have been associated with individual differences in language development. Similarly, relationships have been reported between early nonverbal social communication (joint attention) and both temperament and language. The present study examined whether individual differences in joint attention might…

  11. The Development of Action Planning in a Joint Action Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus.…

  12. Faculty Practice in Joint Appointments: Implications for Nursing Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Janice M.; Heinzer, Marjorie M.

    2000-01-01

    Nursing faculty's joint appointments may involve clinical, research, or administrative roles. These dual responsibilities have many benefits but pose challenges in prioritizing work and dealing with workload increases and fatigue. Joint appointments give faculty the opportunity to provide staff development to clinical nurses. (SK)

  13. The Development of Action Planning in a Joint Action Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus.…

  14. Temperamental and Joint Attentional Predictors of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda J.; Dixon, Wallace E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in child temperament have been associated with individual differences in language development. Similarly, relationships have been reported between early nonverbal social communication (joint attention) and both temperament and language. The present study examined whether individual differences in joint attention might…

  15. Development of design and analysis methodology for composite bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Peter; Sawicki, Adam

    1991-05-01

    This paper summarizes work performed to develop composite joint design methodology for use on rotorcraft primary structure, determine joint characteristics which affect joint bearing and bypass strength, and develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of such characteristics in structural joints. Experimental results have shown that bearing-bypass interaction allowables cannot be defined using a single continuous function due to variance of failure modes for different bearing-bypass ratios. Hole wear effects can be significant at moderate stress levels and should be considered in the development of bearing allowables. A computer program has been developed and has successfully predicted bearing-bypass interaction effects for the (0/+/-45/90) family of laminates using filled hole and unnotched test data.

  16. Joint Concept Development and Experimentation: A Force Development Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    organizational variables so that they will afford a higher expectation of need satisfaction . Such an approach to developing the individual-organization...official channels of communication; database integration Different role expectations Intensive educational programs; new divisions of labour and...collective training, IT systems Different role expectations Intensive educational programs; new divisions of labour and authority structure PD

  17. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  18. Development of the Butt Joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N

    2006-08-23

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) requires compact and reliable joints for its Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). The baseline design is a diffusion bonded butt joint. In such a joint the mating cables are compacted to a very low void fraction in a copper sleeve and then heat treated. After the heat treatment the ends are cut, polished and aligned against each other and then diffusion bonded under high compression in a vacuum chamber at 750 C. The jacket is then welded on the conductor to complete the joint, which remarkably does not require more room than a regular conductor. This joint design is based on a proven concept developed for the ITER CS Model Coil that was successfully tested in the previous R&D phase.

  19. Joint Exchange Development Initiative (JEDI) with the SKA Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oozeer, Nadeem; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The teaching is a process whereby one mediates between another person and the materials. There exists many teaching models from lectures, discussion, questioning, to independent learning and self-teaching. The Joint Exchange Development Initiative (JEDI) is a way to maximize on the teaching methodologies. The JEDI is a concept to enhance development and education via direct transfer of skills and expertise in any specific field. It is an initiative to provide development via joint exchange among stakeholders. In this paper, we describe the various JEDI workshops carried out in the Square Kilometre Array (SKA Africa) partner countries and demonstrate how these workshops are proving to be successful.

  20. Joint development in perturbed stress fields near faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawnsley, K. D.; Rives, T.; Petti, J.-P.; Hencher, S. R.; Lumsden, A. C.

    1992-09-01

    Field evidence is presented for complex spatial and temporal perturbations of an otherwise systematic joint pattern around faults from well exposed faulted rock platforms. Joints propagating in perturbed stress fields will curve to follow the directions of the stress field trajectories. A progressive change in joint direction is observed from unperturbed regions away from faults, to strongly perturbed zones adjacent to faults. This indicates that the joint pattern can reflect perturbations of the regional stress field around faults. In the examples, the stress field perturbations are probably due to points of high friction on the fault plane which concentrate stress and distort the stress field in the surrounding rock. The corresponding joints converge at these points and are sub-parallel to the fault along the remainder of the fault plane. The possibility that a fault plane acts as a free surface contained within an elastic body is considered. In this situation the fault plane induces a rotation of the principal stress axes to become either perpendicular or parallel to the fault. The free surface model seems to explain the metre-scale curvature of joints in the vicinity of existing joints, but at the kilometre scale of a large fault plane the model becomes unrealistic unless the fault is open at the Earth's surface. Two examples are investigated from the Lias of Great Britain; at Nash Point and Robin Hood's Bay. Both comprise sub-horizontal strata of relatively homogeneous lithology and bed thickness, which provide striking examples of joints developed near faults.

  1. Bridging the Technology Valley of Death in Joint Medical Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Defense AT&L: November–December 2015 40 Bridging the Technology Valley of Death in Joint Medical Development Anthony E. Pusateri...development (AD). Transition planning is necessary to bridge this technology “Valley of Death” in which promising technologies frequently are delayed or fail...development partners for a prod- uct to bridge the technology transition phase (Figure 1). This critical transition period spans from the late research

  2. Development of a Lubricant Therapy to Prevent Development of Osteoarthritis after Acute Injury of Synovial Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    changes in lubricant molecules and function of joint fluid post -injury in a rabbit model as well as early, mid, and late changes post -injury in human...determined. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cartilage, Wear, Lubrication, Friction, Post -traumatic osteoarthritis, Injury, Blood, Synovial Fluid, Joint 16. SECURITY...synovial fluid after joint injury contributes to the development of post -traumatic OA and is due, in part, to the pathological accumulation of a

  3. PROTEOLYTIC CLEAVAGE OF VERSICAN DURING LIMB JOINT DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Capehart, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Versican is highly expressed in developing joint interzones during limb morphogenesis. The present study was undertaken to examine whether proteolytic cleavage of versican occurs that could potentially impact its function during the process of embryonic synovial joint formation. Using an antibody to the DPEAAE neoepitope generated by ADAMTS proteolysis, versican amino terminal cleavage fragments were detected in joint interzones at 12–16 days post coitum (dpc). ADAMTS-1 localization overlapped that of DPEAAE-reactive versican fragments suggesting it as one possible protease activity involved in processing of versican in the interzone. Results show that increased cleavage of versican in the interzone accompanies cavitation and suggests that proteolytic modification of versican may be important during the process of synovial joint maturation PMID:20101710

  4. The development of action planning in a joint action context.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus. Their task was to hand the experimenter a tool with which she could activate 1 of 2 different effects on the apparatus. The elicitation of each effect required participants to grasp and insert the tool in a particular orientation. We assessed whether participants planned their grasping and reaching action in such a way that it enabled the partner to efficiently handle the tool, that is, anticipating the final end state of the joint activity. We found that 3-year-old children did not adjust their behavior to accommodate the other's action and that they did not increase their performance over multiple trials. Five- and 7-year-old children initially showed a tendency to plan their action in an egocentric manner (i.e., showed a form of egocentrism), but improved their joint action performance over time. Adult participants demonstrated joint action planning from the beginning. Interestingly, 3- and 5-year-old children were able to plan their grasp efficiently when acting alone on the apparatus. Yet, having first-hand experience with the task before acting with a partner did not facilitate performance in the joint action task for younger children. Overall, the study informs current approaches on the psychological basis and ontogenetic origins of joint action in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Regeneration of the elbow joint in the developing chick embryo recapitulates development.

    PubMed

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Zapata, Mariana; Daniel Frugé, John; Coote, Jeffrey; Lee, Jangwoo; Muneoka, Ken; Anderson, Rosalie

    2012-12-15

    Synovial joints are among the most important structures that give us complex motor abilities as humans. Degenerative joint diseases, such as arthritis, cause loss of normal joint functioning and affect over 40 million people in the USA and approximately 350 million people worldwide. Therapies based on regenerative medicine hold the promise of effectively repairing or replacing damaged joints permanently. Here, for the first time, we introduce a model for synovial joint regeneration utilizing the chick embryo. In this model, a block of tissue that contains the prospective elbow is excised, leaving a window with strips of anterior and posterior tissue intact (window excision, WE). In contrast, we also slice out the same area containing the elbow and the distal piece of the limb is pinned back onto the stump (slice excision, SE). Interestingly, when the elbow is removed via WE, regeneration of the joint takes place, whereas the elbow joint does not regenerate following SE. In order to investigate whether the regeneration response recapitulates the developmental program of forming joints, we used GDF-5 and Autotaxin (Atx) as joint tissue specific markers, and Sox-9 and Col-9 as cartilage markers for in situ hybridization on sections at different time points after WE and SE surgeries. Re-expression of GDF-5 and Atx is observed in the WE samples by 60h after surgery. In contrast, the majority of the samples that underwent SE surgery did not express GDF-5 and Atx. Also, in SE fusion of cartilage elements takes place and the joint interzone does not form. This is indicated by continuous Col-9 expression in SE limbs, whereas Col-9 is downregulated at the joint interzone in the regenerating WE samples. This order and pattern of gene expression observed in regenerates is similar to the development of a joint suggesting that regeneration recapitulates development at the molecular level. This model defines some of the conditions required for inducing joint regeneration in an

  6. The development of symbol-infused joint engagement.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-six children were observed longitudinally from 18 to 30 months of age interacting with their mothers during a Communication Play that contained 8 scenes designed to encourage interacting, requesting, commenting, and narrating. Of primary concern was how often symbols infused the child's states of engagement with people and objects and how experience in such symbol-infused states related to language acquisition. Findings indicate that symbols increasingly infuse joint engagement, and that both the timing and the trajectory vary widely among typically developing toddlers, especially during the last half of the 2nd year. Moreover, variations in amount of symbol-infused supported joint engagement may both be influenced by variations in the onset of language and contribute to differences in language facility at 30 months. Copyright 2004 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    joint development programs are important because of their potential to reduce costs and increase partnership benefits such as interoperability, economies ...affordability. There is a tradeoff between achieving leading-edge technology and affordability structures, specifically economies of scale... Economies of scale exist when the scale of output increases to a point where the average per-unit costs of production begins to decrease. The exceptionally

  8. Development of restraint material and tucked fabric joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmullen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and select a suitable restraint material for the exterior of space suits pressurized to 4.0 PSID for normal operations, and to develop and improve tucked fabric joints for motions associated with the human shoulder, elbow, knee, waist, hip, ankle, and wrist. The many attributes of the end items are summarized to include structural integrity, simplicity, low maintenance, lightweight, high durability, low elongation, full range mobility, long life, and resistance to degradation in the operational environment.

  9. The joint DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Repa, J.V. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The joint Department of Defense (DoD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Munitions Technology Development Program is a cooperative, jointly funded effort of research and development to improve nonnuclear munitions technology across all service mission areas. This program is enabled under a Memorandum of Understanding, approved in 1985 between the DoD and the DOE, that tasks the nuclear weapons laboratories of the DOE to solve problems in conventional defense. The selection of the technical areas to be investigated is based on their importance to the military services, the needs that are common to the conventional and nuclear weapons programs, the expertise of the performing organization, and the perceived benefit to the overall national defense efforts. The research benefits both DoD and DOE programs; therefore, funding, planning, and monitoring are joint activities. Technology Coordination Groups (TCGs), organized by topical areas, serve as technology liaisons between the DoD and DOE for the exchange of information. The members of the TCGs are technical experts who meet semiannually in an informal workshop format to coordinate multiagency requirements, establish project plans, monitor technical activity, and develop classification guidance. A technical advisory committee of senior DoD and DOE managers administers the program and provides guidance on policy and strategy. The abstracts in this volume were collected from the technical progress report for fiscal year 1993. The annual report is organized by major technology areas. Telephone and fax numbers for the principal contacts are provided with each abstract.

  10. Temporomandibular joint computed tomography: development of a direct sagittal technique

    SciTech Connect

    van der Kuijl, B.; Vencken, L.M.; de Bont, L.G.; Boering, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders. Different techniques are used with computed tomography offering simultaneous imaging of bone and soft tissues. It is therefore suited for visualization of the articular disk and may be used in patients with suspected internal derangements and other disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Previous research suggests advantages to direct sagittal scanning, which requires special positioning of the patient and a sophisticated scanning technique. This study describes the development of a new technique of direct sagittal computed tomographic imaging of the temporomandibular joint using a specially designed patient table and internal light visor positioning. No structures other than the patient's head are involved in the imaging process, and misleading artifacts from the arm or the shoulder are eliminated. The use of the scanogram allows precise correction of the condylar axis and selection of exact slice level.

  11. Development opportunities for hospital clinical laboratory joint ventures.

    PubMed

    Van Riper, J A

    1995-01-01

    Regional health-care providers are being given the opportunity to collaborate in specialty health-care services. Collaboration to achieve superior economies of scale is very effective in the clinical laboratory industry. National laboratory chains are consolidating and enhancing their control of the industry to ensure their historic profitability. National companies have closed many laboratory facilities and have laid off substantial numbers of laboratory personnel. Health-care providers can regain control of their locally generated laboratory health-care dollars by joining forces with clinical laboratory joint ventures. Laboratorians can assist the healthcare providers in bringing laboratory services and employment back to the local community. New capital for operational development and laboratory information systems will help bring the laboratory to the point of care. The independent regional laboratory is focused on supporting the medical needs of the community. The profit generated from a laboratory joint venture is shared among local health-care providers, supporting their economic viability. The laboratories' ability to contribute to the development of profit-making ventures will provide capital for new laboratory development. All of the above will ensure the clinical laboratories' role in providing quality health care to our communities and employment opportunities for laboratory personnel.

  12. Development of a Mandibular Motion Simulator for Total Joint Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Nukhet; Rohner, E. Carlos; Gateno, Jaime; Noble, Philip C.; Ismaily, Sabir K.; Teichgraeber, John F.; Xia, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a motion simulator capable of recreating and recording the full range of mandibular motions in a cadaveric preparation for an intact temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and after total joint replacement. Material and Methods A human cadaver head was used. Two sets of tracking balls were attached to the forehead and mandible, respectively. Computed tomographic (CT) scan was performed and 3-dimensional CT models of the skull were generated. The cadaver head was then dissected to attach the muscle activation cables and mounted onto the TMJ simulator. Realistic jaw motions were generated through the application of the following muscle forces: lateral pterygoid muscle, suprahyoid depressors (geniohyoid, mylohyoid, and digastric muscles), and elevator muscles. To simulate muscle contraction, cables were inserted into the mandible at the center area of each muscle's attachment. To provide a minimum mouth closing force at the initial position, the elevator muscles were combined at the anterior mandible. During mandibular movement, each motion was recorded using a high-resolution laser scanner. The right TMJ of the same head was reconstructed with a total TMJ prosthesis. The same forces were applied and the jaw motions were recorded again. CT scan was performed and 3-dimensional CT models of the skull with TMJ prosthesis were generated. Results Mandibular motions, before and after TMJ replacement, with and without lateral pterygoid muscle reattachment, were re-created in a cadaveric preparation. The laser-scanned data during the mandibular motion were used to drive 3-dimensional CT models. A movie for each mandibular motion was subsequently created for motion path analysis. Compared with mandibular motion before TMJ replacement, mandibular lateral and protrusive motions after TMJ replacement, with and without lateral pterygoid muscle reattachment, were greatly limited. The jaw motion recorded before total joint replacement was

  13. Development of a New Joint Geometry for FSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penalva, M. L.; Otaegi, A.; Pujana, J.; Rivero, A.

    2009-11-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an emerging solid state joining technology that allows welding most aluminum alloys that otherwise are difficult to weld by using conventional fusion based technologies. The technology is of particular interest for transport applications, since welded structures are considered to offer cost and weight savings. From a point of view of the joint geometries, FSW is mature for simple configurations. Most work to date has concentrated on butt welds and, only to a certain degree, on overlap configurations. Different designs such as T-sections, corner welds, box sections… are then principally restricted to the use of butt weld configurations. However, it is necessary for FSW to be able to be applied to new geometries in order to spread its use to a wider range of applications. Present work explores the feasibility of producing corner fillet geometries using FSW. Although such a kind of geometry has traditionally been considered unfeasible for the process, it seems to have the greatest potential to be used for T-joint configurations, a recurrent design pattern in transport applications. In order to study the feasibility of the proposed new joint geometry, a specific tool has been developed and a set of welds has been produced with it. Microstructure of the produced welds has been analyzed. According to the obtained results, the proposed joint geometry seems to be feasible. Main problem pending to solve is how to avoid the formation of a tunnel defect in the weld centre line due to a suck effect of the tool on the stirred material. Further improvements are proposed to produce welds with acceptable quality.

  14. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Development Ventures § 295.23 Dissolution of joint research and development ventures. Upon dissolution of any joint research and development venture receiving funds under these procedures or at a time otherwise... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research and...

  15. Development of a knee joint motion simulator to evaluate deep knee flexion of artificial knee joints.

    PubMed

    Takano, Y; Ueno, M; Kiguchi, K; Ito, J; Mawatari, M; Hotokebuchi, T

    2008-01-01

    A purpose of this study is to examine the effect that quadriceps femoris force gives to rotation angle and joint reaction force of total knee prosthesis during deep knee flexion such as a unique sitting style called 'seiza' in Japanese. For the evaluation, we developed the knee motion simulator which could bend to 180 degrees continually simulating the passive flexion performed by clinicians. A total knee prosthesis, which is a specially-devised posterior stabilized type and capable of flexion up to 180 degrees, was inserted into bone model. And this prosthesis pulled by three kinds of quadriceps femoris forces to perform parameter study. The results obtained in this study were showed the same tendency with those in the past cadaveric experiment. It is suggested that the rotation angle and joint reaction force of total knee prosthesis are affected by shape of prosthesis, a vector of quadriceps femoris force, and bony aliments during deep knee flexion.

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of Joint Attention and Language Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime

    2010-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), which occurs when two individuals focus on the same object or event, plays a critical role in social and language development. Two major kinds of joint attention have been observed: response to joint attention (RJA), in which children follow the attentional focus of their social partners, and initiation of joint attention…

  17. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  18. Development of Common International Specifications to Support Future Joint Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine

    Scientific exploration of the solar system is becoming more complex and costly, while featuring both astrobiologically compelling targets and the need for increasingly capable scientific instru-mentation and spacecraft. Recently, an increasing number of countries are joining the club of spacefaring nations, providing a greater base of capabilities in space exploration from which to work. Both trends are positive and may be expected to lead to both an increased number of cooperative missions. A focus on "better" future cooperative missions to Mars and the Outer Planets satellites—with a concentration on the potential of these bodies to support life—will necessarily require con-tinued attention to the planetary protection policies that govern their exploration. Agencies conducting joint missions to these worlds have long recognized the utility of COSPAR's plane-tary protection policy as the international consensus standard applied to support their scientific exploration. As such, a formal role for COSPAR's policy in joining agency efforts is expected to continue, while in an informal sense COSPAR will also continue to work to harmonize the technical side of requirements among space agencies and to provide an international forum to develop future thinking on planetary protection issues. In this way, COSPAR can help to aid agencies to develop bilateral and multilateral cooperative efforts, such as the 2007 agreement reached by NASA and ESA, as well as to expand the level of coordination among space agencies of other spacefaring nations. Such coordination and the successful implementation of COSPAR requirements on joint mis-sions suggests the need for frequent exchanges of information among the planetary protection authorities of the respective spacefaring nation and the COSPAR planetary protection panel. To be effective, such exchanges should ideally start already before mission categorization and continue until the end-of-mission report. This is considered of

  19. Longer moment arm results in smaller joint moment development, power and work outputs in fast motions.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Akinori; Komura, Taku

    2003-11-01

    Effects of moment arm length on kinetic outputs of a musculoskeletal system (muscle force development, joint moment development, joint power output and joint work output) were evaluated using computer simulation. A skeletal system of the human ankle joint was constructed: a lower leg segment and a foot segment were connected with a hinge joint. A Hill-type model of the musculus soleus (m. soleus), consisting of a contractile element and a series elastic element, was attached to the skeletal system. The model of the m. soleus was maximally activated, while the ankle joint was plantarflexed/dorsiflexed at a variation of constant angular velocities, simulating isokinetic exercises on a muscle testing machine. Profiles of the kinetic outputs (muscle force development, joint moment development, joint power output and joint work output) were obtained. Thereafter, the location of the insertion of the m. soleus was shifted toward the dorsal/ventral direction by 1cm, which had an effect of lengthening/shortening the moment arm length, respectively. The kinetic outputs of the musculoskeletal system during the simulated isokinetic exercises were evaluated with these longer/shorter moment arm lengths. It was found that longer moment arm resulted in smaller joint moment development, smaller joint power output and smaller joint work output in the larger plantarflexion angular velocity region (>120 degrees/s). This is because larger muscle shortening velocity was required with longer moment arm to achieve a certain joint angular velocity. Larger muscle shortening velocity resulted in smaller muscle force development because of the force-velocity relation of the muscle. It was suggested that this phenomenon should be taken into consideration when investigating the joint moment-joint angle and/or joint moment-joint angular velocity characteristics of experimental data.

  20. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the...

  1. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following four panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one hour at the...

  2. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public for...

  3. Southeast Asian seas: joint development of hydrocarbons in overlapping claim areas

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, M.J.; Miyoshi, M.

    1986-01-01

    There are ocean areas of overlapping claims in Southeast Asia with significant petroleum potential which appear to be candidates for joint development, a process in which boundary disputes are set aside and the claimants jointly explore and exploit any hydrocarbon resources in such areas. Factors influencing the choice of joint development are delineated and described. The best candidate areas for joint development in Southeast Asia are the areas of overlap between Vietnam and Kampuchea in the eastern Gulf of Thailand and the Timor gap between Indonesia and Australia. The overlap between Vietnam and China in the Gulf of Tonkin and parts of the Dangerous Ground could become candidates for joint development if political relations change. Joint development schemes include agreement on the extent of the area in question, on the contractual system, and on the degree of autonomy and authority of the joint development body. Hypothetical schemes for joint development of some candidate areas are described. Although joint development is neither the optimal nor the permanent solution to unresolved boundaries, it will look increasingly attractive if the need for oil intensifies and precedents mount. 5 figures.

  4. Experiences in the development of rotary joints for robotic manipulators in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priesett, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    European developments in robotics for space applications have resulted in human arm-like manipulators with six or more rotational degrees of freedom. The rotary joints including their own electromechanical actuator and feedback sensors must be very compact units. The specific joint concept is presented as evolved so far. The problems encountered during the first hardware development phases are covered on both component and joint level.

  5. [Development of the normal infantile hip joints assessed by MRI].

    PubMed

    Wierusz-Kozłowska, M; Ziemiański, A; Kruczyński, J; Borkowski, W

    2000-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the time of appearance of the secondary ossification centers and closure of the growth plates of the acetabulum and proximal epiphysis of the femur: the triradiate cartilage, the acetabular roof growth cartilage, the subcapital growth cartilage, the growth cartilage of the major trochanter, the growth cartilage of the minor trochanter. The study is based upon 62 MRI scans of healthy hips in 45 patients aged 3-21. The examined hips showed no pathologic traits--neither in the MRI scan nor in X-ray investigation. In Spin Echo and Turbo Spin Echo sequential imaging all obtained slices were used, on GRADIENT ECHO: FISP 3D, FLASH 2D, and FLASH 3D FAT SAT only chosen slices were included in the study. This way the following results were obtained: the ossification center of the major trochanter appears at the age of 3 in girls and at the age of 6 in boys, while the ossification center of the minor trochanter appears at the age of 6 in both sexes. The times of complete ossification of following growth cartilages were observed: for the triradiate cartilage ossification was observed at age 12-15 in girls and 15-16 in boys; for the cartilage of the acetabular roof ossification was noted at age 12-15 in girls and 15-18 in boys; ossification in the subcapital growth cartilage occurred at age 15-17 in girls and 16-18 in boys; the major trochanter growth cartilage ossifies at age 15-16 in girls and 16-18 in boys; for the minor trochanter ossification of the growth cartilage occurs at age 14-16 in girls and at age 16-18 in boys. The secondary ossification center of the pubic bone appears at age 9-11 in girls and 13-16 in boys and the secondary ossification center of the acetabular roof appears at age 13-17 in girls and boys. This study expand our knowledge on the development of the hip joint and facilitate the assessment of hip pathology.

  6. A Robotic Therapy Case Study: Developing Joint Attention Skills with a Student on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charron, Nancy; Lewis, Lundy; Craig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a possible methodology for developing joint attention skills in students with autism spectrum disorder. Co-robot therapy with the humanoid robot NAO was used to foster a student's joint attention skill development; 20-min sessions conducted once weekly during the school year were video recorded and…

  7. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  8. Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Celso

    1977-01-01

    Examines the interdisciplinary nature of theories of development. Topics discussed include views of history, instrumental rationality, the role of technology in capitalist society, and a synthetic view of the development/underdevelopment process. For journal availability, see SO 506 201. (Author/DB)

  9. Developing Joint Accountability in University-School Teacher Education Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, David M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a professional development intervention coupled with an empirical research study focused on a mentor teacher study group. An unanticipated outcome of the study group was an evident development in the sense of accountability displayed by participants toward the work of teacher education in their school. In effect, teachers'…

  10. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  11. Wnt signalling controls the response to mechanical loading during zebrafish joint development

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Lucy H.; Begg, Katie; Kague, Erika; Cross, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Joint morphogenesis requires mechanical activity during development. Loss of mechanical strain causes abnormal joint development, which can impact long-term joint health. Although cell orientation and proliferation are known to shape the joint, dynamic imaging of developing joints in vivo has not been possible in other species. Using genetic labelling techniques in zebrafish we were able, for the first time, to dynamically track cell behaviours in intact moving joints. We identify that proliferation and migration, which contribute to joint morphogenesis, are mechanically controlled and are significantly reduced in immobilised larvae. By comparison with strain maps of the developing skeleton, we identify canonical Wnt signalling as a candidate for transducing mechanical forces into joint cell behaviours. We show that, in the jaw, Wnt signalling is reduced specifically in regions of high strain in response to loss of muscle activity. By pharmacological manipulation of canonical Wnt signalling, we demonstrate that Wnt acts downstream of mechanical activity and is required for joint patterning and chondrocyte maturation. Wnt16, which is also downstream of muscle activity, controls proliferation and migration, but plays no role in chondrocyte intercalation. PMID:28684625

  12. Mouse genetic models for temporomandibular joint development and disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Iwata, J

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a synovial joint essential for hinge and sliding movements of the mammalian jaw. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are dysregulations of the muscles or the TMJ in structure, function, and physiology, and result in pain, limited mandibular mobility, and TMJ noise and clicking. Although approximately 40-70% adults in the USA have at least one sign of TMD, the etiology of TMD remains largely unknown. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of TMD in mouse models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mouse genetic models for temporomandibular joint development and disorders

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, A; Iwata, J

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a synovial joint essential for hinge and sliding movements of the mammalian jaw. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are dysregulations of the muscles or the TMJ in structure, function, and physiology, and result in pain, limited mandibular mobility, and TMJ noise and clicking. Although approximately 40–70% adults in the USA have at least one sign of TMD, the etiology of TMD remains largely unknown. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of TMD in mouse models. PMID:26096083

  14. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at the...

  15. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the...

  16. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the...

  17. High current density, cryogenically cooled sliding electrical joint development

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.

    1986-09-01

    In the past two years, conceptual designs for fusion energy research devices have focussed on compact, high magnetic field configurations. The concept of sliding electrical joints in the large magnets allows a number of technical advantages including enhanced mechanical integrity, remote maintainability, and reduced project cost. The rationale for sliding electrical joints is presented. The conceptual configuration for this generation of experimental devices is highlghted by an approx. 20 T toroidal field magnet with a flat top conductor current of approx. 300 kA and a sliding electrical joint with a gross current density of approx. 0.6 kA/cm/sup 2/. A numerical model was used to map the conductor current distribution as a function of time and position in the conductor. A series of electrical joint arrangements were produced against the system code envelope constraints for a specific version of the Ignition Studies Project (ISP) which is designated as 1025.

  18. Genetic Influences on Temporomandibular Joint Development and Growth.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Robert J; Jing, Junjun; Feng, Jian Q

    2015-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a small synovial joint at which the mandible articulates with the skull during movements involved in speaking and mastication. However, the secondary cartilage lining its joint surfaces is indicative of a very different developmental history than limb cartilages. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genes that regulate the formation of primary components of the TMJ, as well as genes that regulate postnatal growth of the TMJ. Although the TMJ is regulated by some of the same genes that are important in limb joints, others appear unique to the TMJ or have different actions. Runx2, Sox9, and members of the TGF-β/BMP family are critical drivers of chondrogenesis during condylar cartilage morphogenesis, and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is important for formation of the articular disc and cavitation. Osterix (Osx) is a critical regulator of endochondral bone formation during postnatal TMJ growth. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of 345-kV capacitive-graded joint. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, E.M.

    1980-09-01

    The design of a 345-kV prefabricated capacitive-graded joint for oil-filled cables and the manufacture and testing of prototype joints are described. Tests on prototype No. 4 demonstrated the adequacy of the printed circuit design. It was not possible to consistently obtain high-quality capacitive sheets and substantial effort is required to remedy this problem. Advantages of these prefabricated joints are summarized, and specific recommendations are made for further development of the concept.

  20. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  1. Development of assembly and joint concepts for erectable space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemin, G. G.; Bluck, R. M.; Grotbeck, G. H.; Johnson, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    The technology associated with the on-orbit assembly of tetrahedral truss platforms erected of graphite epoxy tapered columns is examined. Associated with the assembly process is the design and fabrication of nine member node joints. Two such joints demonstrating somewhat different technology were designed and fabricated. Two methods of automatic assembly using the node designs were investigated, and the time of assembly of tetrahedral truss structures up to 1 square km in size was estimated. The effect of column and node joint packaging on the Space Shuttle cargo bay is examined. A brief discussion is included of operating cost considerations and the selection of energy sources. Consideration was given to the design assembly machines from 5 m to 20 m. The smaller machines, mounted on the Space Shuttle, are deployable and restowable. They provide a means of demonstrating the capabilities of the concept and of erecting small specialized platforms on relatively short notice.

  2. Development of a Enhanced Thermal Barrier for RSRM Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P. H.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber rope is being considered as replacement for the RTV thermal barrier that is currently used to protect o-rings in RSRM nozzle joints, Performance requirements include its ability to cool propellant gases filter slag and particulates, and conform to various joint assembly conditions as well as dynamic flight motion. Testing has shown its superior heat resistance, even in oxidative and corrosive environments. Testing has also demonstrated excellent performance of this system in sub-scale motors. Cold flow testing, has demonstrated its ability to conform to motor dynamics. Manufacture and assembly testing have demonstrated the ease of gland machining as well as assembly in a full-scale nozzle.

  3. Partnerships between Public Schools and Private Developers. A Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoudian, Maria

    The California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee investigated several "joint venture" partnerships between school districts and the private sector to develop school district-owned properties to determine the feasibility of such innovative school construction projects. This report presents findings from seven of these…

  4. Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.; Raver, Sharon A.; Michalek, Anne M. P.; Wilson, Corinne L.

    2013-01-01

    All eligible infants and toddlers who receive early intervention services under Part C of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are entitled to service coordination. To examine the effectiveness of one state's service coordination training and its impact on knowledge and skill development, a pretest--posttest design with follow-up survey was…

  5. Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.; Raver, Sharon A.; Michalek, Anne M. P.; Wilson, Corinne L.

    2013-01-01

    All eligible infants and toddlers who receive early intervention services under Part C of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are entitled to service coordination. To examine the effectiveness of one state's service coordination training and its impact on knowledge and skill development, a pretest--posttest design with follow-up survey was…

  6. A New Vector for Air Force Development of Joint Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-26

    HAROLD R . WINTON (Date) _______________________________________________ STEPHEN E. WRIGHT...2 Multiples sources, including: 1. Julian E. Barnes and Peter Spiegel , “Air Force’s Top Leaders Ousted,” Los Angeles Times, 6 June 2008...von Clausewitz, John Frederick Charles Fuller, Martin van Creveld, and James R Locher; essays from Joint Forces Quarterly (JFQ); and numerous

  7. The National Guard: Recommendations to Develop the Joint Future Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    author of this paper, is a requirement to educate the military personnel on total force and joint concepts from the earliest stages. Aristotle once...8 Phillip S. Meilinger, American Airpower Biography : A Survey of the Field Air and Space Power (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press

  8. Organisational Learning in International Joint Ventures: Implications for Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrell, Mike; Gloet, Marianne; Wright, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Malaysian and Australian managers enrolled in a training program exhibited differences attributed to national culture in their approaches to learning, influences on management behavior, and ways of knowing. National culture had greater influence on management development and organizational learning than did organizational or systems cultures.…

  9. From interactions to conversations: the development of joint engagement during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F; Nelson, P Brooke

    2014-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner, ), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to become more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children's symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across 4 years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver's actions. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Minority Business Participation in Public/Private Partnerships: A Manual on Joint Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Celestino M.; And Others

    The Urban Mass Transportation Association promotes Commercial real estate development projects in and adjacent to transit facilities as a means of generating additional revenues to defray part of local transit agency operating cost. Transit-related real estate development, or joint development, provides unique financial benefits for investors and…

  11. Carving Metacognition at Its Joints: Protracted Development of Component Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Allison P.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring and control, and conditions under which children engage these processes. In Experiment 1, 5-year-olds (N = 30) and 7-year-olds (N = 30), unlike adults (N = 30), showed little evidence of either monitoring or control. In Experiment 2, 5-year-olds (N = 90) were given…

  12. Bone morphogenetic proteins in the development and healing of synovial joints.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C J; Francis-West, P H

    2001-08-01

    To review current knowledge of the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in joint formation and how this may be relevant to healing in adult joints. Review of published literature using a search of the PubMed database (1966 to 2000) made available by the National Library of Medicine. Additional articles of historical interest were identified from the bibliographies of published literature. BMPs and a related family, the growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), are stimulators of bone and cartilage formation in the developing skeleton. They, together with their antagonists, play key roles in the specification of the joint site and cavitation of synovial joints during embryonic development. Disruption of the GDF-5 gene in mice and humans is associated with abnormal joint formation. In situ hybridization studies have shown that BMPs are expressed during formation of synovial joints in the embryo. However, excessive BMP activity leads to obliteration of joints because of cartilage overgrowth. BMPs are being considered as therapeutic agents to stimulate healing of articular cartilage after damage. Evidence suggests that BMPs are present in adult joints and have roles in healing and maintenance. However, inflammatory cytokines and growth factors present in damaged joints modulate the actions of BMPs. BMPs, and in particular GDF-5, are involved in synovial joint formation. They may also have effects on the maintenance and healing of adult joints, but factors present after damage may alter their effectiveness. Articular cartilage heals poorly after damage. BMPs may be useful therapeutically to stimulate healing of damaged articular cartilage. Increased knowledge of their role in joint formation will improve understanding of how to use them. Semin Arthritis Rheum 31:33-42. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  13. Hox11 genes establish synovial joint organization and phylogenetic characteristics in developing mouse zeugopod skeletal elements

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Eiki; Yasuda, Tadashi; Minugh-Purvis, Nancy; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yallowitz, Alisha R.; Wellik, Deneen M.; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Hox11 genes are essential for zeugopod skeletal element development but their roles in synovial joint formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the elbow and knee joints of mouse embryos lacking all Hox11 paralogous genes are specifically remodeled and reorganized. The proximal ends of developing mutant ulna and radius elements became morphologically similar and formed an anatomically distinct elbow joint. The mutant ulna lacked the olecranon that normally attaches to the triceps brachii muscle tendon and connects the humerus to the ulna. In its place, an ulnar patella-like element developed that expressed lubricin on its ventral side facing the joint and was connected to the triceps muscle tendon. In mutant knees, both tibia and fibula fully articulated with an enlarged femoral epiphyseal end that accommodated both elements, and the neo-tripartite knee joint was enclosed in a single synovial cavity and displayed an additional anterior ligament. The mutant joints also exhibited a different organization of the superficial zone of articular cartilage that normally exerts an anti-friction function. In conclusion, Hox11 genes co-regulate and coordinate the development of zeugopod skeletal elements and adjacent elbow and knee joints, and dictate joint identity, morphogenesis and anatomical and functional organization. Notably, the ulnar patella and tripartite knee joints in the mouse mutants actually characterize several lower vertebrates, including certain reptiles and amphibians. The re-emergence of such anatomical structures suggests that their genetic blueprint is still present in the mouse genome but is normally modified to the needs of the mammalian joint-formation program by distinct Hox11 function. PMID:20978074

  14. Development of molded, coated fabric joints: Fabric construction criteria for a spacesuit elbow joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a molded, coated fabric elbow joint capable of operating reliably at 8 psi internal pressure for extended periods of flexure is considered. The overall design of the joint includes: (1) selection of heatsettable fiber of sufficient strengths; (2) choosing an optimum fabric construction; (3) a fatigue resistant; flexible coating; and (4) a molding technique. A polyester yarn of type 56 Dacron and a urethane coating system were selected. The relationships between yarn and weave parameters which lead to an optimum fabric construction for the 8 psi elbow joint are defined.

  15. Development of Synovial Membrane in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, R.C.; Arraéz-Aybar, L.A.; Klein, O.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities. PMID:26708184

  16. The development of EERA: software for assessing rheumatic joint erosions.

    PubMed

    Emond, Patrick D; Choi, Abram; O'Neill, John; Xie, Jason; Adachi, Rick; Gordon, Chris L

    2009-04-01

    The principal aim of this study was to create a segmentation program, to be used by nonmusculoskeletal or junior fellows, that defines the bones in the metacarpophalangeal joint in a dynamic 3-dimensional image that will lead to higher inter-reader agreement of bone erosion scores. The second to fifth metacarpal head and phalangeal bases of 15 participants were rated according to the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring system by one trained and one untrained reader. Two comparisons were made. The first comparison was between the 2 readers using only the traditional 2-dimensional magnetic resonance image set. The second comparison was between the 2 readers, with the untrained reader using a custom segmentation program with traditional 2-dimensional magnetic resonance image set. The software marginally increased inter-reader reliability with the exception of the second metacarpal head, for which reliability was increased substantially. Future work will concentrate on improving image acquisition, better delineate erosions from surrounding bone oedema, and address methods to directly determine erosion volumes. Software designed to display dynamic 3-dimensional images enables a relatively untrained user to score the metacarpophalangeal joints in the hand for erosions equivalent to that produced by an expert using the manual methods.

  17. Cartilage morphogenetic proteins: role in joint development, homoeostasis, and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage homoeostasis is critical for joint function. The steady state homoeostasis of articular cartilage is a balance between anabolic morphogens such as cartilage derived morphogenetic proteins (CDMPs) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) of the BMP family and catabolic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1, IL17, and tumour necrosis factor α. Although bone and articular cartilage are adjacent tissues, there is a profound difference in their regeneration potential. Bone has the highest potential for regeneration. On the other hand, articular cartilage is recalcitrant to repair. Objective: To examine the hypothesis that the feeble innate regeneration ability of cartilage is due to the preponderance of catabolic cytokines such as IL1 and IL17. Results: During a systematic investigation of CDMPs and cytokines IL17B (chondroleukin) was found in bovine articular cartilage. Discussion and conclusions: BMP-7 and IL17B are present in articular cartilage and synthesised in chondrocytes as shown by northern blots and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The coexistence of anabolic morphogens and catabolic cytokines in articular cartilage has important implications for cartilage homoeostasis and regeneration. The networks of signalling systems of morphogens and cytokines determine the net capacity for regenerative morphogenesis of articular cartilage. Finally, the feeble innate capacity for articular cartilage may be improved by targeted therapy by soluble receptors to block catabolic cytokines. PMID:14532155

  18. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Doelle, H W

    1996-09-01

    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  19. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  20. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  1. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction as a reason for the development of acetabular retroversion: a new theory.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Acetabular retroversion has been recently implicated as an important factor in the development of femoral acetabular impingement and hip osteoarthritis. The proper function of the hip joint requires that the anatomic features of the acetabulum and femoral head complement one another. In acetabular retroversion, the alignment of the acetabulum is altered where it opens in a posterolaterally instead of anterior direction. Changes in acetabular orientation can occur with alterations in pelvic tilt (anterior/posterior), and pelvic rotation (left/right). An overlooked problem that alters pelvic tilt and rotation, often seen by physical therapists, is sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A unique feature that develops in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) is asymmetry between the left and right innominate bones that can alter pelvic tilt and rotation. This article puts forth a theory suggesting that acetabular retroversion may be produced by sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

  2. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to became more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children’s symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across four years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver’s actions. PMID:24266591

  3. Development of a physical model of the human elbow joint using polyacrylonitrile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Thielman, Jeffrey L.

    1998-07-01

    A physical model of the human elbow joint was designed using the polymer fiber polyacrylonitrile (PAN), developed at the University of New Mexico. The elbow model uses six PAN fiber bundles, as artificial muscles, to create the forces needed for elbow movement. These six fiber bundles were designed to imitate the major muscles that cross the human elbow joint. Four distinct movement tasks (elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination) were designed into the physical mode. Several steps were taken to meet this objective. First, the mechanical properties of the PAN fibers were characterized using the techniques developed by A. V. Hill, and compared with his results. The results show that the fiber mechanical properties have similarities to human muscle properties, and thus permitting a realistic elbow model to be developed. Second, a method of encasing the individual bundles of fibers was developed. The encasing lengthens and shortens with the fibers, prevents fluid leakage, and does not deteriorate given the acid and base fluid components. Third, a method of supplying and removing the activating fluids was developed. This system is chemically resistant, provides a method for controlling inlet and exit fluid flow, and allows for complete fluid exchange in less than 5 seconds. Finally, a microcontroller was incorporated to provide joint position and velocity control based on joint potentiometers and provide real-time feedback of joint positions. Using these components, a human elbow joint system was developed that allows movement in two degrees of freedom. Due to the characteristics of the PAN fiber bundles, the elbow joint was slower and weaker than originally designed. System improvements relate closely to increasing fiber bundle force and decreasing the reaction time constant.

  4. Development and verification of a mathematical model to quantify the joint spaces of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Glatzeder, Korbinian; Müller, Ralf; Hollinger, Boris; Potthast, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was a development and verification of a model to quantify elbow joint spaces focusing on posterolateral rotatory instability. The model was tested for feasibility and applied to open and arthroscopic surgeries. A mathematical kinematic model was created, consisting of two segments representing the humerus and radius and ulna. Model calculations of the joint opening were compared with direct measurements on a mechanical model with attached marker arrays, and compared with values determined by a digital sliding caliper in order to evaluate the mathematical kinematic rigid body model of the elbow joint. Joint angles predicted by the mathematical model were compared with values determined by a two axis goniometer. The evaluation showed significant accordance (intercorrelation coefficient ≥0.8). The highest difference was 1.54° (root mean square: 0.46°) for all movement conditions. Ligament transaction at the open surgery situation affected an increase in joint opening (maximum joint opening: 10.9 mm±0.3). Distances in the ulnohumeral joint space (ligaments intact) under arthroscopic surgery situation varied between 4.0 and 6.8 mm (mean: 5.2 mm±1.0). Thus a possibility is created to achieve an objective assessment of joint space opening to provide a more complete description of the elbow kinematics using this approach.

  5. Joint Small Arms Technology Development Strategy for Joint Service Small Arms Science and Technology Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-26

    Synchronization Team (JSSAST). The JSATDS summarizes by investment taxonomy and Army Budget Activity what investments are necessary to mitigate the JSSAST...investments through the lenses of taxonomy and budget activity across the services. The development of the JSATDS, as Science & Technology (S&T...that reason JSATDS section leads had to work together to create, across taxonomy boundaries, a more holistic strategy, synchronized to support a

  6. Development of arthrogenic joint contracture as a result of pathological changes in remobilized rat knees.

    PubMed

    Kaneguchi, Akinori; Ozawa, Junya; Kawamata, Seiichi; Yamaoka, Kaoru

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate how rats recover from immobilization-induced knee joint contracture. Rats' right knees were immobilized by an external fixator at a flexion of 140° for 3 weeks. After removal of the fixator, the joints were allowed to move freely (remobilization) for 0, 1, 3, 7, or 14 days (n = 5 each). To distinguish myogenic and arthrogenic contractures, the passive extension range of motion was measured before and after myotomy of the knee flexors. Knee joints were histologically analyzed and the expression of genes encoding inflammatory or fibrosis-related mediators, interleukin-1β (1L-1β), fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and collagen type I (COL1A1) and III (COL3A1), were examined in the knee joint posterior capsules using real-time PCR. Both myogenic and arthrogenic contractures were established within 3 weeks of immobilization. During remobilization, the myogenic contracture decreased over time. In contrast, the arthrogenic contracture developed further during the remobilization period. On day 1 of remobilization, inflammatory changes characterized by edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and upregulation of IL-1β gene started in the knee joint posterior capsule. In addition, collagen deposition accompanied by fibroblast proliferation, with upregulation of TGF-β1, COL1A1, and COL3A1 genes, appeared in the joint capsule between days 7 and 14. These results suggest the progression of arthrogenic contracture following remobilization, which is characterized by fibrosis development, is possibly triggered by inflammation in the joint capsule. It is therefore necessary to focus on developing new treatment strategies for immobilization-induced joint contracture. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1414-1423, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Forces in bolted joints: analysis methods and test results utilized for nuclear core applications (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, P.J.; Keller, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    Analytical methods and test data employed in the core design of bolted joints for the LWBR core are presented. The effects of external working loads, thermal expansion, and material stress relaxation are considered in the formulation developed to analyze joint performance. Extensions of these methods are also provided for bolted joints having both axial and bending flexibilities, and for the effect of plastic deformation on internal forces developed in a bolted joint. Design applications are illustrated by examples.

  8. The development of auto-sealing system for field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Yoshihiro; Shoji, Norio; Namioka, Toshiyuki; Komura, Minoru

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the development of a system to create high quality, automatic sealing of field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines. The system uses a combination of electrically heated shrink sleeves and a low pressure chamber. The self-heating shrink sleeves include electric wires and heat themselves when connected to electricity. A method was developed to eliminate air trapped between the sleeve and steel pipe by shrinking the sleeves under low pressure. The low pressure condition was automatically and easily attained by using a vacuum chamber. The authors verified that the system produces high quality sealing of field joints.

  9. HTS coil and joint development for a 5T NMR insert coil

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaff, P.V. Jr.; Schwartz, J.; Van Sciver, S.W. |

    1996-12-31

    A HTS coil fabrication and joint development project was undertaken to develop the technology necessary for the production of a 5 T HTS insert coil for NMR applications. A series of minicoils are being fabricated to explore various construction options such as winding technique, structural support, and electrical insulation. The results from one of these coils are presented. Present conductor technology cannot produce the long length of conductor needed in the insert coil design, therefore, a means must be found to join several lengths of conductor together. Several joint prototypes are investigated.

  10. Development of a finger joint phantom for evaluation of frequency domain measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Netz, Uwe J; Scheel, Alexander K; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2006-01-01

    For development and test of new optical imaging devices, phantoms are widely used to emulate the tissue to be imaged. Phantom design gets more difficult the more complex the tissue is structured. We report on developing and testing a solid, stable finger joint phantom to simulate transillumination of finger joints in frequency-domain imaging systems. The phantom consists of the bone, capsule, skin, the capsule volume, and the joint gap. Silicone was used to build the solid parts and a glycerol-water solution for the fluid in the capsule volume and joint gap. The system to test the phantom is an optical frequency-domain scanning set-up. Different stages of joint inflammation as they occur in rheumatoid arthritis (BA) were emulated by assembling the phantom with capsule and fluid having different optical properties. Reliability of the phantom measurement was investigated by repeated assembling. The results show clear discrimination between different stages of joints within the signal deviation due to reassembling of the phantom.

  11. [Bone development trend in the knee joint of Tibetan teenagers in Aba Prefecture of Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shi-Rong; Ying, Chong-Liang; Wan, Lei; Wei, Hua; Wang, Ya-Hui; Zhu, Guang-You

    2013-08-01

    To discuss bone development trend in the knee joint of Tibetan teenagers in Sichuan province and to effectively update the database for estimating the living age of Tibetan teenagers in terms of bone age of the knee joint. Radiographs including epiphysis of distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula were taken from 483 Tibetan male and female teenagers aged from 14 to 19 years old in Aba prefecture of Sichuan province in order to observe epiphyseal growth situation. The descriptive data of the epiphyseal closure ages of these teenagers' knee joints were statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. The distal femur epiphyseal closure occurred earliest, while the proximal fibula epiphyseal closure occurred latest. The epiphyseal growth of knee joints of females occurred about one year earlier than that of males. The forensic information and data related to Tibetan teenagers' bone age identification should be updated regularly. These results provide potential value for the practice of forensic medicine, anthropology and clinical medicine.

  12. Functional data analysis of joint coordination in the development of vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A J; Ryan, W; Hayes, K

    2007-05-01

    Mastery of complex motor skills requires effective development of inter-segment coordination patterns. These coordination patterns can be described and quantified using various methods, including descriptive angle-angle diagrams, conjugate cross-correlations, vector coding, normalized root mean squared error techniques and, as in this study, functional data analysis procedures. Lower limb kinematic data were obtained for 49 children performing the vertical jump. Participants were assigned to developmental stages using the criteria of Gallahue and Ozmun . Inter-segment joint coordination data consisting of pairs of joint angle-time data were smoothed using B-splines and the resulting bivariate functions were analysed using functional principal component analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the knee-hip joint coordination pattern was most effective at discriminating between developmental stages. The results provide support for the application of functional data analysis techniques in the analysis of joint coordination or time series type data.

  13. Morphogen-based simulation model of ray growth and joint patterning during fin development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Paquette, Mathieu; Tweedle, Valerie; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée

    2012-03-01

    The fact that some organisms are able to regenerate organs of the correct shape and size following amputation is particularly fascinating, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) caudal fin has emerged as a model system for the study of bone development and regeneration. The fin comprises 16 to 18 bony rays, each containing multiple joints along its proximodistal axis that give rise to segments. Experimental observations on fin ray growth, regeneration and joint formation have been described, but no unified theory has yet been put forward to explain how growth and joint patterns are controlled. We present a model for the control of fin ray growth during development and regeneration, integrated with a model for joint pattern formation, which is in agreement with published, as well as new, experimental data. We propose that fin ray growth and joint patterning are coordinated through the interaction of three morphogens. When the model is extended to incorporate multiple rays across the fin, it also accounts for how the caudal fin acquires its shape during development, and regains its correct size and shape following amputation.

  14. Finite element modelling predicts changes in joint shape and cell behaviour due to loss of muscle strain in jaw development

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Lucy H.; Norton, Joanna L.; Bright, Jen A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Using zebrafish, in which we can image all joint musculoskeletal tissues at high resolution, we show that removal of muscle activity through anaesthetisation or genetic manipulation causes a change to the shape of the joint between the Meckel's cartilage and Palatoquadrate (the jaw joint), such that the joint develops asymmetrically leading to an overlap of the cartilage elements on the medial side which inhibits normal joint function. We identify the time during which muscle activity is critical to produce a normal joint. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), to model the strains exerted by muscle on the skeletal elements, we identify that minimum principal strains are located at the medial region of the joint and interzone during mouth opening. Then, by studying the cells immediately proximal to the joint, we demonstrate that biomechanical strain regulates cell orientation within the developing joint, such that when muscle-induced strain is removed, cells on the medial side of the joint notably change their orientation. Together, these data show that biomechanical forces are required to establish symmetry in the joint during development. PMID:26253758

  15. Development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Hutchins, E. L.; Barr, Ronald E.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a musculoskeletal model that represents human elbow flexion-extension and forearm pronation-supination. The length, velocity, and moment arm for each of the eight musculotendon actuators were based on skeletal anatomy and position. Musculotendon parameters were determined for each actuator and verified by comparing analytical torque-angle curves with experimental joint torque data. The parameters and skeletal geometry were also utilized in the musculoskeletal model for the analysis of ballistic elbow joint complex movements. The key objective was to develop a computational model, guided by parameterized optimal control, to investigate the relationship among patterns of muscle excitation, individual muscle forces, and movement kinematics. The model was verified using experimental kinematic, torque, and electromyographic data from volunteer subjects performing ballistic elbow joint complex movements.

  16. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2014-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner), [Adamson, L. B., 2004], were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages…

  17. Early Interests and Joint Engagement in Typical Development, Autism, and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Deckner, Deborah F.; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by…

  18. From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2014-01-01

    This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother-child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner), [Adamson, L. B., 2004], were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages…

  19. Early Interests and Joint Engagement in Typical Development, Autism, and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Deckner, Deborah F.; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by…

  20. The "Dual Usage Problem" in the Explanations of "Joint Attention" and Children's Socioemotional Development: A Reconceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2008-01-01

    The term "joint attention", which first gained currency in the early 1960s in studies of the development of language and symbolic thought, remains significant in the developmental literature. However, its meaning is unclear. A definitional problem exists similar to what Patterson [Patterson, M. L. (1982). "A sequential functional model of…

  1. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research and development ventures. 295.23 Section 295.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL...

  2. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research and development ventures. 295.23 Section 295.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL...

  3. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research and development ventures. 295.23 Section 295.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL...

  4. 15 CFR 295.23 - Dissolution of joint research and development ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dissolution of joint research and development ventures. 295.23 Section 295.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL...

  5. Design and technical support for development of a molded fabric space suit joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. Howard

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has under design a new joint or element for use in a space suit. The design concept involves molding a fabric to a geometry developed at Ames. Unusual characteristics of this design include the need to produce a fabric molding draw ratio on the order of thirty percent circumferentially on the surface. Previous work done at NASA on molded fabric joints has shown that standard, NASA qualified polyester fabrics as are currently available in the textile industry for use in suits have a maximum of about fifteen percent draw ratio. NASA has done the fundamental design for a prototype joint and of a mold which would impart the correct shape to the fabric support layer of the joint. NASA also has the capability to test a finished product for suitability and reliability. Responsibilities resting with Georgia Tech in the design effort for this project are textile related, namely fiber selection, fabric design to achieve the properties of the objective design, and determining production means and sources for the fabrics. The project goals are to produce a prototype joint using the NASA design for evaluation of effectiveness by NASA, and to establish the sources and specifications which would allow reliable and repeatable production of the joint.

  6. Development of an item list to assess the forgotten joint concept in shoulder patients.

    PubMed

    Giesinger, Johannes M; Kesterke, Nicolas; Hamilton, David F; Holzner, Bernhard; Jost, Bernhard; Giesinger, Karlmeinrad

    2015-03-24

    To generate an item list for the assessment of joint awareness in shoulder patients and to collect patient feedback on the comprehensibility of the items and the forgotten joint concept. Item content was generated on the basis of literature search and expert ratings following a stepwise refinement procedure, including final evaluation by an international expert board (n = 12) including members with various professional backgrounds. Items were translated from English to German and evaluated in 30 German-speaking shoulder patients in Switzerland and 30 shoulder patients in the UK. Literature search identified 45 questionnaires covering 805 issues potentially relevant for the assessment of joint awareness. Stepwise item selection resulted in 97 items to be evaluated by the international expert board leaving 70 items for collecting patient feedback. The majority of patients indicated that the introductory text explaining the forgotten joint concept was easy or very easy to understand (79.3%) and that the items were clear (91.4%). We developed a list of 70 questions for the assessment of joint awareness in shoulder patients and obtained positive patient feedback for these. In a next step, we will administer the items to a large international patient sample to obtain data for psychometric analysis and development of a measurement model, which is the basis for creation of computer-adaptive assessments or static short-forms.

  7. Development of Bonded Joint Technology for a Rigidizable-Inflatable Deployable Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2006-01-01

    Microwave and Synthetic Aperture Radar antenna systems have been developed as instrument systems using truss structures as their primary support and deployment mechanism for over a decade. NASA Langley Research Center has been investigating fabrication, modular assembly, and deployment methods of lightweight rigidizable/inflatable linear truss structures during that time for large spacecraft systems. The primary goal of the research at Langley Research Center is to advance these existing state-of-the-art joining and deployment concepts to achieve prototype system performance in a relevant space environment. During 2005, the development, fabrication, and testing of a 6.7 meter multi-bay, deployable linear truss was conducted at Langley Research Center to demonstrate functional and precision metrics of a rigidizable/inflatable truss structure. The present paper is intended to summarize aspects of bonded joint technology developed for the 6.7 meter deployable linear truss structure while providing a brief overview of the entire truss fabrication, assembly, and deployment methodology. A description of the basic joint design, surface preparation investigations, and experimental joint testing of component joint test articles will be described. Specifically, the performance of two room temperature adhesives were investigated to obtain qualitative data related to tube folding testing and quantitative data related to tensile shear strength testing. It was determined from the testing that a polyurethane-based adhesive best met the rigidizable/inflatable truss project requirements.

  8. Supporting the joint warfighter by development, training, and fielding of man-portable UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Kenneth A.; Stratton, Benjamin V.

    2005-05-01

    The Robotic Systems Pool (RSP), sponsored by the Joint Robotics Program (JRP), is an inventory of small robotic systems, payloads, and components intended to expedite the development and integration of technology into effective, supportable, fielded robotic assets. The RSP loans systems to multiple users including the military, first-responders, research organizations, and academia. These users provide feedback in their specific domain, accelerating research and development improvements of robotic systems, which in turn allow the joint warfighter to benefit from such changes more quickly than from traditional acquisition cycles. Over the past year, RSP assets have been used extensively for pre-deployment operator and field training of joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams, and for the training of Navy Reservist repair technicians. These Reservists are part of the Robotic Systems Combat Support Platoon (RSCSP), attached to Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. The RSCSP maintains and repairs RSP assets and provides deployable technical support for users of robotic systems. Currently, a small team from the RSCSP is deployed at Camp Victory repairing and maintaining man-portable unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) used by joint EOD teams in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The focus of this paper is to elaborate on the RSP and RSCSP and their role as invaluable resources for spiral development in the robotics community by gaining first-hand technical feedback from the warfighter and other users.

  9. Design and development testing of the bonded joint between a typical launch vehicle attachment ring and CFRP thrust cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, J. T.; Nayler, G. H. F.; Reynolds, J.

    1986-02-01

    The development of the principal structural joint of a Shuttle payload is described. The joint is subjected to large tension and compression loads due to the spacecraft being cantilevered perpendicular to the direction of flight of the launch vehicle. Finite element modeling was included in the investigation of joint designs. A bonded and bolted double lap shear configuration was chosen. Manufacturing and inspection methods were developed and testing of joint samples was undertaken including static, thermal and fatigue loading. The static test results were used to determine the design allowable strength of the joint.

  10. Development Of A Computer-Adaptive Version Of The Forgotten Joint Score

    PubMed Central

    Giesinger, Johannes M.; Kuster, Markus S.; Holzner, Bernhard; Giesinger, Karlmeinrad

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important endpoint in orthopedics providing comprehensive information about patients' perspectives on treatment outcome. Computer-adaptive test (CAT) measures are an advanced method for assessing PROs using item sets that are tailored to the individual patient. This provides increased measurement precision and reduces the number of items. We developed a CAT version of the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), a measure of joint awareness in everyday life. CAT development was based on FJS data from 580 patients after THA or TKA (808 assessments). The CAT version reduced the number of items by half at comparable measurement precision. In a feasibility study we administered the newly developed CAT measure on tablet PCs and found that patients actually preferred electronic questionnaires over paper–pencil questionnaires. PMID:23219089

  11. Analysis of EDZ Development of Columnar Jointed Rock Mass in the Baihetan Diversion Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xian-Jie; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Due to the time dependency of the crack propagation, columnar jointed rock masses exhibit marked time-dependent behaviour. In this study, in situ measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), back-analysis method and numerical simulations are presented to study the time-dependent development of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around underground diversion tunnels in a columnar jointed rock mass. Through in situ measurements of crack propagation and EDZ development, their extent is seen to have increased over time, despite the fact that the advancing face has passed. Similar to creep behaviour, the time-dependent EDZ development curve also consists of three stages: a deceleration stage, a stabilization stage, and an acceleration stage. A corresponding constitutive model of columnar jointed rock mass considering time-dependent behaviour is proposed. The time-dependent degradation coefficient of the roughness coefficient and residual friction angle in the Barton-Bandis strength criterion are taken into account. An intelligent back-analysis method is adopted to obtain the unknown time-dependent degradation coefficients for the proposed constitutive model. The numerical modelling results are in good agreement with the measured EDZ. Not only that, the failure pattern simulated by this time-dependent constitutive model is consistent with that observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in situ observation, indicating that this model could accurately simulate the failure pattern and time-dependent EDZ development of columnar joints. Moreover, the effects of the support system provided and the in situ stress on the time-dependent coefficients are studied. Finally, the long-term stability analysis of diversion tunnels excavated in columnar jointed rock masses is performed.

  12. Development of High Temperature Dissimilar Joint Technology for Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is developing fission surface power (FSP) system technology as a potential option for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. The goal is to design a robust system that takes full advantage of existing materials data bases. One of the key components of the power conversion system is the hot-side Heat Exchanger (HX). One possible design for this heat exchanger requires a joint of the dissimilar metals 316L stainless steel and Inconel 718, which must sustain extended operation at high temperatures. This study compares two joining techniques, brazing and diffusion bonding, in the context of forming the requisite stainless steel to superalloy joint. The microstructures produced by brazing and diffusion bonding, the effect of brazing cycle on the mechanical tensile properties of the alloys, and the strength of several brazed joints will be discussed.

  13. Early interests and joint engagement in typical development, autism, and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Deckner, Deborah F; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-06-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by diagnosis and relatively stable across intermissions. In autism, interest in people tended to be low and to decline rapidly, and the balance of interests favored familiar objects over people. Lower interest in people and in unfamiliar objects was associated with less coordinated joint engagement and with less steep developmental trajectories for symbol-infused joint engagement. These findings suggest that variations in interests may contribute to differences in the child's engagement during social interactions that facilitate the acquisition of language.

  14. Early Interests and Joint Engagement in Typical Development, Autism, and Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deckner, Deborah F.; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how spontaneous interests in people and in objects relate to joint engagement in typically developing toddlers and young children with autism or Down syndrome. Ratings of interests were made repeatedly during intermissions in a laboratory-based protocol focused on caregiver-child interactions. Interests were moderated by diagnosis and relatively stable across intermissions. In autism, interest in people tended to be low and to decline rapidly, and the balance of interests favored familiar objects over people. Lower interest in people and in unfamiliar objects was associated with less coordinated joint engagement and with less steep developmental trajectories for symbol-infused joint engagement. These findings suggest that variations in interests may contribute to differences in the child’s engagement during social interactions that facilitate the acquisition of language. PMID:20012678

  15. Characterization of bulk stainless steel joints developed through microwave hybrid heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Amit; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Das, Shantanu

    2014-05-01

    Processing of metallic materials through microwave heating is a challenging area of research. In the present work, joining of stainless steel-316 to stainless steel-316 in the bulk form has been carried out by placing stainless steel-316 powder at the interface and through targeted heating using microwave hybrid heating. The trials were carried out in a multimode microwave applicator at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and power 900 W. The developed joints were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope and measurement of Vicker's microhardness, porosity and tensile strength. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of the developed joint shows the presence of chromium carbide, iron carbide and iron silicide phases that eventually contribute to enhancement of the microhardness of the joint. The scanning electron microscope micrographs confirm classical metallurgical bonding between the substrate and the interface (molten powder) layer; the epitaxial growth rate was observed adjacent to the fusion zone. The average observed Vicker's microhardness in the joint zone on the grain boundary was significantly higher than that inside the grains due to the presence of various hard phases at the grain boundaries. Evaluation of the tensile strength of the joints showed an average ultimate tensile strength of 425.0 MPa with an average elongation of 9.44%. - Highlights: • Joining of stainless steel (SS-316) plates using microwave hybrid heating • Epitaxial growth rate observed adjacent to the fusion zone of welded joint • The ultimate tensile strength of the order of 425.0 MPa with 9.44% elongation.

  16. Development of a persistent superconducting joint between Bi-2212/Ag-alloy multifilamentary round wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Trociewitz, Ulf P.; Davis, Daniel S.; Bosque, Ernesto S.; Hilton, David K.; Kim, Youngjae; Abraimov, Dmytro V.; Starch, William L.; Jiang, Jianyi; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting joints are one of the key components needed to make Ag-alloy clad Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) superconducting round wire (RW) successful for high-field, high-homogeneity magnet applications, especially for nuclear magnetic resonance magnets in which persistent current mode operation is highly desired. In this study, a procedure for fabricating superconducting joints between Bi-2212 RWs during coil reaction was developed. Melting temperatures of Bi-2212 powder with different amounts of Ag addition were investigated by differential thermal analysis so as to provide information for selecting the proper joint matrix. Test joints of 1.3 mm dia. wires heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen using the typical partial melt Bi-2212 heat treatment (HT) had transport critical currents I c of ˜900 A at 4.2 K and self-field, decreasing to ˜480 A at 14 T evaluated at 0.1 μV cm-1 at 4.2 K. Compared to the I c of the open-ended short conductor samples with identical 1 bar HT, the I c values of the superconducting joint are ˜20% smaller than that of conductor samples measured in parallel field but ˜20% larger than conductor samples measured in perpendicular field. Microstructures examined by scanning electron microscopy clearly showed the formation of a superconducting Bi-2212 interface between the two Bi-2212 RWs. Furthermore, a Bi-2212 RW closed-loop solenoid with a superconducting joint heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen showed an estimated joint resistance below 5 × 10-12 Ω based on its field decay rate. This value is sufficiently low to demonstrate the potential for persistent operation of large inductance Bi-2212 coils.

  17. Structural development of laminar flow control aircraft chordwise wing joint designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.; Jerstad, N. M.; Gallimore, F. H., Jr.; Pollard, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    For laminar flow to be achieved, any protuberances on the surface must be small enough to avoid transition to turbulent flow. However, the surface must have joints between the structural components to allow assembly or replacement of damaged parts, although large continuous surfaces can be utilized to minimize the number the number of joints. Aircraft structural joints usually have many countersunk bolts or rivets on the outer surface. To maintain no mismatch on outer surfaces, it is desirable to attach the components from the inner surface. It is also desirable for the panels to be interchangeable, without the need for shims at the joint, to avoid surface discontinuities that could cause turbulence. Fabricating components while pressing their outer surfaces against an accurate mold helps to ensure surface smoothness and continuity at joints. These items were considered in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the joint design concepts. After evaluating six design concepts, two of the leading candidates were fabricated and tested using many small test panels. One joint concept was also built and tested using large panels. The small and large test panel deflections for the leading candidate designs at load factors up to +1.5 g's were well within the step and waviness requirements for avoiding transition.The small panels were designed and tested for compression and tension at -65 F, at ambient conditions, and at 160 F. The small panel results for the three-rib and the sliding-joint concepts indicated that they were both acceptable. The three-rib concept, with tapered splice plates, was considered to be the most practical. A modified three-rib joint that combined the best attributes of previous candidates was designed, developed, and tested. This improved joint met all of the structural strength, surface smoothness, and waviness criteria for laminar flow control (LFC). The design eliminated all disadvantages of the initial three-rib concept except for

  18. Effects of imbalanced muscle loading on hip joint development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Ford, Caleb A; Nowlan, Niamh C; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Killian, Megan L

    2017-05-01

    The mechanical loading environment influences the development and maturation of joints. In this study, the influence of imbalanced muscular loading on joint development was studied using localized chemical denervation of hip stabilizing muscle groups in neonatal mice. It was hypothesized that imbalanced muscle loading, targeting either gluteal muscles or quadriceps muscles, would lead to bilateral hip joint asymmetry, as measured by acetabular coverage, femoral head volume and bone morphometry, and femoral-acetabular shape. The contralateral hip joints as well as age-matched, uninjected mice were used as controls. Altered bone development was analyzed using micro-computed tomography, histology, and image registration techniques at postnatal days (P) 28, 56, and 120. This study found that unilateral muscle unloading led to reduced acetabular coverage of the femoral head, lower total volume, lower bone volume ratio, and lower mineral density, at all three time points. Histologically, the femoral head was smaller in unloaded hips, with thinner triradiate cartilage at P28 and thinner cortical bone at P120 compared to contralateral hips. Morphological shape changes were evident in unloaded hips at P56. Unloaded hips had lower trabecular thickness and increased trabecular spacing of the femoral head compared to contralateral hips. The present study suggests that decreased muscle loading of the hip leads to altered bone and joint shape and growth during postnatal maturation. Statement of Clinical Significance: Adaptations from altered muscle loading during postnatal growth investigated in this study have implications on developmental hip disorders that result from asymmetric loading, such as patients with limb-length inequality or dysplasia. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1128-1136, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Research Review: Social motivation and oxytocin in autism – implications for joint attention development and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Scope The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Methods Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms “oxytocin”, and “autism”; the same databases were used for separate searches for “joint attention”, “intervention”, and “autism”, using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Findings Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. Conclusions The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile

  20. Development of a solder material process to relieve the plastic constraint associated with thin joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauten, Frederick S.; Ranieri, John P.; Avery, Donald H.

    1995-10-01

    High aspect ratio (large diameter/thickness) solder joints which are plastically constrained develop large hydrostatic stresses (Friction Hill) greatly in excess of their yield strength. Because the local high triaxial stresses arising from the Friction Hill prevent homogeneous yielding and, in a strain controlled system, will localize plastic deformation within the regions near free surfaces, abrupt brittle fracture through an intermetallic or along an interface can occur. In such situations, the service life of the joint during fatigue situations such as thermal cycling will be greatly reduced. The prevention of triaxial stress build up within such a strain controlled environment which can occur in, for example, leadless chip carrier solder joints requires a distribution of internal free surfaces within the joint. The solder system developed in this study is a thin porous metal film with a regular distribution of pores. The solder material is formed from the usual components, tin and lead. Small lead or tin particles are coated with a thin film of the other component, mixed with flux paste, and the temperature is raised to just above the eutectic temperature. Solid state diffusion occurs across the lead-tin interface until its composition reaches the melting point. The particles then are interconnected by a thin near eutectic liquid film. Additional metal from the solid particle dissolves into the liquid increasing its position and, thus its melting point. Diffusion into the liquid continues until it solidifies isothermally. This forms an interconnecting network of solder “mini-elements” with a dense pore structure.

  1. First Phase Development of Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator and Its Current Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    The first phase of the Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator (KJJVC) development has been completed and installed to correlate the observed data from KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) in October 2009. KJJVC is able to process 16 stations, a maximum of 8 Gbps/station, and 8,192 output channels for VLBI data. The system configuration, the experimental results, and future plans are introduced in this paper.

  2. Research review: Social motivation and oxytocin in autism--implications for joint attention development and intervention.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K M; Carver, Leslie J

    2013-06-01

    The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms 'oxytocin' and 'autism'; the same databases were used for separate searches for 'joint attention', 'intervention', and 'autism', using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and neurotypical individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile experimental direction to improve understanding of the role of oxytocin in ASD

  3. Development of an Arthroscopic Joint Capsule Injury Model in the Canine Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David; Baker, Andrew R.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Kim, Myung-Sun; Ricchetti, Eric T.; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The natural history of rotator cuff tears can be unfavorable as patients develop fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy that is often associated with a loss of muscle strength and shoulder function. To facilitate study of possible biologic mechanisms involved in early degenerative changes to rotator cuff muscle and tendon tissues, the objective of this study was to develop a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder using arthroscopy. Methods Arthroscopic surgical methods for performing a posterior joint capsulectomy in the canine shoulder were first defined in cadavers. Subsequently, one canine subject underwent bilateral shoulder joint capsulectomy using arthroscopy, arthroscopic surveillance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and gross and histologic examination of the joint at 10 weeks. Results The canine subject was weight-bearing within eight hours after index and follow-up surgeries and had no significant soft tissue swelling of the shoulder girdle or gross lameness. Chronic synovitis and macroscopic and microscopic evidence of pathologic changes to the rotator cuff bony insertions, tendons, myotendinous junctions and muscles were observed. Conclusions This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept for a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder. Future work is needed to define the observed pathologic changes and their role in the progression of rotator cuff disease. Ultimately, better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of early progression of rotator cuff disease may lead to clinical interventions to halt or slow this process and avoid the more advanced and often irreversible conditions of large tendon tears with muscle fatty atrophy. PMID:26808837

  4. Alterations of the Temporomandibular Joint on Magnetic Resonance Imaging according to Growth and Development in Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tatsurou; Konoo, Tetsuro; Habu, Manabu; Oda, Masafumi; Kito, Shinji; Kodama, Masaaki; Kokuryo, Shinya; Wakasugi-Sato, Nao; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Nishida, Ikuko; Morikawa, Kazumasa; Saeki, Katsura; Maki, Kenshi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Masumi, Shin-ichi; Terashita, Masamichi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The paper explains the alterations of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the growth and development of schoolchildren. Appearance and disappearance of a “double contour-like structure” (DCLS) of the mandibular condyle on MRI according to the growth and development of schoolchildren were demonstrated. In addition, possible constituents of DCLS and the significance of detection of DCLS on MRI were also speculated. The relationship between red marrow and yellow marrow in the articular eminence of temporal bone, the disappearance of DCLS, and alterations of the mandibular condyle have been elucidated. PMID:23316233

  5. Asymmetrical lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in dogs may promote asymmetrical hip joint development.

    PubMed

    Flückiger, Mark A; Steffen, Frank; Hässig, Michael; Morgan, Joseph P

    2017-03-20

    This study examines the relationship between the morphology of the lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LTV) and asymmetrical development of the hip joints in dogs. A total of 4000 dogs which had been consecutively scored for canine hip dysplasia were checked for the presence of a LTV. A LTV was noted in 138 dogs and classified depending on the morphology of the transverse processes and the degree of contact with the ilium. In dogs with an asymmetrical LTV, the hip joint was significantly more predisposed to subluxation and malformation on the side of the intermediate or sacral-like transverse process (p <0.01), on the side of the elevated pelvis (p <0.01), or when an asymmetrical LTV resulted in pelvic rotation on its long axis (p <0.01), whereas hip joint conformation was less affected on the side featuring a free transverse process (p <0.01). The results support our hypothesis that an asymmetrical LTV favours pelvic rotation over its long axis, resulting in inadequate femoral head coverage by the acetabulum on one side. Inadequate coverage of the femoral head favours subluxation, malformation of the hip joint, and secondary osteoarthritis. Asymmetrical hip conformation may therefore be the sequela of a LTV and mask or aggravate genetically induced canine hip dysplasia.

  6. Development of biomimetic quadruped walking robot with 2-DOF waist joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Se-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Jung

    2005-12-01

    This paper presented a novel bio-mimetic quadruped walking robot with 2-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) waist joint, which connects the front and the rear parts of the body. The waist-jointed walking robot can guarantee more stable and more animal-like gait than that of a conventional single-rigid-body walking robot. The developed robot, called ELIRO-II (Eating LIzard RObot version 2), can bend its body from side to side by using 1-DOF passive waist joint while the legs is transferred, thereby increasing the stride and speed of the robot. In addition, ELIRO-II has one more active DOF to bend its body up and down, which increases the mobility in irregular terrain such as slope and stairs. We design the mechanical structure of the robot, which is small and light to have high mobility. This research described characteristics of the 2-DOF waists joint and leg mechanism as well as a hardware and software of the controller of ELIRO-II.

  7. Expression of tenascin in joint-associated tissues during development and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Mackie, E J; Ramsey, S

    1996-02-01

    The extracellular matrix protein, tenascin, is selectively expressed in a variety of connective tissues during development. In this study, the distribution of tenascin in tissues contributing to the knee joint during embryonic development and postnatal growth in the rat has been investigated by immunohistochemistry. In recently formed embryonic knee joints, tenascin expression was abundant in the territorial matrix of superficial articular cartilage. Site of attachment of cruciate and patellar ligaments to cartilage were strongly stained; staining of ligaments weakened with distance from the attachment site. In rapidly growing 4-wk-old rats, tenascin was present in a fine line on the surface of articular cartilage, but at 10 wk of age tenascin staining was absent from most of the articular surface. In postnatal rats, there was strong tenascin staining of the synovial lining, but not of subintimal tissue. Cruciate ligaments were histologically fibrocartilaginous in 4 and 10-wk-old rats; within these ligaments strong pericellular tenascin staining was seen in association with rounded chondrocyte-like cells. Tenascin was absent from the cartilaginous growth plates of 4 and 10-wk-old rats, but intense tenascin staining was seen at the junction between epiphyseal bone and growth plate. Within the metaphysis, tenascin staining on bone surfaces increased with distance from the hypertrophic chondrocytes. Osteocytes within epiphyseal trabecular bone were strongly stained for tenascin, whereas those in the metaphysis were mostly unstained. The results presented here demonstrate that tenascin expression in joint-associated tissues changes markedly with cell type and stage of differentiation.

  8. The influence of elbow joint angle on different phases of force development during maximal voluntary contraction.

    PubMed

    Jaskólski, A; Kisiel, K; Adach, Z; Jaskólska, A

    2000-12-01

    The first aim of the study was to find an elbow joint angle at which muscle can produce maximum voluntary force (Lo(MVC)) and to compare that angle with an angle at which the fastest rates of force development occur (Lo). The second aim of the study was to find if changes in MVC and force development speed at an angle smaller (Ls) and larger (Ll) than the optimal angle depend on whether Ls and Ll were compared to Lo or Ls and Ll to Lo(MVC). Twenty-four male physical education students were tested four times using the BIODYNA dynamometer to measure torque versus time at an optimal length, as well as at lengths that were shorter (Ls = optimal -30 degrees) and longer (Ll = optimal +50 degrees). The average values of optimal angles for force development indices (Lo) were similar to the angle at which maximum force was produced (Lo(MVC)); however, there was a small (5-10 degrees) difference between Lo and Lo(MVC) in the majority of subjects. The results showed that during elbow flexion with the forearm in the midrange position, the difference between Lo and Lo(MVC) was small and did not affect MVC; however, it had a significant effect on the relation between joint angle and force development speed.

  9. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (140–260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1–15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Results Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Conclusions Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. PMID:23723320

  10. Structural tests and development of a laminar flow control wing surface composite chordwise joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberger, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program beginning in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplished under NAS1-16235 Laminar-Flow-Control (LFC) Wing Panel Structural Design and Development (WSSD); design, manufacturing, and testing activities. An in-depth preliminary design of the baseline 1993 LFC wing was accomplished. A surface panel using the Lockheed graphite/epoxy integrated LFC wing box structural concept was designed. The concept was shown by analysis to be structurally efficient and cost effective. Critical details of the surface and surface joint was demonstrated by fabricating and testing complex, concept selection specimens. The Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments, Development of LFC Wind Surface Composite Structures (WSCS), are documented. Tests were conducted on two CV2 panels to verify the static tension and fatigue strength of LFC wing surface chordwise joints.

  11. New Motion System Development and Rotary Nitrogen Joint Qualification for ESA ESTEC Large Space Simulator (LSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messing, R.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Hervieu, M.

    2014-06-01

    ESA Test Centre at ESTEC, Noordwijk is a unique place in Europe, which is geared to perform environmental tests on large spacecraft at system level. The Test Centre includes the whole environmental facilities family: shakers, acoustic chamber, mass properties measurement facilities, electro-magnetic compatibility facilities and thermal vacuum chambers. The largest of the thermal vacuum chambers is called Large Space Simulator (LSS) and is the largest one of its kind in Europe.This paper describes the current activity related to the upgrade of the Large Space Simulator (LSS) with the New Motion System (NMS). The NMS will allow various orientations of the specimen with respect to the LSS fixed sun illumination. Specific components have been developed and qualified during the development phase of the NMS. One of them is a multi-turn Rotary Nitrogen Joint (RNJ) used to distribute nitrogen on all thermal shrouds covering the NMS structure. Nitrogen flexible hoses were not suitable for the NMS due to the size required to cover the three rotational degrees of freedom. This paper focuses on the design of the New Motion System with specific highlight on the Rotary Nitrogen Joint development and qualification against thermal vacuum conditions used for spacecraft thermal testing.

  12. Hif-1α regulates differentiation of limb bud mesenchyme and joint development

    PubMed Central

    Provot, Sylvain; Zinyk, Dawn; Gunes, Yasemin; Kathri, Richa; Le, Quynh; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Johnson, Randall S.; Longaker, Michael T.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Schipani, Ernestina

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that low oxygen tension (hypoxia) may control fetal development and differentiation. A crucial mediator of the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia is the transcription factor Hif-1α. In this study, we provide evidence that mesenchymal condensations that give origin to endochondral bones are hypoxic during fetal development, and we demonstrate that Hif-1α is expressed and transcriptionally active in limb bud mesenchyme and in mesenchymal condensations. To investigate the role of Hif-1α in mesenchymal condensations and in early chondrogenesis, we conditionally inactivated Hif-1α in limb bud mesenchyme using a Prx1 promoter-driven Cre transgenic mouse. Conditional knockout of Hif-1α in limb bud mesenchyme does not impair mesenchyme condensation, but alters the formation of the cartilaginous primordia. Late hypertrophic differentiation is also affected as a result of the delay in early chondrogenesis. In addition, mutant mice show a striking impairment of joint development. Our study demonstrates a crucial, and previously unrecognized, role of Hif-1α in early chondrogenesis and joint formation. PMID:17470636

  13. Draft: Joint Federal/State Task Force on Evaluation Comprehensive Evaluation System--Current Status and Development Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientific Educational Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    The Joint Federal/State Task Force on Evaluation (the Belmont Group) is currently developing a Joint Comprehensive Evaluation System (JCES) for the federally funded programs under the federal acts listed above. It is planned that JCES will replace the multiplicity of evaluation systems (and paper work) under the separate existing programs. This…

  14. Early Predictors of Communication Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Joint Attention, Imitation, and Toy Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Karen; Munson, Jeffrey; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the unique contributions of joint attention, imitation, and toy play to language ability and rate of development of communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty preschool-aged children with ASD were assessed using measures of joint attention, imitation, toy play, language, and…

  15. Joint Commission on International Accreditation workshop: Planning, development and provision of laboratory services.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Inci

    2009-03-01

    Throughout the world, the oversight of health care quality is accomplished through professionally based accrediting bodies and state regulatory agencies. These organizations set standards or define regulations that address important organizational functions. The Joint Commission, a private sector United States-based non-profit organization, is the forerunner and best known among healthcare accreditation groups. One of the functions assessed by the standards of the JCI Clinical Laboratory Accreditation Program is the planning, development and provision of laboratory services. The standards related to this issue address the necessary processes that should be in place prior to performing patient testing.

  16. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  17. Frequency of occurrence, mode of development, and significance or rice bodies in rheumatoid joints.

    PubMed Central

    Popert, A J; Scott, D L; Wainwright, A C; Walton, K W; Williamson, N; Chapman, J H

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of rice bodies (RB) in synovial effusions has been studied in 36 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in 12 patients with seronegative inflammatory arthritis (7 cases of Still's disease, 3 of psoriatic arthritis, and 2 of ankylosing spondylitis). In the RA group 50 joints were aspirated before and after saline lavage with a specially designed wide-bore needle. RB were found in 72% overall of the joints studied in this group, 14% on initial simple aspiration and an additional 58% after lavage. In contrast no rice bodies were found in 31 aspirations with lavage by an identical technique in the 12 patients with seronegative synovitis. The RB in RA synovitis occurred both early and late in the course of the disease and were not related to the severity of clinical or radiological changes. However, removal of rice bodies was accompanied by clinical improvement and reduction of synovitis. Macroscopically RB varied in shape and size, some being so large as to preclude effective removal by needles of the gauge customarily employed for joint aspirations. Microscopically the majority of RB were composed of coarsely reticular material reacting immunologically with antifibrinogen and antifibronectin and containing mononuclear cells. Some showed vacuolation suggestive of fibrinolysis, but many showed organisation like that seen in established connective tissues, with the formation of mature collagen, reticulin, and elastin. These findings are discussed in relation to the origin, development, and significance of rice bodies in rheumatoid synovitis. Images PMID:6176192

  18. Development of the bones and synovial joints in the rat model of the VATER association.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hijleh, G; Qi, B Q; Williams, A K; Beasley, S W

    2000-01-01

    The adriamycin-induced rat model of the Vertebral, Anorectal, Tracheo-Esophageal, Radial and Renal (VATER) association produces a variety of vertebral, rib, and limb abnormalities. This study was designed to document accurately the nature of these abnormalities and to determine whether synovial joints are affected. Fetuses from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats that had received intraperitoneal injections of 1.75 mg/kg of adriamycin on days 6-9 or 10-13 of gestation were harvested. Double-stained skeletal preparations and histological sections were examined for vertebral, rib, and limb anomalies. The incidence of anomalies was high in the group treated on gestational days (GD) 6-9, while it was low in the GD 10-13 group. The length and thickness of the long bones were reduced, with bowing and reduction in their endochondral ossification. Sirenomelia occurred in the group treated on GD 6-9, and was often associated with a short tail and anal atresia. The joint cavities, and intra-articular structures such as menisci and the cruciate ligaments developed normally from the mesenchymal interzone. These data indicate that adriamycin inhibits skeletal growth and differentiation without any interference in the differentiation of the mesenchymal interzone, thus producing normal synovial joints.

  19. Rating parent-child interactions: joint engagement, communication dynamics, and shared topics in autism, Down syndrome, and typical development.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F; Nelson, P Brooke

    2012-12-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the finding that coordinated joint engagement was less likely in children with autism. Ratings of other child actions, of parent contributions, and of shared topics and communicative dynamics also documented pervasive variations related to diagnosis, language facility, and communicative context.

  20. On the development, morphology and function of the temporomandibular joint in the light of the orofacial system.

    PubMed

    Fanghänel, Jochen; Gedrange, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint has a key role in the biocybernetic functional cycle of the orofacial system. It has developed as a "secondary joint" and displays a number of features relating to the articular tubercle, the mandibular condyle, the articular disc, the joint cartilage and the retroarticular pad. The joint cartilage of the mandibular condyle is a primary compensatory growth centre also comprising distant effects. The coordinate course of the mandibular movements is controlled by a complex reflex mechanism and neuronal controller cycles. Morphology, function and clinical aspects are of equal interest to both physicians and dentists.

  1. Development and validation of a 3-D model to predict knee joint loading during dynamic movement.

    PubMed

    McLean, S G; Su, A; van den Bogert, A J

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subject-specific 3-D model of the lower extremity to predict neuromuscular control effects on 3-D knee joint loading during movements that can potentially cause injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. The simulation consisted of a forward dynamic 3-D musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity, scaled to represent a specific subject. Inputs of the model were the initial position and velocity of the skeletal elements, and the muscle stimulation patterns. Outputs of the model were movement and ground reaction forces, as well as resultant 3-D forces and moments acting across the knee joint. An optimization method was established to find muscle stimulation patterns that best reproduced the subject's movement and ground reaction forces during a sidestepping task. The optimized model produced movements and forces that were generally within one standard deviation of the measured subject data. Resultant knee joint loading variables extracted from the optimized model were comparable to those reported in the literature. The ability of the model to successfully predict the subject's response to altered initial conditions was quantified and found acceptable for use of the model to investigate the effect of altered neuromuscular control on knee joint loading during sidestepping. Monte Carlo simulations (N = 100,000) using randomly perturbed initial kinematic conditions, based on the subject's variability, resulted in peak anterior force, valgus torque and internal torque values of 378 N, 94 Nm and 71 Nm, respectively, large enough to cause ACL rupture. We conclude that the procedures described in this paper were successful in creating valid simulations of normal movement, and in simulating injuries that are caused by perturbed neuromuscular control.

  2. Developing and piloting a multifactorial intervention to address participation and quality of life in nursing home residents with joint contractures (JointConImprove): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Bartoszek, Gabriele; Beutner, Katrin; Klingshirn, Hanna; Saal, Susanne; Stephan, Anna-Janina; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint contractures are common problems in frail older people in nursing homes. Irrespective of the exact extent of older individuals in geriatric care settings living with joint contractures, they appear to be a relevant problem. Also, the new emphasis on the syndrome of joint contractures, e. g. by the German statutory long term care insurance, led to an increase in assessment and documentation efforts and preventive interventions in clinical care. However, more attention should be paid to the actual situation of older individuals in nursing homes with prevalent joint contractures, particularly their experience of related activity limitations and participation restrictions. Thus, the aim of this study is 1) to develop a tailored intervention to improve functioning, and especially participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes and 2) to test the feasibility of the intervention accompanied by a rigorous process evaluation. Methods: The complex intervention, which will be developed in this project follows the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework and integrates the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development process will comprise a systematic literature review, reanalysis of existing data and the integration of the knowledge of the affected individuals and experts. The developed intervention including a comprehensive process evaluation will be pilot tested with residents with joint contractures in three nursing homes. Discussion: The projected study will provide a tailored intervention to improve functioning, participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes. With this focus, the intervention will support patient relevant outcomes. The pilot study including process evaluation will offer a first opportunity to indicate the size of the intervention’s effect and prepare

  3. Current transport and microstructural development in BSCCO tapes and joints fabricated by groove rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, A. N.; Lu, W.; Mironova, M.; Vipulanandan, C.; Balachandran, U.; Salama, K.

    2000-02-01

    The powder-in-tube technique, which includes wire drawing and rolling, has been widely used to fabricate superconducting tapes for possible electric power applications. In the present study the starting billet was reduced in size by groove rolling instead of by wire drawing. To optimize the deformation and thermomechanical treatment processes, BSCCO wires of various dimensions were fabricated. The wires were flat rolled to a final thickness of 250 µm. Short-length tapes were subjected to a series of thermal and deformation steps. Phase development and microstructural development during the process were monitored by XRD, SEM and TEM. Current transport properties of the tapes were determined in the temperature range of 20-77 K in self-field. Thermomechanical treatment resulted in tapes with average critical current densities of 18 000 A cm-2 at 77 K. High-resolution electron microscopy revealed better texturing and grain structure at the superconductor-silver interface. Superconducting lap- and butt-joints have been formed by a chemical etching technique. Detailed microstructural and current transport properties of the joints have also been measured.

  4. Quantifying plyometric intensity via rate of force development, knee joint, and ground reaction forces.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Randall L; Ebben, William P

    2007-08-01

    Because the intensity of plyometric exercises usually is based simply upon anecdotal recommendations rather than empirical evidence, this study sought to quantify a variety of these exercises based on forces placed upon the knee. Six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes who routinely trained with plyometric exercises performed depth jumps from 46 and 61 cm, a pike jump, tuck jump, single-leg jump, countermovement jump, squat jump, and a squat jump holding dumbbells equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). Ground reaction forces obtained via an AMTI force plate and video analysis of markers placed on the left hip, knee, lateral malleolus, and fifth metatarsal were used to estimate rate of eccentric force development (E-RFD), peak ground reaction forces (GRF), ground reaction forces relative to body weight (GRF/BW), knee joint reaction forces (K-JRF), and knee joint reaction forces relative to body weight (K-JRF/BW) for each plyometric exercise. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that E-RFD, K-JRF, and K-JRF/BW were different across the conditions (p < 0.05), but peak GRF and GRF/BW were not (p > 0.05). Results indicate that there are quantitative differences between plyometric exercises in the rate of force development during landing and the forces placed on the knee, though peak GRF forces associated with landing may not differ.

  5. Foundation-industry relationships--a new business model joint-venture philanthropy in therapy development.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    The business model for medical therapy development has changed drastically. Large companies that once conducted their own Research and Development (R&D) and funded all the preclinical studies, all phases of clinical development and marketing of the products are increasingly turning to others for more and more of the earlier work in hopes of being able to in-license a de-risked program well downstream, take it through the final phases of clinical development and into the marketplace. This new paradigm has required patient-advocacy foundations, especially in the rare-disease space, to become far more effective in building relationships with all the players along the therapy-development pathway -- academic scientists, government agencies, other foundations with overlapping interests, biotechs, small biopharmaceutical entities and even the larger industry companies. From the perspective of the patient-advocacy community, these increasingly essential public-private partnerships have taken on the nature of what could be called joint-venture philanthropy and involve a broad spectrum of collaborations and financial relationships between foundations and industry partners that are not without concerns about potential conflicts of interest.

  6. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Male Sprague Dawley rats (140-260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1-15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Mouse limb skeletal growth and synovial joint development are coordinately enhanced by Kartogenin

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Rebekah S.; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Maye, Peter; Rowe, David; Zhu, Shoutian; Schultz, Peter G.; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Limb development requires the coordinated growth of several tissues and structures including long bones, joints and tendons, but the underlying mechanisms are not wholly clear. Recently, we identified a small drug-like molecule -we named Kartogenin (KGN)- that greatly stimulates chondrogenesis in marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhances cartilage repair in mouse osteoarthritis (OA) models. To determine whether limb developmental processes are regulated by KGN, we tested its activity on committed preskeletal mesenchymal cells from mouse embryo limb buds and whole limb explants. KGN did stimulate cartilage nodule formation and more strikingly, boosted digit cartilaginous anlaga elongation, synovial joint formation and interzone compaction, tendon maturation as monitored by ScxGFP, and interdigit invagination. To identify mechanisms, we carried out gene expression analyses and found that several genes, including those encoding key signaling proteins, were up-regulated by KGN. Amongst highly up-regulated genes were those encoding hedgehog and TGFβ superfamily members, particularly TFGβ1. The former response was verified by increases in Gli1-LacZ activity and Gli1 mRNA expression. Exogenous TGFβ1 stimulated cartilage nodule formation to levels similar to KGN, and KGN and TGFβ1 both greatly enhanced expression of lubricin/Prg4 in articular superficial zone cells. KGN also strongly increased the cellular levels of phospho-Smads that mediate canonical TGFβ and BMP signaling. Thus, limb development is potently and harmoniously stimulated by KGN. The growth effects of KGN appear to result from its ability to boost several key signaling pathways and in particular TGFβ signaling, working in addition to and/or in concert with the filamin A/CBFβ/RUNX1 pathway we identified previously to orchestrate overall limb development. KGN may thus represent a very powerful tool not only for OA therapy, but also limb regeneration and tissue repair strategies. PMID

  8. The development of centres of ossification of bones forming elbow joints in young swine.

    PubMed

    Visco, D M; Hill, M A; Van Sickle, D C; Kincaid, S A

    1990-08-01

    Epiphyseal centres of ossification in the bones forming the elbow joints of pigs between one day and 15 weeks of age were examined radiographically, macroscopically, mesoscopically and microscopically. Thoracic limbs from 39 pigs were perfused with India ink or silicone rubber injection compound and the bones were dissected free of soft tissues. The humerus, ulna and radius were fixed in formalin or ethyl alcohol and then cleared by the modified Spalteholz technique. Bones were radiographed, examined grossly, and then cut into slabs for mesoscopical evaluation. Foci considered to be calcifying within cartilaginous anlage were selected for microscopical examination. It was concluded that the epiphyseal centre of ossification develops at different times in different sites in the bones forming the elbow joint. Centres of ossification are initiated when foci of chondrocytes adjacent to one side of a cartilage canal undergo hypertrophy and the inter-territorial matrix becomes calcified. Osteogenesis then proceeds in the calcified focus, presumably with osteoprogenitor cells that originate within the cartilage canals. Subsequently, each epiphyseal centre of ossification enlarges by one of two methods. Firstly, the layer of cartilage adjacent to the centre undergoes endochondral ossification, thus allowing for the circumferential growth of the epiphyseal centre of ossification. Secondly, foci of calcification develop adjacent to the ends of cartilage canals near the epiphyseal centre of ossification and eventually the focus of calcification coalesces with the developing epiphyseal centre of ossification, thus establishing a new ossification front. Endochondral ossification continues at the periphery of the mass of bone. Mesoscopical examination is more useful than radiographical evaluation for identifying small foci of calcification which precede epiphyseal centres of ossification.

  9. The development of centres of ossification of bones forming elbow joints in young swine.

    PubMed Central

    Visco, D M; Hill, M A; Van Sickle, D C; Kincaid, S A

    1990-01-01

    Epiphyseal centres of ossification in the bones forming the elbow joints of pigs between one day and 15 weeks of age were examined radiographically, macroscopically, mesoscopically and microscopically. Thoracic limbs from 39 pigs were perfused with India ink or silicone rubber injection compound and the bones were dissected free of soft tissues. The humerus, ulna and radius were fixed in formalin or ethyl alcohol and then cleared by the modified Spalteholz technique. Bones were radiographed, examined grossly, and then cut into slabs for mesoscopical evaluation. Foci considered to be calcifying within cartilaginous anlage were selected for microscopical examination. It was concluded that the epiphyseal centre of ossification develops at different times in different sites in the bones forming the elbow joint. Centres of ossification are initiated when foci of chondrocytes adjacent to one side of a cartilage canal undergo hypertrophy and the inter-territorial matrix becomes calcified. Osteogenesis then proceeds in the calcified focus, presumably with osteoprogenitor cells that originate within the cartilage canals. Subsequently, each epiphyseal centre of ossification enlarges by one of two methods. Firstly, the layer of cartilage adjacent to the centre undergoes endochondral ossification, thus allowing for the circumferential growth of the epiphyseal centre of ossification. Secondly, foci of calcification develop adjacent to the ends of cartilage canals near the epiphyseal centre of ossification and eventually the focus of calcification coalesces with the developing epiphyseal centre of ossification, thus establishing a new ossification front. Endochondral ossification continues at the periphery of the mass of bone. Mesoscopical examination is more useful than radiographical evaluation for identifying small foci of calcification which precede epiphyseal centres of ossification. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2081708

  10. Mouse limb skeletal growth and synovial joint development are coordinately enhanced by Kartogenin.

    PubMed

    Decker, Rebekah S; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Maye, Peter; Rowe, David; Zhu, Shoutian; Schultz, Peter G; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-11-15

    Limb development requires the coordinated growth of several tissues and structures including long bones, joints and tendons, but the underlying mechanisms are not wholly clear. Recently, we identified a small drug-like molecule - we named Kartogenin (KGN) - that greatly stimulates chondrogenesis in marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and enhances cartilage repair in mouse osteoarthritis (OA) models. To determine whether limb developmental processes are regulated by KGN, we tested its activity on committed preskeletal mesenchymal cells from mouse embryo limb buds and whole limb explants. KGN did stimulate cartilage nodule formation and more strikingly, boosted digit cartilaginous anlaga elongation, synovial joint formation and interzone compaction, tendon maturation as monitored by ScxGFP, and interdigit invagination. To identify mechanisms, we carried out gene expression analyses and found that several genes, including those encoding key signaling proteins, were up-regulated by KGN. Amongst highly up-regulated genes were those encoding hedgehog and TGFβ superfamily members, particularly TFGβ1. The former response was verified by increases in Gli1-LacZ activity and Gli1 mRNA expression. Exogenous TGFβ1 stimulated cartilage nodule formation to levels similar to KGN, and KGN and TGFβ1 both greatly enhanced expression of lubricin/Prg4 in articular superficial zone cells. KGN also strongly increased the cellular levels of phospho-Smads that mediate canonical TGFβ and BMP signaling. Thus, limb development is potently and harmoniously stimulated by KGN. The growth effects of KGN appear to result from its ability to boost several key signaling pathways and in particular TGFβ signaling, working in addition to and/or in concert with the filamin A/CBFβ/RUNX1 pathway we identified previously to orchestrate overall limb development. KGN may thus represent a very powerful tool not only for OA therapy, but also limb regeneration and tissue repair strategies.

  11. Spontaneously developed osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint in STR/ort mice

    PubMed Central

    KUMAGAI, KENICHI; SUZUKI, SATSUKI; KANRI, YORIAKI; MATSUBARA, RYOTA; FUJII, KEISUKE; WAKE, MASAHIRO; SUZUKI, RYUJI; HAMADA, YOSHIKI

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis is typically a slowly progressive asymmetric disease. Little is known regarding the natural destruction of TMJ articular tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological changes in the TMJ of STR/ort mice, known to be the model for spontaneous osteoarthritis in the knee joint, and to evaluate STR/ort mice as a suitable animal model for TMJ osteoarthritis. TMJs from 32 STR/ort mice euthanized at 30, 40, 50 or 60 weeks of age, and from 6 CBA mice euthanized at 30, 40 or 60 weeks of age were examined. Toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were used to assess histological changes in the articular cartilage. Morphological changes in the articular cartilage of the TMJ were evaluated using microcomputed tomography. At the age of 40–50 weeks, 17 (68%) of the 25 STR/ort mice had loss of articular cartilage on histology, with cavitation and erosion of the exposed bone and gradual changes in condylar shape. Furthermore, osteoarthritic morphological changes, and structural alterations were observed by microcomputed tomography. The STR/ort mouse strain appears to develop spontaneous osteoarthritis-like lesions in the TMJ with age, and would be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of TMJ osteoarthritis. PMID:26171147

  12. Spontaneously developed osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint in STR/ort mice.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Satsuki; Kanri, Yoriaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Fujii, Keisuke; Wake, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Hamada, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis is typically a slowly progressive asymmetric disease. Little is known regarding the natural destruction of TMJ articular tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological changes in the TMJ of STR/ort mice, known to be the model for spontaneous osteoarthritis in the knee joint, and to evaluate STR/ort mice as a suitable animal model for TMJ osteoarthritis. TMJs from 32 STR/ort mice euthanized at 30, 40, 50 or 60 weeks of age, and from 6 CBA mice euthanized at 30, 40 or 60 weeks of age were examined. Toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were used to assess histological changes in the articular cartilage. Morphological changes in the articular cartilage of the TMJ were evaluated using microcomputed tomography. At the age of 40-50 weeks, 17 (68%) of the 25 STR/ort mice had loss of articular cartilage on histology, with cavitation and erosion of the exposed bone and gradual changes in condylar shape. Furthermore, osteoarthritic morphological changes, and structural alterations were observed by microcomputed tomography. The STR/ort mouse strain appears to develop spontaneous osteoarthritis-like lesions in the TMJ with age, and would be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of TMJ osteoarthritis.

  13. Joint Attention Development in Low-risk Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Around 18 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Noriko; Takada, Satoshi

    2016-10-18

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental characteristics of joint attention in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with a low risk of complications. Section B of the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) was administered to 31 VLBW and 45 normal birth weight (NBW) infants aged 18-22 months, while the sessions were recorded with a video camera. A semi-structured observation scale was developed to assess infants' joint attention from the video footage, and was shown to be reliable. VLBW, compared to NBW, infants showed significantly poorer skills in 2 of 4 items on responding to joint attention, and in 6 of 10 items on initiating joint attention. VLBW infants need more clues in order to produce joint attention. The difficulty was attributed to insufficient verbal and fine motor function skills. Continuous follow-up evaluation is essential for both high-risk and low-risk VLBW infants and their parents.

  14. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child’s joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the findings that coordinated joint engagement was less likely in children with autism and symbol-infused joint engagement was less likely in children with Down syndrome. Ratings of other child actions, of parent contributions, and of shared topics and communicative dynamics also documented pervasive variations related to diagnosis, language facility, and communicative context. PMID:22466689

  15. Development of a truss joint for robotic assembly of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed study of mechanical fasteners which were designed to facilitate robotic assembly of structures. Design requirements for robotic structural assembly were developed, taking into account structural properties and overall system design, and four candidate fasteners were designed to meet them. These fasteners were built and evaluated in the laboratory, and the Hammer-Head joint was chosen as superior overall. It had a high reliability of fastening under misalignments of 2.54 mm (0.1 in) and 3 deg, the highest end fixity (2.18), the simplest end effector, an integral capture guide, good visual verification, and the lightest weight (782 g, 1.72 lb). The study found that a good design should incorporate chamfers sliding on chamfers, cylinders sliding on chamfers, and hard surface finishes on sliding surfaces. The study also comments on robot flexibility, sag, hysteresis, thermal expansion, and friction which were observed during the testing.

  16. A joint clinical research center in Thailand: role in HIV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Patricia A; Chinaworapong, Suchada; Excler, Jean-Louis; Wongkamheng, Siriluck; Triampon, Attapon; Buapunth, Puangmalee; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Michael, Rodney A; Singharaj, Pricha; Brown, Arthur E

    2003-03-01

    In 1992 the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand, collaborated with the Phramongkutklao Army Medical Center to set up the Joint Clinical Research Center (JCRC). The purpose of the Center is to conduct clinical research in support of HIV vaccine development and testing. To date, eight HIV vaccine-related research protocols have been conducted at the JCRC, involving 1,668 volunteers. The JCRC has been, and continues to be, a key site for the transfer of clinical trial expertise to new sites at universities, government clinics and hospitals in Thailand and other countries. Overall rates of follow-up have been excellent, while protocol violations and data clarification errors have been minimal.

  17. Development of a rotary joint fluid coupling for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costulis, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The design and development is described of a rotary joint fluid coupling for Space Station Freedom. The function of this fluid coupling is to transfer a heat rejection fluid between stationary and rotating interfaces with the Space Station thermal bus system. The design of this coupling incorporates a modular type design to allow maximum flexibility, two types of seals (mechanical face seals and shaft lip seals) for redundancy, materials with excellent ammonia compatibility, and coatings that enhance seal wear resistance and increased protection against corrosion. This design was thoroughly tested and met all design requirements. Potential applications of this hardware include uses in gun turrets, coal slurries, farming equipment, and any other applications that require the low leakage transfer of fluids between stationary and rotating interfaces.

  18. Investigation Into The Crack Development And Joint Rotation Of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grob, Klaus-Peter; von Cramon, Wolfram

    1986-07-01

    The experimental investigation is described of the reinforced concrete construction pro blems mentioned in the title, making use of the Laser-Speckle-Photography optical measurement method- Proceeding from the material-conditional particularities and the high demands on the accuracy of the measurement values, a semi-automatically working device. was developed for analysing the Laser-Speckle photographs. The method of working with this device, the statistical routines applied in the process and the attainable accuracy are reported on. Moreover, reference is also made to the strains in a reinforced concrete member and the crack. formation. In the last section, the results of measurements of the joint rotation on the inner support of a two-span beam of reinforced micro-concrete, as well as the shear bearing behavior observed in this context, are discribed.

  19. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent–child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children’s oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale–4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children’s oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL. PMID:25309136

  20. Ukrainian Virtual Observatory: Current Status and Perspectives of Development of Joint Archives of Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, I. B.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Virun, N. V.; Kashuba, S. G.; Pikhun, A. I.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Mazhaev, A. E.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Shlyapnikov, A. A.; Shulga, A. V.; Zolotukhina, A. V.; Sergeeva, T. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. P.; Andronov, I. L.; Breus, V. V; Virnina, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The current state of the observational data archives of seven observatories of Ukraine which were created from 1898 to 2010 is considered in respect to their suitability for including into the Ukrainian Virtual Observatory (UkrVO) database. In accordance with a current UkrVO conception approved by the Ukrainian Astronomical Association, the database of astro negatives is the main scientific component of the UkrVO. The database will include all the photo plates accumulated in Ukraine and combine them into the Joint Digitized Archive (JDA). This will provide for a user an easy access to textual data and images using web interface and a corresponding search engine. The data archives obtained from CCD and radio observations in Ukraine are also discussed as scientific components of the UkrVO. Some prospects of the JDA development are formulated.

  1. Development of 1-DOF manipulator with variable rheological joint for instantaneous force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majima, T.; Nagai, S.; Tomori, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-02-01

    Highly rigid actuators such as a geared motor or hydraulic actuator are widely used in industrial robots. To obtain high-speed motion, actuators need to increase the actuator output. However, to increase high-rigidity actuators output, it is necessary to make actuators larger. In contrast, humans perform motions with instantaneous force such as jumping or throwing by using muscles. These instantaneous forces are realized by accumulating potential energy to the muscles and the muscles releasing the energy in a short time. Therefore, in this study a 1-DOF manipulator with variable rheological joint for instantaneous force using an artificial muscle and a magnetorheological (MR) brake was developed. In this paper, the method of generating instantaneous force for this manipulator was proposed. Further, the experiment of the proposed method was also conducted. As a result, generating instantaneous force by proposed method was realized.

  2. Development and application of biomimetic electrospun nanofibers in total joint replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei

    Failure of osseointegration (direct anchorage of an implant by bone formation at the bone-implant surface) and implant infection (such as that caused by Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus) are the two main causes of implant failure and loosening. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. A better understanding of the key factors that influence cell fate decisions at the bone-implant interface is required. Our study is to develop a class of "bone-like" nanofibers (NFs) that promote osseointegration while preventing bacterial colonization and subsequent infections. This research goal is supported by our preliminary data on the preparation of coaxial electrospun NFs composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers arranged in a core-sheath shape. The PCL/PVA NFs are biocompatible and biodegradable with appropriate fiber diameter, pore size and mechanical strength, leading to enhanced cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells. The objective is to develop functionalized "bone-like" PCL/PVA NFs matrix embedded with antibiotics (doxycycline (Doxy), bactericidal and anti-osteoclastic) on prosthesis surface. Through a rat tibia implantation model, the Doxy incorporated coaxial NFs has demonstrated excellent in promoting osseointegration and bacteria inhibitory efficacy. NFs coatings significantly enhanced the bonding between implant and bone remodeling within 8 weeks. The SA-induced osteomyelitis was prevented by the sustained release of Doxy from NFs. The capability of embedding numerous bio-components including proteins, growth factors, drugs, etc. enables NFs an effective solution to overcome the current challenged issue in Total joint replacement. In summary, we proposed PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers as promising biomaterials that can be applied on

  3. Early predictors of communication development in young children with autism spectrum disorder: joint attention, imitation, and toy play.

    PubMed

    Toth, Karen; Munson, Jeffrey; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-11-01

    This study investigated the unique contributions of joint attention, imitation, and toy play to language ability and rate of development of communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty preschool-aged children with ASD were assessed using measures of joint attention, imitation, toy play, language, and communication ability. Two skills, initiating protodeclarative joint attention and immediate imitation, were most strongly associated with language ability at age 3-4 years, whereas toy play and deferred imitation were the best predictors of rate of communication development from age 4 to 6.5 years. The implications of these results for understanding the nature and course of language development in autism and for the development of targeted early interventions are discussed.

  4. Joint Fire Support in 2020: Development of a Future Joint Fires Systems Architecture for Immediate, Unplanned Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    assessments of existing and planned command and control systems and organizations, a Centralized Joint Fire Support Network that incorporates and...simulation, and qualitative assessments of existing and planned command and control systems and organizations, a Centralized Joint Fire Support...Carrier Battle Group CWC Composite Warfare Commander DAFS Dynamic Allocation of Fires and Sensors DASC Direct Air Support Center DD Spruance

  5. Joint development normal to regional compression during flexural-flow folding: the Lilstock buttress anticline, Somerset, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelder, Terry; Peacock, David C. P.

    2001-02-01

    Alpine inversion in the Bristol Channel Basin includes reverse-reactivated normal faults with hanging wall buttress anticlines. At Lilstock Beach, joint sets in Lower Jurassic limestone beds cluster about the trend of the hinge of the Lilstock buttress anticline. In horizontal and gently north-dipping beds, J3 joints ( 295-285° strike) are rare, while other joint sets indicate an anticlockwise sequence of development. In the steeper south-dipping beds, J3 joints are the most frequent in the vicinity of the reverse-reactivated normal fault responsible for the anticline. The J3 joints strike parallel to the fold hinge, and their poles tilt to the south when bedding is restored to horizontal. This southward tilt aims at the direction of σ 1 for Alpine inversion. Finite-element analysis is used to explain the southward tilt of J3 joints that propagate under a local σ 3 in the direction of σ 1 for Alpine inversion. Tilted principal stresses are characteristic of limestone-shale sequences that are sheared during parallel (flexural-flow) folding. Shear tractions on the dipping beds generate a tensile stress in the stiffer limestone beds even when remote principal stresses are compressive. This situation favors the paradoxical opening of joints in the direction of the regional maximum horizontal stress. We conclude that J3 joints propagated during the Alpine compression caused the growth of the Lilstock buttress anticline.

  6. Normal radiological unossified hip joint space and femoral head size development during growth in 675 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Veronika; Jorysz, Gabriele; Arnoldi, Andreas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Heimkes, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of hip joint space width during child growth is important to aid in the early diagnosis of hip pathology in children. We established reference values for hip joint space and femoral head size for each age. Hip joint space development during growth was retrospectively investigated medial and cranial in 1350 hip joints of children using standard anteroposterior supine plain pelvic radiographs. Maximum capital femoral epiphysis diameter and femoral radii were further more investigated. Hip joint space values show a slow decline during growth. Joint space was statistically significantly (p < 0.006) larger in boys than girls. Our hip joint space measurements on supine subjects seem slightly larger than those reported by Hughes on standing subjects. Evaluation of the femoral head diameter and the radii showed a size curve quite parallel to the known body growth charts. Radii medial and perpendicular to the physis are not statistically significantly different. We recommend to compare measurements of hip joint space at two locations to age dependent charts using the same imaging technique. During growth, a divergence in femoral head size from the expected values or loss of the spherical shape should raise the question of hip disorder. Clin. Anat. 30:267-275, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Baseline sacroiliac joint magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and male sex predict the development of radiographic sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Akar, Servet; Isik, Sibel; Birlik, Bilge; Solmaz, Dilek; Sari, Ismail; Onen, Fatos; Akkoc, Nurullah

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the baseline sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the development of radiographic sacroiliitis and tested their prognostic significance in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. Patients who had undergone an SIJ MRI at the rheumatology department were identified. Individuals for whom pelvic X-rays were available after at least 1 year of MRI were included in the analysis. All radiographs and MRI examinations were scored by two independent readers. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain potentially relevant demographic and clinical data. We identified 1,069 SIJ MRIs, and 328 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Reliability analysis revealed moderate to good inter- and intra-observer agreement. On presentation data, 14 cases were excluded because they had unequivocal radiographic sacroiliitis at baseline. After a mean of 34.8 months of follow-up, 24 patients developed radiographic sacroiliitis. The presence of active sacroiliitis (odds ratio (OR) 15.1) and structural lesions on MRI (OR 8.3), male sex (OR 4.7), fulfillment of Calin's inflammatory back pain criteria (P = 0.001), and total MRI activity score (P < 0.001) were found to be related to the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. By regression modeling, the presence of both active inflammatory and structural damage lesions on MRI and male sex were found to be predictive factors for the development of radiographic sacroiliitis. Our present results suggest that the occurrence of both active inflammatory and structural lesions in SIJs revealed by MRI is a significant risk factor for radiographic sacroiliitis, especially in male patients with early inflammatory back pain.

  8. ABO Blood Group Is a Predictor for the Development of Venous Thromboembolism After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jared M; Abola, Matthew V; Macpherson, Alexandra; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K; Higuera, Carlos A

    2017-09-01

    The study's purpose was to determine if there is an association between ABO blood group and the development of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). A total of 28,025 patients who underwent primary TJA at a single health care system from 2000 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from electronic records. Patients who experienced a symptomatic VTE were identified. A multivariate regression model adjusted for known potential risk factors, including age, gender, body mass index, surgery type, previous VTE, smokers, rheumatologic diseases, malignancy, hypercoagulable state, and VTE prophylaxis, was developed to test the association of ABO blood group and postoperative VTE. Separate multivariate regressions were performed for total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty, specifically looking at pulmonary embolism. The risk of symptomatic VTE after TJA was increased in AB blood group patients (odds ratio = 1.4; P = .03). Furthermore, the risk of pulmonary embolism was increased after total knee arthroplasty in AB blood group patients (odds ratio = 2.24; P = .001) but not after total hip arthroplasty (P = .742). AB blood group increased the risk of VTE after TJA. Patient's ABO blood group should be considered in terms of risk stratification and selection of appropriate postoperative VTE prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    SciTech Connect

    West, S.L.; Nelson, D.Z.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed.

  10. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles’ force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (–) r(14) = −0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide

  11. Development and morphogenesis of human wrist joint during embryonic and early fetal period

    PubMed Central

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Álvarez, Pablo; Prados, José C; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Aránega, Antonia; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mérida-Velasco, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    The development of the human wrist joint has been studied widely, with the main focus on carpal chondrogenesis, ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage. However, there are some discrepancies concerning the origin and morphogenetic time-table of these structures, including nerves, muscles and vascular elements. For this study we used serial sections of 57 human embryonic (n = 30) and fetal (n = 27) specimens from O’Rahilly stages 17–23 and 9–14 weeks, respectively. The following phases in carpal morphogenesis have been established: undifferentiated mesenchyme (stage 17), condensated mesenchyme (stages 18 and 19), pre-chondrogenic (stages 19 and 20) and chondrogenic (stages 21 and over). Carpal chondrification and osteogenic processes are similar, starting with capitate and hamate (stage 19) and ending with pisiform (stage 22). In week 14, a vascular bud penetrates into the lunate cartilaginous mold, early sign of the osteogenic process that will be completed after birth. In stage 18, median, ulnar and radial nerves and thenar eminence appear in the hand plate. In stage 21, there are indications of the interosseous muscles, and in stage 22 flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus and lumbrical muscles, transverse carpal ligament and collateral ligaments emerge. In stage 23, the articular disc, radiocarpal and ulnocarpal ligaments and deep palmar arterial arch become visible. Radiate carpal and interosseous ligaments appear in week 9, and in week 10, dorsal radiocarpal ligament and articular capsule are evident. Finally, synovial membrane is observed in week 13. We have performed a complete analysis of the morphogenesis of the structures of the human wrist joint. Our results present new data on nervous and arterial elements and provide the basis for further investigations on anatomical pathology, comparative morphology and evolutionary anthropology. PMID:22428933

  12. Development and morphogenesis of human wrist joint during embryonic and early fetal period.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Alvarez, Pablo; Prados, José C; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Aránega, Antonia; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mérida-Velasco, Juan A

    2012-06-01

    The development of the human wrist joint has been studied widely, with the main focus on carpal chondrogenesis, ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage. However, there are some discrepancies concerning the origin and morphogenetic time-table of these structures, including nerves, muscles and vascular elements. For this study we used serial sections of 57 human embryonic (n = 30) and fetal (n = 27) specimens from O'Rahilly stages 17-23 and 9-14 weeks, respectively. The following phases in carpal morphogenesis have been established: undifferentiated mesenchyme (stage 17), condensated mesenchyme (stages 18 and 19), pre-chondrogenic (stages 19 and 20) and chondrogenic (stages 21 and over). Carpal chondrification and osteogenic processes are similar, starting with capitate and hamate (stage 19) and ending with pisiform (stage 22). In week 14, a vascular bud penetrates into the lunate cartilaginous mold, early sign of the osteogenic process that will be completed after birth. In stage 18, median, ulnar and radial nerves and thenar eminence appear in the hand plate. In stage 21, there are indications of the interosseous muscles, and in stage 22 flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus and lumbrical muscles, transverse carpal ligament and collateral ligaments emerge. In stage 23, the articular disc, radiocarpal and ulnocarpal ligaments and deep palmar arterial arch become visible. Radiate carpal and interosseous ligaments appear in week 9, and in week 10, dorsal radiocarpal ligament and articular capsule are evident. Finally, synovial membrane is observed in week 13. We have performed a complete analysis of the morphogenesis of the structures of the human wrist joint. Our results present new data on nervous and arterial elements and provide the basis for further investigations on anatomical pathology, comparative morphology and evolutionary anthropology. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  13. Studies on the role of Cux1 in regulation of the onset of joint formation in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Gail; Lichtler, Alexander; Upholt, William B; Kosher, Robert A

    2002-03-01

    Joint formation, the onset of which is characterized by the segmentation of continuous skeletal rudiments into two or more separate elements, is a fundamental aspect of limb pattern formation, playing a critical role in determining the size, shape, and number of individual skeletal elements. Joint formation is initiated by conversion of differentiated chondrocytes at sites of presumptive joints into densely packed nonchondrogenic cells of the joint interzone. This conversion is accompanied by loss of Alcian blue-staining cartilage matrix and downregulation of cartilage-specific gene expression. Here, we report that Cux1, which encodes a transcription factor containing a homeodomain and other DNA-binding motifs, is highly expressed at all of the discrete sites of incipient joint formation in the developing limb concomitant with conversion of differentiated chondrocytes into interzone tissue. Moreover, differentiated limb chondrocytes in micromass cultures infected with a Cux1 retroviral expression vector are converted into nonchondrogenic cells which exhibit loss of Alcian blue cartilage matrix and downregulation of cartilage-specific gene expression as occurs at the onset of normal joint formation. These results suggest that Cux1 is involved in regulating the onset of joint formation by facilitating conversion of chondrocytes into nonchondrogenic cells of the interzone.

  14. Ruminant methane reduction through livestock development in Tanzania. Final report for US Department of Energy and US Initiative on Joint Implementation--Activities Implemented Jointly

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Roderick

    1999-07-01

    This project was designed to help develop the US Initiative on Joint Implementation activities in Eastern Africa. It has been communicated in meetings with representatives from the Ministry of Environment of Tanzania and the consultant group that developed Tanzania's National Climate Change Action Plan, the Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, that this project fits very well with the developmental and environmental goals of the Government of Tanzania. The goal of the Activities Implemented Jointly ruminant livestock project is to reduce ruminant methane emissions in Eastern Africa. The project plans a sustainable cattle multiplication unit (CMU) at Mabuki Ranch in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. This CMU will focus on raising genetically improved animals to be purchased by farmers, developmental organizations, and other CMUs in Tanzania. Through the purchase of these animals farmers will raise their income generation potential and reduce ruminant methane emissions.

  15. Development of a Rat Model of Mechanically Induced Tunable Pain and Associated Temporomandibular Joint Responses.

    PubMed

    Kartha, Sonia; Zhou, Timothy; Granquist, Eric J; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Although mechanical overloading of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is implicated in TMJ osteoarthritis (OA) and orofacial pain, most experimental models of TMJ-OA induce only acute and resolving pain, which do not meaningfully simulate the pathomechanisms of TMJ-OA in patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to adapt an existing rat model of mechanically induced TMJ-OA, to induce persistent orofacial pain by altering only the jaw-opening force, and to measure the expression of common proxies of TMJ-OA, including degradation and inflammatory proteins, in the joint. TMJ-OA was mechanically induced in a randomized, prospective study using 2 magnitudes of opening loads in separate groups (ie.,. 2-N, 3.5-N and sham control [no load]). Steady mouth opening was imposed daily (60 minutes/day for 7 days) in female Holtzman rats, followed by 7 days of rest, and orofacial sensitivity was measured throughout the loading and rest periods. Joint structure and extent of degeneration were assessed at day 14 and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in articular cartilage was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative densitometry methods at day 7 between the 2 loading and control groups. Statistical differences of orofacial sensitivity and chondrocyte expression between loading groups were computed and significance was set at a P value less than .05. Head-withdrawal thresholds for the 2 loading groups were significantly decreased during loading (P < .0001), but that decrease remained through day 14 only for the 3.5-N group (P < .00001). At day 14, TMJs from the 2-N and 3.5-N groups exhibited truncation of the condylar cartilage, typical of TMJ-OA. In addition, a 3.5-N loading force significantly upregulated MMP-13 (P < .0074), with nearly a 2-fold increase in HIF-1α (P < .001) and TNF-α (P < .0001) at day 7, in 3.5-N loaded joints over those loaded by 2 N. Unlike a

  16. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1f/f and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-cateninf/f mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. PMID:21185280

  17. JOINT-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP TO DEVELOP A HOLLOW SPHERE DUAL-GRADIENT DRILLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William C. Maurer; Colin Ruan; Greg Deskins

    2003-05-01

    Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI) formed a joint-industry partnership to fund the development of a hollow sphere dual-gradient drilling (DGD) system. Phase I consisted of collecting, compiling, analyzing, and distributing information and data regarding a new DGD system for use by the oil and gas industry. Near the end of Phase I, DOE provided funding to the project that was used to conduct a series of critical follow-on tests investigating sphere separation in weighted waterbase and oilbase muds. Drilling costs in deep water are high because seawater pressure on the ocean floor creates a situation where many strings of casing are required due to the relatively close spacing between fracture and pore pressure curves. Approximately $100 million have been spent during the past five years on DGD systems that place pumps on the seafloor to reduce these drilling problems by reducing the annulus fluid pressure at the bottom of the riser. BP estimates that a DGD system can save $9 million per well in the Thunderhorse Field and Conoco estimates it can save $5 to $15 million per well in its deepwater operations. Unfortunately, previous DGD development projects have been unsuccessful due to the high costs ($20 to $50 million) and reliability problems with seafloor pump systems. MTI has been developing a simple DGD system concept that would pump hollow glass spheres into the bottom of the riser to reduce density of the mud in the riser. This eliminates the requirement for seafloor pumps and replaces them with low cost mud pumps, shale shakers, and other oilfield equipment that can be operated on the rig by conventional crews. A $1.8 million Phase I joint-industry project funded by five service companies and three operators showed that hollow spheres could be pumped well, but difficulties were encountered in separating the spheres from a polymer mud supplied by Halliburton due to the high viscosity of this mud at the low shear rates encountered on oilfield shale shaker screens. As a

  18. National GHG inventories: Recent developments under the IPCC/OECD Joint Programme.

    PubMed

    Morlot, J C; Schwengels, P; Lurding, S

    1994-05-01

    This paper summarises key results of the Joint IPCC/OECD Programme, in particular the draft IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories to be released in January 1994. The focus is on how these results are likely to improve the availability and the quality of national inventories of anthropogenic GHG emission sources and removals by sinks. The IPCC/OECD has already received nearly 50 inventories from 35 countries. Most of the data are for 1988, but some reports cover 1989 and 1990. In addition to CO2, many of these inventories include CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, and NMVOC. Detailed analyses of these inventories have provided valuable insights about the strengths and weaknesses of the national inventories, differences in approach to estimation, reporting, available methods and data. These results in turn, have facilitated the development of the draft Guidelines, most notably the proposed reporting system, and also on estimation methods for the different anthropogenic sources and sinks of GHG. The paper previews key aspects of the draft Guidelines for non-CO2 GHG. Experts are urged to actively participate in the IPCC/OECD Programme to continue to improve inventory methods and overall the Guidelines.

  19. Development of temper-bead technique applied to dissimilar welded joints of nuclear pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Makoto; Umemoto, Tadahiro; Matsusita, Akitake; Shiraiwa, Takanori

    1996-06-01

    When nuclear pressure vessels made of low-alloy steel (P-3 Group 3) need repair or modification, technical standards for welding of electrical structures should be applied, and then postweld heat treatment (PWHT) should be done. However, cases in which PWHT is impractical are theoretically possible due to a variety of restrictions. To deal with such a problem, there is a regulation for repair weld technique, without PWHT, in accordance with ASME B and PV Code. This method is called temper-bead technique, which gives the weldments sufficient toughness by tempering the hardened zone of the heat-affected zone on the first layer of the base metal using the heat of the following weld beads. Because there is no regulation in Japan covering this method, a procedure is required to perform it under a special license, after a verification test has been passed. An attempt has been made to develop a method, on the supposition that the temper-bead technique is adopted for replacement of what is called dissimilar welded joints, so that a nickel base alloy is buildup welded at the tip of the nozzle of the low-alloy steel pressure vessel, and a stainless steel pipe is butt welded.

  20. Skeletal development of hallucal tarsometatarsal joint curvature and angulation in extant apes and modern humans.

    PubMed

    Gill, Corey M; Bredella, Miriam A; DeSilva, Jeremy M

    2015-11-01

    The medial cuneiform, namely the curvature and angulation of its distal facet with metatarsal 1, is crucial as a stabilizer in bipedal locomotion and an axis upon which the great toe medially deviates during arboreal locomotion in extant apes. Previous work has shown that facet curvature and angulation in adult dry-bone specimens can distinguish African apes from Homo, and can even distinguish among species of Gorilla. This study provides the first ontogenetic assessment of medial cuneiform curvature and angulation in juvenile (n = 68) and adult specimens (n = 102) using computed tomography in humans and extant ape specimens, including Pongo. Our data find that modern human juveniles initially have a convex and slightly medially oriented osseous surface of the developing medial cuneiform distal facet that flattens and becomes more distally oriented with age. The same pattern (though of a different magnitude) occurs developmentally in the chimpanzee medial cuneiform, but not in Gorilla or Pongo, whose medial cuneiform facet angulation remains unchanged ontogenetically. These data suggest that the medial cuneiform ossifies in a distinguishable pattern between Pongo, Gorilla, Pan, and Homo, which may in part be due to subtle differences in the loading environment at the hallucal tarsometatarsal joint-a finding that has important implications for interpreting fossil medial cuneiforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gravity model development for TOPEX/POSEIDON: Joint gravity models 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Marshall, J. A.; Pavlis, E. C.; Putney, B. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) prelaunch Joint Gravity Model-1 (JGM-1) and the postlaunch JGM-2 Earth gravitational models have been developed to support precision orbit determination for T/P. Each of these models is complete to degree 70 in spherical harmonics and was computed from a combination of satellite tracking data, satellite altimetry, and surface gravimetry. While improved orbit determination accuracies for T/P have driven the improvements in the models, the models are general in application and also provide an improved geoid for oceanographic computations. The postlaunch model, JGM-2, which includes T/P satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking data, introduces radial orbit errors for T/P that are only 2 cm RMS with the commission errors of the marine geoid for terms to degree 70 being +/- 25 cm. Errors in modeling the nonconservative forces acting on T/P increase the total radial errors to only 3-4 cm root mean square (RMS), a result much better than premission goals. While the orbit accuracy goal for T/P has been far surpassed geoid errors still prevent the absolute determination of the ocean dynamic topography for wavelengths shorter than about 2500 km. Only a dedicated gravitational field satellite mission will likely provide the necessary improvement in the geoid.

  2. [Development of the ceramic sandwich cup used for the hip joint prosthesis.].

    PubMed

    Konvicková, S; Cech, O

    1995-01-01

    The abrasion of the polyethylene seems to be the most important factor participating on the endoprosthesis loosening. From this reason, the ceramics (AI2O3) was introduced for the both parts of the prosthesis, i. e. the head and the cup. It appears that the friction resistance is an important factor for the comparison of the hitherto applied endoprosthesis designs with the new developed type. The frictional resistance in the hip joint total prosthesis was measured by means of a testing device which allowed a swinging motion of the ceramic ball in the tested cup in the range of +/-25 degrees . This measurement was carried out at the loading levels being 0; 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 N. For the comparison of the frictional resistance of single measured couples "cup-head", the energy consumed was ascertained which was necessary for including a swinging motion over the time interval of 35 sec. Ceramic cups manufactured by a. s. DIAS Turnov were used for the measurement. Altogether eight couples "ceramics-ceramics" having the diameter differences ranging from 0,022 mm to 0,137 mm and one friction couple "polyethylene cup-ceramics ball" were measured. The research of influence of different lubricants was also done. Key words: sandwich cup, total prosthesis, ceramics--ceramics, bioceramics, frictional resistance.

  3. The influence of exercise on the composition of developing equine joints.

    PubMed

    van de Lest, Chris H A; Brama, Pieter A J; Van Weeren, P René

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given of the direct and long-term effects of exercise on the biochemical characteristics of cartilage and subchondral bone, and on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in the juvenile horse. In the experimental setup 43 foals were reared until weaning at 5 months of age under similar conditions, except for the type and amount of exercise. Fifteen foals remained at pasture (Pasture group and also control group), 14 foals were kept in box stalls (Box group), and 14 foals were kept in the same box stalls but were subjected daily to an increasing number of gallop sprints (Training group). After weaning 8 foals from each group were euthanised. All remaining 19 animals were housed together in a loose box with access to a small paddock to study a possible reversibility of exercise-induced effects. Post mortem subchondral bone and cartilage samples were collected and analysed for bone morphogenic enzymes, matrix composition, chondrocyte metabolic activity, and bone mineral density. It resulted that lack of exercise leads to a retardation of the normal development of the joint. This is largely compensated for when afterwards a more normal exercise regimen is followed. Most parameters in the Training group approximated those of the pastured foals at age 5 months. However, at age 11 months there were indications for a reduced performance of the investigated tissues in this group. It is concluded that regular, sub-maximal loading, as occurred in the Pasture group, seems best for an optimal development of the musculoskeletal tissues. The combination of short bouts of heavy exercise superimposed on a basic box rest regimen appears to have adverse effects on long-term viability of the tissues and may hence lead to an impaired resistance to injury.

  4. Development of a diagnostic rule for identifying radiographic osteoarthritis in people with first metatarsophalangeal joint pain.

    PubMed

    Zammit, G V; Munteanu, S E; Menz, H B

    2011-08-01

    To develop a diagnostic rule for the identification of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) in people with first MTPJ pain. Symptoms and clinical observations were documented in 181 people with first MTPJ pain, and the presence of OA was confirmed using plain film radiography. Diagnostic test statistics were calculated to assess the ability of symptoms and clinical observations to identify radiographic OA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to develop two diagnostic models: a statistically optimal model and a simplified clinical model. Multivariate logistic regression identified pain duration greater than 25 months, the presence of a dorsal exostosis, hard-end feel, crepitus and less than 64° of first MTPJ dorsiflexion to be significantly associated with radiographic OA. The statistically optimal model and clinical model performed similarly, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves being 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.93) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.93), respectively, and the percentage of cases correctly classified being 86.2 and 85.6, respectively. A cut-off score of ≥3 using the clinical model resulted in a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 71%, accuracy of 84%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.07 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.17. In people with first MTPJ pain, a model consisting of five clinical observations can accurately identify the presence or absence of radiographic OA. The application of this diagnostic rule may assist clinical decision making and potentially reduce the need for referral for radiographs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decorin binding proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi promote arthritis development and joint specific post-treatment DNA persistence in mice.

    PubMed

    Salo, Jemiina; Jaatinen, Annukka; Söderström, Mirva; Viljanen, Matti K; Hytönen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B) of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria.

  6. Decorin Binding Proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi Promote Arthritis Development and Joint Specific Post-Treatment DNA Persistence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Jemiina; Jaatinen, Annukka; Söderström, Mirva; Viljanen, Matti K.; Hytönen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B) of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria. PMID:25816291

  7. Joint Attention in Parent-Child Dyads Involving Children with Selective Mutism: A Comparison between Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint…

  8. Joint Attention in Parent-Child Dyads Involving Children with Selective Mutism: A Comparison between Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint…

  9. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's…

  10. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's…

  11. Developing a high-efficiency operating room for total joint arthroplasty in an academic setting.

    PubMed

    Attarian, David E; Wahl, Jennie E; Wellman, Samuel S; Bolognesi, Michael P

    2013-06-01

    Developing a high-efficiency operating room (OR) for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in an academic setting is challenging given the preexisting work cultures, bureaucratic road blocks, and departmental silo mentalities. Also, academic institutions and aligned surgeons must have strategies to become more efficient and productive in the rapidly changing healthcare marketplace to ensure future financial viability. We identified specific resources and personnel dedicated to our OR for TJA, assessed the typical associated work process delays, and implemented changes and set goals to improve OR efficiencies, including more on-time starts and shorter turnover times, to perform more TJA cases per OR. We then compared these variables before and after project initiation to determine whether our goals were achieved. We gathered 1 year of retrospective TJA OR time data (starting, completion, turnover times) and combined these data with 1 month of prospective observations of the workflow (patient check-in, patient processing and preparation, OR setup, anesthesia, surgeon behaviors, patient pathway). The summarized information, including delays and inefficiencies, was presented to a multidisciplinary committee of stakeholders; recommendations were formulated, implemented, and revised quarterly. Key strategies included dedicated OR efficiency teams, parallel processing, dedicated hospital resources, and modified physician behavior. OR data were gathered and compared 3 years later. After project changes, on-time OR starts increased from less than 60% to greater than 90% and average turnover time decreased from greater than 60 minutes to 35 minutes. Our average number of TJA cases per OR increased by 29% during the course of this project. Our project achieved improved OR efficiency and productivity using strategies such as process and resource analysis, improved communication, elimination of silo mentalities, and team work.

  12. Development and Applications of a Self-Contained, Non-Invasive EVA Joint Angle and Muscle Fatigue Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranniger, C. U.; Sorenson, E. A.; Akin, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory, as a participant in NASA's INSTEP program, is developing a non-invasive, self-contained sensor system which can provide quantitative measurements of joint angles and muscle fatigue in the hand and forearm. The goal of this project is to develop a system with which hand/forearm motion and fatigue metrics can be determined in various terrestrial and zero-G work environments. A preliminary study of the prototype sensor systems and data reduction techniques for the fatigue measurement system are presented. The sensor systems evaluated include fiberoptics, used to measure joint angle, surface electrodes, which measure the electrical signals created in muscle as it contracts; microphones, which measure the noise made by contracting muscle; and accelerometers, which measure the lateral muscle acceleration during contraction. The prototype sensor systems were used to monitor joint motion of the metacarpophalangeal joint and muscle fatigue in flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris in subjects performing gripping tasks. Subjects were asked to sustain a 60-second constant-contraction (isometric) exercise and subsequently to perform a repetitive handgripping task to failure. Comparison of the electrical and mechanical signals of the muscles during the different tasks will be used to evaluate the applicability of muscle signal measurement techniques developed for isometric contraction tasks to fatigue prediction in quasi-dynamic exercises. Potential data reduction schemes are presented.

  13. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at the...

  14. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  15. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5–10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  16. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that

  17. The early development of joint attention in infants with autistic disorder using home video observations and parental interview.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Sally M; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2008-05-01

    The aim in the current study was to investigate the early development of joint attention, eye contact and affect during the first 2 years of life, by using retrospective parental interviews and analyses of home videos of infants who were later diagnosed with Autistic Disorder (AD). The 36 children with AD and the 27 matched control children were all aged between 3 and 5 years at recruitment. Reported anomalies in gaze and affect emerged in the children with AD as early as the first 6 months of life, generally becoming more severe just prior to the second birthday. Video data confirmed these anomalies from as early as the first year. Joint attention impairments were found throughout the second year of life. The results suggest that early dyadic behaviours-eye contact and affect-may play a role in the joint attention impairment in AD.

  18. Joint attention in parent-child dyads involving children with selective mutism: a comparison between anxious and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Matilda E; Tasker, Susan L; Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela E; Edison, Shannon; Pierre, Jeff St; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2011-02-01

    Although joint attention processes are known to play an important role in adaptive social behavior in typical development, we know little about these processes in clinical child populations. We compared early school age children with selective mutism (SM; n = 19) versus mixed anxiety (MA; n = 18) and community controls (CC; n = 26) on joint attention measures coded from direct observations with their parent during an unstructured free play task and two structured tasks. As predicted, the SM dyads established significantly fewer episodes of joint attention through parental initiation acts than the MA and CC dyads during the structured tasks. Findings suggest that children with SM may withdraw from their parents during stressful situations, thus missing out on opportunities for learning other coping skills. We discuss the implications of the present findings for understanding the maintenance and treatment of SM.

  19. Recent Developments To The RAL Joint IASI+GOME-2 Ozone Profile Retrievals Using TIR, UV And Visible Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Georgina; Siddans, Richard; Latter, Barry; Kerridge, Brian; Waterfall, Alison

    2013-12-01

    We present results from recent developments of the RAL Ozone Profile optimal estimation retrieval scheme. The algorithm produces both a GOME-2 only and a joint IASI and GOME-2 profile product, both of which have sensitivity to tropospheric ozone. The joint product has been selected for the ESA Climate Change Initiative Ozone nadir prototype product, for which data will be disseminated to the climate modelling community. Time-series and highlights from several years of the single and joint MetOp-A GOME-2 and IASI retrievals are presented. We further present results of the introduction of measurements from the Chappuis ozone bands to add near-surface ozone information to the retrieval under certain atmospheric and surface conditions.

  20. Joint Military Education: Actions Needed to Implement DOD Recommendations for Enhancing Leadership Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    outcomes; (2) joint education continuums; (3) lifelong learning and advancements in learning technologies; and (4) faculty quality. See appendix III... educational outcomes; (2) joint education continuums; (3) lifelong learning and advancements in learning technologies; and (4) faculty quality. Several...opportunities to implement elements of lifelong learning in support of joint education . The study should examine: Current service efforts toward

  1. Development of a statistical shape model of the patellofemoral joint for investigating relationships between shape and function.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Baldwin, Mark A; Laz, Peter J; FitzPatrick, David P; Lerner, Amy L; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2011-09-02

    Patellofemoral (PF)-related pathologies, including joint laxity, patellar maltracking, cartilage degradation and anterior knee pain, affect nearly 25% of the population. Researchers have investigated the influence of articular geometry on kinematics and contact mechanics in order to gain insight into the etiology of these conditions. The purpose of the current study was to create a three-dimensional statistical shape model of the PF joint and to characterize relationships between PF shape and function (kinematics and contact mechanics). A statistical shape model of the patellar and femoral articular surfaces and their relative alignment was developed from magnetic resonance images. Using 15 shape parameters, the model characterized 97% of the variation in the training set. The first three shape modes primarily described variation in size, patella alta-baja and depth of the sulcus groove. A previously verified finite element model was used to predict kinematics and contact mechanics for each subject. Combining the shape and joint mechanics data, a statistical shape-function model was developed that established quantitative relations of how changes in the shape of the PF joint influence mechanics. The predictive capability of the shape-function model was evaluated by comparing statistical model and finite element predictions, resulting in kinematic root mean square errors of less than 3° and 2.5 mm. The key results of the study are dually in the implementation of a novel approach linking statistical shape and finite element models and the relationships elucidated between PF articular geometry and mechanics.

  2. Development of brazing process for W-EUROFER joints using Cu-based fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prado, J.; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2016-02-01

    A successful joint between W and EUROFER using high temperature brazing technique has been achieved for structural application in future fusion power plants. Cu-based powder alloy mixed with a polymeric binder has been used as filler. Microstructural analysis of the joints revealed that the joint consisted mainly of primary phases and acicular structures in a Cu matrix. Interaction between EUROFER and filler took place at the interface giving rise to several Cu-Ti-Fe rich layers. A loss of hardness at the EUROFER substrate close to the joint due to a diffusion phenomenon during brazing cycle was measured; however, the joints had an adequate shear strength value.

  3. Observing the development of the temporomandibular joint in embryonic and post-natal mice using various staining methods

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a specialized synovial joint that is essential for the movement and function of the mammalian jaw. The TMJ develops from two mesenchymal condensations, and is composed of the glenoid fossa that originates from the otic capsule by intramembranous ossification, the mandibular condyle of the temporal bone and a fibrocartilagenous articular disc derived from a secondary cartilaginous joint by endochondral ossification. However, the development of the TMJ remains unclear. In the present study, the formation and development of the mouse TMJ was investigated between embryonic day 13.5 and post-natal day 180 in order to elucidate the morphological and molecular alterations that occur during this period. TMJ formation appeared to proceed in three stages: Initiation or blastema stage; growth and cavitation stage; and the maturation or completion stage. In order to investigate the activity of certain transcription factors on TMJ formation and development, the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM), sex determining region Y-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2, Indian hedgehog homolog, Osterix, collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan, total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), MMP-9 and MMP-13 were detected in the TMJ using in situ and/or immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the transcription factors, ECM and MMP serve critical functions in the formation and development of the mouse TMJ. In summary, the development of the mouse TMJ was investigated, and the molecular regulation of mouse TMJ formation was partially characterized. The results of the present study may aid the systematic understanding of the physiological processes underlying TMJ formation and development in mice. PMID:26893634

  4. The bHLH-PAS Transcription Factor Dysfusion Regulates Tarsal Joint Formation in Response to Notch Activity during Drosophila Leg Development

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Sergio; Estella, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic of all arthropods is the presence of flexible structures called joints that connect all leg segments. Drosophila legs include two types of joints: the proximal or “true” joints that are motile due to the presence of muscle attachment and the distal joints that lack musculature. These joints are not only morphologically, functionally and evolutionarily different, but also the morphogenetic program that forms them is distinct. Development of both proximal and distal joints requires Notch activity; however, it is still unknown how this pathway can control the development of such homologous although distinct structures. Here we show that the bHLH-PAS transcription factor encoded by the gene dysfusion (dys), is expressed and absolutely required for tarsal joint development while it is dispensable for proximal joints. In the presumptive tarsal joints, Dys regulates the expression of the pro-apoptotic genes reaper and head involution defective and the expression of the RhoGTPases modulators, RhoGEf2 and RhoGap71E, thus directing key morphogenetic events required for tarsal joint development. When ectopically expressed, dys is able to induce some aspects of the morphogenetic program necessary for distal joint development such as fold formation and programmed cell death. This novel Dys function depends on its obligated partner Tango to activate the transcription of target genes. We also identified a dedicated dys cis-regulatory module that regulates dys expression in the tarsal presumptive leg joints through direct Su(H) binding. All these data place dys as a key player downstream of Notch, directing distal versus proximal joint morphogenesis. PMID:25329825

  5. Development of Stable, Low Resistance Solder Joints for a Space-Flight HTS Lead Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canavan, Edgar R.; Chiao, Meng; Panashchenko, Lyudmyla; Sampson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The solder joints in spaceflight high temperature superconductor (HTS) lead assemblies for certain astrophysics missions have strict constraints on size and power dissipation. In addition, the joints must tolerate years of storage at room temperature, many thermal cycles, and several vibration tests between their manufacture and their final operation on orbit. As reported previously, solder joints between REBCO coated conductors and normal metal traces for the Astro-H mission showed low temperature joint resistance that grew approximately as log time over the course of months. Although the assemblies worked without issue in orbit, for the upcoming X-ray Astrophysics Recovery Mission we are attempting to improve our solder process to give lower, more stable, and more consistent joint resistance. We produce numerous sample joints and measure time- and thermal cycle-dependent resistance, and characterize the joints using x-ray and other analysis tools. For a subset of the joints, we use SEMEDS to try to understand the physical and chemical processes that effect joint behavior.

  6. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  7. Disseminated bone and joint tuberculosis 25 years after development of lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    White, J P; Kang, S; Kilpatrick, G S

    1985-06-01

    A case of extensive bone and joint tuberculosis is reported in a 62-year-old caucasian woman who had a 25 year history of inadequately treated facial lupus vulgaris. In spite of a good response to standard anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy there was extensive residual joint destruction.

  8. Should We Do Some Joint Training? Part I--Developing a Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A.; Leary, Malcolm

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of joint training approaches in industrial relations and the most effective training methods and techniques for the different groups in the industrial relations scene: management, supervisors, and union representatives. Outlines an industrial relations joint training strategy devised by the authors. (MF)

  9. Development of Mathematic Model of Cold Welding at Drawing-up the Flange Joint of Pneumohydraulic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Y. S.

    2002-01-01

    Provision of high airtightness of joints of pipe- lines of pneumohydraulic systems (PHS) operating under high pressure, is an important task for designing and operation of launch vehicles. In the process of assembly and tests of PHS of launch vehicles, it was found that detachable flange joints do not lose their airtightness after removal of fastening elements, even in conditions of standard loads. The task of this work is in studying a phenomenon connected with initiation of the observed effect of adhesion and also stresses in the zone of contact at drawing- up the flange detachable joints with a plastic gasket. Investigations have shown that density of the joint is kept due to cold welding, as the created conditions are helpful for that process. As a result of the investigations performed, we have developed a mathematic model which is based on application of the theory of metal bonds; that theory explains the essence of the effect observed. Basic factors which provide optimum mode of cold welding, are effort which can cause microplastic deformation and form maximum contact, and also quality of processing the material of the surfaces joined. Strength of all- metal joint depends on factual area of contact. So, surface processing quality defines a configuration of microbulges which come into contact not simultaneously, and their stressed state is different, and it influences the character of dependence of the contact area on loading. Results of calculations by the mathematic model are expressed by dependencies of factual area of contact and a single diameter of the contact spot on the load applied which compresses the materials with various physical properties, and on the surface processing quality. The mathematic model allows to explain the common character of the cold welding process in detachable flange joints with the plastic gasket, to determine the nature and the character of acting forces, to define kinetics and the mechanism of formation of cold welding of

  10. Development of molecular docking-based binding energy to predict the joint effect of BPA and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Chang; Hu, Xia-Lin; Yin, Da-Qiang; Lin, Zhi-Fen

    2011-04-01

    A general proposal for predicting the joint effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals by examining binding energy models was developed in this study. 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA) and 11 of its analogs were chosen, and the estrogenic activity of each compound was measured by determining its EC50 value using a recombinant gene yeast assay. Binding energies (BEs) were calculated using Surflex-Docking software. The analysis of the relationship between EC50 values and BEs showed that there is a linear correlation between the BEs and EC50 values. Furthermore, the analysis of the given binary and quaternary mixtures of BPA and three of its analogs showed that the joint effects of the mixtures were affected by the proportions of the chemicals in each mixture and their relative binding energy. The correlation between the joint effects of mixtures and the binding energy of the individual compounds has been described using one formula, which can be used to predict the joint effects of other mixtures.

  11. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y G; Song, J B; Kim, J C; Kim, J M; Yoo, B H; Yun, S B; Hwang, D Y; Lee, H G

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was <10(-14) Ω, demonstrating that the proposed joint technique could be employed for developing "next-generation" MgB2 MRI magnets operating in the persistent current mode.

  12. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Song, J. B.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, J. M.; Yoo, B. H.; Yun, S. B.; Hwang, D. Y.; Lee, H. G.

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was <10-14 Ω, demonstrating that the proposed joint technique could be employed for developing "next-generation" MgB2 MRI magnets operating in the persistent current mode.

  13. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: implications of beef heifer development systems and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Endecott, R L; Funston, R N; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J

    2013-03-01

    Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has indicated that developing heifers to a lighter target BW at breeding (i.e., 50 to 57% of mature BW compared with 60 to 65% BW) reduced development costs and did not impair reproductive performance. Research published through the late 1980s demonstrated greater negative effects of limited postweaning growth on age at puberty and pregnancy rates whereas more recent studies demonstrate less of a negative impact of delayed puberty on pregnancy rate. A limitation of most research concerning influences of nutrition on heifer development and cow reproductive performance is little or limited consideration of long-term implications. Longevity has relatively low heritability; therefore, heifer development and other management strategies have a greater potential to impact cow retention. Establishing the impact of heifer development protocols on longevity is complex, requiring consideration of nutritional factors after the start of breeding and through subsequent calvings. Lower-input heifer development, where all heifers are managed together after the postweaning period, did not impair rebreeding, but continued subsequent restriction in the form of marginal winter supplementation resulted in decreased retention in the breeding herd. Therefore, the compensatory BW gain period for restricted-growth heifers may be important to longevity and lifetime productivity. Adequate growth and development to ensure minimal calving difficulty can be of critical importance for longevity; however, providing additional supplemental feed during postweaning development to accomplish this may be less efficient than later in development. Restricting gain during postweaning development by limiting DMI or developing heifers on dormant winter forage resulted

  14. Radiographic and computed tomographic assessment of the development of the antebrachia and elbow joints in Labrador Retrievers with and without medial coronoid disease.

    PubMed

    Lau, S F; Hazewinkel, H A W; Voorhout, G

    2015-01-01

    To compare the development, monitored by radiography and computed tomography, of the antebrachia and elbow joints in seven Labrador Retrievers with healthy elbow joints and in seven Labrador Retrievers that developed medial coronoid disease (MCD), in order to determine whether disturbances in the development of the antebrachia and elbow joints, between the age of six and 17 weeks may lead to medial coronoid disease. A prospective study of 14 Labrador Retrievers in their active growth stage was performed. The development of the antebrachia and elbow joints was assessed between six and 17 weeks of age using radiography and computed tomography determining the development of secondary ossification centres, radioulnar length ratio, radial angulation, and inter-relationship between the humerus, ulna and radius. For the parameters of ossification of secondary ossification centres, radioulnar length ratio, radial angulation, and joint congruence evaluation, there was no significant difference in the development of the antebrachia and elbow joints of seven Labrador Retrievers positive and seven Labrador Retrievers negative for MCD at the age of six to 17 weeks. These findings demonstrate that the development of MCD in the Labrador Retrievers in our study was not related to any disturbance in the development of the antebrachia and elbow joints during the rapid growth phase.

  15. Student perspectives on the development and evaluation of a joint international education to promote employability in Europe.

    PubMed

    Craig, Claire; Piškur, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a student evaluation of a joint international education developed as part of a European project which sought to equip health care practitioners with the skills to support employability of individuals furthest removed from the labour market, disadvantaged on account of age, gender, migration or ethnicity. Thirty eight students out of the forty one students that participated in the pilot of four modules (NL, UK, SE, DE) returned completed digital questionnaires (92.6% response rate). The study is descriptive by nature. A questionnaire was used to collect the data from students. Additionally students attending the module in the UK also took part in a series of qualitative interviews which sought to explore their experiences in more detail. These were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. Students reported that joint education facilitates competence development. The competencies they identified (Information Communications Technology) were recognised as being key to enhancing employability of disadvantaged groups. The joint international education exemplified by EEE4all offers one model of how to build a responsive international curriculum to ensure that the workforce of the future is well placed to meet the needs of this changing world.

  16. Development of an Underactuated 2-DOF Wrist Joint using McKibben PAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S. P.; Jain, S.; Ramasubramanian, S. N.; Johnson, B. V.; Dwivedy, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, model of an underactuated 2-DOF wrist joint with pneumatically actuated muscles is proposed. For the joint, McKibben-type artificial muscles are used in parallel configuration for the actuation. For each Degree of Freedom (DOF) one agonist-antagonist pair arrangement is usually used with a pulley mechanism. A mathematical model of wrist joint is derived using conventional forward kinematic analysis. The static model relating pressure in the muscle with the orientation of the wrist joint is obtained by combining the experimental data and mathematical model. Regulation of pressure can be achieved by pulse width modulation control of on/off solenoid valves. A set of free vibration experiments are done for the dynamic identification of the muscle characteristics.

  17. Development and Evaluation of Wide Clearance Braze Joints in Gamma Prime Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    parameters were fixed for this ef fort. 18 .1 tests were conducted by use of T-joint wet and flow experiments wherein the base metals had various...filled with a braze filler metal so that, at the brazing temperature, the filler metal can flow into the porous, partially sintered joint area, fill the... flow into and completely fill a volume of partially sintered braze sinter metal. In order to ascertain the degree of wetting and flow , the wafer

  18. Implementation of cystic fibrosis services in developing countries: memorandum from a Joint WHO/ICF(M)A meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    A Joint WHO/ICF(M)A meeting defined strategies for the implementation and development of cystic fibrosis (CF) services in countries where CF is thought to be more common than is appreciated by the medical profession or the public and where CF services are either non-existent or in the early stages of development. The following common problems in such countries were identified: underdiagnosis; reduced life expectancy (relative to developed countries) among those diagnosed; a clinical profile that may vary from the "classic" description; poor availability of necessary drugs; and a lack of CF services or basic research on the condition. The following recommendations were made concerning CF: neonatal screening projects should be set up to determine its incidence and identify affected infants; national and regional laboratories should be encouraged to identify the specific mutations responsible for the condition in their populations; centres for diagnosis and treatment should be developed, using a team approach; a national organization, involving families and friends of individuals with CF and other volunteers, should be established; a national registry should be set up; awareness about the condition should be improved and knowledge about it developed among medical professionals, public health authorities, and the general public; and increased collaboration between groups and organizations (including pharmaceutical companies) at the national, regional, and international levels should be developed in order to exchange information about and promote knowledge of CF, and to stimulate the development of CF services in developing countries. PMID:9141744

  19. The Joint Space Operations Center Mission System and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment Status Update 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Howard, Samantha; Sabol, Chris; Kim, Richard; Echeverry, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is a service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA) performed at the US-led JSpOC. The Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE) is a test-bed maintained and operated by the Air Force to (1) serve as a centralized test-bed for all research and development activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support JMS Program Office-led market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. In this paper we will share with the international remote sensing community some of the recent JMS and ARCADE developments that may contribute to greater SSA at the JSpOC in the future, and share technical areas still in great need.

  20. Development of a cable reel development system using a rotary joint for kilometer lengths of two-fiber multi-mode fiber optic cable

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Jahelka, J.R.

    1995-08-11

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) recently developed a two-component system for use during remote inspections. The system consists of a mobile unit with television cameras and other equipment and a stationary base station. A variety of signals must be continually transmitted between the two system components as the mobile unit is moved from the location to another. Two channels of broadband (10MHz) NTSC video are transmitted from the mobile unit to the base station, and a bi-directional ``talk set`` provides audio communication between personnel at each location. In addition, several channels of RS-232 are required to support present and future instruments used at the mobile unit and controlled by personnel at the base station. Brookhaven developed a mobile unit which communicated with a base station over a 2-fiber multimode fiber optic cable. One of the design requirements was maintaining constant communication with the base station during the time the mobile unit was moved about. To provide uninterrupted communications, deployment of the 1-km long fiber optic cable was initially performed with a ``spinning reel`` mechanism. The spinning reel mechanism proved to be mechanically unsuitable, and so the cable deployment mechanism was redesigned to spool the cable off the reel. The requirement for uninterrupted communications required a two-channel fiber optic rotary joint in the design. Incorporation of the rotary joint into the design is described, and appropriate reference material is included.

  1. Nuclear propulsion technology development - A joint NASA/Department of Energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the conceptual development of spacecraft nuclear propulsion systems with DOE support, in order to establish the bases for Space Exploration Initiative lunar and Mars missions. This conceptual evolution project encompasses nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. A technology base exists for NTP in the NERVA program files; more fundamental development efforts are entailed in the case of NEP, but this option is noted to offer greater advantages in the long term.

  2. Development of Intra-Articular Drug Delivery to Alter Progression of Arthritis Following Joint Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    increased intra-articular fracture severity in the mouse knee . Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2011. 19(7): p. 864-73. 5. Ward, B.D., et al., Absence of...The work in this study addresses the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) and seeks to develop a basis for future therapeutic...symptomatic osteoarthritis patients are post-traumatic [1]. At the present time, the state of the art treatment for displaced articular fractures in

  3. Intra-articular nerve growth factor regulates development, but not maintenance, of injury-induced facet joint pain & spinal neuronal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kras, J V; Kartha, S; Winkelstein, B A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the current study is to define whether intra-articular nerve growth factor (NGF), an inflammatory mediator that contributes to osteoarthritic pain, is necessary and sufficient for the development or maintenance of injury-induced facet joint pain and its concomitant spinal neuronal hyperexcitability. Male Holtzman rats underwent painful cervical facet joint distraction (FJD) or sham procedures. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed in the forepaws, and NGF expression was quantified in the C6/C7 facet joint. An anti-NGF antibody was administered intra-articularly in additional rats immediately or 1 day following facet distraction or sham procedures to block intra-articular NGF and test its contribution to initiation and/or maintenance of facet joint pain and spinal neuronal hyperexcitability. NGF was injected into the bilateral C6/C7 facet joints in separate rats to determine if NGF alone is sufficient to induce these behavioral and neuronal responses. NGF expression increases in the cervical facet joint in association with behavioral sensitivity after that joint's mechanical injury. Intra-articular application of anti-NGF immediately after a joint distraction prevents the development of both injury-induced pain and hyperexcitability of spinal neurons. Yet, intra-articular anti-NGF applied after pain has developed does not attenuate either behavioral or neuronal hyperexcitability. Intra-articular NGF administered to the facet in naïve rats also induces behavioral hypersensitivity and spinal neuronal hyperexcitability. Findings demonstrate that NGF in the facet joint contributes to the development of injury-induced joint pain. Localized blocking of NGF signaling in the joint may provide potential treatment for joint pain. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of computerized materials, protection, control and accountability systems in the former Soviet republics: a joint effort

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Ryan, R.H.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.

    1996-07-01

    The laboratory-to-laboratory programs of cooperation between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation and the government-to-government programs between the US and Russia have the goal of reducing the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of nuclear materials protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A). As part of these programs, DOE is making available to sites in the former Soviet Republics a new-generation nuclear materials accountability system similar to one developed for DOE sites. This new system, the Core Materials Accountability System (COREMAS), is designed for international use. It is a core system to which facility-specific extensions are expected to be made. This paper describes the joint efforts of US personnel and software development teams at sites in Russia, Kazakhstan, and the Ukraine to develop sophisticated computerized MPC&A systems that are customized for the site-specific needs of each facility.

  5. [Development of a testing device for knee joint kinematics parameters of patients with strokes].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulin; Ji, Xuefei; Xu, Xijiao; Zhao, Hongyao

    2013-04-01

    This article is aimed to present a design of a testing device for knee joint kinematics parameters of patients with strokes. We used Auto CAD to design the knee joint sensor device, and applied multifunction data acquisition card to collect sensor data. Then we transferred the data to the computer to quantitatively detect and analyze the joint angle, angular velocity and other parameters. The software system used Visual C+ + MFC frame and shared database Access, and used ADO technology to realize the collection between the software system and patient information system. After a preliminary test of 20 healthy subjects, the result showed that intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was more than 0.8, indicating a good reliability of the instrument.

  6. Development of a body joint angle measurement system using IMU sensors.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saba; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Davidson, Bradley S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for measuring and monitoring human body joint angles using inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. This type of monitoring is beneficial for therapists and physicians because it facilitates remote assessment of patient activities. In our approach, two IMUs are mounted on the upper leg and the lower leg to measure the Euler angles of each segment. The Euler angles are sent via Bluetooth protocols to a pc for calculating the knee joint angle. In our experiments, we utilized a motion capture system to accurately measure the knee joint angle and used this as the ground truth to assess the accuracy of the IMU system. The range of average error of the system across a variety of motion trials was 0.08 to 3.06 degrees. In summary, the accuracy of the IMU measurement system currently outperforms existing wearable systems such as conductive fiber optic sensors and flex-sensors.

  7. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jen-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints.

  8. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Background Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). Methods An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. Results This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. Conclusion SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints. PMID:27583436

  9. Note: Development of a compact electromagnetic hydraulic pump for a microrobot joint driving system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Naijian; Wang, Sun'an; Zhang, Jinhua

    2010-04-01

    This note describes a compact electromagnetic hydraulic pump (EMHP) designed primarily to build a microdriving system for a robot joint actuator. A characteristic mathematical model integrating electricity, magnetism, and hydraulics is constructed to represent the working process of the EMHP. Tests show that a volumetric flow rate of up to 430 cm(3)/min and load pressure of up to 2.5 MPa can be achieved. The prototype pump can supply stable pressure of 0-2.4 MPa and acceleration of 1.2 MPa/s for the robot joint actuator.

  10. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  11. Design and development of high-temperature superconducting magnet system with joint-winding for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Ito, S.; Terazaki, Y.; Seino, Y.; Hamaguchi, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2015-05-01

    An innovative winding method is developed by connecting high-temperature superconducting (HTS) conductors to enable efficient construction of a magnet system for the helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. A large-current capacity HTS conductor, referred to as STARS, is being developed by the incorporation of several innovative ideas, such as the simple stacking of state-of-the-art yttrium barium copper oxide tapes embedded in a copper jacket, surrounded by electrical insulation inside a conductor, and an outer stainless-steel jacket cooled by helium gas. A prototype conductor sample was fabricated and reached a current of 100 kA at a bias magnetic field of 5.3 T with the temperature at 20 K. At 4.2 K, the maximum current reached was 120 kA, and a current of 100 kA was successfully sustained for 1 h. A low-resistance bridge-type mechanical lap joint was developed and a joint resistance of 2 nΩ was experimentally confirmed for the conductor sample.

  12. Development of molded joints and terminals for 230-kV extruded cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bahder, G.; Bopp, L.A.; Eager, G.S. Jr.; Katz, C.; Knott, A.; Schmidt, G.A.

    1985-04-01

    The reliability of extruded-dielectric transmission systems depends to a great extent on the quality of joints and terminals. Detailed procedures developed in this study for field-molding high-stress 230-kV cable joints can ensure the stability of critical interfaces over many years.

  13. Preface: Joint Discussion JD5 From Meteors and Meteorites to their Parent Bodies: Current Status and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    The Joint Discussion 5 entitled "From Meteors and Meteorites to their Parent Bodies: Current Status and Future Developments" within the IAU GA 2012 was organized with the coordination of the IAU Division III Planetary Systems Sciences and the IAU Commission N. 22 Meteors, Meteorites & Interplanetary Dust, together with the supports by Divisions I Fundamental Astronomy, Division XII Union-Wide Activities, Commission 4 Ephemerides, Commission 6 Astronomical Telegrams, Commission 8 Astrometry, Commission 15 Physical Study of Comets & Minor Planets, and Commission 20 Positions & Motions of Minor Planets, Comets & Satellites.

  14. Development of an experimental method to determine the axial rigidity of a strut-node joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. V.; Shih, Hui-Ru

    1993-01-01

    The following are presented: the experimental procedure and the results that have been performed to determine the axial rigidity of the strut-node joint; and the method for modifying a simple testing machine to make it capable of performing more accurate tests over a specific load range and able to accept larger test assemblies.

  15. Development of Y-branch Joint for 275kV XLPE and Fluid Filled Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Sakamaki, Masatoshi

    When a new UHV substation is built in an urban region, generally, an existing underground transmission line shall be diverted and drawn into the new substation. Compared with above mentioned construction method, enormous cost reduction of switching facilities and cable construction is expected with applying a Y-Branch Joint (YJ) which is able to be a 3-way joint. The YJ has already been applied for 154kV class circuit, however, it has not been investigated for 275kV class circuit. Since both XLPE and Fluid-Filled cable are presently used in 275kV class underground cable line, an universal design YJ for both cables have been investigated. The YJ was applied a compact design which was based on our sophisticated electrical stress control technology for 500kV prefabricated type joint. Furthermore, the design was based on its prefabricated assembling technology. The YJ was verified its electrical and mechanical performance as 275kV cable joint by completion of its assembling test and a long term electrical test.

  16. Learning to Look for Language: Development of Joint Attention in Young Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Joint attention between hearing children and their caregivers is typically achieved when the adult provides spoken, auditory linguistic input that relates to the child's current visual focus of attention. Deaf children interacting through sign language must learn to continually switch visual attention between people and objects in order to achieve…

  17. Development of an experimental method to determine the axial rigidity of a strut-node joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. V.; Shih, Hui-Ru

    1993-01-01

    The following are presented: the experimental procedure and the results that have been performed to determine the axial rigidity of the strut-node joint; and the method for modifying a simple testing machine to make it capable of performing more accurate tests over a specific load range and able to accept larger test assemblies.

  18. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  19. Development and Implementation of Joint Programs in Laser Ranging and Other Space Geodetic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Carter, David (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This progress report discusses the status and progress made in joint international programs including: 1) WEGENER; 2) Arabian Peninsula program; 3) Asia-Pacific Space Geodynamics (APSG) program; 4) the Fourteenth International Workshop on Laser Ranging; 5) the International Laser Ranging Service; and 6) current support for the NASA network.

  20. Learning to Look for Language: Development of Joint Attention in Young Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Joint attention between hearing children and their caregivers is typically achieved when the adult provides spoken, auditory linguistic input that relates to the child's current visual focus of attention. Deaf children interacting through sign language must learn to continually switch visual attention between people and objects in order to achieve…

  1. Learning a multi-joint throwing task: a morphometric analysis of skill development.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Kaminski, T R; Fineman, Julie; Monroe, Jane; Gentile, A M

    2008-11-01

    Changes in movement organization were examined during the learning of a multi-joint throwing task. Six participants threw a modified frisbee into the target area over an extended practice period (total of 1,300 trials). Throwing accuracy scores were recorded while 3-D arm motion was collected. Intrinsic shape and variability of end-point path and joint coordination pattern were assessed quantitatively by using generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) to remove extrinsic variability in location, orientation and size of movement configurations. Results indicated that throwing accuracy followed the power law of practice and had an inverse relationship with the actual variability of end-point path. GPA indicated that the intrinsic pattern of end-point path stabilized early during learning while the intrinsic pattern of joint coordination remained variable throughout practice. These findings support the proposal that skill acquisition is composed of two learning processes that occur at different rates. Topology (intrinsic pattern of end-point path) is acquired early during practice, while dynamic control (represented by joint coordination) occurs at a much slower rate.

  2. INTRA-ARTICULAR NERVE GROWTH FACTOR REGULATES DEVELOPMENT, BUT NOT MAINTENANCE, OF INJURY-INDUCED FACET JOINT PAIN & SPINAL NEURONAL HYPERSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Kras, Jeffrey V.; Kartha, Sonia; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the current study is to define whether intra-articular nerve growth factor (NGF), an inflammatory mediator that contributes to osteoarthritic pain, is necessary and sufficient for the development or maintenance of injury-induced facet joint pain and its concomitant spinal neuronal hyperexcitability. Method Male Holtzman rats underwent painful cervical facet joint distraction or sham procedures. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed in the forepaws, and NGF expression was quantified in the C6/C7 facet joint. An anti-NGF antibody was administered intra-articularly in additional rats immediately or 1 day following facet distraction or sham procedures to block intra-articular NGF and test its contribution to initiation and/or maintenance of facet joint pain and spinal neuronal hyperexcitability. NGF was injected into the bilateral C6/C7 facet joints in separate rats to determine if NGF alone is sufficient to induce these behavioral and neuronal responses. Results NGF expression increases in the cervical facet joint in association with behavioral sensitivity after that joint’s mechanical injury. Intra-articular application of anti-NGF immediately after a joint distraction prevents the development of both injury-induced pain and hyperexcitability of spinal neurons. Yet, intra-articular anti-NGF applied after pain has developed does not attenuate either behavioral or neuronal hyperexcitability. Intra-articular NGF administered to the facet in naïve rats also induces behavioral hypersensitivity and spinal neuronal hyperexcitability. Conclusion Findings demonstrate that NGF in the facet joint contributes to the development of injury-induced joint pain. Localized blocking of NGF signaling in the joint may provide potential treatment for joint pain. PMID:26521746

  3. To the development of an automated system of assessment of radiological images of joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechikhin, A. I.; Grunina, E. A.; Karetnikova, I. R.

    2008-03-01

    An algorithm developed for the adaptive automated computer processing of radiological images of hands and feet in order to assess the degree of bone and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis is described. A set of new numeral signs was proposed in order to assess a degree of arthritis radiological progression.

  4. Overcoming Resistance: Developing an Influence Strategy for the Joint Force Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-13

    Complexity” http://comops.org/publications.php (accessed December 7, 2009), 9. 18 Sociologist Niklas Luhmann , they developed what is known as the...receiver know about each other, the less likely they will understand each other. This is why Niklas Luhmann believes social systems based on communications...the techniques of information saturation of an audience. 50 Luhmann theories concentrate

  5. Develop virtual joint laboratory for education like distance engineering system for robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinovic, T. S.; Deaconu, S. I.; Latinović, M. T.; Malešević, N.; Barz, C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper work with a new system that provides distance learning and online training engineers. The purpose of this paper is to develop and provide web-based system for the handling and control of remote devices via the Internet. Remote devices are currently the industry or mobile robots [13]. For future product development machine in the factory will be included in the system. This article also discusses the current use of virtual reality tools in the fields of science and engineering education. One programming tool in particular, virtual reality modeling language (VRML) is presented in the light of its applications and capabilities in the development of computer visualization tool for education. One contribution of this paper is to present the software tools and examples that can encourage educators to develop a virtual reality model to improve teaching in their discipline. [12] This paper aims to introduce a software platform, called VALIP where users can build, share, and manipulate 3D content in cooperation with the interaction processes in a 3D context, while participating hardware and software devices can be physical and / or logical distributed and connected together via the Internet. VALIP the integration of virtual laboratories to appropriate partners; therefore, allowing access to all laboratories in any of the partners in the project. VALIP provides advanced laboratory for training and research within robotics and production engineering, and thus, provides a great laboratory facilities with only having to invest a limited amount of resources at the local level to the partner site.

  6. Joint Development of Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Relations to Delinquency and Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Arseneault, Louise; Brendgen, Mara; Fontaine, Nathalie; Maughan, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The study measures the development of bullying and victimization in early to mid-adolescence, the relations between the developmental trajectories, and their associations with delinquency and self-harm. Evidence suggests youths victimized by peers are at increased risk of victimizing others.

  7. Collaboration, Conflict, and Cognitive Development: The Efficacy of Joint Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudge, Jonathan

    A study was made to assess the extent to which social interaction is beneficial to cognitive development. A total of 154 boys and girls, 5 through 9 years of age, initially participated individually in a conservation-like pretest requiring prediction of the way a beam would tip when different numbers of weights were placed at differing distances…

  8. In Support of Access and Inclusion: Joint Professional Development for Science and Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusca-Vega, Rita; Alexander, Jan; Kamin, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative professional development of science and special educators leads to improved access and inclusion of students with disabilities. Yet, despite poor science achievement of students with disabilities, their increasing presence in general education science classrooms, and research that demonstrates effective teaching strategies for…

  9. Development of Intra-knee Joint Sustained-Release Gel Formulation and Evaluation of Its Pharmacological Efficiency in Rats.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takehiro; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Ban, Kousuke; Mizuno, Ryota; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2017-06-01

    In the development of a drug for intra-articular administration, a sustained-release formulation is desirable since it is difficult to sustain the effects of conventional injections due to fast drug leakage from the joint cavity. In this study, we prepared sustained release gel formulations for intra-articular administration containing indocyanine green (ICG) as a model drug to follow its fate after intra-articular administration in rats with in-vivo imaging system (IVIS). ICG administered as an aqueous solution leaked from the joint cavity in a short time and was excreted out of the body within a day. On the other hand, ICG in the sustained-release formulations was retained and released in the joint cavity for a week. Next, we prepared a sustained-release formulation with hyaluronic acid (HA) as the gel base containing a pain-relief drug (Drug A). We had administered it and other formulations into the rat knee where we injected bradykinin to evaluate their walking distance after 1 and 3 d. The effect of an aqueous solution of Drug A disappeared on day 3. The HA gel formulation without Drug A was more effective than the aqueous solution. The HA gel formulation with Drug A was the most effective; the walking distance was about 85% of the baseline on day 3. This study showed that the gel formulations were effective to sustain the release of a drug in the knee joint, and that the combination of a pain-relief drug with HA gel was effective to improve the mobility of the acute pain model rats.

  10. Towards a Socio-Cultural Framework for the Analysis of Joint Student-Teacher Development over Technology-Based Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a framework, an extension of Valsiner's "zone theory", for the analysis of joint student-teacher development over a series of technology-based mathematics lessons. The framework is suitable for developing research studies over a moderately long period of time and considers interrelated student-teacher development as…

  11. Towards a Socio-Cultural Framework for the Analysis of Joint Student-Teacher Development over Technology-Based Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a framework, an extension of Valsiner's "zone theory", for the analysis of joint student-teacher development over a series of technology-based mathematics lessons. The framework is suitable for developing research studies over a moderately long period of time and considers interrelated student-teacher development as…

  12. Development of Intra-Articular Drug Delivery to Alter Progression of Arthritis Following Joint Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Arthritis Following Joint Injury Steven A. Olson, M.D. W81XWH-10-1-0890 Duke University Durham, NC 27705 15 September 2011 - 14 March ...4 Appendices – Abstract accepted for presentation at ORASI ( Osteoarthritis Research Society International) meeting in...NC 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC PURPOSE: Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a form of osteoarthritis (OA

  13. The hip joint: the fibrillar collagens associated with development and ageing in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    BLAND, YVETTE S.; ASHHURST, DOREEN E.

    2001-01-01

    The fibrillar collagens associated with the articular cartilages, joint capsule and ligamentum teres of the rabbit hip joint were characterised from the 17 d fetus to the 2-y-old adult by immunohistochemical methods. Initially the putative articular cartilage contains types I, III and V collagens, but when cavitation is complete in the 25 d fetus, type II collagen appears. In the 17 d fetus, the cells of the chondrogenous layers express type I collagen mRNA, but not that of type II collagen. Types III and V collagens are present throughout life, particularly pericellularly. Type I collagen is lost. In all respects, the articular cartilage of the hip joint is similar to that of the knee. The joint capsule contains types I, III and V collagens. In the fetus the ligamentum teres contains types I and V collagens and the cells express type I collagen mRNA; type III collagen is confined mainly to its surface and insertions. After birth, the same distribution remains, but there is more type III collagen in the ligament, proper. The attachment to the cartilage of the head of the femur is marked only by fibres of type I collagen traversing the cartilage; the attachment cannot be distinguished in preparations localising types III and V collagens. The attachment to the bone at the lip of the acetabulum is via fibres of types I and V collagens and little type III is present. The ligament is covered by a sheath of types III and V collagens. Type II collagen was not located in any part of the ligamentum teres. The distribution of collagens in the ligamentum teres is similar to that in the collateral ligaments of the knee. Its insertions are unusual because no fibrocartilage was detected. PMID:11215763

  14. Use of a Common Assessment Methodology in Support of Joint Training, Capability Development, and Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    at the joint level on the actual functions they perform. The generic terms include Air Command and Control Agency ( ACCA ), Air Support Control...in the supporting text. USJFCOM 10/22/2007 16UNCLASSIFIED Naval Surface Fires Corps/MEF FSCA JTAC ACCA ASCA Div FSCA BCT/Regt FSCA Bn FSCA TACP TACP...FSCA/ ACCA CAS Aircraft FAC(A) Indirect Surface Fires Hostile Targets WOC TACP GLO Legend ACCA Air Command and Control Agency ISR Intelligence

  15. Administrative and Technical Support for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command Joint Working Group on Medical Chemical Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Development Command Joint Working I PR 3M463807D % Group on Medical Chemical Defense (U) TA 993BO Ai UTHRioS) WU 045 -Mr. Marvin L. Fitts VUDA3O4920...performance from medical treatment and pretreatment drugs used to counter chemical warfare agents. Me ters Industries, Inc. provided administritive and...for the U. S. Army Medical Research and Development Command Joint Working Group on Medical Chemical Defense. FINAL REPORT Marvin L Fitts, MS Cynthia L

  16. Numerical Modeling of Ti Deformation for the Development of a Titanium and Stainless Steel Transition Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A. B.; Kapoor, R.; Thota, M. K.; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to model the joining of titanium grade 2 (Ti) to AISI 321 stainless steel (SS) transition joint of lap configuration with grooves at the interface on SS side. The hot forming of Ti for filling the grooves without defects was simulated. FEA involving large plastic flow with sticking friction condition was initially validated using compression test on cylindrical specimen at 900 °C. The barreled shape and a no-deformation zone in the sample predicted by FEA matched with those of the compression experiments. For the joining process, FEA computed the distribution of strain and hydrostatic stress in Ti and the minimum ram load required for a defect-free joint. The hot forming parameters for Ti to fill the grooves without defects and any geometrical distortion of the die were found to be 0.001 s-1 at 900 °C. Using these conditions a defect-free Ti-SS joint was experimentally produced.

  17. Pre-Operative Status and Quality of Life Following Total Joint Replacement in a Developing Country: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Nina N.; Collins, Jamie E.; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Alcantara Abreu, Luis; Ghazinouri, Roya; Okike, Kanu; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of medical relief organizations have launched programs to perform total joint replacements in the developing world. There is a paucity of data on the clinical outcomes of these procedures. We documented pre- and post-operative pain and functional status in a group of low income Dominicans who underwent total hip or knee replacement performed by an American relief organization. Methods: In March 2009 and 2010, we surveyed patients participating in Operation Walk Boston, a medical relief organization that provides total joint replacements to patients in the Dominican Republic. Questionnaires included the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index scales and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scales for physical activity and mental health. Scores were transformed to a 0 - 100 point scale (100 is best). Results: 81 individuals (mean age 61 years, 60% female) completed the pre-operative questionnaires. Twenty eight of the 35 who completed preoperative forms in 2009 also completed follow up forms in 2010 (follow-up rate 80%). Patients reported poor pre-operative WOMAC function (mean = 33.6, sd = 22.0) and WOMAC pain (mean = 38.4, sd = 22.9) scores preoperatively. Mean post-operative WOMAC pain and function scores were 86.4 (sd = 13.1) and 88.1 (sd = 11.4) respectively. Improvement in pain and function was similar for patients undergoing hip (n=11) and knee (n=17) replacements. Conclusion: Total joint replacement was effective in relieving pain and restoring function in this program. These results are useful for comparison to outcomes in developed countries and for establishing benchmarks for future programs. PMID:21886686

  18. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities.

  19. Development of In-Mold Assembly Methods for Producing Mesoscale Revolute Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    positioning methods to realize cavity shape change to avoid damage to delicate mesoscale parts created during molding, (3) developing a method to...premolded component, this process may lead to irreparable damages to the first stage part. As a result, cavity morphing methods are the only feasible... damage to the part. Figure 4.3 Mold design iterations for second stage injection When the mesoscale pin is molded first, there is a concern that the

  20. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  1. The 1997 JANNAF Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Filliben, Jeff D. (Editor); Watson, Anne H. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    In the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) meeting, topics included: the analysis, characterization, and processing of propellants and propellant ingredients; chemical reactivity; liquid propellants; test methods; rheology; surveillance and aging; and process engineering. In the Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) meeting, topics covered included: hydrazine propellant vapor detection methods; toxicity of propellants and propellants; explosives safety; atmospheric modeling and risk assessment of toxic releases; reclamation, disposal, and demilitarization methods; and remediation of explosives or propellant contaminated sites.

  2. MeProRisk - a Joint Venture for Minimizing Risk in Geothermal Reservoir Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, C.; Marquart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Exploration and development of geothermal reservoirs for the generation of electric energy involves high engineering and economic risks due to the need for 3-D geophysical surface surveys and deep boreholes. The MeProRisk project provides a strategy guideline for reducing these risks by combining cross-disciplinary information from different specialists: Scientists from three German universities and two private companies contribute with new methods in seismic modeling and interpretation, numerical reservoir simulation, estimation of petrophysical parameters, and 3-D visualization. The approach chosen in MeProRisk consists in considering prospecting and developing of geothermal reservoirs as an iterative process. A first conceptual model for fluid flow and heat transport simulation can be developed based on limited available initial information on geology and rock properties. In the next step, additional data is incorporated which is based on (a) new seismic interpretation methods designed for delineating fracture systems, (b) statistical studies on large numbers of rock samples for estimating reliable rock parameters, (c) in situ estimates of the hydraulic conductivity tensor. This results in a continuous refinement of the reservoir model where inverse modelling of fluid flow and heat transport allows infering the uncertainty and resolution of the model at each iteration step. This finally yields a calibrated reservoir model which may be used to direct further exploration by optimizing additional borehole locations, estimate the uncertainty of key operational and economic parameters, and optimize the long-term operation of a geothermal resrvoir.

  3. Development and validation of a computational model of the knee joint for the evaluation of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Mootanah, R; Imhauser, C W; Reisse, F; Carpanen, D; Walker, R W; Koff, M F; Lenhoff, M W; Rozbruch, S R; Fragomen, A T; Dewan, Z; Kirane, Y M; Cheah, K; Dowell, J K; Hillstrom, H J

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) knee joint computational model was developed and validated to predict knee joint contact forces and pressures for different degrees of malalignment. A 3D computational knee model was created from high-resolution radiological images to emulate passive sagittal rotation (full-extension to 65°-flexion) and weight acceptance. A cadaveric knee mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom robot was subjected to matching boundary and loading conditions. A ligament-tuning process minimised kinematic differences between the robotically loaded cadaver specimen and the finite element (FE) model. The model was validated by measured intra-articular force and pressure measurements. Percent full scale error between FE-predicted and in vitro-measured values in the medial and lateral compartments were 6.67% and 5.94%, respectively, for normalised peak pressure values, and 7.56% and 4.48%, respectively, for normalised force values. The knee model can accurately predict normalised intra-articular pressure and forces for different loading conditions and could be further developed for subject-specific surgical planning.

  4. Development and validation of a computational model of the knee joint for the evaluation of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mootanah, R.; Imhauser, C.W.; Reisse, F.; Carpanen, D.; Walker, R.W.; Koff, M.F.; Lenhoff, M.W.; Rozbruch, S.R.; Fragomen, A.T.; Dewan, Z.; Kirane, Y.M.; Cheah, Pamela A.; Dowell, J.K.; Hillstrom, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) knee joint computational model was developed and validated to predict knee joint contact forces and pressures for different degrees of malalignment. A 3D computational knee model was created from high-resolution radiological images to emulate passive sagittal rotation (full-extension to 65°-flexion) and weight acceptance. A cadaveric knee mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom robot was subjected to matching boundary and loading conditions. A ligament-tuning process minimised kinematic differences between the robotically loaded cadaver specimen and the finite element (FE) model. The model was validated by measured intra-articular force and pressure measurements. Percent full scale error between EE-predicted and in vitro-measured values in the medial and lateral compartments were 6.67% and 5.94%, respectively, for normalised peak pressure values, and 7.56% and 4.48%, respectively, for normalised force values. The knee model can accurately predict normalised intra-articular pressure and forces for different loading conditions and could be further developed for subject-specific surgical planning. PMID:24786914

  5. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  6. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  7. Exploratory Development of Design Data on Joints Using Fatigue-Improvement Fasteners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Figure C-8). Interpretation of fastener size effects was somewhat clouded by the behavior of the 3/16-inch-diameter data. It appeared that two failure...fastened with protruding-head fasteners. " The high- and medium-load-transfer joints made up from thick sheets exhibit sufficient bending so as to cloud ...0 mC4 V% : 0 ° LLJ 0 4 to - - 0_.2/- u 03 -41 be 0Etfl 1. 0 4 Goir u Op - 0 0 EL 4 C? 000O1 I 000109 wo,098 000,0 t oort Cc’t oio 000’ 119 - ID ca a

  8. Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

  9. Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

  10. [The role of occlusal disorders in development of temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Arsenina, O I; Popova, A V; Gus, L A

    2014-01-01

    Currently Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a very highly discussed topic by both researchers and clinicians. the incidence of the of TMJ is dysfunctions still not very well established because of heterogeneity of the diagnostic criteria used by different authors. This article is dedicated to the analysis of basic theories of the etiology of the aforementioned pathology, including overview of main pathophysiological mechanisms of the TMJ, dysfunctions occlusive disorders in particular. The main problem being analyzed is the use and efficacy of the electronic axiography in successful diagnostic and therapy of the TMJ dysfunction.

  11. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George

    2015-03-30

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  12. Development of an Intelligent Stretching Device for Ankle Joints With Contracture/Spasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    7] T. G. Olmstead, H. W. Wevers, J. T. Bryant, and G. J. Gouw, "Effect of Muscular Activity on Valgus /Varus Laxity and Stiffness of the Knee ," J...Biomech., vol. 19, pp. 565-577, 1986. [8] L.-Q. Zhang and G. Wang, " Dynamic and Static Control of the Human Knee Joint in Abduction-Adduction," J...casting, dynamic splinting and traction, the continuous passive motion (CPM) device, and advanced robot-aided devices [3-6]. However, existing devices

  13. Development of a multi-modal virtual human knee joint for education and training in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Riener, R; Hoogen, J; Burgkart, R; Buss, M; Schmidt, G

    2001-01-01

    Due to limited simultaneous access to a greater pool of patients an effective training of medical students or young orthopedic physicians is difficult. A knee joint simulator that comprises the properties of a healthy or pathological knee can support medical education and training. In this paper a mechatronic system is presented that provides visual, acoustic, and haptic (force) feedback so that it allows a user to touch and move a virtual shank, bones or muscles within the leg, and simultaneously observe the generated movement, feel the contact force, and hear sounds. These and further features enable the user to study and assess the properties of the knee, e.g. by testing the joint laxity and end-point stiffness in six degrees-of-motion (DOF) and by grasping and pulling at muscles, rupturing ligaments or changing muscle/ligament paths. Such a tool can support training of physical knee evaluation required for diagnosis and therapeutic planning, since any kind of pathology of any subject type can be tested at any time. Furthermore, it can provide a better understanding of functional anatomy, e.g. for the education of medical students.

  14. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Methods Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Key Results Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Conclusions Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. PMID:25452250

  15. Review: emerging developments in the use of bioactive glasses for treating infected prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Huang, Wenhai

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of implanted orthopedic prostheses is a serious complication that requires prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy, major surgery to remove infected implants, bone reconstruction, and considerable morbidity. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement as the carrier, along with systemic antibiotics, is the standard treatment. However, PMMA is not biodegradable, and it can present a surface on which secondary bacterial infection can occur. PMMA spacers used to treat deep implant infections must be removed after resolution of the infection. Alternative carrier materials for antibiotics that could also restore deficient bone are therefore of interest. In this article, the development of bioactive glass-based materials as a delivery system for antibiotics is reviewed. Bioactive glass is osteoconductive, converts to hydroxyapatite, and heals to hard and soft tissues in vivo. Consequently, bioactive glass-based carriers can provide the combined functions of controlled local antibiotic delivery and bone restoration. Recently-developed borate bioactive glasses are of particular interest since they have controllable degradation rates coupled with desirable properties related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Such glasses have the potential for providing a new class of biomaterials, as substitutes for PMMA, in the treatment of deep bone infections.

  16. Development of the 50 TW laser for joint experiments with 1 MA z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiewior, P. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Chalyy, O.

    2010-08-01

    A 50 TW high-intensity laser (aka "Leopard" laser) was developed for experiments with the 1 MA z-pinch generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The laser produces short pulses of 0.35 ps; energy is 15 J. Long pulses are 1 ns; energy is 30 J. The output beam diameter is 80 mm. The Leopard laser applies chirped pulse amplification technology. The laser is based on the 130 fs Ti:Sapphire oscillator, Öffner-type stretcher, Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier, mixed Nd:glass rod and disk amplifiers, and vacuum grating compressor. An adaptive optics system ameliorates focusing ability and augments the repetition rate. Two beam terminals are available for experiments: in the vacuum chamber of the z-pinch generator (aka "Zebra"), and a laser-only vacuum chamber (aka "Phoenix" chamber). The Leopard laser coupled to the Zebra z-pinch generator is a powerful diagnostic tool for dense z-pinch plasma. We outline the status, design, architecture and parameters of the Leopard laser, and its coupling to Zebra. We present the methods of laser-based z-pinch plasma diagnostics, which are under development at the University of Nevada, Reno.

  17. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    PubMed

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  19. Preliminary results on the development of vacuum brazed joints for cryogenic wind tunnel aerofoil models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.; Sandefur, P. G., Jr.; Lawing, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of initial experiments show that high-strength void-free bonds can be formed by vacuum brazing of stainless steels using copper and nickel-based filler metals. In Nitronic 40, brazed joints have been formed with strengths in excess of the yield strength of the parent metal, and even at liquid nitrogen temperatures the excellent mechanical properties of the parent metal are only slightly degraded. The poor toughness of 15-5 P.H. stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures is lowered even further by the presence of the brazed bonds investigated. It is highly unlikely that the technique would be used for any critical areas of aerofoil models intended for low-temperature service. Nevertheless, the potential advantages of this simplified method of construction still have attractions for use at ambient temperatures.

  20. JOINT DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL 1:100,000-SCALE DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHIC DATA BASE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callahan, George M.; Broome, Frederick R.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey is beginning a major new program to create a nationwide digital cartographic data base from 1:100,000-scale maps by the end of the decade. This data base will supplement the currently available 1:2,000,000-scale national data base and the selected coverage at 1:24,000-scale. It is anticipated that the data will be useful for both the production of custom graphics and as basic input to geographic information systems. The 1:100,000-scale USGS map series was designed to facilitate automated data capture. The methodologies and procedures used in the data capture process have developed enough so that the two agencies can take advantage of the design features of the 1:100,000-scale maps and work together on complementary tasks to build a digital cartographic data base.

  1. Joint Prediction of Longitudinal Development of Cortical Surfaces and White Matter Fibers from Neonatal MRI.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Yap, Pew-Thian; Chen, Geng; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-03-08

    The human brain can be modeled as multiple interrelated shapes (or a multishape), each for characterizing one aspect of the brain, such as the cortex and white matter pathways. Predicting the developing multishape is a very challenging task due to the contrasting nature of the developmental trajectories of the constituent shapes: smooth for the cortical surface and non-smooth for white matter tracts due to changes such as bifurcation. We recently addressed this problem and proposed an approach for predicting the multishape developmental spatiotemporal trajectories of infant brains based only on neonatal MRI data using a set of geometric, dynamic, and fiber-to-surface connectivity features. In this paper, we propose two key innovations to further improve the prediction of multishape evolution. First, for a more accurate cortical surface prediction, instead of simply relying on one neonatal atlas to guide the prediction of the multishape, we propose to use multiple neonatal atlases to build a spatially heterogeneous atlas using the multidirectional varifold representation. This individualizes the atlas by locally maximizing its similarity to the testing baseline cortical shape for each cortical region, thereby better representing the baseline testing cortical surface, which founds the multishape prediction process. Second, for temporally consistent fiber prediction, we propose to reliably estimate spatiotemporal connectivity features using low-rank tensor completion, thereby capturing the variability and richness of the temporal development of fibers. Experimental results confirm that the proposed variants significantly improve the prediction performance of our original multishape prediction framework for both cortical surfaces and fiber tracts shape at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Our pioneering model will pave the way for learning how to predict the evolution of anatomical shapes with abnormal changes. Ultimately, devising accurate shape evolution prediction models

  2. Development and retranslational validation of an in vitro model to characterize acute infections in large human joints.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Ingo H; Mehlhorn, Alexander; Dovi-Akue, David; Langenmair, Elia Raoul; Südkamp, Norbert P; Schmal, Hagen

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections can destroy cartilage integrity, resulting in osteoarthritis. Goal was to develop an in vitro model with in vivo validation of acute joint inflammation. Inflammation in cocultivated human synovial fibroblasts (SFB), chondrocytes (CHDR), and mononuclear cells (MNC) was successively relieved for 10 days. Articular effusions from patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 5) postoperative joint infection in healthy patients (ASA 1-2) were used as model validation. Inflammation in vitro resulted in an enormous increase in IL-1 and a successive reduction in SFB numbers. CHDR however, maintained metabolic activity and proteoglycan synthesis. While concentrations of bFGF in vivo and in vitro rose consistently, the mRNA increase was only moderate. Concurring with our in vivo data, cartilage-specific IGF-1 steadily increased, while IGF-1 mRNA in the CHDR and SFB did not correlate with protein levels. Similarly, aggrecan (ACAN) protein concentrations increased in vivo and failed to correlate in vitro with gene expression in either the CHDR or the SFB, indicating extracellular matrix breakdown. Anabolic cartilage-specific BMP-7 with highly significant intra-articular levels was significantly elevated in vitro on day 10 following maximum inflammation. Our in vitro model enables us to validate early inflammation of in vivo cell- and cytokine-specific regulatory patterns. This trial is registered with MISSinG, DRKS 00003536.

  3. Development of a Joint Hydrogen and Syngas Combustion Mechanism Based on an Optimization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Tamás; Olm, Carsten; Nagy, Tibor; Zsély, István Gy.; Valkó, Éva; Pálvölgyi, Róbert; Curran, Henry. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A comprehensive and hierarchical optimization of a joint hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanism has been carried out. The Kéromnès et al. (Combust Flame, 2013, 160, 995–1011) mechanism for syngas combustion was updated with our recently optimized hydrogen combustion mechanism (Varga et al., Proc Combust Inst, 2015, 35, 589–596) and optimized using a comprehensive set of direct and indirect experimental data relevant to hydrogen and syngas combustion. The collection of experimental data consisted of ignition measurements in shock tubes and rapid compression machines, burning velocity measurements, and species profiles measured using shock tubes, flow reactors, and jet‐stirred reactors. The experimental conditions covered wide ranges of temperatures (800–2500 K), pressures (0.5–50 bar), equivalence ratios (ϕ = 0.3–5.0), and C/H ratios (0–3). In total, 48 Arrhenius parameters and 5 third‐body collision efficiency parameters of 18 elementary reactions were optimized using these experimental data. A large number of directly measured rate coefficient values belonging to 15 of the reaction steps were also utilized. The optimization has resulted in a H2/CO combustion mechanism, which is applicable to a wide range of conditions. Moreover, new recommended rate parameters with their covariance matrix and temperature‐dependent uncertainty ranges of the optimized rate coefficients are provided. The optimized mechanism was compared to 19 recent hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanisms and is shown to provide the best reproduction of the experimental data. PMID:27840549

  4. Development of a Joint Hydrogen and Syngas Combustion Mechanism Based on an Optimization Approach.

    PubMed

    Varga, Tamás; Olm, Carsten; Nagy, Tibor; Zsély, István Gy; Valkó, Éva; Pálvölgyi, Róbert; Curran, Henry J; Turányi, Tamás

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive and hierarchical optimization of a joint hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanism has been carried out. The Kéromnès et al. (Combust Flame, 2013, 160, 995-1011) mechanism for syngas combustion was updated with our recently optimized hydrogen combustion mechanism (Varga et al., Proc Combust Inst, 2015, 35, 589-596) and optimized using a comprehensive set of direct and indirect experimental data relevant to hydrogen and syngas combustion. The collection of experimental data consisted of ignition measurements in shock tubes and rapid compression machines, burning velocity measurements, and species profiles measured using shock tubes, flow reactors, and jet-stirred reactors. The experimental conditions covered wide ranges of temperatures (800-2500 K), pressures (0.5-50 bar), equivalence ratios (ϕ = 0.3-5.0), and C/H ratios (0-3). In total, 48 Arrhenius parameters and 5 third-body collision efficiency parameters of 18 elementary reactions were optimized using these experimental data. A large number of directly measured rate coefficient values belonging to 15 of the reaction steps were also utilized. The optimization has resulted in a H2/CO combustion mechanism, which is applicable to a wide range of conditions. Moreover, new recommended rate parameters with their covariance matrix and temperature-dependent uncertainty ranges of the optimized rate coefficients are provided. The optimized mechanism was compared to 19 recent hydrogen and syngas combustion mechanisms and is shown to provide the best reproduction of the experimental data.

  5. Development of optimized epoxy graphite implant for the total hip joint.

    PubMed

    Iyer, L S; Jayasekaran, T; Blunck, C F; Selvam, R P

    1984-01-01

    Various metal implants are available for total hip joint replacements. There are problems associated with the micromovement of the implants with bone and/or with bone cement and about ten percent failure cases are reported. The mechanical properties of the metal implants do not match with that of human bone in the femur resulting in a stress distribution in the femur different from one without implant. Many researchers are working with different materials like alloy materials with lower modulus of elasticity, ceramic, etc. The study conducted at S.D.S.M. & T. biomechanics laboratory investigates the feasibility of using epoxy graphite as an implant material. The mechanical properties of the implant material are being optimized using experimental and analytical methods. The reflection polariscope method (photo stress method) was used to determine the micromovement of the implant and the bone, and stress distribution in the femur subjected to cyclic loading. A finite element method was used to optimize the mechanical properties of the implant to obtain a stress distribution closer to the one without implant. An epoxy graphite implant with optimized mechanical properties is being manufactured and tests are in progress.

  6. Development of a biomechanical model of the wrist joint for patient-specific model guided surgical therapy planning: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Eschweiler, Jörg; Stromps, Jan-Philipp; Fischer, Maximilian; Schick, Fabian; Rath, Björn; Pallua, Norbert; Radermacher, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    An enhanced musculoskeletal biomechanical model of the wrist joint is presented in this article. The developed computational model features the two forearm bones radius and ulna, the eight wrist bones, the five metacarpal bones, and a soft tissue apparatus. Validation of the model was based on information taken from the literature as well as own experimental passive in vitro motion analysis of eight cadaver specimens. The computational model is based on the multi-body simulation software AnyBody. A comprehensive ligamentous apparatus was implemented allowing the investigation of ligament function. The model can easily patient specific personalized on the basis of image information. The model enables simulation of individual wrist motion and predicts trends correctly in the case of changing kinematics. Therefore, patient-specific multi-body simulation models are potentially valuable tools for surgeons in pre- and intraoperative planning of implant placement and orientation.

  7. Development of ASTM Standard for SiC-SiC Joint Testing Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, George; Back, Christina

    2015-10-30

    As the nuclear industry moves to advanced ceramic based materials for cladding and core structural materials for a variety of advanced reactors, new standards and test methods are required for material development and licensing purposes. For example, General Atomics (GA) is actively developing silicon carbide (SiC) based composite cladding (SiC-SiC) for its Energy Multiplier Module (EM2), a high efficiency gas cooled fast reactor. Through DOE funding via the advanced reactor concept program, GA developed a new test method for the nominal joint strength of an endplug sealed to advanced ceramic tubes, Fig. 1-1, at ambient and elevated temperatures called the endplug pushout (EPPO) test. This test utilizes widely available universal mechanical testers coupled with clam shell heaters, and specimen size is relatively small, making it a viable post irradiation test method. The culmination of this effort was a draft of an ASTM test standard that will be submitted for approval to the ASTM C28 ceramic committee. Once the standard has been vetted by the ceramics test community, an industry wide standard methodology to test joined tubular ceramic components will be available for the entire nuclear materials community.

  8. ULI/UMTA (Urban Land Institute/Urban Mass Transportation Administration) Policy Forum of Joint Development of Rail-Transit Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dunphy, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ULI/UMTA Policy Forum on Joint Development of Rail Transit Facilities convened June 11-12, 1986. The participants included a representative group of developers, transit operators, local government officials, lenders, and public-interest groups concerned with transportation and urban development. Workshops at the forum elicited a consensus that UMTA should establish policies to advance, support, and reinforce joint development. They also recommended development of a set of guidelines that would address zoning and planning for density and traffic problems. It was also recommended that land-use changes at, near, or on development sites need to be made before construction begins, in part to preclude parties involved from changing their minds. The report includes general session presentations on the Hong Kong and Dulles DART projects, workshop summaries, and resource papers presented.

  9. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles' force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (-) r(14) = -0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide greater insight

  10. Ablating spinal NK1-bearing neurons eliminates the development of pain and reduces spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and inflammation from mechanical joint injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Christine L; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-04-01

    The facet joint is a common source of pain, especially from mechanical injury. Although chronic pain is associated with altered spinal glial and neuronal responses, the contribution of specific spinal cells to joint pain is not understood. This study used the neurotoxin [Sar(9),Met(O2)(11)]-substance P-saporin (SSP-SAP) to selectively eliminate spinal cells expressing neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in a rat model of painful facet joint injury to determine the role of those spinal neurons in pain from facet injury. Following spinal administration of SSP-SAP or its control (blank-SAP), a cervical facet injury was imposed and behavioral sensitivity was assessed. Spinal extracellular recordings were made on day 7 to classify neurons and quantify evoked firing. Spinal glial activation and interleukin 1αα (IL1α) expression also were evaluated. SSP-SAP prevented the development of mechanical hyperalgesia that is induced by joint injury and reduced NK1R expression and mechanically evoked neuronal firing in the dorsal horn. SSP-SAP also prevented a shift toward wide dynamic range neurons that is seen after injury. Spinal astrocytic activation and interleukin 1α (IL1α) expression were reduced to sham levels with SSP-SAP treatment. These results suggest that spinal NK1R-bearing cells are critical in initiating spinal nociception and inflammation associated with a painful mechanical joint injury. Results demonstrate that cells expressing NK1R in the spinal cord are critical for the development of joint pain, spinal neuroplasticity, and inflammation after trauma to the joint. These findings have utility for understanding mechanisms of joint pain and developing potential targets to treat pain. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of proteoglycan-induced arthritis depends on T cell-supported autoantibody production, but does not involve significant influx of T cells into the joints

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be triggered by autoantibodies, the production of which is supported by autoreactive T cells. Studies on RA and animal models of the disease suggest that T cells recruited in the joints can locally initiate or propagate arthritis. Herein, we investigated the role of joint-homing versus lymphoid organ-homing T cells in the development of proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PGIA), an autoimmune model of RA. Methods To identify T cells migrating to the joints before and during development of autoimmune arthritis, we transferred fluorescence-labeled T cells, along with antigen-presenting cells, from BALB/c mice with PGIA to naïve syngeneic severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. We then monitored the recruitment of donor T cells in the ankle joints and joint-draining lymph nodes of the recipients using in vivo two-photon microscopy and ex vivo detection methods. To limit T-cell access to the joints, we selectively depleted T cells in the blood circulation by treatment with FTY720, an inhibitor of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs. Reduction of T cell presence in both lymphoid organs and blood was achieved by injection of donor cells from which T cells were removed prior to transfer. T and B cells were quantitated by flow cytometry, and antigen (PG)-specific responses were assessed by cell proliferation and serum antibody assays. Results Despite development of adoptively transferred arthritis in the recipient SCID mice, we found very few donor T cells in their joints after cell transfer. Treatment of recipient mice with FTY720 left the T-cell pool in the lymphoid organs intact, but reduced T cells in both peripheral blood and joints. However, FTY720 treatment failed to inhibit PGIA development. In contrast, arthritis was not seen in recipient mice after transfer of T cell-depleted cells from arthritic donors, and serum autoantibodies to PG were not detected in this group of mice

  12. Development of phased array ultrasonic testing in lieu of radiography for testing complete joint penetration (CJP) welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldipur, P.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-04-01

    The past decade has seen new, emerging innovation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT). Specifically, multiple manufacturers have produced Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) systems. The PAUT systems embed a matrix of multiple (some up to 128) single transducers into one probe used for scanning elastic materials. Simultaneously exciting multiple transducers offers distinct advantages; depending on the sequencing of transducer excitation, the ultrasonic beam could be steered within the material and multiple beams help develop extra dimensional data to assist with visualization of possible flaws including the discontinuity size, shape and location. Unfortunately, there has not been broad acceptance of PAUT in the bridge fabrication industry because it is currently not a recognized inspection technology in AWS D1.5. One situation in which the technology would excel would be inspection of Complete Joint Penetration (CJP) butt welds. Currently, AWS D1.5 required CJP welds subjected to tensile or reversal stresses only be inspected by Radiographic Testing (RT). However, discontinuities normally seen by RT can also be seen with PAUT. Until specification language is adopted into D1.5, there will continue to be hesitancy to use PAUT for the inspection of CJP butt welds. Developmental work must first be performed to develop the acceptance criteria and the specification language. The developmental work from the inspections carried out on butt-weld specimens and transition butt-weld specimens are presented in this paper. Specific scan plans were developed using the ES-Beam simulation software for each of the test specimens. In depth analysis of PAUT data obtained to determine exact location and sizing information of the defects was performed. The results also present the comparison of results from PAUT to those obtained using conventional UT and radiography.

  13. The joint influence of photoperiod and temperature during growth cessation and development of dormancy in white spruce (Picea glauca).

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill A; El Kayal, Walid; Hart, Ashley T; Runcie, Daniel E; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-11-01

    Timely responses to environmental cues enable the synchronization of phenological life-history transitions essential for the health and survival of north-temperate and boreal tree species. While photoperiodic cues will remain persistent under climate change, temperature cues may vary, contributing to possible asynchrony in signals influencing developmental and physiological transitions essential to forest health. Understanding the relative contribution of photoperiod and temperature as determinants of the transition from active growth to dormancy is important for informing adaptive forest management decisions that consider future climates. Using a combination of photoperiod (long = 20 h or short = 8 h day lengths) and temperature (warm = 22 °C/16 °C and cool = 8 °C/4 °C day/night, respectively) treatments, we used microscopy, physiology and modeling to comprehensively examine hallmark traits of the growth-dormancy transition-including bud formation, growth cessation, cold hardiness and gas exchange-within two provenances of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] spanning a broad latitude in Alberta, Canada. Following exposure to experimental treatments, seedlings were transferred to favorable conditions, and the depth of dormancy was assessed by determining the timing and ability of spruce seedlings to resume growth. Short photoperiods promoted bud development and growth cessation, whereas longer photoperiods extended the growing season through the induction of lammas growth. In contrast, cool temperatures under both photoperiodic conditions delayed bud development. Photoperiod strongly predicted the development of cold hardiness, whereas temperature predicted photosynthetic rates associated with active growth. White spruce was capable of attaining endodormancy, but its release was environmentally determined. Dormancy depth varied substantially across experimental treatments suggesting that environmental cues experienced within one season could affect growth

  14. Army-Marine Corps Logistics Integration: Is Current Doctrine, Training and Education Sufficient to Develop Joint Logisticians?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-11

    side in a joint fight that requires intersetvice logistics support at the tactical level in order to operate effectively in a distributed...for Marine Corps logisticians impedes their ability to operate effectively in the joint logistics environment. Service and joint publications must...education necessary to create effective joint logisticians. Existing Marine Corps courses should inculcate joint logistics training and education as

  15. Use of a Stochastic Joint Inversion Modeling Algorithm to Develop a Hydrothermal Flow Model at a Geothermal Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompson, A. F. B.; Mellors, R. J.; Dyer, K.; Yang, X.; Chen, M.; Trainor Guitton, W.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ramirez, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    A stochastic joint inverse algorithm is used to analyze diverse geophysical and hydrologic data associated with a geothermal prospect. The approach uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) global search algorithm to develop an ensemble of hydrothermal groundwater flow models that are most consistent with the observations. The algorithm utilizes an initial conceptual model descriptive of structural (geology), parametric (permeability) and hydrothermal (saturation, temperature) characteristics of the geologic system. Initial (a-priori) estimates of uncertainty in these characteristics are used to drive simulations of hydrothermal fluid flow and related geophysical processes in a large number of random realizations of the conceptual geothermal system spanning these uncertainties. The process seeks to improve the conceptual model by developing a ranked subset of model realizations that best match all available data within a specified norm or tolerance. Statistical (posterior) characteristics of these solutions reflect reductions in the a-priori uncertainties. The algorithm has been tested on a geothermal prospect located at Superstition Mountain, California and has been successful in creating a suite of models compatible with available temperature, surface resistivity, and magnetotelluric (MT) data. Although the MCMC method is highly flexible and capable of accommodating multiple and diverse datasets, a typical inversion may require the evaluation of thousands of possible model runs whose sophistication and complexity may evolve with the magnitude of data considered. As a result, we are testing the use of sensitivity analyses to better identify critical uncertain variables, lower order surrogate models to streamline computational costs, and value of information analyses to better assess optimal use of related data. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL

  16. Maximum voluntary joint torque as a function of joint angle and angular velocity: model development and application to the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of human strength can be important during analyses of physical activities. Such measurements have often taken the form of the maximum voluntary torque at a single joint angle and angular velocity. However, the available strength varies substantially with joint position and velocity. When examining dynamic activities, strength measurements should account for these variations. A model is presented of maximum voluntary joint torque as a function of joint angle and angular velocity. The model is based on well-known physiological relationships between muscle force and length and between muscle force and velocity and was tested by fitting it to maximum voluntary joint torque data from six different exertions in the lower limb. Isometric, concentric and eccentric maximum voluntary contractions were collected during hip extension, hip flexion, knee extension, knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. Model parameters are reported for each of these exertion directions by gender and age group. This model provides an efficient method by which strength variations with joint angle and angular velocity may be incorporated into comparisons between joint torques calculated by inverse dynamics and the maximum available joint torques.

  17. A research experiment on facilitation and formation of joint research and development programs between government, industry, and universities: Overview, preliminary findings, and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.

    1992-01-01

    Presented is an overview of an experiment to explore the free-market approach to public-private collaboration through the development and implementation of a joint venture mechanism to enable formation of R&D projects between government, industry and academia. Some preliminary results related to time-to-commercialization and economic competitiveness are discussed.

  18. A Joint Vision for Secondary and Higher Education for All in Europe: The Road towards Realising Sustainable Development Goal 4 in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The present joint action programme is proposed by the Organising Bureau of European School Student Unions (OBESSU), the European Students' Union (ESU), and Education International (EI) to their members and partners, in order to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 related goals, which the United Nations adopted in…

  19. Agriculture and Community Development Interface. Joint Meeting of the Southern Region State Leaders for Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development Proceedings (October 8-11, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Paul D., Ed.; Campbell, Raymond, Ed.

    This document is a summary of remarks presented at a joint meeting of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development state leaders in 1989. The focus of the meeting was economic viability, rural extension and education, water quality, waste management, biotechnology, low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA), and rural…

  20. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  1. Development Of an Experimental Animal Model For Lower Back Pain By Percutaneous Injury-Induced Lumbar Facet Joint Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Ahmadinia, Kasra; Li, Xin; Hamilton, John L; Andrews, Steven; Haralampus, Chris A.; Xiao, Guozhi; Sohn, Hong-Moon; You, Jae-Won; Seo, Yo-Seob; Stein, Gary S.; Wijnen, Andre J Van; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    We report generation and characterization of pain-related behavior in a minimally-invasive facet joint degeneration (FJD) animal model in rats. FJD was produced by a non-open percutaneous puncture-induced injury on the right lumbar FJs at three consecutive levels. Pressure hyperalgesia in the lower back was assessed by measuring the vocalization response to pressure from a force transducer. After hyperalgesia was established, pathological changes in lumbar FJs and alterations of intervertebral foramen size were assessed by histological and imaging analyses. To investigate treatment options for lumber FJ osteoarthritis-induced pain, animals with established hyperalgesia were administered with analgesic drugs, such as morphine, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (ketorolac), or pregabalin. Effects were assessed by behavioral pain responses. One week after percutaneous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs, ipsilateral primary pressure hyperalgesia developed and was maintained for at least 12 weeks without foraminal stenosis. Animals showed decreased spontaneous activity, but no secondary hyperalgesia in the hind paws. Histopathological and microfocus X-ray computed tomography analyses demonstrated that the percutaneous puncture injury resulted in osteoarthritis-like structural changes in the FJs cartilage and subchondral bone. Pressure hyperalgesia was completely reversed by morphine. The administration of celecoxib produced moderate pain reduction with no statistical significance while the administration of ketorolac and pregabalin produced no analgesic effect on FJ osteoarthritis-induced back pain. Our animal model of non-open percutanous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs in rats shows similar characteristics of low back pain produced by human facet arthropathy. PMID:25858171

  2. The effect of the dimensions of the distal femur and proximal tibia joint surfaces on the development of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Işik, Derya; Işik, Çetin; Apaydin, Nihal; Üstü, Yusuf; Uğurlu, Mahmut; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dimensions of the distal femur and proximal tibia joint surfaces affect the etiology of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study comprised the records of 1,324 patients who had been admitted to hospital with knee pain. Anterioposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs of the knee were taken. Using the Kellgren-Lawrence Scale, the patient group comprised Stages 2, 3, and 4 radiographs and the controls comprised Stages 0 and 1 radiographs. Four lengths were measured for each patient in both groups: femur mediolateral (femur ML), tibia mediolateral (tibia ML), femur anteroposterior (femur AP), and tibia anteroposterior (tibia AP). Osteophytes were not included in the measurements in the patient group. All the measurements were repeated by two researchers at two different times. The groups were compared in terms of these measurements and the correlations between them. The mean femur ML length was significantly greater in the patient group than the control group (P = 0.032) and the mean femur AP length was significantly less (P = 0.037). In addition, the difference between the femur ML and AP lengths was significantly high in the patient group (P < 0.001). The difference between the tibia and femur ML lengths was significantly high in the patient group (P < 0.001) and the difference between the tibia and femur AP lengths was higher in the control group (P = 0.001). A longer femur ML and a shorter femur AP, together with a greater difference between these two lengths and a greater difference between the tibia ML and femur ML lengths, could be a risk factor for developing knee OA. More extensive anatomical and biomechanical studies in the future will enable these results to be corroborated.

  3. Impact of sacropelvic fixation on the development of postoperative sacroiliac joint pain following multilevel stabilization for degenerative spine disease.

    PubMed

    Finger, T; Bayerl, S; Bertog, M; Czabanka, M; Woitzik, J; Vajkoczy, P

    2016-11-01

    We hypothesised, that the inclusion of the ilium for multilevel lumbosacral fusions reduces the incidence of postoperative sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. The primary objective of this study was to compare the frequency of postoperative SIJ pain in patients undergoing multilevel stabilization with and without sacropelvic fixation for multilevel degenerative spine disease. In addition, we aimed at identifying factors that may predict the worsening or new onset of postoperative SIJ pain. A total of 63 patients with multisegmental fusion surgery with a minimum follow up of 12 months were evaluated. 34 patients received sacral fixation (SF group) and 29 patients received an additional sacropelvic fixation device (SPF group). Primary outcome parameters were changes in SIJ pain between the groups and the influence of pelvic parameters, the patient́s age, the patient́s body mass index (BMI) and the length of the stabilization on the SIJ pain. Between the two surgical groups there were no differences concerning age (p=0.3), BMI (p=0.56), length of follow up (p=0.96), length of the construct (p=0.56). In total 31.7% of the patients had a worsening/new onset of SIJ pain after surgery. An additional fixation of the SIJ with iliac screws or iliosacral plate did not have an influence on the SIJ pain (p=0.67). Likewise, pelvic parameters were not predictive for the outcome of the SIJ pain. Only an increased preoperative BMI correlated with a higher chance of a new onset of SIJ pain (p=0.037). In our retrospective study there was no influence of a sacropelvic fixation techniques on the SIJ pain in patients with multilevel degenerative spine disease after multilevel stabilization surgeries. The patients' BMI is the only preoperative factor that correlated with a higher incidence to develop postoperative SIJ pain, independently of the implantation of a sacropelvic fixation device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Leg joint power output during progressive resistance FES-LCE cycling in SCI subjects: developing an index of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Stephenie A; Faghri, Pouran D; Adams, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the hip, knee and ankle during a progressive resistance cycling protocol in an effort to detect and measure the presence of muscle fatigue. It was hypothesized that knee power output can be used as an indicator of fatigue in order to assess the cycling performance of SCI subjects. Methods Six spinal cord injured subjects (2 incomplete, 4 complete) between the ages of twenty and fifty years old and possessing either a complete or incomplete spinal cord injury at or below the fourth cervical vertebra participated in this study. Kinematic data and pedal forces were recorded during cycling at increasing levels of resistance. Ankle, knee and hip power outputs and resultant pedal force were calculated. Ergometer cadence and muscle stimulation intensity were also recorded. Results The main findings of this study were: (a) ankle and knee power outputs decreased, whereas hip power output increased with increasing resistance, (b) cadence, stimulation intensity and resultant pedal force in that combined order were significant predictors of knee power output and (c) knowing the value of these combined predictors at 10 rpm, an index of fatigue can be developed, quantitatively expressing the power capacity of the knee joint with respect to a baseline power level defined as fatigue. Conclusion An index of fatigue was successfully developed, proportionalizing knee power capacity during cycling to a predetermined value of fatigue. The fatigue index value at 0/8th kp, measured 90 seconds into active, unassisted pedaling was 1.6. This indicates initial power capacity at the knee to be 1.6 times greater than fatigue. The fatigue index decreased to 1.1 at 2/8th kp, representing approximately a 30% decrease in the knee's power capacity within a 4 minute timespan. These findings suggest that the present cycling protocol is not sufficient for a rider to gain the benefits of FES and thus raises speculation as to

  5. Project proposals on the creation of Russian-American joint enterprise for investigation, development and manufacture of power plants on the basis of solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smotrov, N.V.; Kleschev, Yu.N.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a joint Russian-American enterprise for performing scientific investigations, development, and manufacture of fuel cell power plants on the basis of the solid oxide fuel cell. RASOFCo. Russian-American Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Company. RASOFCo will provide the series output of the electrochemical generator (ECG) of 1kW power, then of 5kW and 10kW as well as the development and the output of 10kW power plant with the subsequent output of a power plant of greater power. An ECG based on solid oxide fuel cells uses methane as a fuel. Predicted technical characteristics, market analysis, assessment of potential demands for power plants of low power for Tyumentransgas, participants of the joint enterprise and their founding contributions, strategy for manufacture and financing, and management of RASOFCo are discussed.

  6. Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2011-02-01

    UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

  7. Joint development and tectonic stress field evolution in the southeastern Mesozoic Ordos Basin, west part of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lin; Qiu, Zhen; Wang, Qingchen; Guo, Yusen; Wu, Chaofan; Wu, Zhijie; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-09-01

    Major joint sets trending E-W (J1), ENE-WSW (J2), NE-SW (J3), N-S (J4), NNW-SSE (J5), NNE-SSW (J6), NW-SE (J7), and WNW-ESE (J8) respectively are recognized in Mesozoic strata within the southeast of Ordos Basin. Among them, the J1, J2 and J3 joint sets are systematic joints, while the other five joint sets (J4, J5, J6, J7, J8) are nonsystematic joints. There are three groups of orthogonal joint systems (i.e. J1 and J4 sets, J2 and J5 sets, and J6 and J8 sets) and two groups of conjugate shear fractures (ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW) in the study area. Joint spacing analysis indicates that: (1) layer thickness has an effect on the joint spacing, but the correlation of joint spacing and layer thickness is low; (2) joint density of systematic joints is greater than nonsystematic joints, and the joint density of a thin layer is also greater than that of a thick layer; and (3) the joints of Mesozoic strata in the basin are the result of tectonic events affected by multiple stress fields. All these joints in the Mesozoic strata are formed in the two main tectonic events since Late Mesozoic times. One is the westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasia Plate, which formed the approximately E-W-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J1 joint set (E-W) and the bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (E-W). The other stress field is related to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, which formed the NE-SW-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J3 joint set and bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (NE-SW). Finally, we conclude that the J1 and J4 sets are formed in the E-W-trending compressive stress field, and the J2, J3, J5, J6, J7 and J8 sets are formed in the NE

  8. The acute effects of static stretching on peak force, peak rate of force development and muscle activity during single- and multiple-joint actions in older women.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raquel; Gurjão, André Luiz Demantova; Jambassi Filho, José Claudio; Farinatti, Paulo De Tarso Veras; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the acute effects of static stretching on peak force, peak rate of force development and integrated electromyography (iEMG) in 27 older women (65 ± 4 years; 69 ± 9 kg; 157 ± 1 cm; 28 ± 4 kg · m(-2)). The participants were tested during two exercises (leg press and knee extension) after two conditions: stretching and control. The data were collected on four days (counterbalanced with a 24-hour rest period). In the stretching condition, the quadriceps muscle was stretched (knee flexion) for three sets of 30 s with 30 s rest intervals. No significant difference was detected for peak force and peak rate of force development during the single- and multiple-joint exercises, regardless of the following interactions: condition (stretching and control) vs. time (pre x post x 10 x 20 x 30 minutes post; P > 0.05) and exercise vs. time (P > 0.05). Additionally, no significant interaction was found for the iEMG activity (condition vs. time; P > 0.05) in the single- and multiple-joint exercises. In conclusion, a small amount of stretching of an agonist muscle (quadriceps) did not affect the peak force, peak rate of force development and EMG activity in older women during single- and multiple-joint exercises.

  9. M3FT-16OR020202112 - Report on viability of hydrothermal corrosion resistant SiC/SiC Joint development

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kiggans Jr, James O.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2016-06-30

    Hydrothermal corrosion of four types of the silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC plate joints were investigated under PWR and BWR relevant chemical conditions without irradiation. The joints were formed by metal diffusion bonding using molybdenum or titanium interlayer, reaction sintering using Ti-Si-C system, and SiC nanopowder sintering. Most of the formed joints withstood the corrosion tests for five weeks. The recession of the SiC substrates was limited. Based on the recession rate of the bonding layers, it was concluded that all the joints except for the molybdenum diffusion bond are promising under the reducing activity environments. The SiC nanopowder sintered joint was the most corrosion tolerant under the oxidizing activity environment among the four joints.

  10. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project.

  11. Recovering Servicemembers. DOD and VA Have Made Progress to Jointly Develop Required Policies but Additional Challenges Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-29

    in determining disability benefits, and additional outreach and nonclinical case management provided by VA staff at the DOD pilot locations to...Develop policy for improved access to medical and other health care servicesc 10 1 9 ◓ 4. Develop policy for improved outreach and services for...coordination, benefits, and service transitiona 11 7 4 ◓ 2. Develop procedures and processes for information sharing of military service and healt bh

  12. Joint Use of Public Schools: Developing a New Social Contract for the Shared Use of Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filardo, Mary; Vincent, Jeff M.; Allen, Marni; Franklin, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the 21st Century School Fund and the Center for Cities and Schools at the University of California Berkeley provide a conceptual frame for the joint use of PK-12 public school buildings. There is a growing conversation about and demand for joint use as a way to provide services to children and families in convenient locations,…

  13. Coordination of chondrocyte differentiation and joint formation by alpha5beta1 integrin in the developing appendicular skeleton.

    PubMed

    Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Rosales, Carlos; Katoh, Masaru; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2004-10-01

    The control point by which chondrocytes take the decision between the cartilage differentiation program or the joint formation program is unknown. Here, we have investigated the effect of alpha5beta1 integrin inhibitors and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) on joint formation. Blocking of alpha5beta1 integrin by specific antibodies or RGD peptide (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) induced inhibition of pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and ectopic joint formation between proliferating chondrocytes and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Ectopic joint expressed Wnt14, Gdf5, chordin, autotaxin, type I collagen and CD44, while expression of Indian hedgehog and type II collagen was downregulated in cartilage. Expression of these interzone markers confirmed that the new structure is a new joint being formed. In the presence of BMP7, inhibition of alpha5beta1 integrin function still induced the formation of the ectopic joint between proliferating chondrocytes and hypertrophic chondrocytes. By contrast, misexpression of alpha5beta1 integrin resulted in fusion of joints and formation of pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes. These facts indicate that the decision of which cell fate to make pre-joint or pre-hypertrophic is made on the basis of the presence or absence of alpha5beta1 integrin on chondrocytes.

  14. Comparison of Extensive Thermal Cycling Effects on Microstructure Development in Micro-alloyed Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Boesenberg, Adam; Harringa, Joel; Riegner, David; Steinmetz, Andrew; Hillman, David

    2011-09-28

    Pb-free solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic have promise for widespread adoption across assembly conditions and operating environments, but enhanced microstructural control is needed. Micro-alloying with elements such as Zn was demonstrated for promoting a preferred solidification path and joint microstructure earlier in simple (Cu/Cu) solder joints studies for different cooling rates. This beneficial behavior now has been verified in reworked ball grid array (BGA) joints, using dissimilar SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, wt.%) solder paste. After industrial assembly, BGA components joined with Sn-3.5Ag-0.74Cu-0.21Zn solder were tested in thermal cycling (-55 C/+125 C) along with baseline SAC305 BGA joints beyond 3000 cycles with continuous failure monitoring. Weibull analysis of the results demonstrated that BGA components joined with SAC + Zn/SAC305 have less joint integrity than SAC305 joints, but their lifetime is sufficient for severe applications in consumer, defense, and avionics electronic product field environments. Failure analysis of the BGA joints revealed that cracking did not deviate from the typical top area (BGA component side) of each joint, in spite of different Ag3Sn blade content. Thus, SAC + Zn solder has not shown any advantage over SAC305 solder in these thermal cycling trials, but other characteristics of SAC + Zn solder may make it more attractive for use across the full range of harsh conditions of avionics or defense applications.

  15. Some Ways in Which Neighborhoods, Nuclear Families, Friendship Groups, and Schools Jointly Affect Changes in Early Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Herman, Melissa R.; Phillips, Meredith; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed how schools, neighborhoods, nuclear families, and friendship groups jointly contribute to positive change during early adolescence. Analyses showed that the four context indices modestly intercorrelated at the individual student level, but clustered more tightly at the school and neighborhood levels. Joint influence of all four…

  16. Development of Flow and Heat Transfer Models for the Carbon Fiber Rope in Nozzle Joints of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q.; Ewing, M. E.; Mathias, E. C.; Heman, J.; Smith, C.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for modeling both gas dynamics and heat transfer inside the carbon fiber rope (CFR) for applications in the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motor joints. Specifically, the CFR is modeled using an equivalent rectangular duct with a cross-section area, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient such that this duct has the same amount of mass flow rate, pressure drop, and heat transfer rate as the CFR. An equation for the friction factor is derived based on the Darcy-Forschheimer law and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from pipe flow correlations. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas inside the CFR are calculated using the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Various subscale tests, both cold flow and hot flow, have been carried out to validate and refine this CFR model. In particular, the following three types of testing were used: (1) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle-to-case joint geometry, (2) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle joint No. 2 geometry, and (3) hot flow in a RSRM nozzle joint environment simulator. The predicted pressure and temperature history are compared with experimental measurements. The effects of various input parameters for the model are discussed in detail.

  17. Capacity Building in Southern Africa: Experiences and Reflections--Towards Joint Knowledge Production and Social Change in International Development Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, Jacques; van der Linden, Josje

    2009-01-01

    The intent of capacity building in international development cooperation is to enable people to control their own development. Important premises are ownership, choice and self-esteem. The authors analyse the dynamics of the enabling process in practice, based on their own experiences working for several years in universities in developing…

  18. Shear Model Development of Limestone Joints with Incorporating Variations of Basic Friction Coefficient and Roughness Components During Shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrishal, Seyedahmad; Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Shahriar, Korosh; Song, Jae-Jon

    2017-04-01

    In relation to the shearing of rock joints, the precise and continuous evaluation of asperity interlocking, dilation, and basic friction properties has been the most important task in the modeling of shear strength. In this paper, in order to investigate these controlling factors, two types of limestone joint samples were prepared and CNL direct shear tests were performed on these joints under various shear conditions. One set of samples were travertine and another were onyx marble with slickensided surfaces, surfaces ground to #80, and rough surfaces were tested. Direct shear experiments conducted on slickensided and ground surfaces of limestone indicated that by increasing the applied normal stress, under different shearing rates, the basic friction coefficient decreased. Moreover, in the shear tests under constant normal stress and shearing rate, the basic friction coefficient remained constant for the different contact sizes. The second series of direct shear experiments in this research was conducted on tension joint samples to evaluate the effect of surface roughness on the shear behavior of the rough joints. This paper deals with the dilation and roughness interlocking using a method that characterizes the surface roughness of the joint based on a fundamental combined surface roughness concept. The application of stress-dependent basic friction and quantitative roughness parameters in the continuous modeling of the shear behavior of rock joints is an important aspect of this research.

  19. Ontogeny of joint mechanics in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis): functional implications for mammalian limb growth and locomotor development

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jesse W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Juvenile animals must often compete against adults for common resources, keep pace during group travel and evade common predators, despite reduced body size and an immature musculoskeletal system. Previous morphometric studies of a diverse array of mammals, including jack rabbits, cats and capuchin monkeys, have identified growth-related changes in anatomy, such as negative allometry of limb muscle mechanical advantage, which should theoretically permit young mammals to overcome such ontogenetic limits on performance. However, it is important to evaluate the potential impact of such `compensatory' growth trajectories within the context of developmental changes in locomotor behavior. I used standard kinematic and kinetic techniques to investigate the ontogenetic scaling of joint postures, substrate reaction forces, joint load arm lengths and external joint moments in an ontogenetic sample of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Results indicated that young squirrel monkeys were frequently able to limit forelimb and hind limb joint loading via a combination of changes in limb posture and limb force distribution, potentially compensating for limited muscularity at younger ages. These results complement previous morphometric studies and suggest that immature mammals may utilize a combination of behavioral and anatomical mechanisms to mitigate ontogenetic limits on locomotor performance. However, ontogenetic changes in joint posture, not limb length per se, explained most of the variation in load arm lengths and joint loading in growing squirrel monkeys, indicating the importance of incorporating both anatomical and performance measures when studying the ontogeny of limb joint mechanics. PMID:19411552

  20. The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Development of Inflammation in Lungs, Gut and Joints of TNFΔARE Mice.

    PubMed

    Allais, Liesbeth; Kumar, Smitha; Debusschere, Karlijn; Verschuere, Stephanie; Maes, Tania; De Smet, Rebecca; Conickx, Griet; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby; Joos, Guy F; Brusselle, Guy G; Elewaut, Dirk; Cuvelier, Claude A; Bracke, Ken R

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is a central mediator in many immune-mediated diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking (CS) is a prominent common risk factor in these TNF-dependent diseases. We exposed TNFΔARE mice; in which a systemic TNF-α overexpression leads to the development of inflammation; to 2 or 4 weeks of air or CS. We investigated the effect of deregulated TNF expression on CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and the effect of CS exposure on the initiation and progression of gut and joint inflammation. Upon 2 weeks of CS exposure, inflammation in lungs of TNFΔARE mice was significantly aggravated. However, upon 4 weeks of CS-exposure, this aggravation was no longer observed. TNFΔARE mice have no increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a diminished neutrophil response in the lungs after 4 weeks of CS exposure. In the gut and joints of TNFΔARE mice, 2 or 4 weeks of CS exposure did not modulate the development of inflammation. In conclusion, CS exposure does not modulate gut and joint inflammation in TNFΔARE mice. The lung responses towards CS in TNFΔARE mice however depend on the duration of CS exposure.

  1. The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Development of Inflammation in Lungs, Gut and Joints of TNFΔARE Mice

    PubMed Central

    Debusschere, Karlijn; Verschuere, Stephanie; Maes, Tania; De Smet, Rebecca; Conickx, Griet; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby; Joos, Guy F.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Elewaut, Dirk; Cuvelier, Claude A.; Bracke, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is a central mediator in many immune-mediated diseases, such as Crohn’s disease (CD), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking (CS) is a prominent common risk factor in these TNF-dependent diseases. We exposed TNFΔARE mice; in which a systemic TNF-α overexpression leads to the development of inflammation; to 2 or 4 weeks of air or CS. We investigated the effect of deregulated TNF expression on CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and the effect of CS exposure on the initiation and progression of gut and joint inflammation. Upon 2 weeks of CS exposure, inflammation in lungs of TNFΔARE mice was significantly aggravated. However, upon 4 weeks of CS-exposure, this aggravation was no longer observed. TNFΔARE mice have no increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a diminished neutrophil response in the lungs after 4 weeks of CS exposure. In the gut and joints of TNFΔARE mice, 2 or 4 weeks of CS exposure did not modulate the development of inflammation. In conclusion, CS exposure does not modulate gut and joint inflammation in TNFΔARE mice. The lung responses towards CS in TNFΔARE mice however depend on the duration of CS exposure. PMID:26523550

  2. Systems Engineering of Unmanned DoD Systems: Following the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System/Defense Acquisition System Process to Develop an Unmanned Ground Vehicle System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and Development System/Defense Acquisition System (JCIDS/DAS) process to gain insight into JCIDS/DAS as it relates to unmanned robotics systems...DAS regulations to tailor an SE approach in designing and building the TECHMAN robot , starting with the mission needs and requirements followed by...into the JCIDS/DAS process with regard to procurement of robotics systems. 14. SUBJECT TERMS JCIDS, DAS, unmanned systems, unmanned ground vehicle

  3. Impact of 3-D seismic data on the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture development drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation/Chevron Nigeria Limited joint venture has been acquiring three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data over its concessions since 1984. To date, 1700 km[sup 2] have been recorded and processed at a cumulative cost of US $39 million. During 1991 - 1992, 20 development wells were drilled based directly on new 3-D seismic interpretations. These wells have added 148 million bbl of oil in new recoverable reserves, and to date have added 37,000 bbl/day to the joint venture's production. In addition, the 3-D interpretations have resulted in a sizable inventory of wells for future development drilling. The new 3-D interpretations provided more accurate pictures of fault patterns, fluid contacts, channel trends, stratigraphic continuity, and velocity/amplitude anomalies. In addition, the 3-D data were invaluable in designing low risk, directional well trajectories to tap relatively thin oil legs under large gas caps. Wells often were programmed to hit several objectives at their respective gas/oil contacts, resulting in maximized net oil sand pays and reducing the risk of gas production. In order to do this, directional [open quotes]sharpshooting,[close quotes] accurate depth conversion of the seismic time maps, was critical. By using the 3-D seismic, checkshot, and sonic data to develop a variable velocity space, well-top prognoses within 50 ft at depths of 6,000-10,000 ft were possible, and were key to the success of the program. As the joint venture acreage becomes more mature, development wells will be drilled for smaller numbers of stacked objectives, and sometimes for single sands. Highly accurate 3-D interpretations and depth conversions will become even more critical in order to tap thinner pay zones in a cost-effect manner.

  4. Analytical development of dynamic equations of motion for a three-dimensional flexible link manipulator with revolute and prismatic joints.

    PubMed

    Khadem, S E; Pirmohammadi, A A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model capable of handling a three-dimensional (3D) flexible n-degree of freedom manipulator having both revolute and prismatic joints is considered. This model is used to study the longitudinal, transversal, and torsional vibration characteristics of the robot manipulator and obtain kinematic and dynamic equations of motion. The presence of prismatic joints makes the mathematical derivation complex. In this paper, for the first time, prismatic joints as well as revolute joints have been considered in the structure of a 3D flexible n-degree of freedom manipulator. The kinematic and dynamic equations of motion representing longitudinal, transversal, and torsional vibration characteristics have been solved in parametric form with no discretization. In this investigation, in order to obtain an analytical solution of the vibrational equations, a novel approach is presented using the perturbation method. By solving the equations of motion, it is shown that mode shapes of the link with prismatic joints can be modeled as the equivalent clamped beam at each time instant. As an example, this method is applied to a three degrees of freedom robot with revolute and prismatic joints. The obtained equations are solved using the perturbation method and the results are used to simulate vibrational behavior of the manipulator.

  5. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  6. Hyaluronic acid attenuates osteoarthritis development in the anterior cruciate ligament-transected knee: Association with excitatory amino acid release in the joint dialysate.

    PubMed

    Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Hsieh, Shih-Peng; Wu, Ching-Tang; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2006-05-01

    We previously reported increased release of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, during the early stage of experimental osteoarthritis (OA). Our present objective was to study the effect of intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) on OA development, and to analyze concomitant changes in EAA levels in dialysates of anterior cruciate ligament-transected (ACLT) knee joints. OA was induced in Wistar rats by ACLT of one hindlimb; the knee of the other hindlimb was used as the sham-operated control. HA group (n = 12) were injected intraarticularly in the ACLT knee with 1 mg of HA once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting at 8 weeks after surgery. Saline group (n = 12) were injected as above with normal saline. The sham-operated group, underwent arthrotomy, but not ACLT, and received no treatment (n = 14). Twenty weeks after surgery, knee joint dialysates were collected by microdialysis and EAA levels assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and gross morphological examination and histopathological evaluation were performed on the medial femoral condyles and synovia. Rats receiving intraarticular HA injections showed a significantly lower degree of cartilage degeneration on the medial femoral condyle at both the macroscopic level and on the Mankin grading scale than rats receiving saline injections. Intraarticular HA treatment also suppressed synovitis. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate levels were significantly reduced in the HA group compared to the saline group. Intraarticular injection of HA limits articular cartilage and synovium damage and OA formation, and, in parallel, reduces EAA levels in ACLT joint dialysates. This study suggests that the underlying mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of HA is to inhibit glutamate and aspartate release in ACLT knee joints, which attenuates the early development of OA.

  7. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments.

  8. Effects of exercise and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan on the development of osteoarthritis in equine carpal joints with osteochondral defects.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, R J; Freeman, K P; Yeager, A E; Lust, G

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of postoperative exercise and intra-articular polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) on the repair of osteochondral defects in the carpal joints of ponies. Eighteen ponies with normal carpi had osteochondral defects (mean dimensions 2.4 cm x 0.9 cm) created arthroscopically on the dorsal aspect of the distal articular surface of the radial carpal bone. The ponies were randomized (while balancing for age [range, 2 to 15 years; median, 5.0 years]) to two groups--nine ponies were exercised and nine were stall confined. Beginning at surgery, six ponies in each group received five weekly intra-articular injections of PSGAG (250 mg) in one joint and lactated Ringer's solution in the contralateral joint; the remaining three ponies in each group received lactated Ringer's solution in both joints. The incremental exercise schedule on a circular, rotating walker was begun six days after surgery and occurred twice daily, reaching a maximum of 0.7 miles of walking and 2.7 miles of trotting by the third postoperative month. The effects of treatment on the joint tissues were determined by weekly lameness examinations and measurement of the range of carpal joint motion, carpal radiographs at six and 17 weeks after surgery, synovial fluid analysis, and cytologic evaluation of alcohol-fixed synovial fluid specimens at weeks 1 through 4 and week 17, and histology of the synovial membrane. Ultrasound images of the carpi were acquired before operation and at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 13, and 17. Ponies were euthanatized 17 weeks after surgery. Exercise, without medication, caused more lameness throughout the study compared with no exercise. Exercised, nonmedicated ponies had the greatest limitation to carpal flexion (more painful joints), and nonexercised, nonmedicated (control) ponies had the least limitation to flexion. Radiographic scores indicated that the exercised, nonmedicated ponies had significantly (p < .05) more signs of osteoarthritis than

  9. Developing Thinking; Developing Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debra

    2006-01-01

    It is now recognised that thinking skills, such as problem-solving, analysis, synthesis, creativity and evaluation, can be nurtured and developed, and education professionals can play a significant role in shaping the way that children learn and think. As a result, schools are being encouraged to make greater use of thinking skills in lessons and…

  10. Chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) deficiency leads to delayed development of joint damage and functional deficits in a murine model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sambamurthy, Nisha; Nguyen, Vu; Smalley, Ryan; Xiao, Rui; Hankenson, Kurt; Gan, Justin; Miller, Rachel E; Malfait, Anne-Marie; Dodge, George R; Scanzello, Carla R

    2017-08-02

    Elevated chemokine receptor Ccr7 is observed in knee osteoarthritis (OA) and associated with severity of symptoms. In this study, we confirmed that CCR7 protein expression is elevated in synovial tissue from OA patients by immunohistochemical staining. We then investigated whether Ccr7 deficiency impacted structural and functional joint degeneration utilizing a murine model of OA. OA-like disease was induced in male C57BL/6 and Ccr7-deficient (Ccr7(-/-) ) mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Functional deficits were measured by computer integrated monitoring of spontaneous activity every 4 weeks after DMM surgery up 16 weeks. Joint degeneration was evaluated at 6 and 19 weeks post-surgery by histopathology, and subchondral bone changes analyzed by microCT. Results showed reduction in locomotor activities in DMM-operated C57BL/6 mice by 8 weeks, while activity decreases in Ccr7(-/-) mice were delayed until 16 weeks. Histopathologic evaluation showed minimal protection from early cartilage degeneration (p = 0.06) and osteophytosis (p = 0.04) in Ccr7(-/-) mice 6 weeks post-DMM compared to C57BL/6 controls, but not at 19 weeks. However, subchondral bone mineral density (p = 0.03) and histologic sclerosis (p = 0.02) increased in response to surgery in C57BL/6 mice at 6 weeks, while Ccr7(-/-) mice were protected from these changes. Our results are the first to demonstrate a role for Ccr7 in early development of functional deficits and subchondral bone changes in the DMM model. Understanding the mechanism of Ccr7 receptor signaling in the initiation of joint pathology and disability will inform the development of innovative therapies to slow symptomatic OA development after injury. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. South Asian co-operation in population education. Materials jointly developed for common use by South Asian population education programmes.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Southern Asian population education programs have developed common materials on population and family life education. Countries involved were Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The development of materials occurred as a byproduct of workshop conducted in Nepal from December 3-7, 1990 and December 2-10, 1991 in Sri Lanka. The 1st meeting was organized by UNESCO's Population Education Advisory team, and 6 curriculum topics were identified. Pretesting of materials was conducted between meetings. The final product was a set of 10 posters and 2 comic strips on the quality of life developed by India for elementary level use; a family life and sex education syllabus developed by Sri Lanka for secondary school use; 5 modules with teacher's guides and sample lessons for secondary school use; 5 modules and a teacher's guide on transmission of values on population education by Pakistan; 25 flip charts on maternal and child health for illiterates developed by Nepal; and a field guide on environmental protection for nonformal field workers developed by Bangladesh. Materials were designed through brainstorming sessions, designing of materials by experts, review by other groups, and retesting on target audiences. Revision followed pretesting. The plan for assuring use of materials was to have UNESCO print prototypes and then participants would seek financial support for country supplies. A suggestion was made to leave ample space for insertion of local language captions. Another suggestion was that the cartoon strip "Girls are Pearls" be printed on students' exercise books for all member countries. Member countries should also have available selected materials translated into English and distributed. UNESCO should continue to play the role of facilitator of information and expertise exchange among member countries. Another mutually cooperative activity was the Group Training Course on Population Education for the South Asian subregion held in December 1991.

  12. Joint research and development and exchange of technology on toxic material emergency response between LLNL and ENEA. 1985 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Caracciolo, R.

    1986-01-31

    For the past six years, the US Department of Energy, LLNL, and the ENEA, Rome, Italy, have participated in cooperative studies for improving a systems approach to an emergency response following nuclear accidents. Technology exchange between LLNL and the ENEA was initially confined to the development, application, and evaluation of atmospheric transport and diffusion models. With the emergence of compatible hardware configurations between LLNL and ENEA, exchanges of technology and ideas for improving the development and implementation of systems are beginning to emerge. This report describes cooperative work that has occurred during the past three years, the present state of each system, and recommendations for future exchanges of technology.

  13. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  14. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvez, Carlos Sabu; Carvalho de Moraes, Luis Otavio; Marques, Sergio R.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Harb, Leandro J. C.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose F.; Mérida-Velasco, Jose R.; Alonso, Luis Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. PMID:24527214

  15. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development.

    PubMed

    Alvez, Carlos Sabu; Carvalho de Moraes, Luis Otavio; Marques, Sergio R; Tedesco, Roberto C; Harb, Leandro J C; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose F; Mérida-Velasco, Jose R; Alonso, Luis Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial.

  16. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Report to Congressional Committees April 2016 GAO-16-390 United States Government Accountability Office United States Government... Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-390, a report to congressional committees April 2016 F-35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Continued Oversight...program, transparency will be limited. Therefore, it will be difficult for Congress to hold it accountable for achieving its cost, schedule, and

  17. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  18. Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Meghan R.; Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically…

  19. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method: Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a…

  20. A Smooth Trajectory: Developing Continuity and Progression between Primary and Secondary Science Education through a Jointly-Planned Projectiles Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; McMahon, Kendra

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a two-year project--'Improving Science Together'--undertaken in 20 primary and four secondary schools in and around Bristol, UK. The project was funded by the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca PLC as part of their national Science Teaching Trust initiative, and had as one of its aims the development of…

  1. A Smooth Trajectory: Developing Continuity and Progression between Primary and Secondary Science Education through a Jointly-Planned Projectiles Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; McMahon, Kendra

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a two-year project--'Improving Science Together'--undertaken in 20 primary and four secondary schools in and around Bristol, UK. The project was funded by the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca PLC as part of their national Science Teaching Trust initiative, and had as one of its aims the development of…

  2. OSMOSIS: a new joint laboratory between SOFRADIR and ONERA for the development of advanced DDCA with integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druart, Guillaume; Matallah, Noura; Guerineau, Nicolas; Magli, Serge; Chambon, Mathieu; Jenouvrier, Pierre; Mallet, Eric; Reibel, Yann

    2014-06-01

    Today, both military and civilian applications require miniaturized optical systems in order to give an imagery function to vehicles with small payload capacity. After the development of megapixel focal plane arrays (FPA) with micro-sized pixels, this miniaturization will become feasible with the integration of optical functions in the detector area. In the field of cooled infrared imaging systems, the detector area is the Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assembly (DDCA). SOFRADIR and ONERA have launched a new research and innovation partnership, called OSMOSIS, to develop disruptive technologies for DDCA to improve the performance and compactness of optronic systems. With this collaboration, we will break down the technological barriers of DDCA, a sealed and cooled environment dedicated to the infrared detectors, to explore Dewar-level integration of optics. This technological breakthrough will bring more compact multipurpose thermal imaging products, as well as new thermal capabilities such as 3D imagery or multispectral imagery. Previous developments will be recalled (SOIE and FISBI cameras) and new developments will be presented. In particular, we will focus on a dual-band MWIR-LWIR camera and a multichannel camera.

  3. Developing statistical wildlife habitat relationships for assessing cumulative effects of fuels treatments: Final Report for Joint Fire Science Program Project

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2006-01-01

    The primary weakness in our current ability to evaluate future landscapes in terms of wildlife lies in the lack of quantitative models linking wildlife to forest stand conditions, including fuels treatments. This project focuses on 1) developing statistical wildlife habitat relationships models (WHR) utilizing Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and National Vegetation...

  4. A serial study on the development of the temporomandibular joint in the fetal mouse--in particular on the fibrous component in the condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, M

    1990-06-01

    The development of the temporomandibular joint of 400 fetal mice at stages ranging from the 13th to the 20th day after insemination was investigated under the light, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopes. The differentiation and development of a cartilaginous tissue were observed at the supero-posterior end of the mandible at the 13 days after insemination. This tissue grew backward, upward and lateralward continuously and maintained a constant articulation with the squamosal part of the temporal bone. Seventeen days after insemination, cell layers in the condylar process and articular disc were arranged regularly. An supero- and inferno-directional cellular differentiation initiated from the subfibrous (SF) layer toward the articular spaces and cartilaginous layer was observed. The perichondrial ossification had taken place with the invasion of capillaries and the differentiation of osteoblasts in the SF layer, and was followed with a hypertrophic degeneration and endochondral ossification in the condylar process. Such a bi-directional growth of collagen and elastic fibers starting from the SF layer was also observed. Observation under SEM and TEM on the autoclaved condylar process revealed a complicated network consisted of main elastic fibers running in the sagittal direction. These fibers as well as the proteoglycan which contributes to the resilient property of the condylar cartilage and the ability to endure tensile or compressive stress from surrounding tissues during the growth and development of the mandibular condyle. The developing cartilaginous tissue was stimulated with the pressure from the masticatory muscles to initiate an active differentiation of the fibrous layer, which was invaded by the blood capillary system closely related with the subsequent endochondral ossification. These results elucidate that the development of the temporomandibular joint has closely kept relations with the functional influences from surrounding

  5. Development and application of a photogrammetric endoscopic system for measurement of misalignment and internal profile of welded joints in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.; Hofmann, Allan C.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Santos, João M. C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a new optical system to measure internal cylindrical surfaces combining photogrammetry and fringe projection. The device uses two identical cameras, equipped with spherical and conical lenses, facing each other and aligned with the optical axis. A 360° helical fringe projector is used to project a sequence of phase shifted helical fringe pattern in the inner surface to be measured. The phase patterns are used to identify corresponding points and to reconstruct the surface in a regular cylindrical mesh using an alternative approach. A prototype was built, calibrated and tested. The paper presents the results of an application where two welded joints were measured in a 150 mm (6") diameter pipe. The goal was to inspect for defects in the internal part of the welding seams and to measure the transversal misalignment between the jointed parts.

  6. Development of a Nano-Satellite Micro-Coupling Mechanism with Characterization of a Shape Memory Alloy Interference Joint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Ultimately, a smooth roll off in coupling strength took place due to decreasing interference joint surface area contact as the SMA separated from the steel ...There was no plastic deformation of the SMA or steel bushing beyond a visible surface texture change. Martensitic de-stressing was approximately 1-mil...titanium (NiTi), shape memory alloy (SMA) cylindrical ring that is press-fit, in its detwinned martensitic phase, into a steel bushing, creating an

  7. Contributions of mother-child storybook telling and joint writing to literacy development in kindergartners with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Aram, Dorit; Most, Tova; Mayafit, Hanny

    2006-07-01

    This study investigated mother-child storybook telling and joint writing as predictors of early literacy among kindergartners with hearing loss. Participants were 30 Israeli kindergartners with hearing loss and their mothers. Early literacy assessments tapped children's alphabetic skills (e.g., word writing, word recognition, and letter knowledge) and linguistic skills (e.g., phonological awareness, general knowledge, and receptive vocabulary). Each mother told her child the story of a wordless book and helped her child write words. Both interactions were videotaped and analyzed. Our major findings showed that maternal storybook telling correlated with linguistic skills, and maternal writing mediation correlated with basic alphabetic skills. A series of 3-step hierarchical regression analyses revealed that beyond children's age, children's degree of hearing loss, and joint writing, storybook telling predicted children's phonological awareness (22%), general knowledge (28%), and receptive vocabulary (18%). Beyond children's age, children's degree of hearing loss, and storybook telling, joint writing predicted word writing (15%), word recognition (31%), and letter knowledge (36%). Recommendations focused on encouraging parent and teacher awareness about the differential contributions of storybook telling and writing mediation to early literacy. We also advocated enhancing parents' skills for promoting children's literacy.

  8. Development of an innovative method to predict and to characterize the performances of Ti-6Al-4V LBW joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberini, Mariacira; Esposito, Sara; Reshad, Kambitz; Previtali, Barbara; Viola, Marco; Squillace, Antonino

    2016-10-01

    Every manufacturing process leaves on the surface of the piece a typical "technology signature". In particular, the laser welding leaves a feature at the edge of the weld bead called "undercut". In this work an experimental campaign has been conducted on Ti6Al4V butt joints. In particular a Central Composite Design (CCD) with the central point repeated three times has been investigated. In the CCD there are two factors (power and speed of the fiber laser) and five levels for each factor. This paper deals with the investigation about the correlation between the severity of the undercut and the process parameters of the laser welding. In particular, through the confocal microscopy, the original geometry of the joint was accurately acquired and rebuilt in order to make a FEM model and simulate the mechanical behavior using Ansys14.5. Moreover, response surfaces and level curves were carried out to understand and predict the depth and the width of the undercut starting from the power and the speed of the laser. At last a mathematic and geometry regression was performed in order to find a unique conical curve that interpolates all the different undercuts and that varies its parameters according to the process parameters. It is established that the process with higher speed minimizes and optimizes the undercut in the joints.

  9. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  10. Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazu; Li, Yingcui; Jakuba, Caroline; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Sayo, Tetsuya; Okuno, Misako; Dealy, Caroline N; Toole, Bryan P; Takeda, Junji; Yamaguchi, Yu; Kosher, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a structural component of extracellular matrices and also interacts with cell surface receptors to directly influence cell behavior. To explore functions of HA in limb skeletal development, we conditionally inactivated the gene for HA synthase 2, Has2, in limb bud mesoderm using mice that harbor a floxed allele of Has2 and mice carrying a limb mesoderm-specific Prx1-Cre transgene. The skeletal elements of Has2-deficient limbs are severely shortened, indicating that HA is essential for normal longitudinal growth of all limb skeletal elements. Proximal phalanges are duplicated in Has2 mutant limbs indicating an involvement of HA in patterning specific portions of the digits. The growth plates of Has2-deficient skeletal elements are severely abnormal and disorganized, with a decrease in the deposition of aggrecan in the matrix and a disruption in normal columnar cellular relationships. Furthermore, there is a striking reduction in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes and in the expression domains of markers of hypertrophic differentiation in the mutant growth plates, indicating that HA is necessary for the normal progression of chondrocyte maturation. In addition, secondary ossification centers do not form in the central regions of Has2 mutant growth plates owing to a failure of hypertrophic differentiation. In addition to skeletal defects, the formation of synovial joint cavities is defective in Has2-deficient limbs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HA has a crucial role in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and synovial joint formation in the developing limb.

  11. Interleukin 1 beta, hand and foot bone mineral content and the development of joint erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    North, J; Situnayake, R D; Tikly, M; Cremona, A; Nicoll, J; Kumararatne, D S; Nuki, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relationship between plasma levels of the cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Two subgroups of patients, one with persistently raised ESR (>/= 50 mm/hour, n = 16, group A) and one with persistently low ESR (joint damage was measured over 12 months, together with plasma IL-1 beta and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. RESULTS--Significant progression of joint damage occurred in both subgroups over one year (p < 0.0001, paired t test) though progression was significantly less in the subgroup with low ESR (p < 0.05, ANOVA). Hand and foot bone mineral content decreased by almost 10% in the subgroup with raised ESR (p < 0.005, paired t test). Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed significant independent relationships between radiographic progression over one year and plasma IL-1 beta and ESR (multiple R 0.674, F = 11.64, p < 0.0002). No such relationships were observed for changes in bone mineral content parameters. CONCLUSIONS--Plasma IL-1 beta levels correlate weakly with progression of joint damage though not with loss of peripheral bone density in RA. A significant reduction in peripheral bone mineral content occurs over one year in patients with active RA with persistently raised ESR. PMID:7944642

  12. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research. PMID:22438711

  13. Development of a low-cost airborne ultrasound sensor for the detection of brick joints behind a wall painting.

    PubMed

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XV th century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research.

  14. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  16. Toddler development

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Toddlers are children ages 1 to 3. CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Cognitive (thought) development skills typical for toddlers ... care provider if you have questions about your child's development. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT The following are signs of expected ...

  17. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  18. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  19. Joint Influence of Protein Supplements, Soft Drinks and Extreme Physical Activity on the Development of Acute Renal Failure and Hypokalaemia.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, S; Kitic, D; Kostic, M; Apostolovic, B; Brankovic, S; Ciric, I M; Velickovic-Radovanovic, R

    2015-11-13

    We present a case of a 33-year old man who complained of weakness, fever and decreased urinating. A personal history revealed a consumption of creatine, protein supplements, soft drinks containing caffeine and stevia, and extreme physical activity which included lifting of heavy weights. The patient developed anuria, uraemia, fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and paradoxical hypokalaemia. After the patient had seven successive dialysis treatments, normal kidney function was restored. The report presents the first case of acute renal failure followed by hypokalaemia due to the combined action of the excessive consumption of supplements, soft drinks with stevia and caffeine, and extreme physical activity.

  20. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the rat trigeminal ganglion during the development of temporomandibular joint inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, G.C.; Rizzi, E.; Gerlach, R.F.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain is a prevalent symptom in modern society. Some musculoskeletal orofacial pain is caused by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). This condition has a multi-factorial etiology, including emotional factors and alteration of the masticator muscle and temporomandibular joints (TMJs). TMJ inflammation is considered to be a cause of pain in patients with TMD. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes, specifically the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been shown to modulate inflammation and pain. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the expression and level of gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the trigeminal ganglion are altered during different stages of temporomandibular inflammation, as determined by gelatin zymography. This study also evaluated whether mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia, induced by the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the TMJ capsule, were altered by an MMP inhibitor (doxycycline, DOX). TMJ inflammation was measured by plasma extravasation in the periarticular tissue (Evans blue test) and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the synovial fluid (myeloperoxidase enzyme quantification). MMP expression in the trigeminal ganglion was shown to vary during the phases of the inflammatory process. MMP-9 regulated the early phase and MMP-2 participated in the late phase of this process. Furthermore, increases in plasma extravasation in periarticular tissue and myeloperoxidase activity in the joint tissue, which occurred throughout the inflammation process, were diminished by treatment with DOX, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor. Additionally, the increases of mechanical allodynia and orofacial hyperalgesia were attenuated by the same treatment. PMID:24270905

  1. Individual and joint toxic effects of cadmium sulfate and α-naphthoflavone on the development of zebrafish embryo*

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhang, Feng; Miao, Peng; Lin, Ying; Chen, Ming-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the individual and joint toxicities of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4) and α-naphthoflavone (ANF) in zebrafish embryos. As a result, CdSO4 caused both lethal and sub-lethal effects, such as 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) death and 72 hpf delayed hatching. However, ANF only caused sub-lethal effects, including 48 hpf cardiac edema and 72 hpf delayed hatching. Taking 24 hpf death and 48 hpf cardiac edema as endpoints, the toxicities of CdSO4 and ANF were significantly enhanced by each other. Consistently, both CdSO4 and ANF caused significant oxidative stress, including decreases in the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish embryos, but these mixtures produced much more significant alterations on the biomarkers. Co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF significantly down-regulated the mRNA level of multidrug resistance-associated protein (mrp) 1 and cytochrome P450 (cyp) 1a, which constituted the protective mechanisms for zebrafish embryos to chemical toxins. In conclusion, co-treatment of CdSO4 and ANF exhibited a much more severe damage in zebrafish embryos than individual treatment. Meanwhile, production of oxidative stress and altered expression of mrp1 and cyp1a could be important components of such joint toxicity. PMID:25183031

  2. Republic of Bulgaria Sreden Iskar Cascade hydropower development. Application for participation under the United States Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Interest in water resources and hydropower has been low in Bulgaria for over 20 years and only about 33% of the potential hydropower available to the Country are currently being utilized. This is due in part to past design practices that utilized large reservoirs to regulate runoff and create the necessary head. The Iskar River does not allow for the typical design. However, in recent years, technical advancement in machinery design and more efficient turbine-generators has led to the development of low-head hydro projects. Studies determined that the Iskar Cascade can support low-head hydro development and could provide as much as 93 MW of capacity. This project will initially consist of the construction of three hydroelectric facilities along a 120-km section of the Iskar river in western Bulgaria. Each facility will consist of a powerhouse (housing a turbine and generator), an embankment dam, a concrete spillway with regulating gates, a fish passage, and associated transformers and switchgear. This report gives a description of the project, its sources of funding for specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions with and without these specific measures, and other environmental considerations.

  3. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  4. U.S.– India Joint Center for Building Energy Research and Development (CBERD) Caring for the Energy Health of Healthcare Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Reshma; Mathew, Paul; Granderson, Jessica; Srivastava, Rohini; Shukla, Rash

    2016-03-01

    The U.S.-India Joint Center for Building Energy Research & Development (CBERD), created through the Partnership to Accelerate Clean Energy (PACE) agreement between the United States and India, is a research and development (R&D) center with over 30 institutional and industry partners from both nations. This five-year presidential initiative is jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Government of India. CBERD aims to build upon a foundation of collaborative knowledge, tools, and technologies, and human capabilities that will increase development of high-performance buildings. To reach this goal, the R&D focuses on energy use reduction throughout the entire life cycle of buildings—i.e., design, construction, and operations. During the operations phase of buildings, even with best-practice energy-efficient design, actual energy use can be much higher than the design intent. Every day, much of the energy consumed by buildings serves no purpose (Roth et al. 2005). Building energy information systems (EIS) are commercially available systems that building owners and facility managers use to assess their building operations, measure, visualize, analyze, and report energy cost and consumption. Energy information systems can enable significant energy savings by tracking energy use, identifying consumption patterns, and benchmarking performance against similar buildings, thereby identifying improvement opportunities. The CBERD team has identified potential energy savings of approximately 2 quads of primary energy in the United States, while industry building energy audits in India have indicated potential energy savings of up to 30 percent in commercial buildings such as offices. Additionally, the CBERD team has identified healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals, clinics), hotels, and offices as the three of the highest-growth sectors in India that have significant energy consumption, and that would benefit the most from implementation of EIS.

  5. Development of Torque Sensor with High Sensitivity for Joint of Robot Manipulator Using 4-Bar Linkage Shape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Ryoo, Young-Jae; Byun, Kyung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The torque sensor is used to measure the joint torque of a robot manipulator. Previous research showed that the sensitivity and the stiffness of torque sensors have trade-off characteristics. Stiffness has to be sacrificed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor. In this research, a new torque sensor with high sensitivity (TSHS) is proposed in order to resolve this problem. The key idea of the TSHS comes from its 4-bar linkage shape in which the angular displacement of a short link is larger than that of a long link. The sensitivity of the torque sensor with a 4-bar link shape is improved without decreasing stiffness. Optimization techniques are applied to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. An actual TSHS is constructed to verify the validity of the proposed mechanism. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of TSHS can be increased 3.5 times without sacrificing stiffness. PMID:27376304

  6. The role of variable muscle adaptation to limb lengthening in the development of joint contractures: an experimental study in the goat.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Marina; Birch, John; Samchukov, Mikhail

    2009-03-01

    Muscle stiffness and joint contractures are currently regarded as the most common complications of limb lengthening. To better understand the mechanisms of joint contractures, architectural changes of all involved muscles were analyzed in 9 goats after 20% tibial lengthening with standard distraction protocol.All 13 muscles of the goat's tibia were found to be organized into an anterior compartment with 2 longitudinal and 4 pennate muscles and a posterior compartment with 1 longitudinal and 6 pennate muscles. Longitudinal muscles showed better compliance to distraction than pinnate muscles. Although muscle-to-bone lengthening ratio ranged widely (0-1.2), most of the muscles and especially those located in the posterior compartment showed much less lengthening than the bone. Muscular portions of the muscles lengthened more substantially (average, 17%) than their associated tendons (average, 7%). Muscle fiber length changes varied greatly between muscles (range, 0%-88%). Normalization of muscle fiber length revealed considerable elongation of anterior muscles fibers (25%) that was associated with an addition of new sarcomeres in series. Fiber length increase of all posterior muscles but one occurred by stretching of existing sarcomeres, with little addition or even dissolution of sarcomeres in series. This correlated with muscle mass changes showing significant muscle atrophy in the posterior compartment and better mass preservation in the anterior compartment.The study revealed striking difference in response to limb lengthening between individual muscles and muscles from antagonistic compartments in particular. Poor sarcomerogenesis in the posterior muscles leading to their insufficient length increase seems to play major role in the development of joint contractures.

  7. Development, assembly, and validation of an SMA-actuated two-joint nozzle and six-channel power supply for use in a smart inhaler system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Stephen J.; Hangekar, Rohan; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    The Smart Inhaler design concept recently developed at NC State University has the potential to target the delivery of inhaled aerosol medication to specified locations within the lung system. This targeted delivery could help patients with pulmonary ailments by reducing the exposure of healthy lung tissue to potentially harmful medications. However, controlled delivery can only be accomplished if medication is injected at a precise location in an inhaled stream of properly conditioned laminar flow. In particular, the medication must be injected into the inhaled flow using a small nozzle that can be positioned without disturbing the flow. This paper outlines the procedure used to assemble and control a key component of the smart inhaler: a shape memory alloy (SMA) based dual-joint flexible nozzle that exploits the sensing and actuating capabilities of thermally activated SMA wires. A novel 6-channel power-supply is used to control input power and measure the resistance across the SMA. Since a practical fabrication process may result in SMA wires with different contact resistances, the power supply employs an initialization procedure to self-calibrate and provide normalized power distribution 6 SMA wires simultaneously. Furthermore, a robust control scheme is used to ensure that a constant current is provided to the wires. In validation tests, a LabVIEW-based video positioning system was used to measure the deflection of the nozzle tip and joint rotation. Results show that the carefully controlled assembly of a stream-lined nozzle can produce a practical smart structure, and joint rotation is predictable and repeatable when power input is also controlled. Future work will assess the use of the SMA-resistance measurement as position feedback and PID position control power as a measurement of the convective cooling that results from the moving airflow.

  8. Coalbed gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties.

  9. Joint associations of physical activity and hypertension with the development of type 2 diabetes among urban men and women in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, YouFa; Wang, ZhiYong; Hong, Xin; Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and hypertension (HTN) are important influences on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the joint impact of PA and HTN on T2D development is unknown. Two community-based prospective cohort studies, with the same protocols, instruments and questionnaires, were conducted among adults in urban areas of Nanjing, China, during 2004-2007 and 2007-2010. T2D was defined using World Health Organization criteria based on physicians' diagnosis and fasting blood glucose concentration. PA level (sufficient/insufficient) and blood pressure status (hypertensive/normotensive) were assessed at baseline and the third year of follow-up. We pooled and analyzed data from these two studies. Among 4550 participants aged 35 years or older, the three-year cumulative incidence of T2D was 5.1%. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants with sufficient PA were less likely to develop T2D than those with insufficient PA (OR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.27, 0.68) and those who were normotensive were less likely to develop T2D than those who were hypertensive (OR = 0.39, 95%CI = 0.29, 0.51). Compared to participants with insufficient PA and who were hypertensive, those with sufficient PA and hypertension were at lower risk of developing T2D (OR = 0.36, 95%CI = 0.19, 0.69), as were those with insufficient PA who were normotensive (OR = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.28, 0.50) and those with sufficient PA who were normotensive (OR = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.37). Insufficient PA was found to be associated with the development of T2D among adults with and without hypertension. These findings support a role for promoting higher physical activity levels to lower T2D risk in both hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals.

  10. A newly developed snow vehicle (SM100S) for Antarctica. Part 3: Low temperature toughness of the welded joints of the structural steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakui, Shin; Nakajima, Masashi

    1992-11-01

    For the purpose of developing a new snow vehicle (common use at temperature about -50 C) for the deep ice coring project at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, the low temperature toughness of the welded joints of structural steel was investigated. It is empirically well known that in case of vehicles employed in a cold air temperature of about -50 C, the low temperature brittle fracture of the structural members does not take place, if one uses semi-killed or killed steel, for which 50 percent FATT's (fracture appearance transition temperature) of the Charpy impact test is about -50 C and Charpy impact values at -50 C are 20 to 29 J/sq cm. In the present report, the Charpy impact test has been performed for both single pass SMAW (shield metal arc welding) and CO2 arc welded joints of JIS (Japan Industrial Standards) steels of SS400, SL2N255, STPL380, and STPL450. The test results show that the JIS steels of SL2N255 and STPL450 can be used for the new vehicle, considering their toughness.

  11. [Joint locus of a/b-globin genes in Danio rerio is segregated into structural subdomains active at different stages of development].

    PubMed

    Dolgushin, K V; Petrova, N V; Iudinkova, E S; Razin, S V; Iarovaia, O V

    2015-01-01

    In the domain model of eukaryotic genome organization, the functional unit of the genome, along with the relevant regulatory elements, is considered to be a gene or a gene family. In hot-blooded vertebrate animals, the domains of a- and b-globin genes are positioned at different chromosomes and are organized and regulated in different fashion. In cold-blooded animals, in particular in tropical fish Danio rerio, a- and b globin genes are located in a common gene cluster. However, the joint a/b-globin gene cluster is subdivided into two development stage-specific subdomains, the adult one and the embryonic-larval one. In an attempt to find out whether this functional segregation correlates with structural segregation of the domain we compared the DNase I sensitivity and profiles of histone modifications of adult and embryonic-larval segments of the domain in cultured D. rerio fibroblasts. We have demonstrated that, in these nonerythroid cells, adult and embryonic- larval subdomains possess different DNase I sensitivities and different profiles of H3K27me3, a histone modification introduced by PRC2 complex. These observations suggest that joint a/b globin gene domain of Danio rerio is segregated into two structural subdomain harboring adult and embryonic-larval globin genes.

  12. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junfen; Curtis, Neil; Fitton, Laura C; O'Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J

    2012-10-07

    An accurate, dynamic, functional model of the skull that can be used to predict muscle forces, bite forces, and joint reaction forces would have many uses across a broad range of disciplines. One major issue however with musculoskeletal analyses is that of muscle activation pattern indeterminacy. A very large number of possible muscle force combinations will satisfy a particular functional task. This makes predicting physiological muscle recruitment patterns difficult. Here we describe in detail the process of development of a complex multibody computer model of a primate skull (Macaca fascicularis), that aims to predict muscle recruitment patterns during biting. Using optimisation criteria based on minimisation of muscle stress we predict working to balancing side muscle force ratios, peak bite forces, and joint reaction forces during unilateral biting. Validation of such models is problematic; however we have shown comparable working to balancing muscle activity and TMJ reaction ratios during biting to those observed in vivo and that peak predicted bite forces compare well to published experimental data. To our knowledge the complexity of the musculoskeletal model is greater than any previously reported for a primate. This complexity, when compared to more simple representations provides more nuanced insights into the functioning of masticatory muscles. Thus, we have shown muscle activity to vary throughout individual muscle groups, which enables them to function optimally during specific masticatory tasks. This model will be utilised in future studies into the functioning of the masticatory apparatus.

  13. Digital correction of magnification in pelvic x rays for preoperative planning of hip joint replacements: Theoretical development and clinical results of a new protocol

    SciTech Connect

    The, B.; Diercks, R.L.; Stewart, R.E.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2005-08-15

    The introduction of digital radiological facilities leads to the necessity of digital preoperative planning, which is an essential part of joint replacement surgery. To avoid errors in the preparation and execution of hip surgery, reliable correction of the magnification of the projected hip is a prerequisite. So far, no validated method exists to accomplish this. We present validated geometrical models of the x-ray projection of spheres, relevant for the calibration procedure to correct for the radiographic magnification. With help of these models a new calibration protocol was developed. The validity and precision of this procedure was determined in clinical practice. Magnification factors could be predicted with a maximal margin of error of 1.5%. The new calibration protocol is valid and reliable. The clinical tests revealed that correction of magnification has a 95% margin of error of -3% to +3%. Future research might clarify if a strict calibration protocol, as presented in this study, results in more accurate preoperative planning of hip joint replacements.

  14. Yardang Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a 10-minute videotaped free play task with parents. Engagement states ranged from the lowest (unengaged) to the highest level (symbol-infused coordinated). Standardized language measures were administered. Results Multivariate analyses were conducted between the groups, stratified by chronological and language age. Children who were deaf (Deaf) spent less time in total symbol-infused JE than children with normal hearing (NH) across all ages. The majority of the Deaf group (83%) fell in the lowest language age group, in comparison to 35% of the NH group, and spent significantly less time in symbol-infused JE than hearing children. These delays were also observed in the Deaf group, who fell into the 18-36 month language age. No children in the Deaf group had achieved a language age of >36 months. Conclusions Young children with and without hearing had different developmental trajectories of JE, which were related to oral language skills. PMID:24845423

  16. A finite element model development for simulation of the impact of slab thickness, joints, and membranes on indoor radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, E; Frutos, B; Olaya, M; Sánchez, J

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this study is broadly to define the physics involved in radon generation and transport through the soil and other materials using different parameter-estimation tools from the literature. The effect of moisture in the soil and radon transport via water in the pore space was accounted for with the application of a porosity correction coefficient. A 2D finite element model is created, which reproduces the diffusion and advection mechanisms resulting from specified boundary conditions. A comparison between the model and several analytical and numerical solutions obtained from the literature and field studies validates the model. Finally, the results demonstrate that the model can predict radon entry through different building boundary conditions, such as concrete slabs with or without joints, variable slab thicknesses and diffusion coefficients, and the use of several radon barrier membranes. Cracks in the concrete or the radon barrier membrane have been studied to understand how indoor concentration is affected by these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Postnatal development of type II collagen and aggrecan mRNA expression in a rabbit craniomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianying; Gu, Zhiyuan; Lin, Xinping; Fan, Yi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the postnatal growth changes in the condyle and disc of the rabbit craniomandibular joint (CMJ). Forty-eight rabbits from newborn to an age of 120 days were divided into eight groups, and chondrocytic differentiation and function were evaluated within the CMJ by in situ hybridization of type II collagen and aggrecan mRNA. The morphology of the posterior band and the bilaminar zone were similar in the newborn group and were composed primarily of mesenchymal cells and capillaries. After weaning, mastication loading induced the differentiation of mesenchymal cells, which was accompanied by structural differentiation between the posterior band and the bilaminar zone. Aggrecan first appeared in the posterior band of the disc at 30 days postnatally, when the rabbits began to masticate solid food. Type II collagen emerged in the disc at the age of 45 days. Both genes coexpressed in the deeper half of the proliferative layer, the whole hypertrophic layer, and the mineralized layer of the condylar cartilage and staining intensity increased with age. The coexpression of aggrecan and Type II collagen indicates the maturation of chondrocyte differentiation in the disc and condyle, which contributes to the biomechanical characteristics of the CMJ that resist functional stimulation.

  18. The Development of the Joint NASA GSFC and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Geopotential Model EGM96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Kenyon, S.C.; Factor, J. K.; Trimmer, R. G.; Pavlis, N. K.; Chinn, D. S.; Cox, C. M.; Klosko, S. M.; Luthcke, S. B.; Torrence, M. H.; Wang, Y. M.; Williamson, R. G.; Pavlis, E. C.; Rapp, R. H.; Olson, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), and The Ohio State University (OSU) have collaborated to develop an improved spherical harmonic model of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360. The new model, Earth Gravitational Model 1996 (EGM96), incorporates improved surface gravity data, altimeter-derived gravity anomalies from ERS-1 and from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM), extensive satellite tracking data-including new data from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), the Global Postioning System (GPS), NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the French DORIS system, and the US Navy TRANET Doppler tracking system-as well as direct altimeter ranges from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), ERS-1, and GEOSAT. The final solution blends a low-degree combination model to degree 70, a block-diagonal solution from degree 71 to 359, and a quadrature solution at degree 360. The model was used to compute geoid undulations accurate to better than one meter (with the exception of areas void of dense and accurate surface gravity data) and realize WGS84 as a true three-dimensional reference system. Additional results from the EGM96 solution include models of the dynamic ocean topography to degree 20 from T/P and ERS-1 together, and GEOSAT separately, and improved orbit determination for Earth-orbiting satellites.

  19. Interaction of Cutibacterium ( formerly Propionibacterium) acnes with bone cells: a step toward understanding bone and joint infection development

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Baud’huin, Marc; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Brion, Régis; Gouin, François; Lepelletier, Didier; Jacqueline, Cédric; Heymann, Dominique; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) is recognized as a pathogen in foreign-body infections (arthroplasty or spinal instrumentation). To date, the direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells has never been explored. The clade of 11 C. acnes clinical isolates was determined by MLST. Human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were infected by live C. acnes. The whole genome sequence of six isolates of this collection was analyzed. CC36 C. acnes strains were significantly less internalized by osteoblasts and osteoclasts than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes strains (p ≤ 0.05). The CC18 C. acnes ATCC6919 isolate could survive intracellularly for at least 96 hours. C. acnes significantly decreased the resorption ability of osteoclasts with a major impact by the CC36 strain (p ≤ 0.05). Genome analysis revealed 27 genes possibly linked to these phenotypic behaviors. We showed a direct impact of C. acnes on bone cells, providing new explanations about the development of C. acnes foreign-body infections. PMID:28218305

  20. A new autosomal recessive syndrome of characteristic facies, joint contractures, skeletal abnormalities, and normal development: second report with further clinical delineation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Hall, Christine M; Ransley, Yvonne F; Murday, Victoria A

    1995-01-01

    We describe a girl of Pakistani origin, born to consanguineous parents, with a multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome. This is the second report confirming an apparently new autosomal recessive syndrome reported earlier by van den Ende et al in 1992. The hallmarks of this MCA syndrome include characteristic facies with blepharophimosis, narrow, beaked nose, hypoplastic maxilla with or without cleft palate and everted lower lip, arachnodactyly, self-limiting congenital joint contractures, peculiar skeletal abnormalities, and normal growth and development. Further clinical and radiological delineation of the syndrome in this report suggests that the term “Marden-Walker-like syndrome without psychomotor retardation”, used in the first report to describe this condition, does not accurately reflect its clinical picture. The overall prognosis in this syndrome seems good. Images PMID:8558561

  1. Cartilage defect repair in horses: Current strategies and recent developments in regenerative medicine of the equine joint with emphasis on the surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Cokelaere, Stefan; Malda, Jos; van Weeren, René

    2016-08-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology are highly prevalent conditions in horses (and humans) and commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis and progression of joint deterioration. Regenerative medicine of articular cartilage is an emerging clinical treatment option for patients with articular cartilage injury or disease. Functional articular cartilage restoration, however, remains a major challenge, but the field is progressing rapidly and there is an increasing body of supportive clinical and scientific evidence. This review gives an overview of the established and emerging surgical techniques employed for cartilage repair in horses. Through a growing insight in surgical cartilage repair possibilities, surgeons might be more stimulated to explore novel techniques in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in the developing limb

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazu; Li, Yingcui; Jakuba, Caroline; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Sayo, Tetsuya; Okuno, Misako; Dealy, Caroline N.; Toole, Bryan P.; Takeda, Junji; Yamaguchi, Yu; Kosher, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a structural component of extracellular matrices and also interacts with cell surface receptors to directly influence cell behavior. To explore functions of HA in limb skeletal development, we conditionally inactivated the gene for HA synthase 2, Has2, in limb bud mesoderm using mice that harbor a floxed allele of Has2 and mice carrying a limb mesoderm-specific Prx1-Cre transgene. The skeletal elements of Has2-deficient limbs are severely shortened, indicating that HA is essential for normal longitudinal growth of all limb skeletal elements. Proximal phalanges are duplicated in Has2 mutant limbs indicating an involvement of HA in patterning specific portions of the digits. The growth plates of Has2-deficient skeletal elements are severely abnormal and disorganized, with a decrease in the deposition of aggrecan in the matrix and a disruption in normal columnar cellular relationships. Furthermore, there is a striking reduction in the number of hypertrophic chondrocytes and in the expression domains of markers of hypertrophic differentiation in the mutant growth plates, indicating that HA is necessary for the normal progression of chondrocyte maturation. In addition, secondary ossification centers do not form in the central regions of Has2 mutant growth plates owing to a failure of hypertrophic differentiation. In addition to skeletal defects, the formation of synovial joint cavities is defective in Has2-deficient limbs. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HA has a crucial role in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and synovial joint formation in the developing limb. PMID:19633173

  3. Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly drive forest development after fire in the North American boreal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N. J.; Bergeron, Y.; Xu, X.; Welp, L. R.; Medvigy, D.

    2016-09-01

    Previous empirical work has shown that feedbacks between fire severity, soil organic layer thickness, tree recruitment, and forest growth are important factors controlling carbon accumulation after fire disturbance. However, current boreal forest models inadequately simulate this feedback. We address this deficiency by updating the ED2 model to include a dynamic feedback between soil organic layer thickness, tree recruitment, and forest growth. The model is validated against observations spanning monthly to centennial time scales and ranging from Alaska to Quebec. We then quantify differences in forest development after fire disturbance resulting from changes in soil organic layer accumulation, temperature, nitrogen availability, and atmospheric CO2. First, we find that ED2 accurately reproduces observations when a dynamic soil organic layer is included. Second, simulations indicate that the presence of a thick soil organic layer after a mild fire disturbance decreases decomposition and productivity. The combination of the biological and physical effects increases or decreases total ecosystem carbon depending on local conditions. Third, with a 4°C temperature increase, some forests transition from undergoing succession to needleleaf forests to recruiting multiple cohorts of broadleaf trees, decreasing total ecosystem carbon by ˜40% after 300 years. However, the presence of a thick soil organic layer due to a persistently mild fire regime can prevent this transition and mediate carbon losses even under warmer temperatures. Fourth, nitrogen availability regulates successional dynamics; broadleaf species are less competitive with needleleaf trees under low nitrogen regimes. Fifth, the boreal forest shows additional short-term capacity for carbon sequestration as atmospheric CO2 increases.

  4. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  5. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors

  6. Joint use of over- and under-sampling techniques and cross-validation for the development and assessment of prediction models.

    PubMed

    Blagus, Rok; Lusa, Lara

    2015-11-04

    Prediction models are used in clinical research to develop rules that can be used to accurately predict the outcome of the patients based on some of their characteristics. They represent a valuable tool in the decision making process of clinicians and health policy makers, as they enable them to estimate the probability that patients have or will develop a disease, will respond to a treatment, or that their disease will recur. The interest devoted to prediction models in the biomedical community has been growing in the last few years. Often the data used to develop the prediction models are class-imbalanced as only few patients experience the event (and therefore belong to minority class). Prediction models developed using class-imbalanced data tend to achieve sub-optimal predictive accuracy in the minority class. This problem can be diminished by using sampling techniques aimed at balancing the class distribution. These techniques include under- and oversampling, where a fraction of the majority class samples are retained in the analysis or new samples from the minority class are generated. The correct assessment of how the prediction model is likely to perform on independent data is of crucial importance; in the absence of an independent data set, cross-validation is normally used. While the importance of correct cross-validation is well documented in the biomedical literature, the challenges posed by the joint use of sampling techniques and cross-validation have not been addressed. We show that care must be taken to ensure that cross-validation is performed correctly on sampled data, and that the risk of overestimating the predictive accuracy is greater when oversampling techniques are used. Examples based on the re-analysis of real datasets and simulation studies are provided. We identify some results from the biomedical literature where the incorrect cross-validation was performed, where we expect that the performance of oversampling techniques was heavily

  7. Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Mamudu, Hadii M; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L; Brooks, Billy

    2014-11-01

    To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity. Longitudinal data (1991-2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0-15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses. Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity. There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Consumerism & Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockenden, Sandy

    1991-01-01

    This material asks social studies students in Canada to recognize the implications of the lifestyles of citizens in developed countries, and the power that consumers have to create change for a better world, to be agents of positive development. Development is seen as a four faceted process. This model implies that development is an approach to…

  9. Management Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    and aid the manager In defining a plan for self development. Most Illustrative Is the Talent Development Program offered by General Electric (Storey...results of game training. Training and Development Journal, 1967, 21(4), 26-37. Storey, W. D., & Baker, B. L. Talent development program. Ossining, N.Y

  10. Organization Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huse, Edgar F.

    1978-01-01

    Organization Development (OD) is the application of behavioral-science knowledge to enhance an organization's effectiveness and efficiency. This article discusses the evolution of organization development, the basic components of an OD program, typologies of OD interventions, problems with organization development, and organization development in…

  11. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  12. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-07-10

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  13. Two cases with HSS/DRESS syndrome developing after prosthetic joint surgery: does vancomycin-laden bone cement play a role in this syndrome?

    PubMed

    Güner, Müberra Devrim; Tuncbilek, Semra; Akan, Burak; Caliskan-Kartal, Aysun

    2015-05-28

    We report two cases of hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (HSS/DRESS) syndrome following systemic and local (via antibiotic laden bone cement (ALBC)) exposures to vancomycin. Both cases developed symptoms 2-4 weeks after the initiation of treatment. They responded to systemic corticosteroid treatment and were cured completely. Various drug groups may cause HSS/DRESS syndrome, and vancomycin-related cases do not exceed 2-5% of the reported cases. Almost all of these cases developed the syndrome following systemic exposure to vancomycin. ALBC seems to be the safer antibiotic administration method, as systemic antibiotic levels did not reach a toxic threshold level. However, local administration may not always be sufficient for bone-related/joint-related infections; these infections may require systemic antibiotics as well. As HSS/DRESS syndrome can mimic infectious diseases, it must be considered during differential diagnosis before suspecting failure of treatment and initiation of a different antibiotic course. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged Malays in a developing country: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. A total of 686 Malay men and women participated (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Self-reported sitting time was obtained with the validated Malay version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were asked about their time spent sitting during travel in a motor vehicle, e.g., car, motorcycle or bus, over the preceding 7 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with the confidence interval for the combined effects of sitting quartiles and physical activity categories with metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our participants was 31.9%. Their average total sitting time (including transportation) was 7.6 ± 2.4 h/day. After we adjusted for gender and educational level, higher sitting quartiles and physically inactive groups were associated with higher odds for metabolic syndrome compared with the referent group (sitting <6 h/day and physically active). In the physically active stratum, the odds for metabolic syndrome in participants who sat ≥ 9.3 h/day was 3.8 times that of participants who sat <6 h/day. Both higher sitting quartiles and insufficient physical activity were associated with adverse effects on abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia. In joint analyses of sitting time and physical activity, higher sitting time and insufficient physical activity were deleteriously associated with odds for metabolic risk factors in middle

  15. Development of a Joint Inversion Technique using Gravimetric and Muon-radiographic Data for Resolving Three-dimensional Density Structure of a Gigantic Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, R.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Okubo, S.; Oshima, H.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a method of analyzing gravimetric and muon-radiographic data for visualizing a three-dimensional density structure of a volcano. The method searches for a density structure that best explains the muon and gravity data simultaneously. For finding a solution, techniques in least-squares inversion were employed. According to the model simulation we have conducted, this new method was proved to have higher potential than previous gravimetric inversion and previous muon tomography [Taira,2010; Tanaka et al.,2010]. As a demonstration, we applied this method to Mt. Showa-Shinzan lava dome, Hokkaido, Japan. At this site, muon observation has already been performed with emulsion cloud chamber (ECC). The effective area of ECC was 1200 cm2, and the exposure time was 4 month.Tanaka et al.,[2007] calculated the amount of matter on the muon trajectories in the unit of gcm-2 (density times length). In addition to the muon data, we newly collected gravity data at 35 stations on / around the lava dome. The data was measured by using a LaCoste Romberg Gravimeter (G-875). Position of a gravity station was determined by GPS interferometry between a reference station and a moving station. Thereby, we conducted joint inversion of the muon and gravity data. The joint inversion yielded us the three-dimensional density profile of Mt.Showa-Shinzan. The density profile suggested the two features of the dome. Firstly, lava had intruded beneath the dome in a cylindrical shape whose diameter was 300 meter. This is inferred by the existence of high density(ρ > 2.4g/cc) region localized at an altitude of 220 ~ 260 meter. Secondly, we found a ultra high density region which was suspected to be a spine spreading vertically near the top of the dome.

  16. Joint Association of Sitting Time and Physical Activity with Metabolic Risk Factors among Middle-Aged Malays in a Developing Country: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Anne H. Y.; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged sitting is associated with increased weight and higher risks for abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among the adult population. This has been well documented in the West, but studies on these associations are lacking in developing countries, including Malaysia. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the joint association of sitting time and physical activity with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged working adults. Methodology A total of 686 Malay men and women participated (mean age 45.9±6.5 years). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed from the modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Self-reported sitting time was obtained with the validated Malay version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were asked about their time spent sitting during travel in a motor vehicle, e.g., car, motorcycle or bus, over the preceding 7 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with the confidence interval for the combined effects of sitting quartiles and physical activity categories with metabolic risk factors. Results/Significance The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our participants was 31.9%. Their average total sitting time (including transportation) was 7.6±2.4 h/day. After we adjusted for gender and educational level, higher sitting quartiles and physically inactive groups were associated with higher odds for metabolic syndrome compared with the referent group (sitting <6 h/day and physically active). In the physically active stratum, the odds for metabolic syndrome in participants who sat ≥9.3 h/day was 3.8 times that of participants who sat <6 h/day. Both higher sitting quartiles and insufficient physical activity were associated with adverse effects on abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia. Conclusion In joint analyses of sitting time and physical activity, higher sitting time and insufficient physical activity were deleteriously

  17. Development of a mediated whole cell-based electrochemical biosensor for joint toxicity assessment of multi-pollutants using a mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanyue; Qian, Jun; Fang, Deyu; Yu, Yuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2016-06-14

    Since most risk assessment for toxicants is based on individual single-species test, the deduction of such results to ecosystem evaluation is afflicted with uncertainties. Herein, we successfully developed a p-benzoquinone mediated whole-cell electrochemical biosensor for multi-pollutants toxicological analysis by co-immobilizing mixed strains of microorganism, including Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive bacteria) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (fungus). The individual and combined toxicities of heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Cd(2+)), phenol (3,5-dichlorophenol) and pesticides (Ametryn, Acephate) were examined. The experimental results showed that the order of toxicity for individual toxicant was ranked as Cu(2+) > 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) > Ametryn > Cd(2+) > Acephate. Then the toxic unit (TU) model was applied to determine the nature of toxicological interaction of the toxicants which can be classified as concentration additive (IC50mix = 1TU), synergistic (IC50mix < 1TU) and antagonistic (IC50mix > 1TU) responses. The binary combination of Cu(2+) + Cd(2+), Cu(2+) + DCP, Cu(2+) + Acephate, DCP + Acephate, Acephate + Ametryn were analyzed and the three kind of joint toxicity effects (i.e. additive, synergistic and antagonistic) mentioned above were observed according to the dose-response relationship. The results indicate that the whole-cell electrochemical biosensor based on mixed microbial consortium is more reasonable to reflect the joint biotoxicity of multi-pollutants existing in real wastewater, and combined effects of toxicants is extremely necessary to be taken into account in ecological risk assessment. Thus, present study has provided a promising approach to the quality assessment of wastewater and a reliable way for early risk warning of acute biotoxicity.

  18. Limited joint mobility is associated with the presence but does not predict the development of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arkkila, P E; Kantola, I M; Viikari, J S; Rönnemaa, T; Vähätalo, M A

    1996-09-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that limited joint mobility (LJM) is associated with microvascular complications in diabetic patients. This study was performed to see whether LJM predicts the development of other diabetic complications and which factors predispose to the development of LJM. A total of 206 Type 1 diabetic patients (mean age 30.0 +/- 9.5 (SD) years) was studied at baseline. The follow-up study was performed 5 years later in 167 of 206 (81.1%) patients. At the baseline the presence of LJM was assessed by asking patients to approximate the palmar surfaces of fingers in a praying position with fingers fanned and the wrists maximally flexed. LJM was confirmed by passive extension. At the follow-up LJM was first reassessed by the same method and then further studied by goniometer and classified by the method of Rosenbloom. The diabetic patients were assessed in terms of the following complications: background and proliferative retinopathy, peripheral symmetrical polyneuropathy, and clinical nephropathy. The prevalence of LJM was 52.9% at baseline. The odds ratio for proliferative retinopathy was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and for neuropathy 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-5.3) in diabetic patients with LJM compared to patients without LJM, when the confounding effect of the duration of diabetes, age and the body mass index was excluded. LJM developed in 30 patients during the 5-year follow-up (7% per year) and its development was not predicted by any of the microvascular complications at baseline. Proliferative retinopathy developed in 4 of 51 (7.8%) patients with and 3 of 63 (4.8%) patients without LJM at baseline (p = 0.3). Nephropathy developed in 11 of 56 (19.6%) patients with and 11 of 66 (16.7%) patients without LJM at baseline (p = 0.7) and peripheral symmetrical neuropathy in 14 of 45 (31.1%) and 20 of 64 (31.3%) patients respectively (p = 1.0). LJM did not predict diabetic microvascular complications or vice versa. Since

  19. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  20. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  1. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  2. Preschooler development

    MedlinePlus

    ... little differently. If you are concerned about your child's development, talk to your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Child Development Read more Latest Health News Read more Health ...

  3. Speech Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to assess your child’s speech production and language development and make appropriate therapy recommendations. It is also ... pathologist should consistently assess your child’s speech and language development, as well as screen for hearing problems (with ...

  4. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  5. Developer Network

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  6. Development of the Joint Logistician

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Supply - chain management is defined as “those activities associated with moving goods from the raw-mate- rial stage to the end user; this includes...Management MAGTF - Marine Airground Task Force MCLEP - Marines Corps Logistics Education Program SCM - Supply Chain Management SLOC - Senior Logistics

  7. Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on career development moderated by David Bjorkquist at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "A Mentoring Model for Career Development" (Mary Finnegan) describes a study that created a model based on the assumption that mentoring is an essential…

  8. Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Eight conference papers on language teacher development are presented, including: "Mosaics of Teacher Development and Socialization" (Andrew Barfield, Paul A. Beaufait, Sean Conley, Tim Murphey, Katsura Haruko), a panel presentation on aspects of and experiments in teacher development; "Questions About Teaching? Answers from…

  9. Resume Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    This paper presents a step-by-step guide for developing a resume as part of a job search campaign. The paper presents the following information: purposes of the resume; steps in resume development; resume formats; resume headings; and some "do's and some "don't's." The paper also includes a list of 161 action verbs for use in resume development, a…

  10. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of…

  11. The joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure: development and cross-validation of a six-factor model of cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Price, Larry R

    2003-06-01

    During the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (3rd ed.; WMS-III) the participants in the normative study completed both scales. This "co-norming" methodology set the stage for full integration of the 2 tests and the development of an expanded structure of cognitive functioning. Until now, however, the WAIS-III and WMS-III had not been examined together in a factor analytic study. This article presents a series of confirmatory factor analyses to determine the joint WAIS-III and WMS-III factor structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach, a 6-factor model that included verbal, perceptual, processing speed, working memory, auditory memory, and visual memory constructs provided the best model fit to the data. Allowing select subtests to load simultaneously on 2 factors improved model fit and indicated that some subtests are multifaceted. The results were then replicated in a large cross-validation sample (N = 858).

  12. A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2009-06-03

    With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

  13. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding international differences from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    Cauley, Jane A; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada; Arabi, Asma; Fujiwara, Saeko; Ragi-Eis, Sergio; Calderon, Andrew; Chionh, Siok Bee; Chen, Zhao; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Danielson, Michelle E; Hanley, David A; Kroger, Heikki; Kung, Annie W C; Lesnyak, Olga; Nieves, Jeri; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; El Rassi, Rola; Silverman, Stuart; Schott, Anne-Marie; Rizzoli, Rene; Luckey, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious worldwide epidemic. Increased risk of fractures is the hallmark of the disease and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and economic burden. FRAX® is a web-based tool developed by the Sheffield WHO Collaborating Center team, that integrates clinical risk factors, femoral neck BMD, country specific mortality and fracture data and calculates the 10 year fracture probability in order to help health care professionals identify patients who need treatment. However, only 31 countries have a FRAX® calculator at the time paper was accepted for publication. In the absence of a FRAX® model for a particular country, it has been suggested to use a surrogate country for which the epidemiology of osteoporosis most closely approximates the index country. More specific recommendations for clinicians in these countries are not available. In North America, concerns have also been raised regarding the assumptions used to construct the US ethnic specific FRAX® calculators with respect to the correction factors applied to derive fracture probabilities in Blacks, Asians and Hispanics in comparison to Whites. In addition, questions were raised about calculating fracture risk in other ethnic groups e.g., Native Americans and First Canadians. In order to provide additional guidance to clinicians, a FRAX® International Task Force was formed to address specific questions raised by physicians in countries without FRAX® calculators and seeking to integrate FRAX® into their clinical practice. The main questions that the task force tried to answer were the following: The Task Force members conducted appropriate literature reviews and developed preliminary statements that were discussed and graded by a panel of experts at the ISCD-IOF joint conference. The statements approved by the panel of experts are discussed in the current paper.

  14. [Implementation of the program of "Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education to Train Pharmacists in Leadership" under the joint operation of the pharmaceutical departments in fourteen national universities].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazumasa; Tamura, Satoru; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2012-01-01

    "Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education Program to Train Pharmacists with Leadership" applied jointly by the pharmaceutical departments of fourteen national universities was selected to receive the special expenditure support of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for fiscal year 2010 under "the Training of Highly Skillful Professionals and Improvement of the Quality of the Function of Professional Education". This project is to promote the collaborative development of the educational program which will make it possible to further advance and substantiate the education of pharmacists in the six year course of the pharmaceutical department for the ultimate purpose to introduce pharmacists with leadership who can play an active role and fill in a leadership position in a wide range of responsibilities into the society which, more and more, has come to expect pharmacy to take the initiative in acting against health hazards caused by infections, foods and environmental pollution as well as to meet the diversification of healthcare. To be more specific, this project is to try and evaluate the following programs repeatedly based on the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle: 1) Practical medical and pharmaceutical education program; 2) Program concerning research on long term themes and advanced education; 3) Program concerning training and education of SPs (standardized patients or simulated patients) and PBL (problem-based learning) tutorial education; and 4) Program concerning the method of evaluation of education. Through this repeated trial and evaluation, this project ultimately seeks to construct a highly effective practical educational program which integrates each university's achievements and educational attempts rich in originality.

  15. Instructional Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of conditions that combine to influence the selection and implementation of instructional development as an approach to solving educational problems in developing nations focuses on prevailing traditions, economics, and internal and external politics. (MBR)

  16. Instructional Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of conditions that combine to influence the selection and implementation of instructional development as an approach to solving educational problems in developing nations focuses on prevailing traditions, economics, and internal and external politics. (MBR)

  17. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    TURKEY Joint Argentine Firm To Sell Nuclear Reactors [ANATOLIA] ....................................................... 34 Civil Defense Against Iraqi... Reactor and Nuclear Materials Control Law, the Radiation Hazard Prevention Law and the Law on THAILAND the Promotion of Development and Peaceful Applica...and carried without nuclear fuel in the reactor and only with generating unit 5 in particular are obviously passing the help of expensive equipment

  18. In Focus: Are the Social Partners in Central and Eastern Europe Ready To Follow the French Example of Developing a Joint Inter-Sectoral Mechanism for the Accreditation of Qualifications? Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deij, Arjen

    2002-01-01

    The French employers federation (MEDEF) has taken the initiative to develop a joint inter-sectoral mechanism for accreditation of occupational competences. The approach analyzes occupations at a more abstract level than the tasks performed within a specific job to facilitate comparison of different occupations from different sectors and allow…

  19. Developing Regionalized Models of Lithospheric Thickness and Velocity Structure Across Eurasia and the Middle East from Jointly Inverting P-Wave and S-Wave Receiver Functions with Rayleigh Wave Group and Phase Velocities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    DEVELOPING REGIONALIZED MODELS OF LITHOSPHERIC THICKNESS AND VELOCITY STRUCTURE ACROSS EURASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST FROM JOINTLY INVERTING P-WAVE...09NA293221 and DE-AC52-07NA273442 Proposal No. BAA09-13 ABSTRACT The main goal of this project is to develop models of lithospheric velocity...of the lithosphere are key for accurately modeling not only travel times but also surface-wave dispersion velocities and full waveforms at regional

  20. Program Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  1. KENO developments

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Modifications and developments to the series of KENO multigroup, criticality safety transport codes are very briefly summarized. Three areas are addressed: (1) modifications to KENO-V.a, (2) development of KENO-VI, (3) modifications to the CSAS4 sequence of the SCALE package, and (4) future work on KENO related programs. Minor changes have been made to KENO-V.a, primarily for maintenance. KENO-VI has been developed and will be released soon. A new search type is being developed in SCALE to allow CSAS4 to do a concentration search on a mixture component.

  2. Development of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with neck pain likely to benefit from thrust joint manipulation to the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Cleland, Joshua A; Landers, Merrill R; Mintken, Paul E; Louw, Adriaan; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-07-01

    Prospective cohort/predictive validity study. To determine the predictive validity of selected clinical examination items and to develop a clinical prediction rule to determine which patients with neck pain may benefit from cervical thrust joint manipulation (TJM) and exercise. TJM to the cervical spine has been shown to be effective in patients presenting with a primary report of neck pain. It would be useful for clinicians to have a decision-making tool, such as a clinical prediction rule, that could accurately identify which subgroup of patients would respond positively to cervical TJM. Consecutive patients who presented to physical therapy with a primary complaint of neck pain completed a series of self-report measures, then received a detailed standardized history and physical examination. After the clinical examination, all patients received a standardized treatment regimen consisting of cervical TJM and range-of-motion exercise. Depending on response to treatment, patients were treated for 1 or 2 sessions over approximately 1 week. At the end of their participation in the study, patients were classified as having experienced a successful outcome based on a score of +5 ("quite a bit better") or higher on the global rating of change scale. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for all potential predictor variables. Univariate techniques and stepwise logistic regression were used to determine the most parsimonious set of variables for prediction of treatment success. Variables retained in the regression model were used to develop a multivariate clinical prediction rule. Eighty-two patients were included in data analysis, of whom 32 (39%) achieved a successful outcome. A clinical prediction rule with 4 attributes (symptom duration less than 38 days, positive expectation that manipulation will help, side-to-side difference in cervical rotation range of motion of 10° or greater, and pain with posteroanterior spring

  3. [CD15 focus score for diagnostics of periprosthetic joint infections : Neutrophilic granulocytes quantification mode and the development of morphometric software (CD15 quantifier)].

    PubMed

    Kölbel, B; Wienert, S; Dimitriadis, J; Kendoff, D; Gehrke, T; Huber, M; Frommelt, L; Tiemann, A; Saeger, K; Krenn, V

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this project was to devise a quantification method for neutrophils within a single focal point through the development of a CD15 focus score which enables bacterial infections in synovial-like interface membranes (SLIM) to be diagnosed. In this study a histopathological classification of 91 SLIM removed during revision surgery from the hips (n = 59) and knees (n = 32) was performed. Neutrophils were identified immunohistochemically by means of a CD15-specific monoclonal antibody. The quantitative evaluation of CD15-positive neutrophils (CD15Ne) used the principle of maximum focal infiltration (focus) together with an assessment of a single focal point (0.3 mm(2)). This immunohistochemical approach made it possible to develop the CD15 quantifier software, which automatically quantifies CD15Ne. The SLIM cases with positive microbiological findings (n = 47) had significantly (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test) more CD15Ne/focal point than cases with negative microbiological findings (n = 44). A count of 50 CD15Ne/focal point was identified as the optimum threshold when diagnosing periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) using the CD15 focus score. If the microbiological findings are used as a gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.83, and the specificity is 0.864 with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.87, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.83, an accuracy of 0.846 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.878. The evaluation of findings for the preparations using the CD15 quantifier software (n = 31) deviated by an average of 12 cells from the histopathological evaluation findings (CD15 focus score). Above a cell count of 62, the CD15-quantifier needs on average 32 s less than the pathologist. The immunohistochemical CD15 focus score has a high diagnostic value and allowed the development of the CD15 quantifier software. This provides an automated procedure, which shortens the mentally tiring and time-consuming process of

  4. Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reusswig, James, Ed.; Ponzio, Richard, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Eight essays are presented which reflect current problems, issues, and practices related to the development of teacher and administrator expertise. The authors are school district and public school administrators, faculty of schools of education, and a director of staff development in a state department of education. The topics treated are: (1)…

  5. [Toddler Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme newsletter issue presents seven articles describing toddler behavior and development, services for toddlers, and toddlers with special needs. The first article, "Toddlers: Themes and Variations" (Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen Small) focuses on variations in toddler development, noting emerging skills, language, and the caregiver role.…

  6. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This serial issue contains 12 articles on the theme of "Professional Development," specifically about how teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network (BLRTN) are fostering their own and each other's development as teachers. The BLRTN consists of approximately 260 rural teachers in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky,…

  7. Talent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on talent development in students who are gifted or have special talents contains several feature articles, editorials, and a calendar of events. Articles have the following titles and authors: "Talent Development in Education" (John F. Feldhusen) proposes four domains for fostering talent in all youth:…

  8. Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  9. Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management development. "LMX (Leader-Member Exchange) Theory, Personality Type, and Management Development" (Janet Z. Burns) reports the results of a study on the similarities and differences in personality type (as outlined in the theories of Carl Jung and Isabel Myers) and its relationship…

  10. Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  11. [Toddler Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme newsletter issue presents seven articles describing toddler behavior and development, services for toddlers, and toddlers with special needs. The first article, "Toddlers: Themes and Variations" (Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen Small) focuses on variations in toddler development, noting emerging skills, language, and the caregiver role.…

  12. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the EVA glove is examined, emphasizing the development of a more flexible metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint for the EVA glove. The analysis of the EVA glove MCP joint is reviewed and the glove design process is recapitulated. Experimental tests of the glove are summarized.

  13. Validation of hip joint center localization methods during gait analysis using 3D EOS imaging in typically developing and cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Assi, Ayman; Sauret, Christophe; Massaad, Abir; Bakouny, Ziad; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-07-01

    Localization of the hip joint center (HJC) is essential in computation of gait data. EOS low dose biplanar X-rays have been shown to be a good reference in evaluating various methods of HJC localization in adults. The aim is to evaluate predictive and functional techniques for HJC localization in typically developing (TD) and cerebral palsy (CP) children, using EOS as an image based reference. Eleven TD and 17 CP children underwent 3D gait analysis. Six HJC localization methods were evaluated in each group bilaterally: 3 predictive (Plug in Gait, Bell and Harrington) and 3 functional methods based on the star arc technique (symmetrical center of rotation estimate, center transformation technique and geometrical sphere fitting). All children then underwent EOS low dose biplanar radiographs. Pelvis, lower limbs and their corresponding external markers were reconstructed in 3D. The center of the femoral head was considered as the reference (HJCEOS). Euclidean distances between HJCs estimated by each of the 6 methods and the HJCEOS were calculated; distances were shown to be lower in predictive compared to functional methods (p<0.0001). Contrarily to findings in adults, functional methods were shown to be less accurate than predictive methods in TD and CP children, which could be mainly due to the shorter thigh segment in children. Harrington method was shown to be the most accurate in the prediction of HJC (mean error≈18mm, SD=9mm) and quasi-equivalent to the Bell method. The bias for each method was quantified, allowing its correction for an improved HJC estimation.

  14. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, O.; Dufresne, A.; Pédrot, M.; Chatton, E.; Labasque, T.; Ben Maamar, S.; Burté, L.; de la Bernardie, J.; Guihéneuf, N.; Lavenant, N.; Petton, C.; Bour, O.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydro-logical systems. Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is observed in an 130m deep artesian well. Borehole video logs show an important colonization of the well by the biofilm in the shallower part (0 to 60m), while it is inexistent in the deeper part (60 to 130m). As flow is localized in a few deep and shallow fractures, we presume that the spatial distribution of biofilm is controlled by mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. To verify this hypothesis we conducted a field campaign with joint characterization of the flow and chemical composition of water flowing from the different fractures, as well as the microbiological composition of the biofilm at different depth, using pyrosequencing techniques. We will discuss in this presentation the results of this interdisciplinary dataset and their implications for the occurrence of hotspots of microbiological activity in the subsurface.

  15. Powerstick development

    SciTech Connect

    Borshchevsky, A.; Chmielewski, A.; Chen-Kuo, H.; Bass, J.; Bugby, D.; Pustovalov, A.; Gusev, V.

    1997-12-31

    A device called a Powerstick is being developed to satisfy the requirements of several potential solar system exploration missions. The Powerstick is a small power source consisting of three major components: a space qualified heat source (RHU), a thermopile (thermoelectric converter) and a set of rechargeable batteries. The Powerstick merges several devices developed earlier by the space power programs. The RHU was developed by DOE for the Galileo and Ulysses missions, the thermopile is a combination of the early RTG technology and pace maker technology with new packaging techniques, and a lithium-ion rechargeable battery is currently being developed for space applications. NASA has recently awarded a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) contract to Hi-Z Technology, Inc. of San Diego to manufacture a miniaturized thermopile and provide a preliminary design of the Powerstick. JPL`s Solar System Exploration Program funded Powerstick prototype design and fabrication contract with Swales and Associates, Inc. The Swales unit and the Hi-Z thermopile will be integrated at JPL. This integrated prototype with the thermopile, rechargeable batteries and electrical RHU simulator will be tested at JPL. At the same time JPL is pursuing a ruggedized Powerstick development with the Russian company BIAPOS. BIAPOS is to independently design, build and deliver to JPL for testing their own version of the Powerstick. According to the technology development road map for small space sources the American and Russian efforts will lead to the development of an engineering and qualification Powerstick unit by the end of the century.

  16. Demonstration-site development and phytoremediation processes associated with trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale phytoremediation demonstration study was initiated in 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, at a site on Naval Air StationJoint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) adjacent to Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) in Fort Worth, Tex. (fig. 1). Trichloroethene (TCE) has been used at AFP4 in aircraft manufacturing processes for decades; spills and leaks from tanks in the manufacturing building have resulted in shallow ground-water contamination on-site and downgradient from the facility (Eberts and others, 2003). The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in decreasing the mass of dissolved TCE in ground water through phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a process by which plants decrease the mass of a contaminant through a variety of chemical, physical, and biological means. Before development of the phytoremediation demonstration site, natural attenuation of TCE at the site occurred by sorption, dispersion, dilution, and possibly volatilization (Eberts and others, 2003).Long-term, field-scale monitoring and evaluation of this site contribute to the understanding of the processes associated with phytoremediation and provide practical information about field-scale applications of the method. This fact sheet briefly summarizes the development of the phytoremediation demonstration site at NAS–JRB and describes some of the physical and chemical processes associated with phytoremediation. The phytoremediation demonstration site is on the southern edge of the central lobe of a TCE plume in the surficial (alluvial) aquifer. The plume originates at AFP4 about 0.9 mile upgradient from the site (fig. 1). The 9.5-acre site is in the northwestern corner of the golf course on NAS–JRB. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer, which is composed of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, ranges from about 1.5 to 5 feet at the site. The total thickness of the alluvial

  17. Development of an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-based standard set to describe the impact of joint contractures on participation of older individuals in geriatric care settings.

    PubMed

    Bartoszek, Gabriele; Fischer, Uli; von Clarenau, Stephan Clarmann; Grill, Eva; Mau, Wilfried; Meyer, Gabriele; Strobl, Ralf; Thiesemann, Rüdiger; Nadolny, Stephan; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Joint contractures are characterized as impairment of the physiological movement of joints due to deformity, disuse or pain and have major impact especially for older individuals in geriatric care. Some measures for the assessment of the impact of joint contractures exist. However, there is no consensus on which aspects should constantly be measured. Our objective was to develop a standard-set based on the ICF for describing functioning and disability in older individuals with joint contractures in geriatric care settings, giving special emphasis to activities and participation. The ICF-based standard set was developed in a formal decision-making and consensus process and based on an adapted version of the protocol to develop ICF Core Sets. These are sets of categories from the ICF, serving as standards for the assessment, communication and reporting of functioning and health for clinical studies, clinical encounters and multi-professional comprehensive assessment and management. Twenty-three experts from Germany and Switzerland selected 105 categories of the ICF component Activities and Participation for the ICF-based standard set. The largest number of categories was selected from the chapter Mobility (50 categories, 47.6%). The standard set for older individuals with joint contractures provides health professionals with a standard for describing patients' activity limitations and participation restrictions. The standard set also provides a common basis for the development of patient-centered measures and intervention programs. The preliminary version of the ICF-based standard set will be tested in subsequent studies with regard to its psychometric properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology development.

    PubMed

    Gomory, R E

    1983-05-06

    In technology development significant advances are as often the result of a series of evolutionary steps as they are of breakthroughs. This is illustrated by the examples of the steam engine and the computer. Breakthroughs, such as the transistor, are relatively rare, and are often the result of the introduction of new knowledge coming from a quite different area. Technology development is often difficult to predict because of its complexity; practical considerations may far outweigh apparent scientific advantages, and cultural factors enter in at many levels. In a large technological organization problems exist in bringing scientific knowledge to bear on development, but much can be done to obviate these difficulties.

  19. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated.

  20. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  1. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  2. Organisational development.

    PubMed

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the NHS Improvement national leadership and improvement strategy is to encourage leaders at all levels to develop leadership skills in their staff and themselves. It focuses on fostering compassionate, collaborative and inclusive leadership.

  3. Toddler Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... watch your toddler learn new skills. The normal development of children aged 1-3 includes several areas: Gross motor - walking, running, climbing Fine motor - feeding themselves, drawing Sensory - seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, and smelling Language - saying ...

  4. Numerical Development.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Braithwaite, David W

    2017-01-03

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from nonsymbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger whole numbers, and from whole to rational numbers. One reason why this development is important is that precision of numerical magnitude knowledge is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to both whole and rational number arithmetic. Rational number arithmetic, however, also poses challenges beyond understanding the magnitudes of the individual numbers. Some of these challenges are inherent; they are present for all learners. Other challenges are culturally contingent; they vary from country to country and classroom to classroom. Generating theories and data that help children surmount the challenges of rational number arithmetic is a promising and important goal for future numerical development research.

  5. Development risks

    SciTech Connect

    Riedy, M.; Desai, S.

    1996-04-01

    Risks associated with hydropower production development in India are discussed in this article. A project prospectus for the development of India`s estimated 84,044 MW(e) hydropower potential is given which accounts for environmental and regulatory concerns. Regulations issued by the Government of Industry regarding private investment in hydropower are outlined, and additional policies which are expected to be instituted are discussed.

  6. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  7. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2002-01-01

    The shoot system is the basic unit of development of seed plants and is composed of a leaf, a stem, and a lateral bud that differentiates into a lateral shoot. The most specialized organ in angiosperms, the flower, can be considered to be part of the same shoot system since floral organs, such as the sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel, are all modified leaves. Scales, bracts, and certain kinds of needle are also derived from leaves. Thus, an understanding of leaf development is critical to an understanding of shoot development. Moreover, leaves play important roles in photosynthesis, respiration and photoperception. Thus, a full understanding of leaves is directly related to a full understanding of seed plants. The details of leaf development remain unclear. The difficulties encountered in studies of leaf development, in particular in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Henyn., are derived from the complex process of leaf development, during which the division and elongation of cells occur at the same time and in the same region of the leaf primordium (Maksymowych, 1963; Poethig and Sussex, 1985). Thus, we cannot divide the entire process into unit processes in accordance with the tenets of classical anatomy. Genetic approaches in Arabidopsis, a model plant (Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1985), have provided a powerful tool for studies of mechanisms of leaf development in dicotyledonous plants, and various aspects of the mechanisms that control leaf development have been revealed in recent developmental and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis (for reviews, see Tsukaya, 1995 and 1998; Van Lijsebettens and Clarke, 1998; Sinha, 1999; Van Volkenburgh, 1999; Tsukaya, 2000; Byrne et al., 2001; Dengler and Kang, 2001; Dengler and Tsukaya, 2001; Tsukaya, 2001). In this review, we shall examine the information that is currently available about various mechanisms of leaf development in Arabidopsis. Vascular patterning is also an important factor in the

  8. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ARCADE enclave is hosted at AFRL /RV, physically located at Kirtland AFB. All of the described enclaves are accessible through the internet at...partnership with AFRL /RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL /RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development...process. AFRL /RV and AFRL /RD have created development environments that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources

  9. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  10. CAREER DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baltimore Summit Project on Career Development/PERFORMS Enhancement/360 Evaluations for All has made some progress. We have identified the fact that we cannot change the current Pass/Fail PERFORMS system to a tiered system. The current pass/fail system does not have a mechani...

  11. Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Council of Churches, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The educational programs and materials of the churches involved in the World Council of Churches must be a part of the response that the poor nations of the Third World are demanding from the developed countries. Change is a key concept to these educational concepts and can only be effected by political action. Actions that must be taken on the…

  12. CAREER DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baltimore Summit Project on Career Development/PERFORMS Enhancement/360 Evaluations for All has made some progress. We have identified the fact that we cannot change the current Pass/Fail PERFORMS system to a tiered system. The current pass/fail system does not have a mechani...

  13. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  14. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlson; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Pirard, Florence; Peeters, Jan; Alvestad, Marit

    2009-01-01

    New developments and challenges regarding early childhood education (ECE) policy and practice in Norway and in the Flemish and French communities in Belgium are presented in this issue. There are clear differences between the countries when comparing systems they have chosen for ECE. In Belgium, supervision and responsibilities for education,…

  15. Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The 1974 Educational Testing Service (ETS) Measurement Award was presented to J.P. Guilford at the ETS Invitational Conference. Irving Kristol, in "Moral and Ethical Development in a Democratic Society," called for the restoration of authority within our major social institutions, especially schools. Martin Trow examined the effects of the college…

  16. DEVELOP Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    DEVELOP team members at Stennis Space Center for the summer 2007 term are (from left): front row, students Deirdra Boley, Jason Jones, Lauren Childs, Craig Matthews and Denise Spindel; back row, advisers Cheri Miller of NASA, Kenton Ross of Science Systems and Applications Inc., Andra Johnson of Southern University and Roxzana Moore, SSAI.

  17. Envisioning Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on an important innovative development in new generation corporate university management. It addresses the thematic area of visual learning that is captured in the term "The Art of Minds-eye Management". It reflects upon experiences with groups of managers in enhancing perceptive competencies using visual awareness learning…

  18. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  19. DEVELOP Students

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-07-03

    DEVELOP team members at Stennis Space Center for the summer 2007 term are (from left): front row, students Deirdra Boley, Jason Jones, Lauren Childs, Craig Matthews and Denise Spindel; back row, advisers Cheri Miller of NASA, Kenton Ross of Science Systems and Applications Inc., Andra Johnson of Southern University and Roxzana Moore, SSAI.

  20. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  1. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  2. Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on work force development. "Effects of Two Different Learning Paths on School-to-Work Transition" (Esther Van Der Schoot) discusses a Dutch study documenting that the following items make a difference in the school-to-work transition: learning path, curriculum characteristics, individual…

  3. Trends Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier Service, 1981

    1981-01-01

    This issue contains extracts from twenty-one country reports and case studies presented to the Unesco Regional Seminar on Adult Education and Development in Bangkok, November 24-December 4, 1980. The excerpts have an emphasis on innovations in adult education in the region. Countries and programs discussed include (1) community…

  4. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, James; Sayre, Janette S.

    1982-01-01

    Through professional development activities, physical education faculty members can meet important challenges in their field: (1) keep current in their subjects; (2) learn additional skills; (3) take on new tasks; (4) perform old tasks in different ways; (5) increase scholarship; and (6) increase instructional competence. (CJ)

  5. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  6. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  7. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlsson, Ed.; Rabusicova, Milada; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The development of early childhood education (ECE) in Europe and beyond is inextricably linked with women's roles and power in society. Towards the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century in a context of urbanisation and industrialisation the need for some sort of public childcare became apparent in many countries. Whereas…

  8. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlson; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Pirard, Florence; Peeters, Jan; Alvestad, Marit

    2009-01-01

    New developments and challenges regarding early childhood education (ECE) policy and practice in Norway and in the Flemish and French communities in Belgium are presented in this issue. There are clear differences between the countries when comparing systems they have chosen for ECE. In Belgium, supervision and responsibilities for education,…

  9. Superconductor developments

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, D.

    1989-04-05

    I will cover the technology of the new oxide supeconductors and how they might relate to the existing superconductors. Fermilab and the high energy physics community in general have had much to do with the development of the ''old'' superconductors. Bednorz and M/umlt u/ller must be credited with the idea of setting out on the search for the new superconductors.

  10. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  11. Electrifying Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With technical assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center and Kennedy Space Center, Protective Cable and Wire developed Lightning Retardant Cable (LRC). LRC improves lightning protection over standard coaxial cable by 100 percent. The LRC design keeps lightning from traveling through the cable, preventing damage to satellites, antennas, and cable systems. LRC is now being used in homes as well as airports.

  12. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Gordon I.; Jervis, Robert

    Resulting in part from a project designed to identify and describe comprehensive programs of excellence in career education, this booklet is the eighth in a series describing current, successful career education practices. A successful career education program is dependent upon professional development. Based on this premise, the monograph: (1)…

  13. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  14. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  15. Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on work force development. "Effects of Two Different Learning Paths on School-to-Work Transition" (Esther Van Der Schoot) discusses a Dutch study documenting that the following items make a difference in the school-to-work transition: learning path, curriculum characteristics, individual…

  16. Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This issue's column focuses on online tools and resources available for leadership development of academic, public services staff. The resources are not targeted solely to professional librarians, but rather to all levels of library staff engaged with the public. In addition to inspirational and coaching videos, reviewers recommend resource guides…

  17. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson-Lohmander, Maelis

    2005-01-01

    A growing number of countries have recognised the importance of high quality early childhood provision for the development of the young child and the impact on economic growth and prosperity. What shapes Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in an expanding Europe of today? Many factors clearly influence policy decisions and program…

  18. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  19. Developing Regionalized Models of Lithospheric Thickness and Velocity Structure Across Eurasia and the Middle East from Jointly Inverting P-Wave and S-Wave Receiver Functions with Rayleigh Wave Group and Phase Velocities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    DEVELOPING REGIONALIZED MODELS OF LITHOSPHERIC THICKNESS AND VELOCITY STRUCTURE ACROSS EURASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST FROM JOINTLY INVERTING P-WAVE... lithospheric velocity structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East. We expect the regionalized models will improve...important differences in lithospheric structure between the cratonic regions of Eastern Europe and the tectonic regions of Western Europe and the

  20. Oh, Develop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2003-01-01

    In a mature view of the subject, career development is not simply four years of college or a week at training, culminating in a diploma or a certificate to hang on an office wall. That's why we wanted to take a broad look at career development in this issue of ASK. Take for example, Dr. Gerald Mulenburg s contribution, Fly on the Wall. When Mulenburg and other members of a knowledge-sharing group at Ames were invited to observe an upcoming project review, Mulenburg thought it would be interesting to learn how another project does its reviews. Note that Mulenburg is no fresh out who's never attended a NASA project review. Not only has he been through a fair share of them as the reviewed, he has also been on the other side of the table as a reviewer. This experienced project manager recognizes that at any stage of a career there is room to grow and develop one's repertoire. Too often people associate career development with textbooks and role classroom training, far removed from project life. But classroom training need not be like this, as you'll find in our Special Feature, The Enterprise Project by Wendy Dolci, which sprung out of an APPL Advanced Project Management class in July 2003 at Ames Research Center. In addition to Dolci, some of her classmates contribute to the story. Mike Sander of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, project manager for the Mars Science Laboratory mission, who provided the assignment on which the story is based, also has a cameo in the story. We think Dolci's story is an inspiring example of what classroom training can be if it's approached imaginatively and made to serve a practical purpose. Another story from Ames, by Frank Larsen, takes a different twist on career development. At the annual Experimental Aircraft Association Fly-in in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Larsen represented Ames at a NASA booth. While there, Larsen met a colleague from Glenn Research Center. Months later on a project with a quick turnaround, he remembered his colleague from