Science.gov

Sample records for development road map

  1. Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David; Fox, Kevin; Herman, Connie; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-05-31

    This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystal-tolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is also addressed in this road map.

  2. Learning Progressions Provide Road Maps for the Development and Validity of Assessments and Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Paul Black, Mark Wilson, and Shih-Ying Yao in "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" provide a number of important ideas to consider regarding the development of assessments and curriculum materials to support development of core ideas. One major idea that the author found most valuable is the focus on student…

  3. Vitiligo road map.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian W; Schwartz, Robert A; Hercogová, Jana; Valle, Yan; Lotti, Torello M

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is a depigmenting disorder stemming from melanocyte loss or dysfunction. It has a complex, multifaceted etiology. We constructed a "vitiligo road map," consisting of basic science, clinical, and treatment components, in order to better portray our current understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and reflect upon novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for future research. The melanocyte map elaborates on the molecular processes and intracellular signaling pathways initiated by various external autocrine/paracrine factors in representing normal melanocyte homeostatic functions modulating its viability, proliferation, differentiation, dendricity, migration, and melanogenic processes. This vitiligo map identifies known inducers/triggers of vitiligo onset and progression that cultivate a microenvironment for melanocyte disappearance, real or functional. This map describes the molecular mechanisms of currently utilized clinical and experimental treatments of vitiligo that facilitate repigmentation.

  4. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass

  5. Perceived density of road maps.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Chassidim, Hadas; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael; Rogatka, Efrat; Amzaleg, Ohad

    2014-11-01

    Maps should be designed so that users can comprehend and use the information. Display decisions, such as choosing the scale at which an area is shown, depend on properties of the displayed information such as the perceived density (PD) of the information. Taking a psychophysical approach we suggest that the PD of information in a road map is related to the scale and properties of the mapped area. 54 participants rated the PD of 60 maps from different regions. We provide a simple model that predicts the PD of electronic road map displays, using the logarithm of the number of roads, the logarithm of the number of junctions and the length of the shown roads. The PD model was cross-validated using a different set of 60 maps (n = 44). The model can be used for automatically adjusting display scales and for evaluating map designs, considering the required PD to perform a map-related task.

  6. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  7. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-03-12

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed.

  8. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  9. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T.

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  10. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  11. Automatic Road Network Map Update for the City of Dubai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Paula; Al Hammadi, Omran; Napiorkowska, Milena; Constantini, Fabiano; Callejas, Alberto; Smith, Garin; Petit, David

    2016-08-01

    Dubai is a modern city which is growing at a fast pace, constantly changing and developing. The application presented in this paper is part of the "Smart Application for Feature extraction & 3D modelling using high resolution satellite Imagery (SAFIY)" project, whose main aim is to develop satellite data applications to help the government in Dubai to get up-to-date information on features such as water bodies, vegetation areas, buildings and roads. In this paper we present an application to automatically update the road network map for the city of Dubai using very high resolution satellite imagery, Deimos-2 and DubaiSat-2 at 0.75 cm resolution. Deimos-2 and DubaiSat-2 have been recently included as third party contributors to the Copernicus constellation.The algorithms implemented use unsupervised and supervised classification techniques to extract the road pixels. Special road objects such as roundabouts or bridges are also detected using algorithms based on feature descriptors, designed to match the specific characteristics of those objects. Finally, the system identifies the changes in roads and objects from the current road network map in order to update the map. The city of Dubai is 4,114 km and has many different types of neighbourhoods from suburbs to very densely populated areas. Overall, we propose a novel end to end system that automatically updates a road network map and allows a user to manually correct them so that the final resulting map is usable.

  12. Designing a road map for geoscience workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Christopher; Gil, Yolanda; Deelman, Ewa; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Demir, Ibrahim; Wiener, Gerry

    2012-06-01

    Advances in geoscience research and discovery are fundamentally tied to data and computation, but formal strategies for managing the diversity of models and data resources in the Earth sciences have not yet been resolved or fully appreciated. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative (http://earthcube.ning.com), which aims to support community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information across the geosciences, recently funded four community development activities: Geoscience Workflows; Semantics and Ontologies; Data Discovery, Mining, and Integration; and Governance. The Geoscience Workflows working group, with broad participation from the geosciences, cyberinfrastructure, and other relevant communities, is formulating a workflows road map (http://sites.google.com/site/earthcubeworkflow/). The Geoscience Workflows team coordinates with each of the other community development groups given their direct relevance to workflows. Semantics and ontologies are mechanisms for describing workflows and the data they process.

  13. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  14. The Oncology Nursing Society Leadership Competency project: developing a road map to professional excellence.

    PubMed

    Day, Donald D; Hand, Mikel W; Jones, Ann R; Harrington, Nancy Kay; Best, Robyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B

    2014-08-01

    Combining the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's report on the future of nursing, an Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) leadership think tank, and current evidence, the ONS Leadership Competencies were developed to provide all nurses with a pathway to advance their leadership skills and abilities. Generated through a systematic approach of literature review, data synthesis, and peer and expert review, the ONS Leadership Competencies are divided into five domains: vision, knowledge, interpersonal effectiveness, systems thinking, and personal mastery. Each of the competencies can be measured at the individual, group, and governance levels. They serve as a means of self-assessment, growth, future planning, and professional development. This article describes the process used to develop the ONS Leadership Competencies and offers examples of how they may be used in practice.

  15. Developing a Long-Term Vision: A Road Map for Students' Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Shelden, Debra L.; Appel, Kelli; DeGrazia, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    When considering developing educational programs for students with disabilities, one often thinks first of the annual goals and short-term objectives that are included in the individualized education program (IEP). It is important, though, to connect the short-term objectives (the "now") to long-term goals and dreams (the "future"). Making that…

  16. Conflicting Road Maps: Cross-Cultural Professional Development for Egyptian Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammad, Waheed

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a qualitative research study on overseas teachers' continuing professional development (CPD). It seeks to explore the perceptions of a cohort of Egyptian teachers about their overseas training experience upon completion of a nine-month training programme in the UK. Data were mainly gathered through four…

  17. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  18. Automatic Road Sign Inventory Using Mobile Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soilán, M.; Riveiro, B.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS), thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  19. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  20. A new ant based distributed framework for urban road map updating from high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinpanjeh, Nima; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Schenk, Toni

    2013-04-01

    Receiving updated information about the network of roads from high resolution satellite imagery is a crucially important issue in continuously changing developing urban regions. Considering experiences in road extraction and also exploiting distributed evolutionary computational approaches, in this paper a new framework for road map updating from remotely sensed data is proposed. Three main computational entities of ant-agent, seed extractor and algorithm library are designed and road map updating is performed through three main stages of verification of the old map, extraction of possible roads and grouping of the results of both stages. Extracting corresponding pixels to each road element in the map, an object level supervised classification or any available road verification algorithm from the library capable of producing a road likeliness value is applied. Since road extraction is a simple and also a complex problem, more comprehensive algorithms are chosen from library iteratively by ant-agents so the decision about verification and rejection of each road element is finally made. Ant-agents facilitate choosing road elements and moving of ant agents via stigmergic communication by pheromone cast and evaporation. The proposed method is developed and tested using GeoEye-1 pan-sharpen imagery and 1:2000 corresponding digital vector map of the region. As observed, the results are satisfactory in terms of detection, verification and extraction of roads and generation of the updated map specifically in case of inspection of main roads. Besides, some missed road items are reported in case of inspection of bystreets and alleys specially when situated at the margin of the image. Completeness, correctness and quality measures are computed for evaluation of the initial and the resulted updated maps. The computed measures verify the improvement of the updated map.

  1. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  2. Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

  3. Sensors Fusion based Online Mapping and Features Extraction of Mobile Robot in the Road Following and Roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; Mailah, Musa; Yussof, Wan Azhar B.; Hamedon, Zamzuri B.; Yussof, Zulkifli B.; Majeed, Anwar P. P.

    2016-02-01

    A road feature extraction based mapping system using a sensor fusion technique for mobile robot navigation in road environments is presented in this paper. The online mapping of mobile robot is performed continuously in the road environments to find the road properties that enable the robot to move from a certain start position to pre-determined goal while discovering and detecting the roundabout. The sensors fusion involving laser range finder, camera and odometry which are installed in a new platform, are used to find the path of the robot and localize it within its environments. The local maps are developed using camera and laser range finder to recognize the roads borders parameters such as road width, curbs and roundabout. Results show the capability of the robot with the proposed algorithms to effectively identify the road environments and build a local mapping for road following and roundabout.

  4. Water-energy-food security nexus: the road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    The world's growing population and increased prosperity will increase global demand for energy, as well as food and water supplies in the coming decades. In the arid and semi arid regions as in most of the world water and energy have historically been managed separately, with little consideration of cross sectoral interactions, yet in reality, water and energy are closely interconnected. By addressing water and energy together planners can identify crucial interactions, conflicting demands and potential synergies. For many countries around the world it is needed to establish a road map on: (i) how to implement nexus policies to increase efficiency of natural resources management? (ii) how to bridge science with policy and business? (iii) how governments be inspired by business? (iv) how can be business be inspired by science? (v) how can we learn from each other and how collaborate to address the challenges ahead? Such road map should seek to bring together stakeholders involved in the nexus implementation approach over the coming years to develop nexus tools for decision making to quantify water energy food resources on both national and regional level. However, experiences gained and learned lessons indicate clearly that numerous countries are facing several barriers in putting in action their nexus road map due to the lack of integrated resource management, lack of capacity for research development, lack of knowledge sharing across sectors, and not enough interaction between policy makers and scientists. Those are major challenges to be faced to achieve the water, energy and food security nexus. Furthermore, such goal cannot be reached without building and strengthening the synergy between education, research and innovation for sustainable resource management. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed in this paper. Keywords: water-energy-food security; nexus

  5. Road Maps for Learning: A Bird's Eye View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Timothy T.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the road map, advocated by Black, Wilson, and Yao (2011), and the associated minutiae of the construct map have several powerful features. At one level these notions assist the teacher to select and embody a suitable sequence of constructs within a specified curriculum. Whatever disparate sequenced pathways individual learners may…

  6. Road map for polio eradication--establishing the link with Millennium Development Goal no. 4 for child survival.

    PubMed

    Arita, Isao; Nakane, Miyuki

    2008-05-01

    The global polio eradication program, started in 1988, initially targeted the year 2000 for the worldwide elimination of the disease. Although poliovirus transmission has been markedly reduced, it has not been eliminated. As we enter the 20th year of the campaign, poliovirus continues to infect and cause paralysis in localized areas of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. To combat this scourge, the World Health Organization, together with other worldwide partners, has newly committed to worldwide eradication by 2009. It appears that the delay has been caused by a combination of the failure of globalization to deliver the prosperity it initially promised and technical problems specific to polio eradication. We hope that the world can reach zero level status for polio report, but verification would take many years and extended research due to the nature of poliovirus. We propose a scientific joint enterprise by which the polio endgame is accelerate, at the same time that a special immunization program against multiple other vaccine-preventable diseases is initiated. This newly organized collaborative effort, we believe, will maximize the benefits achieved by polio eradication and reduce childhood disease and deaths, namely achieve the Millennium Development Goal no. 4, in sub-Saharan Africa, the region that especially needs such action.

  7. Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking.

    PubMed

    St Cyr, Sheila K; All, Anita C

    2009-01-01

    Graduate nurses entering the workforce today are, at times, lacking in the area of critical thinking. Giving graduate nurses a concept map would provide a tool to guide their critical thinking until it becomes inherent or second nature. The concept map, a graphic illustration of key points, guides the focus of patient problems using a body system approach. This article details the use of a concept map in the application of knowledge to practice.

  8. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  9. Can Road Maps Tell Us Whether We Are off Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The focus article "Road Maps for Learning: A Guide to the Navigation of Learning Progressions" by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) is a veritable tour-de-force, covering a great deal of education ground while spanning the heights from models of the interplay among curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment to interpretations of student…

  10. Construct Maps for the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

  11. USE OF ROAD MAPS IN NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Including road-mediated forest fragmentation is a contentious issue in United States national assessments. We compared fragmentation as calculated from national land-cover maps alone, and from land-cover maps in combination with road maps. The increment of forest edge from roads ...

  12. Manufacturing Road Map for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. PMID:25575525

  13. Manufacturing road map for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM.

  14. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  15. Road map points US to beyond the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The new US administration under President Barack Obama should focus on sending humans to Mars and plan a manned voyage to a near-Earth asteroid. That is the conclusion of a road map published last month by the Planetary Society - a US non-governmental, non-profit organization. The report also says that any future manned missions to the Moon, including a potential lunar base, should instead be funded and performed internationally.

  16. A road map for molecular ecology.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rose L; Bernatchez, Louis; Bonin, Aurélie; Buerkle, C Alex; Carstens, Bryan C; Emerson, Brent C; Garant, Dany; Giraud, Tatiana; Kane, Nolan C; Rogers, Sean M; Slate, Jon; Smith, Harry; Sork, Victoria L; Stone, Graham N; Vines, Timothy H; Waits, Lisette; Widmer, Alex; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-05-01

    The discipline of molecular ecology has undergone enormous changes since the journal bearing its name was launched approximately two decades ago. The field has seen great strides in analytical methods development, made groundbreaking discoveries and experienced a revolution in genotyping technology. Here, we provide brief perspectives on the main subdisciplines of molecular ecology, describe key questions and goals, discuss common challenges, predict future research directions and suggest research priorities for the next 20 years.

  17. Thermal mapping as a valuable tool for road weather forecast and winter road maintenance: an example from the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todeschini, Ilaria; Di Napoli, Claudia; Pretto, Ilaria; Merler, Giacomo; Cavaliere, Roberto; Apolloni, Roberto; Antonacci, Gianluca; Piazza, Andrea; Benedetti, Guido

    2016-08-01

    During the winter period ice is likely to form on roads, making pavement surfaces slippery and increasing accident risk. Road surface temperature (RST) is one of the most important parameters in ice formation. The LIFE+ "CLEANROADS" project aims to forecast RSTs in advance in order to support road maintenance services in the timely and effective preparation of preventive anti-icing measures. This support is provided through a novel MDSS (Maintenance Decision Support System). The final goal of the project is to quantitatively demonstrate that the implemented MDSS is capable to minimize the consumption of chemical anti-icing reagents (e.g. sodium chloride) and the associated environmental (water and air) impact while maintaining the current high levels of road safety. In the CLEAN-ROADS system RSTs have been forecast by applying the numerical model METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads) to a network of RWIS (Road Weather Information System) stations installed on a test route in the Adige Valley (Italy). This forecast is however local and does not take into account typical peculiarities along road network, such as the presence of road sections that are particularly prone to ice formation. Thermal mapping, i.e. the acquisition of mobile RST measurements through infrared thermometry, permits to (i) identify and map those sections, and (ii) extend the forecast from a RWIS station to adjacent areas. The processing of thermal mapping signals is however challenging because of random variations in the road surface emissivity. To overcome this we have acquired several thermal mapping traces along the test route during winter seasons 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. We have then defined a "characteristic" thermal fingerprint as a function of all its historical thermal mapping signals, and used it to spatialize local METRo forecasts. Preliminary results suggest the high potential of such a technique for winter road applications.

  18. Road traffic injuries: social change and development.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the twentieth century road traffic injuries (RTIs) became a major public health burden. RTI deaths first increased in high-income countries and declined after the 1970s, and they soared in low- and middle-income countries from the 1980s onwards. As motorisation took off in North America and then spread to Europe and to the rest of the world discussions on RTIs have reflected and influenced international interpretations of the costs and benefits of 'development', as conventionally understood. Using discourse analysis, this paper explores how RTIs have been constructed in ways that have served regional and global development agendas and how 'development' has been (re-)negotiated through the discourse of RTIs and vice versa. For this purpose, this paper analyses a selection of key publications of organisations in charge of international health or transport and places them in the context of (a) the surrounding scientific discussion of the period and (b) of relevant data regarding RTI mortality, development funding, and road and other transport infrastructure. Findings suggest that constructions of RTIs have shifted from being a necessary price to be paid for development to being a sign of development at an early stage or of an insufficiently coordinated development. In recent years, RTI discussions have raised questions about development being misdirected and in need of fundamental rethinking. At present, discussions are believed to be at a crossroads between different evaluations of developmental conceptualisations for the future.

  19. Draw-in Map — A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.); Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

    2005-08-01

    Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

  20. Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

    2005-08-05

    Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout.

  1. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions

  2. Brownfields Road Map to Understanding Options for Site Investigation and Cleanup, Fifth Edition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Brownfields Road Map publication and companion website provide a general outline of how to assess and clean up a brownfields site and introduce stakeholders to a range of technology options and available resources.

  3. Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films

    SciTech Connect

    Ankner, John Francis; Bardoel, Agatha A; Sukishvili, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other

  4. GEOS Code Development Road Map - May, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Scott; Settgast, Randolph; Fu, Pengcheng; Antoun, Tarabay; Ryerson, F. J.

    2013-05-03

    GEOS is a massively parallel computational framework designed to enable HPC-based simulations of subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS will enable coupling of different solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. The overall architecture of the framework includes consistent data structures and will allow incorporation of additional physical and materials models as demanded by future applications. Along with predicting the initiation, propagation and reactivation of fractures, GEOS will also generate a seismic source term that can be linked with seismic wave propagation codes to generate synthetic microseismicity at surface and downhole arrays. Similarly, the output from GEOS can be linked with existing fluid/thermal transport codes. GEOS can also be linked with existing, non-intrusive uncertainty quantification schemes to constrain uncertainty in its predictions and sensitivity to the various parameters describing the reservoir and stimulation operations. We anticipate that an implicit-explicit 3D version of GEOS, including a preliminary seismic source model, will be available for parametric testing and validation against experimental and field data by Oct. 1, 2013.

  5. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery.

  6. Pursuing enterprise risk management: a local road map for Canadian healthcare leaders.

    PubMed

    Haney, James R; Church, John; Cockerill, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of organizational risk management in healthcare, and in particular the concepts of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), has identified a 5-part model that can be used by Canadian healthcare leaders as an evidence-supported approach to successful organizational risk management. The Model for Organizational Risk Management, termed "the Model," has been developed as a basis for linking the components of an ERM Framework into a Canadian health organization to overcome the barriers that commonly disrupt strategic risk management. The Model addresses how an ERM Framework can fit within an existing health organization by building off and enhancing existing processes and resources to ensure familiarity, acceptance, and sustainability of the risk management program. By approaching the Model in a stepwise fashion (based on individual organizational context), healthcare leaders are provided with a road map from which to advance their own organizational risk management program.

  7. Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Kukko, Antero

    2008-09-01

    Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehiclebased laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

  8. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

  9. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students…

  10. Mapping the royal road and other hierarchical functions.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Janet; Tonkes, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for visualising hierarchical and symmetric, multi-modal fitness functions that have been investigated in the evolutionary computation literature. The focus of this technique is on landscapes in moderate-dimensional, binary spaces (i.e., fitness functions defined over [0,1](n), for n < or = 16). The visualisation approach involves an unfolding of the hyperspace into a two-dimensional graph, whose layout represents the topology of the space using a recursive relationship, and whose shading defines the shape of the cost surface defined on the space. Using this technique we present case-study explorations of three fitness functions: royal road, hierarchical-if-and-only-if (H-IFF), and hierarchically decomposable functions (HDF). The visualisation approach provides an insight into the properties of these functions, particularly with respect to the size and shape of the basins of attraction around each of the local optima.

  11. Using IKONOS imagery for mapping instability factors and slope failures along a county road (Daunia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, C.; Casarano, D.; Wasowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the exploitation of high resolution optical imagery for the detection of slope conditions leading to instability and for mapping of active landslides along a road located in the Daunia Apennines (Southern Italy). The study area belongs to the municipal territory of Rocchetta Sant'Antonio and is known for recurrent landslide problems. We focus on 11 km long portion of SP99bis road, which has been damaged by many landslides and is currently closed to the traffic. This study is a part of an ongoing engineering geology investigation whose outcomes will be used to design future slope stabilization works. In order to obtain good quality data the IKONOS imagery was first orthorectified and pan-sharped. To overcome the lack of stereoscopic capability and to aid landslide identification, the imagery was draped over a detailed DEM (5 m grid). The image interpretation resulted in the recognition of 48 active landslides (some of small dimensions), which affect about 15% of the road length. Furthermore, thanks to the high resolution of the imagery it was possible to obtain very detailed information on water runoff in the areas upslope, downslope, as well as along the road track. Particular attention was paid to features indicative of the drainage conditions negative for the slope (and the road) stability, such as disordered surface drainage, water ponding, undrained depressions, anomalous wet areas. Poor drainage conditions (detected from satellite imagery) were found to coincide with 30 landslides. Further, in situ inspections conducted shortly after periods of intense rainfall confirmed that the hillslope areas in the vicinity the road landslides, as well as the road itself, are characterized by inadequate drainage. A comparison of field observations and remotely sensed data revealed that over 80% of the anomalous wet sites identified in situ was also detected from the satellite imagery. In conclusion, this case study demonstrates the practical applicability of

  12. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  13. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified “magic formula” tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method. PMID:28178332

  14. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  15. Automatic Road Area Extraction from Printed Maps Based on Linear Feature Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callier, Sebastien; Saito, Hideo

    Raster maps are widely available in the everyday life, and can contain a huge amount of information of any kind using labels, pictograms, or color code e.g. However, it is not an easy task to extract roads from those maps due to those overlapping features. In this paper, we focus on an automated method to extract roads by using linear features detection to search for seed points having a high probability to belong to roads. Those linear features are lines of pixels of homogenous color in each direction around each pixel. After that, the seeds are then expanded before choosing to keep or to discard the extracted element. Because this method is not mainly based on color segmentation, it is also suitable for handwritten maps for example. The experimental results demonstrate that in most cases our method gives results similar to usual methods without needing any previous data or user input, but do need some knowledge on the target maps; and does work with handwritten maps if drawn following some basic rules whereas usual methods fail.

  16. Developing Markov chain models for road surface simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Wescott B.; Ferris, John B.

    2007-04-01

    Chassis loads and vehicle handling are primarily impacted by the road surface over which a vehicle is traversing. By accurately measuring the geometries of road surfaces, one can generate computer models of these surfaces that will allow more accurate predictions of the loads introduced to various vehicle components. However, the logistics and computational power necessary to handle such large data files makes this problem a difficult one to resolve, especially when vehicle design deadlines are impending. This work aims to improve this process by developing Markov Chain models by which all relevant characteristics of road surface geometries will be represented in the model. This will reduce the logistical difficulties that are presented when attempting to collect data and run a simulation using large data sets of individual roads. Models will be generated primarily from measured road profiles of highways in the United States. Any synthetic road realized from a particular model is representative of all profiles in the set from which the model was derived. Realizations of any length can then be generated allowing efficient simulation and timely information about chassis loads that can be used to make better informed design decisions, more quickly.

  17. Exploring a Road Map to Counter Misconceptions About the Cervicovaginal Microbiome and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Macklaim, Jean M.; Cohen, Craig R.; Donders, Gilbert; Gloor, Gregory B.; Hill, Janet E.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Urogenital diseases, especially infection and cancer, are major causes of death and morbidity in females. Yet, millions of women in the developing world have no access to basic urogynecological care, and the diagnosis and treatment of widespread aberrant bacterial conditions (bacterial vaginosis [BV] and aerobic vaginitis [AV]) remain suboptimal the world over. Samples from women living in resource-disadvantaged and developed countries have been analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversity of bacteria in the vagina, how rapidly the bacterial population fluctuates over time, and how rapidly the switch occurs between healthy and aberrant conditions. Unfortunately, clinical diagnostic methods are inefficient and too often outdated therapies are administered. The net result is suboptimal care and recurrent disease that adversely affects the quality of life. This viewpoint outlines a scientific and translational road map designed to improve the cervicovaginal health and treatment of disease. This comprises (1) improving education of women and physicians on the vaginal microbiota; (2) having agencies target funding for research to improve diagnosis and test new therapies; and (3) making sure that new approaches are accessible in developing countries, empowering to women, and are acceptable and appropriate for different populations. PMID:22614624

  18. State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsen, I. D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.; Bravington, M. V.; Patterson, T. A.; Pedersen, M. W.; Thomson, R.; Thygesen, U. H.; Wotherspoon, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    Ecologists have an unprecedented array of bio-logging technologies available to conduct in situ studies of horizontal and vertical movement patterns of marine animals. These tracking data provide key information about foraging, migratory, and other behaviours that can be linked with bio-physical datasets to understand physiological and ecological influences on habitat selection. In most cases, however, the behavioural context is not directly observable and therefore, must be inferred. Animal movement data are complex in structure, entailing a need for stochastic analysis methods. The recent development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological "road map" for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods for location and/or behavioural state estimation from different tracking data types. Finally, we outline key areas where the methodology is advancing, and where it needs further development.

  19. A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, David E.; Grüneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F.; Tanik, Murat M.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. Results: We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still

  20. Mapping the human genome raises question: which road to take

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-04

    In the last 18 months, both the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health have undertaken initiatives directed at mapping the human genome. The project is expected to require at least a decade and cost from $100 million to $3 billion. When the proposal to mount an interdisciplinary attack on the genome was suggested in January 1986 by Charles DeLisi, PhD, associated director, health and environmental research, of the DOE;s Office of Energy Research, it sent shock waves through the biosciences community. However, they seem to have adapted to the idea during the ensuing months. Biologists who once asked should we be doing this. are now inquiring how should we be doing this. This question was central to an ongoing discourse among participants at the annual Short Course in Medical and Experimental Mammalian Genetics in Bar Harbor, Me. The course was sponsored by the Jackson Laboratory of Bar Harbor and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore.

  1. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-07-16

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network.

  2. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  3. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  4. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ROAD UPDATE INFORMATION BASED ON PUBLIC WORK ORDER OUTLOOK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Minami, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Syohei; Yamada, Harutoshi; Fuse, Takashi

    Recently, disclosure of statistic data, representing financial effects or burden for public work, through each web site of national or local government, enables us to discuss macroscopic financial trends. However, it is still difficult to grasp a basic property nationwide how each spot was changed by public work. In this research, our research purpose is to collect road update information reasonably which various road managers provide, in order to realize efficient updating of various maps such as car navigation maps. In particular, we develop the system extracting public work concerned and registering summary including position information to database automatically from public work order outlook, released by each local government, combinating some web mining technologies. Finally, we collect and register several tens of thousands from web site all over Japan, and confirm the feasibility of our method.

  6. A new road map for healthcare business success.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeni

    2011-05-01

    Action steps hospitals should take to prepare their organizations for a changing business development environment include: Developing a comprehensive forecast of the ways in which reform and market forces will affect patient volumes and service line demand. Aligning with physicians and other care entities in a tightly integrated way. Heightening transparency related to quality and cost. Investing in marketing and social media to strengthen the organization's market position.

  7. PEO Soldier Simulation Road Map V - The MATREX Federation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Integrated Casualty Estimation Model ( ICEM ). This includes conceptual modeling, KA/KE, model implementation, integration, and test Command and Control...prevent real-time linkage ^ith ICEM Rulesof Engagement IWARS Develop representations and soldier behaviorsthat capture the effects of IFF systems

  8. PEO Soldier Simulation Road Map VI - Command and Control Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    implementations more efficiently because the federation design and test cases communicated the requirements more completely. These requirements were...the simulation run using a 2x2 fac- torial design. In this case , he represented two different levels of body armor and night vision equipment (Kram...these sequence diagrams, the ORCEN developed and distributed automated test cases to better define the integration requirements for each supporting

  9. Automatic Registration of Wide Area Motion Imagery to Vector Road Maps by Exploiting Vehicle Detections.

    PubMed

    Elliethy, Ahmed; Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-11-01

    To enrich large-scale visual analytics applications enabled by aerial wide area motion imagery (WAMI), we propose a novel methodology for accurately registering a geo-referenced vector roadmap to WAMI by using the locations of detected vehicles and determining a parametric transform that aligns these locations with the network of roads in the roadmap. Specifically, the problem is formulated in a probabilistic framework, explicitly allowing for spurious detections that do not correspond to on-road vehicles. The registration is estimated via the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm as the planar homography that minimizes the sum of weighted squared distances between the homography-mapped detection locations and the corresponding closest point on the road network, where the weights are estimated posterior probabilities of detections being on-road vehicles. The weighted distance minimization is efficiently performed using the distance transform with the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least-squares minimization procedure, and the fraction of spurious detections is estimated within the EM framework. The proposed method effectively sidesteps the challenges of feature correspondence estimation, applies directly to different imaging modalities, is robust to spurious detections, and is also more appropriate than feature matching for a planar homography. Results over three WAMI data sets captured by both visual and infrared sensors indicate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology: both visual comparison and numerical metrics for the registration accuracy are significantly better for the proposed method as compared with the existing alternatives.

  10. A Road Map for Precision Medicine in the Epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Technological advances have paved the way for accelerated genomic discovery and are bringing precision medicine clearly into view. Epilepsy research in particular is well-suited to serve as a model for the development and deployment of targeted therapeutics in precision medicine because of the rapidly expanding genetic knowledge base in epilepsy, the availability of good in vitro and in vivo model systems to efficiently study the biological consequences of genetic mutations, the ability to turn these models into effective drug screening platforms, and the establishment of collaborative research groups. Moving forward, it is critical that we strengthen these collaborations, particularly through integrated research platforms to provide robust analyses both for accurate personal genome analysis and gene and drug discovery. Similarly, the implementation of clinical trial networks will allow the expansion of patient sample populations with genetically defined epilepsy so that drug discovery can be translated into clinical practice. PMID:26416172

  11. Variation of winter road surface temperature due to topography and application of Thermal Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, J.; Swanson, J. C.; Patterson, R.; Lister, P. J.; McDonald, A. N.

    1997-06-01

    It is known that topography is an important factor controlling the variation of road surface temperature (RST). In order to explore possible relationships between RST and topography, the authors used Thermal Mapping data obtained by a vehicle-mounted thermometer in a mountainous area in Nevada, USA, under different weather conditions in December 1994. The data were validated against the measurements of road surface sensors. After that, a step-wise regression technique is employed to find out possible statistic relationships between RST and altitude at different surveying routes. It was found that the relationships exhibited different characteristics in different climate domains and under different weather types. In most cases, the relationships were non-linear. In order to obtain more information about the cause of the residuals and the variation, the error of regression fitting is related to near-ground meteorological parameters (air temperature, dew point and wind, etc.). This study proved that Thermal Mapping is a reliable and effective method to display spatial variation of road surface temperature.

  12. Commentary: faculty development: the road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    The 2020 Vision of Faculty Development Across the Medical Education Continuum conference, and the resulting articles in this issue, addressed a number of topics related to the future of faculty development. Focusing primarily on the development of faculty members as teachers, conference participants debated issues related to core teaching competencies, barriers to effective teaching, competency-based assessment, relationship-centered care, the hidden curriculum that faculty members encounter, instructional technologies, continuing medical education, and research on faculty development. However, a number of subjects were not addressed. If faculty development is meant to play a leading role in ensuring that academic medicine remains responsive to faculty members and societal needs, additional themes should be considered. Medical educators should broaden the focus of faculty development and target the various roles that clinicians and basic scientists play, including those of leader and scholar. They must also remember that faculty development can play a critical role in curricular and organizational change and thus enlarge the scope of faculty development by moving beyond formal, structured activities, incorporating notions of self-directed learning, peer mentoring, and work-based learning. In addition, medical educators should try to situate faculty development in a more global context and collaborate with international colleagues in the transformation of medical education and health care delivery. It has been said that faculty development can play a critical role in promoting culture change at a number of levels. A broader mandate, innovative programming that takes advantage of communities of practice, and new partnerships can help to achieve this objective.

  13. Road pavement condition mapping and assessment using remote sensing data based on MESMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Rao, J.; Tian, S.; Luo, L.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing can be used to monitor changes of asphalt pavement condition because of the spectral change of aged asphalt material. However, owing to coarse spatial resolution of images and the limited width of roads ambient land cover types (e.g. vegetation, buildings, and soil) affect the spectral signal and add significant variability and uncertainty to analysis of road conditions. To overcome this problem, Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was tested to map asphalt pavement condition using WorldView-2 satellite imagery with eight bands spanning from visible to near infrared. Results indicated that MESMA run in a three-endmember model models mixed-pavement pixels well with a low average RMSE (0.01).

  14. Women in development: the road toward liberation.

    PubMed

    Rivera, P C

    1979-01-01

    Although women in the Philippines traditionally enjoyed considerable independence and equality, 3 centuries of Spanish colonialism greatly effaced their rights. The importance of the role women can play in development was highlighted at a recent consultation-workshop jointly sponsored by the FAO and the Population Center Foundation. Although 82% of Philippine women are literate, female education is accorded much less importance than that of males, and girls are often forced to discontinue their schooling early to help in housework. Rural Filipino women marry younger than their urban counterparts, and their fertility is correspondingly higher. Only 13% of rural women practice birth control. Participation of Filipino women in community affairs is mostly in social activities, although a few privileged women have gained elective office. The legal status of Filipino women is inferior to that of men in the areas of mixed marriage, choice of residence, parental authority, property rights, right to work, court suits, legal separation, and widow's rights. Labor force participation among women is only 1/2 that of men. As of 1975 only 0.6% of women workers occupied administrative or managerial positions. The National Commission of the Role of Filipino Women was created in 1975 as a coordinating body to promote the advancement of women in all levels of society to enable them to contribute more effectively to the development process. Specific programs carried out by government and private sector groups include extension education for women, basic skills training for income generating projects, community development, and population and family planning projects.

  15. Presenting a practical model for governmental political mapping on road traffic injuries in Iran in 2008: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, E; Soori, Hamid; Mahfozphoor, S; Movahedinejad, AA

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. Design A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. Setting The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the relevant specialists. After receiving written consent from the main responsible stakeholders, the questionnaire was filled in by trained experts. Themes were determined and content was analysed in each part. Participants Main responsible stakeholders. Main outcome measures By comparing other countries' political mappings which were found in the library and by Internet searching, political mapping of RTI in Iran was suggested. Results Subjects were 26 experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. The main proposed leading agencies were traffic police and presidency (13% each). Findings showed that only 31% of our political mapping was formed according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In 94% of cases, the involved organizations had unspecified roles; the reason was poor monitoring for RTI in 39% of organizations. Lack of adequate authority and suitable legislation, appropriate laws and tasks definition were 94% and 18%, respectively. The most essential policy to overcome problems was defined as appropriate legislation (21%), and the most frequent type of support needed was mentioned as adequate budgeting (25%). Conclusion Traffic police can play the leading agency role by government support, with strong leadership, appropriate legislation, defined tasks and adequate budget. PMID:22046498

  16. Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-05-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  17. Stereo Vision Based Terrain Mapping for Off-Road Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as no-go regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  18. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  19. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  20. Development of a screening method to assess flood risk on danish national roads and highway systems.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H; Larsen, M R A; Rasmussen, S F

    2011-01-01

    A method to assess flood risk on Danish national roads in a large area in the middle and southern part of Jutland, Denmark, was developed for the Danish Road Directorate. Flood risk has gained renewed focus due to the climate changes in recent years and extreme rain events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The assessment was primarily based on a digital terrain model (DTM) covering 7,500 km2 in a 1.6 x 1.6 m grid. The high-resolution terrain model was chosen in order to get an accurate estimation of the potential flooding in the road area and in the immediate vicinity, but also put a high requirement on the methods, hardware and software applied. The outcome of the analysis was detailed maps (as GIS layers) illustrating the location of depressions with depths, surface area and volume data for each depression. Furthermore, preferential flow paths, catchment boundaries and ranking of each depression were calculated. The ranking was based on volume of depressions compared with upstream catchment and a sensitivity analysis of the runoff coefficient. Finally, a method for assessing flood risk at a more advanced level (hydrodynamic simulation of surface and drainage) was developed and used on a specific blue spot as an example. The case study shows that upstream catchment, depressions, drainage system, and use of hydrodynamic calculations have a great influence on the result. Upstream catchments can contribute greatly to the flooding.

  1. Traffic noise mapping of Indian roads through smartphone user community participation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Singh, V P

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic noise pollution is a global hazard, and rapid urbanization has aggravated the problem. This paper explores a novel approach which involves a smartphone user community to monitor the prevalent noise. The system involves a client application on smartphones that records noise, processes the information and communicates to a server and shares the information as visual noise levels on Google® Maps. A fuzzy logic-based classification of noise is proposed. Results from residential, commercial, and industrial areas of the northern region of India are demonstrated. The noise levels are generally found to be higher than the prescribed standards. The experiment demonstrates the huge potential of user community participation in monitoring noise pollution.

  2. The Influence of Landscape Features on Road Development in a Loess Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  3. The influence of landscape features on road development in a loess region, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  4. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  5. Development of multiple-surface optical elements for road lighting.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Sergey V; Byzov, Egor V; Moiseev, Mikhail A; Doskolovich, Leonid L

    2017-02-20

    The development of LED secondary optics for road illumination is quite a challenging problem. Optical elements developed for this kind of application should have maximal efficiency, provide high luminance and illuminance uniformity, and meet many other specific requirements. Here, we demonstrate that the usage of the supporting quadric method modification enables generating free-form optical solution satisfying all these requirements perfectly. As an example, two optical elements for different roadway types are computed, manufactured by injection molding, and then measured in a photometry bench. Experimental data demonstrate that the obtained light distributions meet ME1 class requirements of EN 13201 standard. The obtained directivity patterns are universal and provide high performance with different configurations of luminaires' arrangement: the ratio of pole altitude to distance can vary from 2.5 up to 3.6.

  6. Evolution of the Oat Genetic Road Map: From Tetraploid to Hexaploid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of a genetic linkage map for hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L. 2n = 6 x = 42) that defines all 21 chromosomes has been hindered due to the lack of oat-based markers and the size and complexity of the oat genome. Recent efforts in oat DArT, SSR, and SNP marker development should improve...

  7. Maternal & Newborn Health Road Maps: a review of progress in 33 sub-Saharan African countries, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Ekechi, Christine; Wolman, Yaron; de Bernis, Luc

    2012-06-01

    The 2006 Maputo Plan of Action aimed to help African nations to achieve the Millennium Development Goals related to reducing maternal mortality, combatting HIV and AIDS, and reducing infant and child mortality within integrated sexual and reproductive health care plans. In 2008 and 2009, UNFPA worked with senior Ministry of Health officials and national UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO teams in 33 African countries to review their development of national Maternal and Newborn Health strategies and plans through a self-assessment survey. The survey showed that many key components were missing, in particular there was poor integration of family planning; lack of budgetary, infrastructure and human resources plans; and weak monitoring and evaluation provisions. The maternal and newborn health Road Map initiative has been the single most important factor for the initiation and development of the national maternal and newborn health plans for many African countries. However the deficiencies within these national plans need to be addressed before a significant reduction in maternal and newborn mortality can realistically be achieved.

  8. The RoadMAP Relapse Prevention Group Counseling Toolkit™: counselor adherence and competence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Adam C; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Fairfax-Columbo, Jaymes; Clements, Nicolle T; Benishek, Lois A; Knoblach, Dan; Carise, Deni; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2013-10-01

    Training counselors in empirically supported treatments (ESTs) far exceeds the ever decreasing resources of community-based treatment agencies. The purpose of this study was to examine outpatient substance abuse group counselors' (n=19) adherence and competence in communicating and utilizing concepts associated with empirically-supported relapse prevention treatment following a brief multimedia toolkit (RoadMAP Toolkit™) training. Moderate or large baseline to post-training effect sizes for counselor adherence to toolkit content were identified for 13 of 21 targeted behaviors (overall d range=.06-2.85) with the largest gains on items measuring active skill practice. Post-training adherence gains were largely maintained at the 6-month follow-up, although no statistically significant improvements were identified over time for counselor competence. This study provides important preliminary support for using a multi-media curriculum approach to increase empirically-supported relapse prevention skills among group counselors. Future research should focus on finding ways to improve counselor skill level and to determine the impact of the Toolkit on client outcomes.

  9. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  10. Development of IoT-based Urban Sinkhole and Road Collapse Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, B.; Bang, E.; Lee, H. J.; Jeong, S. W.; Ryu, D.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, B. K.; Yum, B. W.; Lee, I. H.

    2015-12-01

    The consortium of Korean government-funded research institutes is developing IoT- (Internet of things) based underground safety monitoring and alerting system to manage risks arisen from land subsidence and road collapses in metropolitan areas in South Korea. The system consists of four major functional units: subsurface monitoring sensors sending data directly through the internet, centralized servers capable of collecting and processing big data, computational modules providing physical and statistical models for predicting high-risk areas, and geologic information service platforms visualizing underground safety maps for the public. The target urban area will be regionally covered by multi-sensors monitoring soil and groundwater conditions, and by high resolution satellite InSAR images filtering vertical land movements in a centimeter scale. Integrity of buried water supply and sewer lines are also monitored for the possibility of underground cavity formation. Once high-risk area is predicted, more tangible surveying methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and resistivity survey can be applied for locating the cavities. Additionally, laboratory and field experiments are performed to understand overall road collapsing mechanism from the initial cavity creation to its progressive development depending on soil types, degree of compaction, and groundwater condition. Acquired results will update existing fully-coupled hydromechanical models for more accurate prediction of the collapsing-vulnerable area. Preliminary laboratory experiments show that the upward propagation of subsurface cavity is closely related to the soil properties, such as sand-clay ratios and moisture contents, and groundwater dynamics.

  11. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.

    1997-06-05

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.

  12. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21.

  13. North Cascade Road Developers, LLC - Dubuque, Iowa - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against North Cascade Road Developers, LLC, a business located at 1800 Manson Rd., Dubuque, IA 52003, for alleged violations at the Timber-Hyrst Estates Residential Development loc

  14. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  15. Computer analysis of Landsat, Thematic Mapper imagery and existing road locations for elk habitat mapping in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, L. III; Burton, T.S.

    1996-03-01

    We analyzed Landsat, Thermatic Mapper imagery and previously mapped, road locations to identify vegetation classes and measure elk habitat quality throughout a 350,810 hectare study area in north-central California. Computerized image classification procedures were used to identify and map 26 classes of vegetation cover and ten classes of non-vegetated land. A geographic information system was used to integrate road locations, quantify forage and cover quality ratings for vegetation types, and calculate an elk habitat quality index. Vegetation classes were aggregated into three forage quality and three cover quality ratings. Road locations were used to define corridors of low habitat quality, representing hunting pressure. Mountainous regions were dominated by conifer forest types and foothill regions were dominated by Juniper-Pine-Grass types. The valley region contained large amounts of the sage and rabbit brush types. Thirty-four percent of the western third of the study area, dominated by foothills and mountains, was classed as good habitat. By contrast the central and eastern portions of the study area, dominated by the valley region and mountains, contained a small proportion (12 percent) of the better habitats. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Road safety development in Europe: a decade of changes (2001-2010).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the road safety development of a country over time, the percentage change in the number of road fatalities is traditionally the main indicator. However, simply considering the reduction in the road fatalities may not correctly reflect the real improvement in road safety because the transport circumstances of a country underlying the road fatalities also change every year. In this study, we present a new way for measuring the road safety performance change over time, which is to use the technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist productivity index. In doing so, we can not only focus on the evolution of road safety final outcomes within a given period, but also take the changes of different measures of exposure in the same period into account. In the application, the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index (DEA-MI) is used to measure the extent to which the EU countries have improved their road safety performance over the period 2001-2010. More objective and insightful results are obtained compared to the ones based on the traditional indicator. The results show considerable road safety progress in most of the Member States during these ten years, and the fatality risk rather than the fatality number on Europe's roads has actually been reduced by approximately half. However, the situation differed considerably from country to country. The decomposition of the DEA-MI into 'efficiency change' and 'technical change' further reveals that the bulk of the improvement during the last decade was attained through the adoption of productivity-enhancing new technologies throughout the road transport sector in Europe, rather than through the relatively underperforming countries catching up with those best-performing ones.

  17. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  18. Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, John D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Kraus, Stefan; Baron, Fabien; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Dong, Ruobing; Isella, Andrea; Merand, Antoine; Michael, Ernest; Minardi, Stefano; Mozurkewich, David; Petrov, Romain; Rinehart, Stephen; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Vasisht, Gautam; Wishnow, Ed; Young, John; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-08-01

    of PFI, including the potential to resolve protoplanetary disks in emission lines to measure planet masses using position-velocity diagrams. We advocate for a specific technology road map in order to reduce the current cost driver (telescopes) and to validate high accuracy fringe tracking and high dynamic range imaging at L, M band. In conclusion, no technology show-stoppers have been identified for PFI to date, however there is high potential for breakthroughs in medium-aperture (4-m class) telescopes architecture that could reduce the cost of PFI by a factor of 2 or more.

  19. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

  20. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

  1. Bird communities, roads and development: Prospects and constraints of applying empirical models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutzwiller, K.J.; Barrow, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    Our objectives were to explain the prospects and constraints of applying empirical models that relate bird community metrics to broad-scale characteristics of roads and development. We explored the practical value of regression models that were derived for a large protected area in the Chihuahuan Desert. These models related bird species richness, relative abundance, or probability of occurrence to total length of roads within each of two spatial extents (1- and 2-km radii), distance to the nearest road, distance to the nearest development, or the two-way interactions of these variables. Empirical models can be used to inform conservation decisions, to parameterise simulation models for conservation planning, to identify threshold levels of road and development variables, and to determine the focus of management experiments for confirmatory hypothesis testing and improvement of model realism.

  2. Community Capacity and Resource Mapping: Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedrick, Angie; Mitchell, Graham

    This document explains the use of a model for mapping community capacity and resources that was developed by the community development office of a health group in Edmonton, Alberta, and applied in a collaborative pilot project in preparation for development of a community health plan. A brief discussion of the factors leading to development of the…

  3. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being.

  4. Fund-Raising Worries? These 2 Consultants Provide a Road Map for Bumpy Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Even in good times, philanthropy's road warriors spend much of their time traveling to clients' campuses to help plan megacampaigns or improve giving programs. But now, as the stock market stumbles and the country's financial system gets an extreme makeover, demand for their presence has gone up, as college administrators and trustees look for…

  5. Overview of superconductivity in Japan Strategy road map and R&D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, O.

    2008-09-01

    Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R&D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R&D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R&D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R&D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R&D actives in various fields of industries. R&D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map.

  6. Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  7. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  8. Career mapping: developing nurse leaders, reinvigorating careers.

    PubMed

    Shermont, Herminia; Krepcio, Deborah; Murphy, Jane M

    2009-10-01

    Nurse leaders must ensure the continued development and learning of all nurses, including those who postpone participation in existing professional development activities. In this article, the authors describe a career mapping program for nurses who have demonstrated reluctance in establishing and pursuing career advancement goals. The program incorporates a 2-tiered mentoring strategy and guides nurses in assessing their strengths and interests, developing career goals, and mapping out and implementing a career plan to meet personal and professional needs. The 18-month program resulted in career advancement for most participants and offers a model for leadership development.

  9. Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

  10. ­­Estimating Forest Management Units from Road Network Maps in the Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Hall, J.; Fu, C. S.; Binford, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most important factor affecting forest structure and function is the type of management undertaken in forest stands. Owners manage forests using appropriately sized areas to meet management objectives, which include economic return, sustainability, recreation, or esthetic enjoyment. Thus, the socio-environmental unit of study for forests should be the management unit. To study the ecological effects of different kinds of management activities, we must identify individual management units. Road networks, which provide access for human activities, are widely used in managing forests in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain and Piedmont (SEUS). Our research question in this study is: How can we identify individual forest management units in an entire region? To answer it, we hypothesize that the road network defines management units on the landscape. Road-caused canopy openings are not always captured by satellite sensors, so it is difficult to delineate ecologically relevant patches based only on remote sensing data. We used a reliable, accurate and freely available road network data, OpenStreetMap (OSM), and the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) to delineate management units in a section of the SEUS defined by Landsat Wprldwide Reference System (WRS) II footprint path 17 row 39. The spatial frequency distributions of forest management units indicate that while units < 0.5 Ha comprised 64% of the units, these small units covered only 0.98% of the total forest area. Management units ≥ 0.5 Ha ranged from 0.5 to 160,770 Ha (the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge). We compared the size-frequency distributions of management units with four independently derived management types: production, ecological, preservation, and passive management. Preservation and production management had the largest units, at 40.5 ± 2196.7 (s.d.) and 41.3 ± 273.5 Ha, respectively. Ecological and passive averaged about half as large at 19.2 ± 91.5 and 22.4 ± 96.0 Ha, respectively

  11. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  12. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents To Support Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Leonard P.; Shim, Simon S. Y.; Booth, Robert P.; Atreya, Shreemathi D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses intelligent agent development environments and distance learning environments, and describes ROADS (Real-time Object-oriented Agent Development System) that has been developed and used to manage the acquisition and presentation of multimedia information in distance learning. Explains a theory of objects and gives a distance learning…

  13. Development of base maps' role in soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

    2014-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

  14. Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0

  15. EPA GHG certification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles: Development of road grade profiles representative of US controlled access highways

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-09-27

    In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom's commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-dutymore » trucks on controlled access highways. Here, the national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.« less

  16. EPA GHG certification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles: Development of road grade profiles representative of US controlled access highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-09-27

    In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom's commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. Here, the national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.

  17. Landscape character assessment with GIS using map-based indicators and photographs in the relationship between landscape and roads.

    PubMed

    Martín, Belén; Ortega, Emilio; Otero, Isabel; Arce, Rosa M

    2016-09-15

    Planning and monitoring of landscapes cannot be reduced to its outstanding features, but must take into account all its characteristics. In this context, the relationship of landscape with roads is of particular importance, because roads alter the territory's environmental resources but also constitute a resource through which the individual comes into contact with the landscape. The aim of this work is to design a methodology to evaluate both the character and the scenic quality of the landscape as viewed from motorways and to provide measures to assess whether the motorway conveys the character of the landscape of which it forms part. The main contribution of this research consists of assessing landscape character through a novel series of map-based indicators and combining the findings with a photo-based method of assessing visual landscape quality. The method has been applied to a case study around a motorway in Madrid Region (Spain). Landscape character values regarding coherence, complexity, naturalness, visual scale, disturbance, historicity, and ephemera are obtained using Geographic Information Systems. Additionally, the landscape quality results derived using photographs allow the incorporation of the user's perception at a local scale.

  18. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  19. Development of Mapping Applications for Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, A. A.; Kikin, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    Development of mobile applications is a very popular trend of today's informational technologies. Moreover, mapping applications are one of the most popular among all. However, development of mobile applications has some issues while implementing application for multiple mobile platforms and while making it work offline. According to our development experience, it was decided to show main methods of mobile application development, describe advantages and disadvantages of each with respect to mapping functions and application complexity. Special attention was paid to hybrid mobile development technology in order to check out the widespread information about it's high development speed in compare to "native" and to make sure that it allows to realize easy transferring of existing web application to mobile platform.

  20. Development of Road Traffic CA Model of 4-Way Intersection to Study Travel Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawniczak, Anna T.; di Stefano, Bruno N.

    We describe our development of a road traffic CA (Cellular Automata) model of the four most common types of 4-way intersection (Yield-controlled intersections, Stop-controlled intersections, Signal-controlled intersections, and Roundabout-based intersection). We developed this model to study how these four different types of 4-way intersection affect road traffic flow and congestion in general and “travel time” in particular. In this paper we describe the model and 4WayCA.exe, the traffic simulator software package in which the model has been implemented. We focus in particular on the model abstractions and on the simulator architecture.

  1. Fast Mapping Skills in the Developing Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Hahn, Erin R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation was a longitudinal study of fast mapping skills in normally developing children, 16-18 months of age. The purpose was to examine the effects of practice on the accessibility of words in lexical memory. Method: Eight children were taught the names of 24 unfamiliar objects over 12 weekly training sessions. The…

  2. Flood-inundation maps for Big Creek from the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the confluence of Hog Wallow Creek, Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-08-20

    The availability of these maps, when combined with real-time stage information from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stage from the NWS, provides emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood-response activities such as evacuations and road closures, in addition to post-flood recovery efforts.

  3. Flood-inundation maps for South Fork Peachtree Creek from the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge, DeKalb County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-10-14

    The availability of these flood-inundation maps, when combined with real-time stage information from USGS streamgages, provides emergency management personnel and residents with critical information during flood-response activities, such as evacuations and road closures, in addition to post-flood recovery efforts.

  4. Assistive Technology: A Funding Workbook. Part I, A Road Map to Funding Sources. Part II, An Outline of Federal Laws and Rules. 1991 Edition. RESNA Technical Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael W.; Golinker, Lewis A.

    This compilation on assistive technology devices and services aims to improve understanding of funding streams and creative ways to eliminate funding barriers in Medicaid, special education, and vocational rehabilitation. The first part comprises a workbook titled "A Road Map to Funding Sources." It assists in creating a systematic…

  5. Dynamic mapping of normal human hippocampal development.

    PubMed

    Gogtay, Nitin; Nugent, Tom F; Herman, David H; Ordonez, Anna; Greenstein, Deanna; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Clasen, Liv; Toga, Arthur W; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Thompson, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The hippocampus, which plays an important role in memory functions and emotional responses, has distinct subregions subserving different functions. Because the volume and shape of the hippocampus are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders, it is important to understand the trajectory of normal hippocampal development. We present the first dynamic maps to reveal the anatomical sequence of normal human hippocampal development. A novel hippocampal mapping technique was applied to a database of prospectively obtained brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (100 scans in 31 children and adolescents), scanned every 2 yr for 6-10 yr between ages 4 and 25. Our results establish that the structural development of the human hippocampus is remarkably heterogeneous, with significant differences between posterior (increase over time) and anterior (loss over time) subregions. These distinct developmental trajectories of hippocampal subregions may parallel differences in their functional development.

  6. Suitability estimation for urban development using multi-hazard assessment map.

    PubMed

    Bathrellos, George D; Skilodimou, Hariklia D; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Youssef, Ahmed M; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2017-01-01

    Preparation of natural hazards maps are vital and essential for urban development. The main scope of this study is to synthesize natural hazard maps in a single multi-hazard map and thus to identify suitable areas for the urban development. The study area is the drainage basin of Xerias stream (Northeastern Peloponnesus, Greece) that has frequently suffered damages from landslides, floods and earthquakes. Landslide, flood and seismic hazard assessment maps were separately generated and further combined by applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a multi-hazard map. This map represents the potential suitability map for urban development in the study area and was evaluated by means of uncertainty analysis. The outcome revealed that the most suitable areas are distributed in the southern part of the study area, where the landslide, flood and seismic hazards are at low and very low level. The uncertainty analysis shows small differences on the spatial distribution of the suitability zones. The produced suitability map for urban development proves a satisfactory agreement between the suitability zones and the landslide and flood phenomena that have affected the study area. Finally, 40% of the existing urban pattern boundaries and 60% of the current road network are located within the limits of low and very low suitability zones.

  7. A Winning Strategy: Using "Glory Road" to Illustrate the Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Haley; Wimmer, Gaea

    2012-01-01

    Leadership educators work to engage and teach their students in new and innovative ways. The film "Glory Road" was shown in an agricultural leadership class to reiterate a lesson taught on Tuckman and Jensen's (1977) Stages of Group Development. Students wrote a paper to communicate their ability to identify and evaluate the stages of…

  8. Study on Mobile Object Positioning and Alarming System Based on the “Map World” in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The established “Map World” on the National Geographic Information Public Service Platform offers free access to many geographic information in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Considering the special security situation and severe splittism and anti-splittism struggles in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt, a set of moving target positioning and alarming platform based on J2EE platform and B/S structure was designed and realized by combining the “Map World” data and global navigation satellite system. This platform solves various problems, such as effective combination of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and “Map World” resources, moving target alarming setting, inquiry of historical routes, system management, etc.

  9. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  10. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water

  11. The Use of Innovation Configuration Maps in Assessing Implementation: The Bridge between Development and Student Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.; George, Archie A.

    This paper describes Innovation Configuration (IC) Mapping as an approach for assessing the extent of implementation of a program. An IC Map is similar metaphorically to a road map in that it summarizes different ways of getting from one point to another. Each map consists of basic units, or components, that can be made operational in a number of…

  12. Modeling, analysis, and simulation of the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingtao; Ye, Zhirui; Shan, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional logistic model is proposed to describe the co-development of road networks and vehicle ownership. The endogenous interaction between road networks and vehicle ownership and how natural market forces and policies transformed into their co-development are considered jointly in this model. If the involved parameters satisfy a certain condition, the proposed model can arrive at a steady equilibrium level and the final development scale will be within the maximum capacity of an urban traffic system; otherwise, the co-development process will be unstable and even manifest chaotic behavior. Then sensitivity tests are developed to determine the proper values for a series of parameters in this model. Finally, a case study, using Beijing City as an example, is conducted to explore the applicability of the proposed model to the real condition. Results demonstrate that the proposed model can effectively simulate the co-development of road network and vehicle ownership for Beijing City. Furthermore, we can obtain that their development process will arrive at a stable equilibrium level in the years 2040 and 2045 respectively, and the equilibrium values are within the maximum capacity.

  13. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2014-02-15

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

  14. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  15. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  16. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: a road ahead.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D Nageswara

    2013-11-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines.

  17. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: A road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D. Nageswara

    2013-01-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331

  18. Building Information Modeling (BIM): A Road Map for Implementation to Support MILCON Transformation and Civil Works Projects within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    ER D C TR -0 6 -1 0 Building Information Modeling (BIM) A Road Map for Implementation To Support MILCON Transformation and Civil Works...Transformation and Civil Works Projects within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Beth A. Brucker, Michael P. Case, E. William East, and Susan D... civil works and military construction business processes, including the process for working with the USACE Architectural Engineering Construction (AEC

  19. Development of Geospatial Map Based Election Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Vasanth Kumar, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Election portal (GMEP) of NCT of Delhi. The portal has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for pertain to planning and management of Department of Chief Electoral Officer, and as an election related information searching tools (Polling Station, Assembly and parliamentary constituency etc.,) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMEP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using ArcGIS Server 10.0 with J2EE front-end on Microsoft Windows environment. The GMEP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMEP includes delimited precinct area boundaries of Voters Area of Polling stations, Assembly Constituency, Parliamentary Constituency, Election District, Landmark locations of Polling Stations & basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools and Fire Stations etc.). GMEP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for management of elections. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  20. Transfusion transmission of HCV, a long but successful road map to safety.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Suganya; Busch, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Improved blood banking practices and the development and implementation of increasingly sensitive serological and nucleic acid amplification technology assays for screening donors for HCV over the past few decades have helped minimize the residual risk from transfusion transmitted HCV in the developed world. Furthermore, studies of transfusion transmitted infections and of donors identified as infected by routine screening have provided significant insights into HCV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis. However, transfusion transmission of HCV is still a significant route of infection in the developing world. Key preventive mechanisms to ensure safe blood include elimination of paid donors and development of national donor pools comprising volunteer repeat blood donors, combined with implementation of standardized and maximally sensitive screening assays for HCV. There is also a need to develop up-to-date data on HCV disease burden on a global scale, in part, derived from systematic screening of donors for HCV infection. We suggest the creation of blood donor databases and specimen repositories, both at national and international levels, to facilitate epidemiological surveillance and pathogenesis and treatment studies in the future.

  1. Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finance Project, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings…

  2. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  3. A road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Schiffers, Katja; Gravel, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. Despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticized for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. Developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species and communities under changing environments. In this paper, we briefly review some eco-evolutionary processes and interplays among them which are essential to provide reliable projections of species distributions and community structure. We identify gaps in theory, quantitative knowledge and data availability hampering the development of an integrated modelling framework. We argue that model development relying on a strong theoretical foundation is essential to inspire new models, manage complexity and to maintain tractability. We support our argument with an example of a novel integrated model for species distribution modelling, derived from metapopulation theory, which accounts for abiotic constraints, dispersal, biotic interactions and evolution under changing environmental conditions. We hope such a perspective will motivate exciting and novel research, and challenge others to improve on our proposed approach. PMID:23679011

  4. Approaches to strategic research and technology (R&T) analysis and road mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Increasingly, the timely and successful incorporation of innovative technologies into new systems is a critical factor in their success or failure. This is true for both commercial and government space missions. In addition, continuing progress in methodologies that may enable the effective identification of long-term technology needs and opportunities—and the guidance of ongoing research and technology (R&T) programs to address them—is vital to progress in space exploration and commercial development. NASA's long-standing use of technology readiness levels (TRLs) is one such approach. These technology discipline-independent metrics provide a valuable tool in technology management at all levels in an organization. However, TRLs provide only the basic guideposts for R&T management: information on the current and desired level of maturity of a technology for a particular application. In order to succeed over the longer term, additional methodologies are needed, including those which allow the identification of anticipated uncertainty in planned R&T programs, as well as approaches that permit the identification of overall technology-derived uncertainty in future space systems developments. This paper provides a preliminary discussion of this critical subject, including an overview of the history and the current practices of the TRL approach. In addition, the paper presents a recently-formulated strategic technology management approach that attempts to address the question of uncertainty in technology development and applications: the Integrated Technology Analysis Methodology (ITAM). The paper concludes with a discussion of a future directions for space technology management, and how these tools might be used to facilitate coordination and discussions in an international setting.

  5. The Road to MOF-Related Functional Materials and Beyond: Desire, Design, Decoration, and Development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junying; Li, Yingwei

    2016-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are known as a class of porous coordination polymers, have proven to be of great significance to manifold applications, owing to their fascinating topology, ultrahigh porosity, enormous internal surface area, and the combination of being as rigid as inorganic materials and as flexible as organic materials . In this review, we give a concise history of the development of MOFs as functional materials prior to our entry into this area in 2006, then a summary of our road to participate in and extend the outline of the research in MOFs chemistry, as well as the challenge in further designing applicable functional materials. We describe not only the road of evolution from the past, present, and future of this chemistry, but also the road to finalize a functional material from the desire to the design, synthesis, and postmodification of a MOF. Throughout the review, we particularly emphasize the improvements in the application of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts, such as employing MOFs as one component for the construction of composites, and their extended scope in tough catalytic reactions. Examples of applications in gas storage and separation, small molecular sensing, and our perspectives for future applications triggered by MOFs, are also introduced.

  6. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Translational Medicine (TM) in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present. PMID:22929646

  7. Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

    2008-08-18

    Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

  8. A Road Map to Commercialization of Cartilage Therapy in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, BanuPriya; Sharma, Blanka

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous efforts in cartilage regeneration, few products see the light of clinical translation as the commercialization process is opaque, financially demanding, and requires collaboration with people of varied skill sets. The aim of this review is to introduce, to an academic audience, the different paradigms involved in the commercialization of cartilage regeneration technology, elucidate the different hurdles associated with the use of cells and materials in developing new technologies, discuss potential commercialization strategies, and inform the reader about the current trends observed in both the clinical and laboratory setting for establishing clinical trials. Although there are review articles on articular cartilage tissue engineering, independent reports provided by the Food and Drug Administration, and separate review articles on animal models, this is the first review that encompasses all of these facets and is presented in a format favorable to the academic investigator interested in clinical translation from bench to bedside. PMID:26192161

  9. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar

  10. Identification and management of invasive mycoses in internal medicine: a road-map for physicians.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Iori, Ido; Lo Cascio, Giuliana; Mazzone, Antonino; Pea, Federico; Violi, Francesco; Venditti, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Invasive mycoses are a rising problem, not only in traditional categories of patients like hematologic or neutropenic ones, but also in elderly non-neutropenic patients admitted to internal medicine wards. Patients being admitted to medical wards are usually older, have multiple comorbidities, e.g., liver cirrhosis or chronic obstructive respiratory disease, may be malnourished or receive peripheral or total parenteral nutrition, and frequently are undergoing chronic corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy for cancer or monoclonal antibodies for autoimmune diseases. Such risk factors may be contemporarily present in a single patient increasing the risk for the development of invasive mycoses. Diagnosis of candidemia and invasive aspergillosis is particularly difficult in patients hospitalized on medical wards, since symptoms and signs have low specificity, and most diagnostic tests have been only validated in neutropenic hematologic patients, but not in those without neutropenia. Both candidemia and invasive aspergillosis carry significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to provide a simple guide to physicians for a prompt identification and treatment of patients with possible or suspected invasive mycoses.

  11. Career Mapping for Professional Development and Succession Planning.

    PubMed

    Webb, Tammy; Diamond-Wells, Tammy; Jeffs, Debra

    Career mapping facilitates professional development of nurses by education specialists and nurse managers. On the basis of national Nursing Professional Development Scope and Standards, our education and professional development framework supports the organization's professional practice model and provides a foundation for the professional career map. This article describes development, implementation, and evaluation of the professional career map for nurses at a large children's hospital to support achievement of the nursing strategic goals for succession planning and professional development.

  12. An effective road management system using web-based GIS software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

  13. Concept Mapping: Developing Guides to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Concept maps, diagrams that show the relationships among concepts in a piece of writing, can help students travel through literature to destinations that they can identify and defend. The use of concept maps for Ernest Hemingway's "The Old Man and The Sea" and Albert Camus'"The Stranger" is described. (MLW)

  14. Topic Maps e-Learning Portal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsevicova, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Topic Maps, ISO/IEC 13250 standard, are designed to facilitate the organization and navigation of large collections of information objects by creating meta-level perspectives of their underlying concepts and relationships. The underlying structure of concepts and relations is expressed by domain ontologies. The Topics Maps technology can become…

  15. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  16. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives

  17. Road Extraction from AVIRIS Using Spectral Mixture and Q-Tree Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.; Funk, Chris; Noronha, Val

    2001-01-01

    Accurate road location and condition information are of primary importance in road infrastructure management. Additionally, spatially accurate and up-to-date road networks are essential in ambulance and rescue dispatch in emergency situations. However, accurate road infrastructure databases do not exist for vast areas, particularly in areas with rapid expansion. Currently, the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) extends great effort in field Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping and condition assessment to meet these informational needs. This methodology, though effective, is both time-consuming and costly, because every road within a DOT's jurisdiction must be field-visited to obtain accurate information. Therefore, the USDOT is interested in identifying new technologies that could help meet road infrastructure informational needs more effectively. Remote sensing provides one means by which large areas may be mapped with a high standard of accuracy and is a technology with great potential in infrastructure mapping. The goal of our research is to develop accurate road extraction techniques using high spatial resolution, fine spectral resolution imagery. Additionally, our research will explore the use of hyperspectral data in assessing road quality. Finally, this research aims to define the spatial and spectral requirements for remote sensing data to be used successfully for road feature extraction and road quality mapping. Our findings will facilitate the USDOT in assessing remote sensing as a new resource in infrastructure studies.

  18. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. Materials and Methods A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Results Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. Conclusions 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions. PMID:27249022

  19. A Web-GIS Procedure Based on Satellite Multi-Spectral and Airborne LIDAR Data to Map the Road blockage Due to seismic Damages of Built-Up Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, Antonio; Montuori, Antonio; Silva, Juan Pablo; Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a web-GIS procedure to map the risk of road blockage in urban environments through the combined use of space-borne and airborne remote sensing sensors is presented. The methodology concerns (1) the provision of a geo-database through the integration of space-borne multispectral images and airborne LiDAR data products; (2) the modeling of building vulnerability, based on the corresponding 3D geometry and construction time information; (3) the GIS-based mapping of road closure due to seismic- related building collapses based on the building characteristic height and the width of the road. Experimental results, gathered for the Cosenza urban area, allow demonstrating the benefits of both the proposed approach and the GIS-based integration of multi-platforms remote sensing sensors and techniques for seismic road assessment purposes.

  20. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  1. Development of Map Construction Skills in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Pamela L.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined children's map construction skills when drawing demands were removed from the task and scenes were highly simplified. Study 1 compared the performance of first graders and third graders on their ability to preserve configuration during transformation of pictured arrays from eye-level to aerial views. For children with…

  2. Cluster categorization of urban roads to optimize their noise monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zambon, G; Benocci, R; Brambilla, G

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic in urban areas is recognized to be associated with urban mobility and public health, and it is often the main source of noise pollution. Lately, noise maps have been considered a powerful tool to estimate the population exposure to environmental noise, but they need to be validated by measured noise data. The project Dynamic Acoustic Mapping (DYNAMAP), co-funded in the framework of the LIFE 2013 program, is aimed to develop a statistically based method to optimize the choice and the number of monitoring sites and to automate the noise mapping update using the data retrieved from a low-cost monitoring network. Indeed, the first objective should improve the spatial sampling based on the legislative road classification, as this classification is mainly based on the geometrical characteristics of the road, rather than its noise emission. The present paper describes the statistical approach of the methodology under development and the results of its preliminary application to a limited sample of roads in the city of Milan. The resulting categorization of roads, based on clustering the 24-h hourly L Aeqh, looks promising to optimize the spatial sampling of noise monitoring toward a description of the noise pollution due to complex urban road networks more efficient than that based on the legislative road classification.

  3. Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  5. Developing Flood-Inundation Maps for Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonewall, Adam J.; Beal, Benjamin A.

    2017-04-14

    ) data collected in 2014 to delineate water-surface extents for each of the eight modeled stages. The availability of flood-inundation maps in conjunction with real-time data from the USGS streamgages along Johnson Creek and forecasted hydrographs from the National Weather Service Northwest River Forecast Center will provide residents of the watershed and emergency management personnel with valuable information that may aid in flood response, including potential evacuations, road closures, and mitigation efforts. In addition, these maps may be used for post-flood recovery efforts.

  6. Map Skills Instruction and the Child's Developing Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Judith M. W.

    1973-01-01

    A hierarchial sequence for map skills instruction is proposed and related to existing programs. Emphasis in this sequential structure is placed on gradual development of the student's ability to use grid reference systems and orient himself satisfactorily on maps, as well as the gradual acquisition of certain measurement abilities. (SM)

  7. Towards developing Kentucky's landscape change maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zourarakis, D.P.; Lambert, S.C.; Palmer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Kentucky Landscape Snapshot Project, a NASA-funded project, was established to provide a first baseline land cover/land use map for Kentucky. Through this endeavor, change detection will be institutionalized, thus aiding in decision-making at the local, state, and federal planning levels. 2002 Landsat 7 imaginery was classified following and Anderson Level III scheme, providing an enhancement over the 1992 USGS National Land Cover Data Set. Also as part of the deliverables, imperviousness and canopy closure layers were produced with the aid of IKONOS high resolution, multispectral imagery.

  8. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  9. Concept mapping for the development of medical curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Katherine M.

    Increased use of problem-based approaches to medical education has highlighted the challenges of curricular revision and interdisciplinary development. Venturing beyond disciplinary boundaries can be difficult, despite a desire to create interdisciplinary courses and adopt new ways of teaching. Concept mapping is an effective tool for developing an integrated curriculum. This article includes examples of concept maps that represent an entire veterinary curriculum, specific courses, and case-based exercises. The author argues that concept mapping is a valuable tool for curriculum development of any scope or discipline, but is particularly helpful for creating interdisciplinary courses and case-based exercises.Received: 13 December 1994; Revised: 27 December 1994;

  10. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  11. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  12. An Evaluation of the Added Value of Co-Design in the Development of an Educational Game for Road Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All, Anissa; Van Looy, Jan; Castellar, Elena Patricia Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the added value of co-design in addition to other innovation research methods in the process of developing a serious game design document for a road safety game. The sessions aimed at exploring 4 aspects of a location-based game experience: themes, game mechanics, mobile phone applications and locations for mini-games. In…

  13. 23 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Highway System and Local Access Roads Construction Contracts B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633... REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) Pt. 633, Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633—Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Highway System and Local Access Roads Construction Contracts B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633... REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) Pt. 633, Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633—Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway...

  15. Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2014-09-01

    Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors.

  16. A Tool for Modelling the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    Triggers such as earthquakes or heavy rainfall can result in hundreds to thousands of landslides occurring across a region within a short space of time. These landslides can in turn result in blockages across the road network, impacting how people move about a region. Here, we show the development and application of a semi-stochastic model to simulate how landslides intersect with road networks during a triggered landslide event. This was performed by creating 'synthetic' triggered landslide inventory maps and overlaying these with a road network map to identify where road blockages occur. Our landslide-road model has been applied to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. For both regions, detailed landslide inventory maps for the triggered events were available, in addition to maps of landslide susceptibility and road networks of primary, secondary and tertiary roads. To create 'synthetic' landslide inventory maps, landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL. The number of landslide areas selected was based on the observed density of landslides (number of landslides km-2) in the triggered event inventories. Landslide shapes were approximated as ellipses, where the ratio of the major and minor axes varies with AL. Landslides were then dropped over the region semi-stochastically, conditioned by a landslide susceptibility map, resulting in a synthetic landslide inventory map. The originally available landslide susceptibility maps did not take into account susceptibility changes in the immediate vicinity of roads, therefore

  17. USGS ShakeMap Developments, Implementation, and Derivative Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Lin, K.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss ongoing development and enhancements of ShakeMap, a system for automatically generating maps of ground shaking and intensity in the minutes following an earthquake. The rapid availability of these maps is of particular value to emergency response organizations, utilities, insurance companies, government decision- makers, the media, and the general public. ShakeMap Version 3.2 was released in March, 2007, on a download site which allows ShakeMap developers to track operators' updates and provide follow-up information; V3.2 has now been downloaded in 15 countries. The V3.2 release supports LINUX in addition to other UNIX operating systems and adds enhancements to XML, KML, metadata, and other products. We have also added an uncertainty measure, quantified as a function of spatial location. Uncertainty is essential for evaluating the range of possible losses. Though not released in V3.2, we will describe a new quantitative uncertainty letter grading for each ShakeMap produced, allowing users to gauge the appropriate level of confidence when using rapidly produced ShakeMaps as part of their post-earthquake critical decision-making process. Since the V3.2 release, several new ground motion predictions equations have also been added to the prediction equation modules. ShakeMap is implemented in several new regions as reported in this Session. Within the U.S., robust systems serve California, Nevada, Utah, Washington and Oregon, Hawaii, and Anchorage. Additional systems are in development and efforts to provide backup capabilities for all Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regions at the National Earthquake Information Center are underway. Outside the U.S., this Session has descriptions of ShakeMap systems in Italy, Switzerland, Romania, and Turkey, among other countries. We also describe our predictive global ShakeMap system for the rapid evaluation of significant earthquakes globally for the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER

  18. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  19. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  20. Recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Jennifer; Austen, Dave; Brouwer, Wytze

    2002-05-01

    We present recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS - JAVA enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first 3 terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes JAVA applets, FLASH animations and HTML based tutorials. The overall instructional philosophy of MAP is constructivist and the project emphasizes active learner participation. In this talk we will provide a quick overview of the project and the results of recent pilot testing at several Canadian universities. It will also include a discussion of the VIDEO LAB aspect of MAP. This is a component that is integrated into MAP and permits students to capture and evaluate otherwise difficult to study phenomena on video.

  1. Paving the way for invasive species: road type and the spread of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  2. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  3. Road-mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 Topography Mission SAR-Mode waveform Retracking over water surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Gommenginger, Christine; Dinardo, Salvatore; Martin-Puig, MCristina; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Cotton, David; Ray, Chris

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the ESA SAMOSA Project (SAR Altimetry Studies and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters), innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR retrackers. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter Echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in elevation and azimuth, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations negatively impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent future implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes for future SAR altimeters. However, since the ultimate goal of the SAMOSA project is to deliver to the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission Product and Algorithm Development (S-3 STM PAD) a Detailed Processing Model of a SAR ocean waveform re-tracker based on the best SAMOSA model to operationally retrack Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode L1b waveforms, the need for the full mathematical complexity of the SAMOSA2 model is currently being evaluated. With this in mind, the SAMOSA team is assessing a number of simplifications that can transform the SAMOSA2 model into an

  4. Historical maps georeferencing and examination the development of Ljubljana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnikar, T.; Lamovec, P.

    2009-04-01

    Historical maps comprise a lot of inherent information on natural environmental and anthropogenic changes. They are commonly the most important base for various spatial analyses of the land use in last centuries as well as for historical landscapes, past urban development, influences of the economy development, toponyms changes, etc. Common spatially oriented numerical studies within geographical information system (GIS) uses contemporary georeferenced data sets recorded in layers. Our intention is equivalently apply the historical maps to GIS as well. The most important and complex part for using historical spatial data is its acquisition, including spatial, temporal and positional homogenisation, and the analysis itself. Major drawbacks are uncommon map legends, different cartography techniques, and poor knowledge of projections used. Methods for effective georeferencing of the maps from 17th century are proposed and described, as well as quality control techniques. The applicability of the georeferenced historical maps is explored with the principles of time series analysis in comparison to contemporary spatial data sets. The studied applications for the urban area of Ljubljana, Slovenia case study were changing of the river course of Ljubljanica River, and observing the changes due to developing of railways. The results show generally a high quality of the historical maps in contrast to contemporary data sets, and high value of their applicability for the urban studies. The proposed results can be used for a more effective planning and development of our society.

  5. Rear seat belt use as an indicator of safe road behaviour in a rapidly developing country.

    PubMed

    McIlvenny, Shirley; Al Mahrouqi, Fatma; Al Busaidi, Thuraiya; Al Nabhani, Ahmed; Al Hikmani, Fatma; Al Kharousi, Zaher; Al Mammari, Salima; Al Hoti, Anwaral; Al Shihi, Aysha; Al Lawati, Anwar; Al Kharousi, Ibtisam

    2004-11-01

    Injuries from road traffic accidents are set to become the second highest cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in developing countries by 2020. The number of injuries and deaths are disproportionately high in low income countries, which account for only 40% of all motor vehicles. Human behaviour is thought to be a major factor in most accidents. In Oman wearing a seat belt is compulsory in the front seats but not in the rear. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the severity of injuries when sitting in rear seats. This study examines the use of seat belts in cars entering a university and hospital campus in Oman to determine the degree of seat belt wearing in the rear. At peak times on a selected day, cars were stopped at the university's entrance barrier. The type of driver was identified - student, employee, hospital patient or visitor - and the degree of seat belt wearing among driver and passengers was noted. A total of 1,066 cars were stopped. Of this total, 90.1% of drivers and 80.9% of front seat passengers were wearing a restraint complying with Local traffic regulations. However, only 1.4% of back seat passengers wore a seat belt. Only 3.7% of children under the age of five were restrained in a child seat and only 16.7% of five- to 12-year-olds were strapped in. A third (34.6%) of under-fives were sitting in the front seat. In cars with child occupants, 40% of the time parents wore seat belts but the children did not. Occupants conformed to the law but behaviour indicated a lack of awareness of the dangers of not wearing seat belts, especially towards children. Traffic regulations need to be updated and the public educated about the need to wear seat belts. Health agencies could be more active in educating the public about road safety behaviour and should also be involved in the overall strategy to reduce injuries and deaths.

  6. On the Road to Well-Being: The Development of a Communication Framework for Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan J.; Stellato, Adam; Stephens, Jennifer; Kirby, Susan; Forsythe, Ann; Ivankovich, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recognizing the need to work with all partners who have an interest in addressing sexual health issues, we explored values held by diverse stakeholders in the United States. Based on these findings, we developed a framework for use in communicating about sexual health issues and potential solutions. Methods Our methods included an environmental scan, small-group metaphor elicitation and message framing assessments, interviews, and online surveys with diverse members of the public and health professionals. Results Of four overarching value-based themes, two were best accepted across audiences: the first theme emphasized the importance of protecting health along the road of life through enabling good choices, and the second called for adding health promotion approaches to traditional disease prevention control. Nearly all supporting statements evaluated were effective and can be used to support either of the two best accepted overarching themes. Conclusions Although there is a great diversity of opinion regarding how to address sexual health issues in the U.S., among diverse stakeholders we found some common values in our exploratory work. These common values were translated into message frameworks. In particular, the idea of broadening sexual health programs to include wellness-related approaches to help expand disease control and prevention efforts resonated with stakeholders across the political spectrum. These findings show promise for improved sexual health communication and a foundation on which to build support across various audiences, key opinion leaders, and stakeholders. PMID:23450884

  7. Comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Trygve E.; Miller, Jeremy A.; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A.; Royall, Joshua J.; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L.; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R.; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L.; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J.; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B.; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L.; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hevner, Robert F.; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W.; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R.; Amaral, David G.; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S.

    2017-01-01

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical parcellation of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons, and cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late postnatally. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, and approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny. PMID:27409810

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs): a road map for the metabolic pathways involved in persistent infections.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Richard A; Kriegeskorte, André; Kahl, Barbara C; Becker, Karsten; Löffler, Bettina; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs) are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006), thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways) for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF), and cold shock protein B (CspB) found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact electron

  9. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road

    PubMed Central

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania’s food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while

  10. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  11. Historical maps georeferencing and examination the development of Ljubljana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnikar, T.; Lamovec, P.

    2009-04-01

    Historical maps comprise a lot of inherent information on natural environmental and anthropogenic changes. They are commonly the most important database for various spatial analyses of the land use as well as historical landscapes, urban development, influences of the economy development, toponyms changes, etc. Enhanced spatial oriented studies in geographical information system (GIS) require georeferenced data sets recorded in layers. This approach is commonly sufficiently applied to contemporary data, but more seldom for older spatial data. Cartographical methods have varied widely in time and space. The most important and complex part for using historical spatial data is its acquisition, including homogenisation, and the analysis itself. Major drawbacks are uncommon map legends, different cartography techniques, and poor knowledge of projections used. Methods for effective georeferencing of the maps from 17th century are proposed and described, as well as quality control techniques for the urban area of Ljubljana, Slovenia case study. The applicability of the georeferenced historical maps is explored with the principles of time series analysis in comparison to contemporary spatial data sets. The studied applications were changing of the river course of Ljubljanica River, and observing the changes due to developing of railways. The results show generally a high quality of the historical maps in contrast to contemporary data sets, and high value of their applicability for the urban studies. The proposed results can be used for a more effective planning and development of our society.

  12. The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality control issues; pricing and distribution; and lack of financing. The case study method was used to illustrate efforts to overcome these barriers during the development in Nigeria of Niprisan – a novel drug for the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a chronic blood disorder with few effective therapies. Discussion Building on the knowledge of a traditional medicine practitioner, Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) developed the traditional herbal medicine Niprisan. The commercialization of Niprisan reached a number of commercial milestones, including regulatory approval in Nigeria; securing US-based commercial partner XeChem; demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety; being awarded orphan drug status by the US Food and Drug Administration; and striking important relationships with domestic and international groups. Despite these successes, however, XeChem did not achieve mainstream success for Niprisan in Nigeria or in the United States. A number of reasons, including inconsistent funding and manufacturing and management challenges, have been put forth to explain Niprisan’s commercial demise. As of this writing, NIPRD is considering options for another commercial partner to take the drug forward. Summary Evidence from the Niprisan experience suggests that establishing benefit-sharing agreements, fostering partnerships with established research institutions, improving standardization and quality control, ensuring financial and managerial due diligence, and recruiting

  13. Mapping Changes in Science Teachers' Content Knowledge: Concept Maps and Authentic Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; Lubin, Ian A.; Slater, Janis L.; Walden, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine content knowledge changes following 2 weeks of professional development that included scientific research with university scientists. Engaging teachers in scientific research is considered to be an effective way of encouraging knowledge of both inquiry pedagogy and content knowledge. We used concept maps with…

  14. Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes

  15. Perception of road accident causes.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; Yannis, George

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical two-dimensional model on prevalence and risk was developed. The objective of this study was to validate this model empirically to answer three questions: How do European drivers perceive the importance of several causes of road accidents? Are there important differences in perceptions between member states? Do these perceptions reflect the real significance of road accident causes? Data were collected from 23 countries, based on representative national samples of at least 1000 respondents each (n=24,372). Face-to-face interviews with fully licensed, active car drivers were conducted using a questionnaire containing closed answer questions. Respondents were asked to rate 15 causes of road accidents, each using a six-point ordinal scale. The answers were analyzed by calculating Kendall's tau for each pair of items to form lower triangle similarity matrices per country and for Europe as a whole. These matrices were then used as the input files for an individual difference scaling to draw a perceptual map of the 15 items involved. The hypothesized model on risk and prevalence fits the data well and enabled us to answer the three questions of concern. The subject space of the model showed that there are no relevant differences between the 23 countries. The group space of the model comprises four quadrants, each containing several items (high perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items; high perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items; low perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items and low perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items). Finally, perceptions of the items driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs and medicines and driving using a handheld or hands-free mobile phone are discussed with regard to their real significance in causing road accidents. To conclude, individual difference scaling offers some promising possibilities to study drivers' perception of road accident causes.

  16. Development and application of traffic density-based Parameters for near-road air pollutant exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly human populations are living and/or working in close proximity to heavily travelled roadways. There is a growing body of research indicating a variety of health conditions are adversely affected by near-road air pollutants. To reliably estimate the health risk assoc...

  17. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  18. Development of regional liquefaction-induced deformation hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosinski, A.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Wu, J.; Seed, R.B.; Real, C.R.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes part of a project to assess the feasibility of producing regional (1:24,000-scale) liquefaction hazard maps that are based-on potential liquefaction-induced deformation. The study area is the central Santa Clara Valley, at the south end of San Francisco Bay in Central California. The information collected and used includes: a) detailed Quaternary geological mapping, b) over 650 geotechnical borings, c) probabilistic earthquake shaking information, and d) ground-water levels. Predictions of strain can be made using either empirical formulations or numerical simulations. In this project lateral spread displacements are estimated and new empirical relations to estimate future volumetric and shear strain are used. Geotechnical boring data to are used to: (a) develop isopach maps showing the thickness of sediment thatis likely to liquefy and deform under earthquake shaking; and (b) assess the variability in engineering properties within and between geologic map units. Preliminary results reveal that late Holocene deposits are likely to experience the greatest liquefaction-induced strains, while Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits are likely to experience significantly less horizontal and vertical strain in future earthquakes. Development of maps based on these analyses is feasible.

  19. Noise Mapping and Annoyance.

    PubMed

    Knauss, D.

    2002-01-01

    The EC has published a Green Paper on noise policy in the EU and has issued a directive on the assessment and reduction of environmental noise. This directive will make noise mapping mandatory for cities with at least 250.000 inhabitants. Due to the development in computer technology it is possible to calculate noise maps for large urban areas using the available data on buildings, ground profile, road and rail traffic. Examples for noise mapping are Birmingham (GB), Linz (A) and various German cities. Based on noise maps and empirical data on the correlation between annoyance and noise levels annoyance maps for different sources (rail, road, aircraft) can be calculated. Under the assumption that the annoyance for the different sources are only weakly correlated, a combined annoyance map can be calculated. In a second step using the distribution of the population the actual number of annoyed people can be evaluated. This analysis can be used, for example, to identify noise hot spots and to assess the impact of major traffic projects - roads, airports- on the noise situation as well as the impact on the population. Furthermore, the combined annoyance maps can be used to investigate on health effects and to check whether or not empirical correlations between annoyance and noise levels are sufficiently correct.

  20. 1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1884, 1889 & 1893 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps Brookland Site Development ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1863, 1880 & 1884 Site Maps - Brookland Site Development Study, Brookland, bounded by B&O Railroad Tracks, Rhode Island & Brentwood Avenues on the south, 18th Street & South Dakota Avenue on the east, and Michigan Avenue on the North, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Development, linkage mapping, and utilization of microsallelites in bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass species were constructed using 118 triploid individuals derived from a cross of T89 (Cynodon dactylon, 2n= 4x= 36) and T574 (C. transvaalensis, 2n= 2x= 18). Primers were developed from 53 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) wh...

  3. Technology Mapping: An Approach for Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    Technology mapping[TM] is proposed as an approach for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). The study discusses in detail instructional design guidelines in relation to the enactment of TM, and reports on empirical findings from a study with 72 pre-service primary teachers within the context of teaching them how to teach…

  4. A new strategy for developing Vs30 maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; McWhirter, Leslie; Thompson, Eric; Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30m (Vs30) is useful and widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). Local, regional, and global Vs30 maps thus have diverse and fundamental uses in earthquake and engineering seismology. As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing Vs30 maps given the common observational constraints available in any region for various spatial scales. We investigate a hierarchical approach to mapping Vs30, where the baseline model is derived from topographic slope because it is available globally, but geological maps and Vs30 observations contribute, where available. Using the abundant measured Vs30 values in Taiwan as an example, we analyze Vs30 versus slope per geologic unit and observe minor trends that indicate potential interaction of geologic and slope terms. We then regress Vs30 for the geologic Vs30 medians, topographic-slope, and cross-term coefficients for a hybrid model. The residuals of this hybrid model still exhibit a strong spatial correlation structure, so we use the kriging-with-a-trend method (the trend is the hybrid model) to further refine the Vs30 map so as to honor the Vs30 observations. Unlike the geology or slope models alone, this strategytakes advantage of the predictive capabilities of the two models, yet effectively defaults to ordinary kriging in the vicinity of the observed data, thereby achieving consistency with the observed data.

  5. Development of flood-inundation maps for the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Lewis, Corby R.; Cooper, Diane F.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mile reach of the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota, were developed through a multi-agency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and in collaboration with the National Weather Service. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service site at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/inundation.php, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (05331000). The National Weather Service forecasted peak-stage information at the streamgage may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Mississippi River by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the most recent stage-discharge relation at the Robert Street location (rating curve number 38.0) of the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (streamgage 05331000), as well as an approximate water-surface elevation-discharge relation at the Mississippi River at South Saint Paul (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers streamgage SSPM5). The model also was verified against observed high-water marks from the recent 2011 flood event and the water-surface profile from existing flood insurance studies. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 25 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals ranging from approximately bankfull stage to greater than the highest recorded stage at streamgage 05331000. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model, derived from high-resolution topography

  6. Pharma-Planta: road testing the developing regulatory guidelines for plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Penelope Amelia Claire; Irwin, Judith A; Dale, Phil J; Twyman, Richard M; Ma, Julian K C

    2007-04-01

    Significant advances over the last few years have seen plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) move from the exploratory research phase towards clinical trials, with the first commercial products for human use expected to reach the market by 2009. Europe has yet to witness the commercial application of PMP technology, although at least one product has begun phase II clinical trials with others following close behind. These emerging products are set to challenge the complex and overlapping regulations that currently govern GM plants and 'conventional' pharmaceutical production. The areas of responsibility are being mapped out between the different EU regulatory agencies, with specific guidelines currently being drawn up for the regulation of PMPs. This article discusses issues surrounding the development of robust risk-assessment and risk-management practices based on health and environmental impact, while working with EU regulatory authorities to ensure appropriate regulatory oversight.

  7. Guide for developing an information technology investment road map for population health management.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jacquelyn S; Gibson, Richard F; Whittington, John; Powell, Kitty; Wozney, Brad; Knudson, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Many health systems recovering from a massive investment in electronic health records are now faced with the prospect of maturing into accountable care organizations. This maturation includes the need to cooperate with new partners, involve substantially new data sources, require investment in additional information technology (IT) solutions, and become proficient in managing care from a new perspective. Adding to the confusion, there are hundreds of population health management (PHM) vendors with overlapping product functions. This article proposes an organized approach to investing in PHM IT. The steps include assessing the organization's business and clinical goals, establishing governance, agreeing on business requirements, evaluating the ability of current IT systems to meet those requirements, setting time lines and budgets, rationalizing current and future needs and capabilities, and installing the new systems in the context of a continuously learning organization. This article will help organizations chart their position on the population health readiness spectrum and enhance their chances for a successful transition from volume-based to value-based care.

  8. Road Map for 21st Century Geographic Education: Instructional Materials and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Emily M.; Mohan, Audrey; Roth, Kathleen J.; Barton, Keith C.; Bockenhauer, Mark H.; Bower, Bert; Gray, Paul T.; Hardwick, Susan W.; Johnson, Verneda E.; Lewis, Lydia J.; Ramirez, Dagoberto Eli; Rice, Gwenda; Rivet, Ann; Shouse, Andrew W.; Smith, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Never before in human history has it been more important for a person to be geographically literate. But the unsettling reality is that many teachers and most students are not yet geographically literate. Currently, American students are not even provided opportunities to learn enough geography to understand the very basic aspects of the world in…

  9. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  10. Design and development of linked data from the National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of linked data on the World-Wide Web provides the opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to supply its extensive volumes of geospatial data, information, and knowledge in a machine interpretable form and reach users and applications that heretofore have been unavailable. To pilot a process to take advantage of this opportunity, the USGS is developing an ontology for The National Map and converting selected data from nine research test areas to a Semantic Web format to support machine processing and linked data access. In a case study, the USGS has developed initial methods for legacy vector and raster formatted geometry, attributes, and spatial relationships to be accessed in a linked data environment maintaining the capability to generate graphic or image output from semantic queries. The description of an initial USGS approach to developing ontology, linked data, and initial query capability from The National Map databases is presented.

  11. Vehicular road influence areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  12. Accuracy and Spatial Variability in GPS Surveying for Landslide Mapping on Road Inventories at a Semi-Detailed Scale: the Case in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Feo, C. A.; Martnez Martinez, L. J.; Correa Muñoz, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of locating attributes on topographic surfaces when, using GPS in mountainous areas, is affected by obstacles to wave propagation. As part of this research on the semi-automatic detection of landslides, we evaluate the accuracy and spatial distribution of the horizontal error in GPS positioning in the tertiary road network of six municipalities located in mountainous areas in the department of Cauca, Colombia, using geo-referencing with GPS mapping equipment and static-fast and pseudo-kinematic methods. We obtained quality parameters for the GPS surveys with differential correction, using a post-processing method. The consolidated database underwent exploratory analyses to determine the statistical distribution, a multivariate analysis to establish relationships and partnerships between the variables, and an analysis of the spatial variability and calculus of accuracy, considering the effect of non-Gaussian distribution errors. The evaluation of the internal validity of the data provide metrics with a confidence level of 95% between 1.24 and 2.45 m in the static-fast mode and between 0.86 and 4.2 m in the pseudo-kinematic mode. The external validity had an absolute error of 4.69 m, indicating that this descriptor is more critical than precision. Based on the ASPRS standard, the scale obtained with the evaluated equipment was in the order of 1:20000, a level of detail expected in the landslide-mapping project. Modelling the spatial variability of the horizontal errors from the empirical semi-variogram analysis showed predictions errors close to the external validity of the devices.

  13. Mapping the Curriculum: How Concept Maps can Improve the Effectiveness of Course Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherborne, Tony

    Every program of instruction taking place in schools, from French to physics, is the result of a complex process called “curriculum development.” It begins with the setting of high level goals and then proceeds through successive stages of elaboration of the concepts, scoping and sequencing content. The design must then be communicated and adopted by the teachers who will implement it. Historically, curriculum reform efforts have not been consistently effective in delivering the desired improvements in student understanding. This chapter discusses how the use of concept mapping could help curriculum developers and teachers at various stages of the process. The ability of maps to focus on key ideas and their connections may help curriculum designs to survive better the translation into classroom experience, and promote collaborative working methods.

  14. Colonization, road development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Basin of Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Frohn, R.C.; Dale, V.H. ); Jimenez, B.D. . Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1990-03-01

    Within the past two decades, the forests of Brazil have undergone widespread and large scale clearing. The clearing of tropical rainforests may have serious global and local consequences. Global effects include a decrease in biodiversity with the elimination of plant and animal species; increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which may affect climate; and disruption of hydrological regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation, decreases in soil fertility, loss of plant cover and extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. Nowhere in the Brazilian Amazon has deforestation increased at a faster rate than in the state of Rondonia. Deforestation in Rondonia has grown at increasing rates during the past decade mainly because of official colonization schemes, road construction, and the subsequent settlement of farmers. This paper contains a historical summary of colonization and road construction in the Amazon Basin of Brazil relative to deforestation in Rondonia. 60 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  16. Influence of the proximity and amount of human development and roads on the occurrence of the red imported fire ant in the lower Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forys, E.A.; Allen, C.R.; Wojcik, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the influence of both the proximity and extent of human developments and paved roads on the presence of the predatory, non-indigenous, red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). This species was inadvertently introduced into the United States at the port of Mobile, Alabama, around 1930 and rapidly spread to many southeastern states, including Florida. More recently, S. invicta colonized the Florida Keys, an area with a high proportion of rare and endemic vertebrate and invertebrate species. We placed bait transects in transitional salt-marsh, pineland, and hardwood hammocks on 13 of the lower Florida Keys and compared habitat type, the shortest distance of the bait transect to a development or road, and area of development and roads 50, 70, 100, and 150 m around each bait transect for areas with and without red imported fire ants. Red imported fire ants were detected on 21 of the 80 transects and were equally abundant in all habitat types. While all of the development and road variables differed significantly between bait transects with and without red imported fire ants, transects that were closest to roads and that had the largest amount of development within a 150 m radii had the highest probability of presence of red imported fire ants. Recovery efforts for endangered species in areas invaded by red imported fire ants should include analyses of the cumulative impacts of roads and developments in areas near protected lands. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Develop Probabilistic Tsunami Design Maps for ASCE 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Thio, H. K.; Chock, G.; Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    A national standard for engineering design for tsunami effects has not existed before and this significant risk is mostly ignored in engineering design. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee is completing a chapter for the 2016 edition of ASCE/SEI 7 Standard. Chapter 6, Tsunami Loads and Effects, would become the first national tsunami design provisions. These provisions will apply to essential facilities and critical infrastructure. This standard for tsunami loads and effects will apply to designs as part of the tsunami preparedness. The provisions will have significance as the post-tsunami recovery tool, to plan and evaluate for reconstruction. Maps of 2,500-year probabilistic tsunami inundation for Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii need to be developed for use with the ASCE design provisions. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. The NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) has developed 75 tsunami inundation models as part of the operational tsunami model forecast capability for the U.S. coastline. NCTR, UW, and URS are collaborating with ASCE to develop the 2,500-year tsunami design maps for the Pacific states using these tsunami models. This ensures the probabilistic criteria are established in ASCE's tsunami design maps. URS established a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment approach consisting of a large amount of tsunami scenarios that include both epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability (Thio et al., 2010). Their study provides 2,500-year offshore tsunami heights at the 100-m water depth, along with the disaggregated earthquake sources. NOAA's tsunami models are used to identify a group of sources that produce these 2,500-year tsunami heights. The tsunami inundation limits and runup heights derived from these sources establish the tsunami design map

  18. Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

  19. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  20. Mechanisms Underlying Development of Visual Maps and Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Andrew D.; Feller, Marla B.; Chapman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of synaptic connections in the visual system are remarkably precise. These connections dictate the receptive field properties of individual visual neurons and ultimately determine the quality of visual perception. Spontaneous neural activity is necessary for the development of various receptive field properties and visual feature maps. In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding the mechanisms by which spontaneous activity in the developing retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex instruct the axonal and dendritic refinements that give rise to orderly connections in the visual system. Axon guidance cues and a growing list of other molecules, including immune system factors, have also recently been implicated in visual circuit wiring. A major goal now is to determine how these molecules cooperate with spontaneous and visually evoked activity to give rise to the circuits underlying precise receptive field tuning and orderly visual maps. PMID:18558864

  1. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns.

  2. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  3. Bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Reed, Gregory C.; Carroll, Rory P.; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J. A.; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  4. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    PubMed

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  5. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  6. A Road Map Towards High pH Adaptability: Phenomic and Genomic Approaches to Azalea Breeding (Rhododendron sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A research grant from the Azalea Society of America has enabled us to collect and begin evaluating diverse Rhododendron viscosum germplasm to identify genetic and phenotypic variation for pH adaptability. During the Spring of 2014, we developed novel, in vitro screening methods for Rhododendron to ...

  7. A Road Map for 21st Century Genetic Restoration: Gene Pool Enrichment of the Black-Footed Ferret

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Oliver A.; Santymire, Rachel M.; Engelhardt, John F.; Novak, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) could benefit recovery programs of critically endangered species but must be weighed with the risks of failure. To weigh the risks and benefits, a decision-making process that evaluates progress is needed. Experiments that evaluate the efficiency and efficacy of blastocyst, fetal, and post-parturition development are necessary to determine the success or failure or species-specific iSCNT programs. Here, we use the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) as a case study for evaluating this emerging biomedical technology as a tool for genetic restoration. The black-footed ferret has depleted genetic variation yet genome resource banks contain genetic material of individuals not currently represented in the extant lineage. Thus, genetic restoration of the species is in theory possible and could help reduce the persistent erosion of genetic diversity from drift. Extensive genetic, genomic, and reproductive science tools have previously been developed in black-footed ferrets and would aid in the process of developing an iSCNT protocol for this species. Nonetheless, developing reproductive cloning will require years of experiments and a coordinated effort among recovery partners. The information gained from a well-planned research effort with the goal of genetic restoration via reproductive cloning could establish a 21st century model for evaluating and implementing conservation breeding that would be applicable to other genetically impoverished species. PMID:26304983

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT AND ON-ROAD PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE FOUR-WAY EMISSION CONTROL SCRT{trademark} SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, BJ; McDonald, AC; Walker, AP; Sanchez, M

    2003-08-24

    legislation worldwide necessitates the development of pollution control systems capable of enabling engines to meet the incoming legislative requirements. It is clear that to maximize the benefit to the environment, as well as to meet the very stringent future standards (especially the US 2010 limits), systems capable of high simultaneous conversions of all four major pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), are required. Very high conversions of CO, HC and PM are achieved using catalyst-based Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) systems, such as the Continuously Regenerating Technology, CRT{reg_sign}, system. High NOx conversions can be obtained using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, in which ammonia (generated from urea) is used to selectively reduce the NOx. This paper summarizes the key steps in the development of the four-way SCRT system, which comprises the CRT system followed by an SCR system. Engine bench results obtained during the development of this system are presented and discussed. However, the key to real-world emissions benefit is the actual on-road performance of such systems. It is well established that the CRT system provides very high and durable conversions of CO, HC and PM, so the focus of this current work was to demonstrate the NOx conversion capability and durability of the SCRT system. The SCRT unit was installed on a long-haul truck powered by a 15 litre Cummins engine. On-road NOx emissions performance was measured using NOx sensors located upstream and downstream of the SCRT unit. Over an 850 km evaluation route, the average on-road NOx conversion obtained was up to 82%, even when the urea injection quantity was set to give a maximum NOx conversion of around 85%. The durability of the system has also been assessed. Over the course of 150,000 km, no reduction in the NOx conversion efficiency of the system was observed. The results presented in this paper demonstrate

  9. Tube Maps for Effective Geoscience Career Planning and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, C. M.; Wilson, C. E.; Houlton, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges faced by students and new graduates is the advice that they must take charge of their own career planning. This is ironic as new graduates are least prepared to understand the full spectrum of options and the potential pathways to meeting their personal goals. We will examine the rationale, tools, and utility of an approach aimed at assisting individuals in career planning nicknamed a "tube map." In particular, this approach has been used in support of geoscientist recruitment and career planning in major European energy companies. By utilizing information on the occupational sequences of geoscience professionals within an organization or a community, a student or new hire can quickly understand the proven pathways towards their eventual career goals. The tube map visualizes the career pathways of individuals in the form of a subway map, with specific occupations represented as "stations" and pathway interconnections represented as "transfers." The major application of this approach in the energy sector was to demonstrate both the logical career pathways to either senior management or senior technical positions, as well as present the reality that time must be invested in "lower level" jobs, thereby nullifying a persistent overinflated sense of the speed of upward mobility. To this end, we have run a similar occupational analysis on several geoscience employers, including one with somewhat non-traditional geoscience positions and another that would be considered a very traditional employer. We will examine the similarities and differences between the resulting 'tube maps,' critique the tools used to create the maps, and assess the utility of the product in career development planning for geoscience students and new hires.

  10. Prediflood: A French research project aiming at developing a road submersion warning system for flash flood prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naulin, J. P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Delrieu, G.; Arnaud, P.; Lutoff, C.; Vincendon, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). Forecasts are also often limited to the main streams or to specific watersheds with particular assets like hydropower dams, leaving aside large parts of the territory. Distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting models, able to take advantage of the now available high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall measurements, are promising tools for anticipating and quantifying the short term consequences of storm events all over a region. They would be very useful, especially in regions frequently affected by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal patterns. They would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: prepositioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Some preliminary tests conducted by the LCPC within the European project FLOODsite have shown encouraging results of a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting model. It seems possible, despite the limits of the available rainfall measurements and the shortcomings of the rainfall-runoff models, to deliver distributed forecasts of possible local flood consequences - road submersion risk rating at about 5000 different locations over the Gard department in the tested case - with an acceptable level of accuracy. The PreDiFlood project (http://heberge.lcpc.fr/prediflood/) aims at consolidating and extending these first results with the objective to conduct pre-operational tests with possible end-users at the end of the project. Such a tool will not replace, but complement existing flood forecasting approaches in time and space domains that have not been covered until now

  11. Businesses and advocacy groups create a road map for safer chemicals: the BizNGO Principles for Chemicals Policy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Mark S; Thorpe, Beverley; Peele, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    This paper details how businesses and environmental organizations are collaborating to define and implement a visionary agenda for integrating safer chemicals into products, describing the challenges they confront and how they are overcoming those challenges. The framework for this assessment is the Principles for Chemicals Policy developed by the Business-NGO Working Group for Safer Chemicals and Sustainable Materials (BizNGO). The four principles--1) knowing and disclosing chemicals in products, 2) assessing and avoiding hazards, 3) committing to continuous improvement, and 4) supporting public policies and industry standards--while appearing to be straightforward, are, in fact, very complex to implement in practice. Together businesses and environmental organizations are charting a path to safer chemicals by sharing best practices, addressing technical aspects of safer chemicals substitution, and analyzing and supporting public policies that advance the rapid development and diffusion of greener chemicals in the economy.

  12. Road Map For National Security Addendum on Structure and Process Analyses. Volume 1: Key Observations and Overarching Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    sources of information, learns how to exploit existing sources more fully, and often develops an independent body of knowledge to frame decisions over...Performance Plans (MPPs) and Bureau Performance Plans ( BPPs ) directly relate to the goals and objectives stated in the IASP. Despite these improvements...program planning remains a low priority within the Department. MPPs and BPPs serve primarily to support the annual budget request and are rarely used to

  13. Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces and Translocation Processes in Inner Space (''Soil-it-is''): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

    2009-03-01

    -chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between OC/clay ratio and matric potential) may initiate breakdown or activation of soil self-organization at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

  14. Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is"): towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.; Schjønning, P.

    2009-08-01

    . (2008) threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces). However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter) may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between organic carbon/clay ratio and matric potential) may control how soil self-organization will manifest itself at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

  15. Negative cerebral blood volume fMRI response coupled with Ca²⁺-dependent brain activity in a dopaminergic road map of nociception.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Hua; Chang, Chen; Chen, Chiao-Chi V

    2014-04-15

    Decreased cerebral blood volume/flow (CBV/CBF) contributes to negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signals. But it is still strongly debated whether these negative BOLD or CBV/CBF signals are indicative of decreased or increased neuronal activity. The fidelity of Ca(2+) signals in reflecting neuronal excitation is well documented. However, the roles of Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+)-dependent activity in negative fMRI signals have never been explored; an understanding of this is essential to unraveling the underlying mechanisms and correctly interpreting the hemodynamic response of interest. The present study utilized a nociception-induced negative CBV fMRI response as a model. Ca(2+) signals were investigated in vivo using Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), and the downstream Ca(2+)-dependent signaling was investigated using phosphorylated cAMP response-element-binding (pCREB) immunohistology. The results showed that nociceptive stimulation led to (1) striatal CBV decreases, (2) Ca(2+) increases via the nigrostriatal pathway, and (3) substantial expression of pCREB in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and striatal neurons. Interestingly, the striatal negative fMRI response was abolished by blocking substantia nigra activity but was not affected by blocking the striatal activity. This suggests the importance of input activity other than output in triggering the negative CBV signals. These findings indicate that the striatal negative CBV fMRI signals are associated with Ca(2+) increases and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling along the nigrostriatal pathway. The obtained data reveal a new brain road map in response to nociceptive stimulation of hemodynamic changes in association with Ca(2+) signals within the dopaminergic system.

  16. Mapping of road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge and estimation of chloride load to a small stream in southern New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Trowbridge, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of chloride in excess of State of New Hampshire water-quality standards (230 mg/l) have been measured in watersheds adjacent to an interstate highway (I-93) in southern New Hampshire. A proposed widening plan for I-93 has raised concerns over further increases in chloride. As part of this effort, road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge was mapped with terrain electrical conductivity (EC) electromagnetic (EM) methods in the fall of 2006 to identify potential sources of chloride during base-flow conditions to a small stream, Policy Brook. Three different EM meters were used to measure different depths below the streambed (ranging from 0 to 3 m). Results from the three meters showed similar patterns and identified several reaches where high EC groundwater may have been discharging. Based on the delineation of high (up to 350 mmhos/m) apparent terrain EC, seven-streambed piezometers were installed to sample shallow groundwater. Locations with high specific conductance in shallow groundwater (up to 2630 mmhos/m) generally matched locations with high streambed (shallow subsurface) terrain EC. A regression equation was used to convert the terrain EC of the streambed to an equivalent chloride concentration in shallow groundwater unique for this site. Utilizing the regression equation and estimates of onedimensional Darcian flow through the streambed, a maximum potential groundwater chloride load was estimated at 188 Mg of chloride per year. Changes in chloride concentration in stream water during streamflow recessions showed a linear response that indicates the dominant process affecting chloride is advective flow of chloride-enriched groundwater discharge. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Group concept mapping for evaluation and development in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Hagell, Peter; Edfors, Ellinor; Hedin, Gita; Westergren, Albert; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl

    2016-09-01

    The value of course evaluations has been debated since they frequently fail to capture the complexity of education and learning. Group Concept Mapping (GCM), a participant-centred mixed-method was explored as a tool for evaluation and development in nursing education and to better understand students' learning experiences, using data from a GCM-based evaluation of a research training assignment integrating clinical practice and research data collection within a Swedish university nursing program. Student nurses (n = 47) participated in a one-day GCM exercise. Focus group brainstorming regarding experiences from the assignment that the students considered important and instructive yielded 98 statements that were individually sorted based on their student-perceived relationships, and rated regarding their importance/instructiveness and need for development. Quantitative analysis of sort data produced a 2-dimensional map representing their conceptual relationships, and eight conceptual areas. Average cluster ratings were plotted relative to each other and provided a decision aid for development and planning by identifying areas (i.e., "Research methodology", "Patients' perspectives", and "Interviewer role") considered highly important/instructive and in high need for development. These experiences illustrate the use and potential of GCM as an interactive participant-centred approach to evaluation, planning and development in nursing and other higher health science educations.

  18. The road map towards providing a robust Raman spectroscopy-based cancer diagnostic platform and integration into clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Katherine; Isabelle, Martin; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Old, Oliver; Shepherd, Neil; Bell, Ian M.; Dorney, Jennifer; Lewis, Aaran; Gaifulina, Riana; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Kendall, Catherine; Stone, Nicolas; Thomas, Geraint; Reece, David

    2016-03-01

    Despite the demonstrated potential as an accurate cancer diagnostic tool, Raman spectroscopy (RS) is yet to be adopted by the clinic for histopathology reviews. The Stratified Medicine through Advanced Raman Technologies (SMART) consortium has begun to address some of the hurdles in its adoption for cancer diagnosis. These hurdles include awareness and acceptance of the technology, practicality of integration into the histopathology workflow, data reproducibility and availability of transferrable models. We have formed a consortium, in joint efforts, to develop optimised protocols for tissue sample preparation, data collection and analysis. These protocols will be supported by provision of suitable hardware and software tools to allow statistically sound classification models to be built and transferred for use on different systems. In addition, we are building a validated gastrointestinal (GI) cancers model, which can be trialled as part of the histopathology workflow at hospitals, and a classification tool. At the end of the project, we aim to deliver a robust Raman based diagnostic platform to enable clinical researchers to stage cancer, define tumour margin, build cancer diagnostic models and discover novel disease bio markers.

  19. A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star Catalog for Thirty Meter Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sivarani, T.; Simard, Luc; Anupama, G. C.; Gillies, Kim; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Reddy, B. Eswar

    2016-09-01

    The near-infrared instruments in the upcoming Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be assisted by a multi conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) system. For the efficient operation of the AO system, during observations, a near-infrared guide star catalog which goes as faint as 22 mag in JVega band is essential and such a catalog does not exist. A methodology, based on stellar atmospheric models, to compute the expected near-infrared magnitudes of stellar sources from their optical magnitudes is developed. The method is applied and validated in JHKs bands for a magnitude range of JVega 16-22 mag. The methodology is also applied and validated using the reference catalog of PAN STARRS. We verified that the properties of the final PAN STARRS optical catalog will satisfy the requirements of TMT IRGSC and will be one of the potential sources for the generation of the final catalog. In a broader context, this methodology is applicable for the generation of a guide star catalog for any existing/upcoming near-infrared telescopes.

  20. Decoding how a soil bacterium extracts building blocks and metabolic energy from ligninolysis provides road map for lignin valorization

    PubMed Central

    Varman, Arul M.; He, Lian; Follenfant, Rhiannon; Wu, Weihua; Wemmer, Sarah; Wrobel, Steven A.; Tang, Yinjie J.; Singh, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 is a soil bacterium boasting a well-studied ligninolytic pathway and the potential for development into a microbial chassis for lignin valorization. An improved understanding of its metabolism will help researchers in the engineering of SYK-6 for the production of value-added chemicals through lignin valorization. We used 13C-fingerprinting, 13C metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA), and RNA-sequencing differential expression analysis to uncover the following metabolic traits: (i) SYK-6 prefers alkaline conditions, making it an efficient host for the consolidated bioprocessing of lignin, and it also lacks the ability to metabolize sugars or organic acids; (ii) the CO2 release (i.e., carbon loss) from the ligninolysis-based metabolism of SYK-6 is significantly greater than the CO2 release from the sugar-based metabolism of Escherichia coli; (iii) the vanillin catabolic pathway (which is the converging point of majority of the lignin catabolic pathways) is coupled with the tetrahydrofolate-dependent C1 pathway that is essential for the biosynthesis of serine, histidine, and methionine; (iv) catabolic end products of lignin (pyruvate and oxaloacetate) must enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle first and then use phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to initiate gluconeogenesis; and (v) 13C-MFA together with RNA-sequencing differential expression analysis establishes the vanillin catabolic pathway as the major contributor of NAD(P)H synthesis. Therefore, the vanillin catabolic pathway is essential for SYK-6 to obtain sufficient reducing equivalents for its healthy growth; cosubstrate experiments support this finding. This unique energy feature of SYK-6 is particularly interesting because most heterotrophs rely on the transhydrogenase, the TCA cycle, and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to obtain NADPH. PMID:27634497

  1. Decoding how a soil bacterium extracts building blocks and metabolic energy from ligninolysis provides road map for lignin valorization.

    PubMed

    Varman, Arul M; He, Lian; Follenfant, Rhiannon; Wu, Weihua; Wemmer, Sarah; Wrobel, Steven A; Tang, Yinjie J; Singh, Seema

    2016-10-04

    Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 is a soil bacterium boasting a well-studied ligninolytic pathway and the potential for development into a microbial chassis for lignin valorization. An improved understanding of its metabolism will help researchers in the engineering of SYK-6 for the production of value-added chemicals through lignin valorization. We used (13)C-fingerprinting, (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA), and RNA-sequencing differential expression analysis to uncover the following metabolic traits: (i) SYK-6 prefers alkaline conditions, making it an efficient host for the consolidated bioprocessing of lignin, and it also lacks the ability to metabolize sugars or organic acids; (ii) the CO2 release (i.e., carbon loss) from the ligninolysis-based metabolism of SYK-6 is significantly greater than the CO2 release from the sugar-based metabolism of Escherichia coli; (iii) the vanillin catabolic pathway (which is the converging point of majority of the lignin catabolic pathways) is coupled with the tetrahydrofolate-dependent C1 pathway that is essential for the biosynthesis of serine, histidine, and methionine; (iv) catabolic end products of lignin (pyruvate and oxaloacetate) must enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle first and then use phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to initiate gluconeogenesis; and (v) (13)C-MFA together with RNA-sequencing differential expression analysis establishes the vanillin catabolic pathway as the major contributor of NAD(P)H synthesis. Therefore, the vanillin catabolic pathway is essential for SYK-6 to obtain sufficient reducing equivalents for its healthy growth; cosubstrate experiments support this finding. This unique energy feature of SYK-6 is particularly interesting because most heterotrophs rely on the transhydrogenase, the TCA cycle, and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to obtain NADPH.

  2. Road traffic and other unintentional injuries among travelers to developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Yankson, Isaac Kofi; Afukaar, Francis; Medina, Martha Hijar; Cuong, Pham Viet; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Injuries result in nearly 6 million deaths and incur 52 million disability-adjusted life years annually, comprising 15% of the global disease burden. More than 90% of this burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given this burden, it’s not unexpected that injuries are the leading cause of death among travelers to LMICs, namely from road traffic crashes and drowning. Opportunely, the majority of injuries are preventable. Therefore, pre-travel advice regarding foreseeable dangers and how to avoid them may significantly mitigate injury risk, such as: wearing seatbelts, helmets and personal flotation devices when appropriate; responsibly consuming alcohol; and closely supervising children. Upon return, travelers to LMICs are in a unique position; having shared injury risks while abroad, travelers can advocate for injury control initiatives that might make the world safer for travelers and local populations alike. PMID:26900117

  3. Development of a Digital Aquifer Permeability Map for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Researchers at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Western Ecology Division have been developing hydrologic landscape maps for selected U.S. states in an effort to create a method to identify the intrinsic watershed attributes of landscapes in regions with little data. Each hydrologic landscape unit is assigned a categorical value from five key indices of macro-scale hydrologic behavior, including annual climate, climate seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. The aquifer permeability index requires creation of a from-scratch dataset for each state. The permeability index for the Pacific Southwest (California, Nevada, and Arizona) expands and modifies the permeability index for the Pacific Northwest (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), which preceded it. The permeability index was created by assigning geologic map units to one of 18 categories with presumed similar values of permeability to create a hydrolithologic map. The hydrolithologies were then further categorized into permeability index classifications of high, low, unknown and surface water. Unconsolidated, carbonate, volcanic, and undifferentiated units are classified more conservatively to better address uncertainty in source data. High vs. low permeability classifications are assigned qualitatively but follow a threshold guideline of 8.5x10-2 m/day hydraulic conductivity. Estimates of permeability from surface lithology is the current best practice for broad-sca

  4. (Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22)

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  5. [Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-12-31

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  6. Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015-2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Aylward, Alan D.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Glover, Alexi; Gopalswamy, Nat; Grande, Manuel; Hapgood, Mike; Heynderickx, Daniel; Jakowski, Norbert; Kalegaev, Vladimir V.; Lapenta, Giovanni; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Siqing; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Mann, Ian R.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Nandy, Dibyendu; Obara, Takahiro; Paul O'Brien, T.; Onsager, Terrance; Opgenoorth, Hermann J.; Terkildsen, Michael; Valladares, Cesar E.; Vilmer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    ) on developing a comprehensive specification of space climate, including the characterization of extreme space storms to guide resilient and robust engineering of technological infrastructures. The roadmap clusters its implementation recommendations by formulating three action pathways, and outlines needed instrumentation and research programs and infrastructure for each of these. An executive summary provides an overview of all recommendations.

  7. Towards the Development of a Molecular Map in Switchgrass: I. Microsatellite Marker Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, L.E.

    2001-08-23

    The long-term goal of the switchgrass breeding program is to improve regionally adapted varieties and increase biomass yield and feedstock quality. Although, to some extent, biomass yields are dependent on environmental constraints, increased yield can be achieved through the development of genotypes with improved seasonal adaptation, tolerance to unfavorable environmental conditions, and improved resistance to pest and disease. To date, improvement in switchgrass has relied on recurrent breeding strategies based on phenotypic or genotypic selection. Yield improvements have been modest by this method. If we expect to make significant increase in yields, we need tools that will allow us to map complex traits and uncover the genes that influence them. A genetic linkage map could be a powerful tool for accelerating switchgrass development through marker-assisted selection, breeding and recombination. This type of mapping requires the development of markers that can be associated with phenotypic traits in a population of known pedigree. The most commonly used markers for mapping include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). At ORNL, we have been concentrating on the development of SSR markers, while our colleagues at the University of Georgia are developing RFLP markers in order to select parents to produce a mapping population and from there to create a framework map from {approx}100 F1 progeny.

  8. Development of District-Based Mineral-Hazards Maps for Highways in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) currently is developing a series of unpublished maps for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that shows potential for mineral hazards within each of the twelve highway districts administered by that agency. Where present along or near highway corridors, such hazards may pose problems for human health and safety or the environment. Prepared at a scale of 1:250,000, the maps are designed as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to use to improve planning of activities that involve new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. Although the basic presentation of each type of thematic map in the series is the same, some customization and focus are allowed for each district because each has unique issues concerning potential for mineral hazards. The maps display many natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards within each district. Features compiled and evaluated under our definition of "mineral hazards" are: 1) naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA); 2) natural occurrences of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se) as well as other pertinent metals, such as Mn and U; 3) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization, such as NOA; 4) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 5) natural petroleum features, such as oil and natural-gas seeps; 6) natural geothermal features, such as thermal springs and fumaroles; and 7) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Because of their greater potential as sources of mineral hazards, localities designated on the maps as "areas of potential mineralogical concern" are of particular interest to Caltrans. Examples include significant mining districts, such as New Almaden (Hg) near

  9. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  10. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion.

  11. Theory for the alignment of cortical feature maps during development.

    PubMed

    Bressloff, Paul C; Oster, Andrew M

    2010-08-01

    We present a developmental model of ocular dominance column formation that takes into account the existence of an array of intrinsically specified cytochrome oxidase blobs. We assume that there is some molecular substrate for the blobs early in development, which generates a spatially periodic modulation of experience-dependent plasticity. We determine the effects of such a modulation on a competitive Hebbian mechanism for the modification of the feedforward afferents from the left and right eyes. We show how alternating left and right eye dominated columns can develop, in which the blobs are aligned with the centers of the ocular dominance columns and receive a greater density of feedforward connections, thus becoming defined extrinsically. More generally, our results suggest that the presence of periodically distributed anatomical markers early in development could provide a mechanism for the alignment of cortical feature maps.

  12. Theory for the alignment of cortical feature maps during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Oster, Andrew M.

    2010-08-01

    We present a developmental model of ocular dominance column formation that takes into account the existence of an array of intrinsically specified cytochrome oxidase blobs. We assume that there is some molecular substrate for the blobs early in development, which generates a spatially periodic modulation of experience-dependent plasticity. We determine the effects of such a modulation on a competitive Hebbian mechanism for the modification of the feedforward afferents from the left and right eyes. We show how alternating left and right eye dominated columns can develop, in which the blobs are aligned with the centers of the ocular dominance columns and receive a greater density of feedforward connections, thus becoming defined extrinsically. More generally, our results suggest that the presence of periodically distributed anatomical markers early in development could provide a mechanism for the alignment of cortical feature maps.

  13. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  14. Development oF High Frequency Electromagnetic Mapping (HFEM) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesch, R. L.

    1982-04-01

    High frequency electromagnetic mapping (HFEM) techniques were developed for evaluating rubblized oil shale in the cold retort state in the modified in situ process. This technology development is also applicable for using HFEM techniques for diagnosing, monitoring, controlling and evaluating modified in situ retorts after they are ignited. The baseline data work required to design a high temperature sample holder and experiments for determining the EM properties of oil shale samples at elevated temperatures (200 to 500 C) are described. A theoretical approach is given for modeling oil shale retorts for electromagnetic sensing techniques by a spheroid with an average dielectric constant along with numerical results. Finally, the measurement results are given for the spent and raw shale samples that were obtained from portions of the ten half score samples plus the results of the electromagnetic transmission measurements taken on oil shale samples.

  15. Development of ultrasonic tomography for residual stress mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boland, A.J.; Davis, T.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Harrington, T.P.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Lemon, D.K.; Posakony, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The volumetric stress distribution in nuclear reactor piping and pressure vessels is becoming an increasingly important parameter in nondestructive evaluation. This report describes research and development of instrumentation leading toward a means of measuring subsurface stress distributions in metals. Based on the principles of Computerized Tomography (CT), an ultrasonic tomographic instrument system has been developed. The microprocessor-based system uses an ultrasonic linear array to acquire time-of-flight data to an accuracy of 0.5 to 1.0 ns. The data is processed using a modified ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) program. A two-dimensional map of the velocity distribution is displayed on a monitor. The velocity distribution is interpreted or calibrated in terms of stress through the acousto-elastic coefficients.

  16. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    PubMed

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1). CaCl2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl(-) L(-1) (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg(2+) cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms.

  17. Development of on-road emission factors from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a continuous sampling system. Report for October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; King, F.G.; Brown, E.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of the test program is to improve the existing conversion procedures for relating engine dynamometer tests in the laboratory to actual on-road emissions and to evaluate new modal approaches to estimate these emissions. The objectives of this project are to: (1) define on-road emissions from HDDVs; (2) assess agreement among engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamometer data and develop appropriate ones if needed; and (4) develop a modal emissions model that relates highway facility type (including grade) to speeds/accelerations of the vehicle, loaded weight, power demand on the vehicle, and emissions of NOx, CO, and VOCs.

  18. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  19. Incorporating Usability Criteria into the Development of Animated Hierarchical Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Chen, Sherry Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Web-based learning systems have become popular because they can provide multiple tools, among which hierarchical maps are widely used to support teaching and learning. However, traditional hierarchical maps may let learners easily get lost within large information space. This study proposes an animated hierarchical map to address this…

  20. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way.

  1. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976–2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005–2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

  2. Progress in the development of shallow-water mapping systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, E.; Worley, C.R.; O'Brien, T.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS (US Geological Survey) Coastal and Marine Geology has deployed an advance autonomous shallow-draft robotic vehicle, Iris, for shallow-water mapping in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vehicle incorporates a side scan sonar system, seismic-reflection profiler, single-beam echosounder, and global positioning system (GPS) navigation. It is equipped with an onboard microprocessor-based motor controller, delivering signals for speed and steering to hull-mounted brushless direct-current thrusters. An onboard motion sensor in the Sea Robotics vehicle control system enclosure has been integrated in the vehicle to measure the vehicle heave, pitch, roll, and heading. Three water-tight enclosures are mounted along the vehicle axis for the Edgetech computer and electronics system including the Sea Robotics computer, a control and wireless communications system, and a Thales ZXW real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. The vehicle has resulted in producing high-quality seismic reflection and side scan sonar data, which will help in developing the baseline oyster habitat maps.

  3. Genome mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome maps can be thought of much like road maps except that, instead of traversing across land, they traverse across the chromosomes of an organism. Genetic markers serve as landmarks along the chromosome and provide researchers information as to how close they may be to a gene or region of inter...

  4. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  5. Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-02-01

    Non-invasive mapping of brain structure and function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up unprecedented opportunities for studying the neural substrates underlying cognitive development. There is an emerging consensus of a continuous increase throughout adolescence in the volume of white matter, both global and local. There is less agreement on the meaning of asynchronous age-related decreases in the volume of grey matter in different cortical regions; these might equally represent loss ("pruning") or gain (intra-cortical myelination) of tissue. Functional MRI studies have so far focused mostly on executive functions, such as working memory and behavioural inhibition, with very few addressing questions regarding the maturation of social cognition. Future directions for research in this area are discussed in the context of processing biological motion and matching perceptions and actions.

  6. Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual was developed with a major emphasis on the maintenance of gravel roads, including some basic design elements. The purpose of the manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads.

  7. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  8. Remote Satellite Soil Moisture Mapping for the ERDC Countermine Simulation Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    river beds, deserts, riparian areas and forests; 2. Development of a reliable downscaling procedure for Landsat soil moisture maps (30 m) to Quickbird...on roads and in river beds, deserts, riparian areas and forests; 2. Development of a reliable downscaling procedure for Landsat soil moisture maps... river the QuickBird soil moisture seems to be too low (Figures 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) while on the asphalt road the soil moisture is estimated too high (13

  9. Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1997-01-01

    During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

  10. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Macauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales. Meeting participants agreed that users of biomass information will look to the CMS effort not only to provide basic data for carbon or biomass measurements but also to provide data to help serve a broad range of goals, such as forest watershed management for water quality, habitat management for biodiversity and ecosystem services, and potential use for developing payments for ecosystem service projects. Participants also reminded the CMS group that potential users include not only public sector agencies and nongovernmental organizations but also the

  11. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  12. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  13. A quantitative approach to measure road network information based on edge diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xun; Zhang, Hong; Lan, Tian; Cao, Weiwei; He, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The measure of map information has been one of the key issues in assessing cartographic quality and map generalization algorithms. It is also important for developing efficient approaches to transfer geospatial information. Road network is the most common linear object in real world. Approximately describe road network information will benefit road map generalization, navigation map production and urban planning. Most of current approaches focused on node diversities and supposed that all the edges are the same, which is inconsistent to real-life condition, and thus show limitations in measuring network information. As real-life traffic flow are directed and of different quantities, the original undirected vector road map was first converted to a directed topographic connectivity map. Then in consideration of preferential attachment in complex network study and rich-club phenomenon in social network, the from and to weights of each edge are assigned. The from weight of a given edge is defined as the connectivity of its end node to the sum of the connectivities of all the neighbors of the from nodes of the edge. After getting the from and to weights of each edge, edge information, node information and the whole network structure information entropies could be obtained based on information theory. The approach has been applied to several 1 square mile road network samples. Results show that information entropies based on edge diversities could successfully describe the structural differences of road networks. This approach is a complementarity to current map information measurements, and can be extended to measure other kinds of geographical objects.

  14. The Familial Road to Healthy Societies: New and Converging Modes of Re-Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, William A.

    This discussion focuses on problems facing developing and developed nations and describes social changes required to meet human needs in the economic condition of scarcity facing industrializing and postindustrial societies. Current problems of developed societies are emphasized. For example, traditional health care provision in western societies…

  15. Real-time system for road following and obstacle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denasi, Sandra; Lanzone, Claudio; Martinese, Paolo; Pettiti, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Giorgio; Viglione, Luca

    1994-10-01

    Path planning of a vehicle running in a structured environment requires road boundaries evaluation for mapping its position and reducing the search area for obstacle detection. This paper describes a real time system that has been developed in the framework of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS European project and is presently under test on a Mobile Laboratory (MOBLAB). The road boundaries are detected by highlighting the large homogeneous region that lies in the bottom of the image, in front of the vehicle. Edge detection, local thresholding and morphological filtering techniques are used to define this region. Its boundaries are tracked in the sequence, relying on hypotheses of continuity of color and shape of the road to overcome drawbacks due to shadows, intersections, hidden boundaries. The proposed technique has been implemented on an integrated system based on a real time imaging processor and a workstation.

  16. Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

    2007-01-31

    The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

  17. Road Network Conflation Based on Radar Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, but this process is extremely slow and laborious. Automatic transformation of images into digital road maps is...Likelihood Estimator NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar STAP Space-Time Adaptive Processing USGS United States Geological Survey 27 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. ...ROAD NETWORK CONFLATION BASED ON RADAR TRACKS SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY APRIL 2014 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC

  18. Using Concept Mapping as as Tool for Program Theory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsi, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this methodological study is to explore how well a process called "concept mapping" (Trochim, 1989) can articulate the theory which underlies a social program. Articulation of a program's theory is a key step in completing a sound theory based evaluation (Weiss, 1997a). In this study, concept mapping is used to…

  19. Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

  20. Development of Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leyendecker, E.V.; Hunt, R.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings use a design procedure that is based on spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from maps prepared following the recommendations of the Building Seismic Safety Council's (BSSC) Seismic Design Procedures Group (SDPG). The SDPG-recommended maps, the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps, are based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) probabilistic hazard maps with additional modifications incorporating deterministic ground motions in selected areas and the application of engineering judgement. The MCE ground motion maps included with the 1997 NEHRP Provisions also serve as the basis for the ground motion maps used in the seismic design portions of the 2000 International Building Code and the 2000 International Residential Code. Additionally the design maps prepared for the 1997 NEHRP Provisions, combined with selected USGS probabilistic maps, are used with the 1997 NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.

  1. Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

  2. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME FORECASTING SYSTEM FOR ROAD FACILITIES IN YAMAGUCHI PREFECTURE AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Satoru; Yoshimura, Takashi; Miyamoto, Ayaho

    Maintenance strategy for road facilities on the road network which is an essential lifeline supporting our life is becoming a major social concern in safety and securer civil societies for not only Yamaguchi prefecture but also other prefectures in recently. This paper describes a road facilities maintenance man-agement support system combined with the latest information and communication technologies, such as the information function at the position of the GPS cellular phone with web GIS, etc. By using the system, because information can be shared by using location information function, photograph function, e-mail functionality, and web GIS of the GPS cellular phone to its maximum, an efficient, effective maintenance management can be done. From the comparison of the results of applying the system to an actual road network in Yamaguchi prefecture area, the road administrator can in real time confirm the position and the situation of the facilities damage of the road from the Internet, and a quick mending can be done.

  4. Development of the Mexican Heart Team: The Long and Winding Road.

    PubMed

    Merino-Rajme, J Alfredo; Delgado-Espejel, Lilian G; Morales-Portano, Julieta D; Alcántara-Meléndez, Marco A; García-García, J Francisco; Muratalla-González, Roberto; García-Ortegón, M Sol; Díaz-Quiroz, Guillermo; Nuñez-López, Vanessa F; Gómez-Álvarez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Efforts to decrease HF mortality rates include a multidisciplinary approach management. Although evidence suggests that this has been an optimal strategy for treating HF, the model remains not widely implanted. The current article explores the rationale behind the formation of a Heart Team in a developing country and its development despite the lack of an allocated budget.

  5. Near-infrared mapping spectrometer optical subsystem development and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is one of the four remote-sensing science instruments of the Galileo Orbiter scientific payload. The NIMS scientific objectives require operating the detector and optical subsystem at cryogenic temperatures. The necessity of assembling, aligning, and testing the optics at room temperature and meeting design specifications at the cryogenic operating temperature (130 K) presented a set of challenging technical problems. A systematic approach to the development of athermalized mounts and supporting structures for optical components is described. A technique utilizing the visible spectral range and supplementary ray-trace information for alignment of an infrared instrument is presented. The optical subsystem point-spread function and spatial and spectral resolution were determined at room temperature using selected spectral and spatial targets. Based on thermal-distortion analyses of the structure and mounts, compensators were selected, implemented, and verified at cryogenic temperatures. The selection of the compensator and the overall system performance were verified in a thermal vacuum chamber. Various external and internal calibration targets were used.

  6. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  7. Optical Mapping of Electrical Activation in the Developing Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedmera, David; Reckova, Maria; Rosengarten, Carlin; Torres, Maria I.; Gourdie, Robert G.; Thompson, Robert P.

    2005-06-01

    Specialized conduction tissues mediate coordinated propagation of electrical activity through the adult vertebrate heart. Following activation of the atria, the activation wave is slowed down in the atrioventricular canal or node, after which it spreads rapidly into the left and right ventricles via the His-Purkinje system (HPS). This results in the ventricles being activated from the apex toward the base, which is a hallmark of HPS function. The development of mature HPS function follows significant phases of cardiac morphogenesis. Initially, the cardiac impulse propagates in a slow, linear, and isotropic fashion from the sinus venosus at the most caudal portion of the tubular heart. Although the speed of impulse propagation gradually increases as it travels toward the anterior regions of the heart tube, the actual sequence of ventricular activation in the looped heart proceeds in the same direction as blood flow. Eventually, the immature base-to-apex sequence of ventricular activation undergoes an apparent reversal, changing to the mature apex-to-base pattern. Using an optical mapping approach, we demonstrate that the timing of this last transition shows striking dependence on hemodynamic loading of the ventricle, being accelerated by pressure overload and delayed in left ventricular hypoplasia. Comparison of chick and mammalian hearts revealed some striking similarities as well as key differences in the timing of such events during cardiac organogenesis.

  8. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI.

  9. Multiple job holding in rural villages and the Chinese road to development.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe; Jingzhong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the interrelations that exist between rural China's peasant economy and the wider economy in which it is embedded. In doing so it focuses on the circular flows that link town and countryside. Multiple job holding is strategic in this respect. The paper draws on research undertaken in a peasant village in Hebei Province. The research highlights some remarkable differences that exist between development processes in China and in other developing countries and traces these back to a combination of an enlightened rural policy and the strong linkages that exist between rural China and its urban "global factory".

  10. Collection Development "U.S. Citizenship": The Long and Winding Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1790, Congress passed the first act governing naturalization, which provided that any free, white, male or female adult alien who had resided within the limits and jurisdiction of the United States for a period of two years was eligible for citizenship. From this humble beginning the current system of granting naturalized citizenship developed,…

  11. The Road to Excellence: Deliberate Practice and the Development of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Paul; Hodges, Nicola J.; Starkes, Janet L.; Williams, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The relative contribution of domain-specific and non-domain-specific activities to the development of soccer expertise was examined using a retrospective cross-sectional design. Elite and sub-elite players aged between 9 and 18 years of age completed a participation history questionnaire under supervision. Weekly and accumulated hours spent in…

  12. The long road of biopharmaceutical drug development: from inception to marketing.

    PubMed

    Mundae, M K; Ostör, A J K

    2010-01-01

    The development of therapeutics is costly, time-consuming and has high attrition rates. Biopharmaceutical medications differ from traditional agents in their discovery, design, structure and formulation. Prior to marketing a drug must show efficacy and acceptable toxicity in both preclinical and clinical trials. Regulatory bodies have a pivotal role in the licensing, naming and marketing of an agent.

  13. Developing CD-ROMs: Pitfalls and Detours on the Road to the Digital Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This guide provides information on many aspects of CD-ROM development. Storage requirements of multimedia applications such as graphic images, audio, video, and animation are provided in section one. Storage capacity, transfer rate, and access time are the three criteria used to judge various storage media. In section two, specifications for these…

  14. Development of habitat mapping technology using spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.-J.; Lee, C.-W.; Oh, K.-Y.

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to create leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) habitat potential maps of South Korea using spatial information. To create maps, we gathered various environmental factors potentially affecting the species' distribution from a spatial database: elevation, slope, land cover and so on. We analyzed the spatial relationships between the distribution of the leopard cats and the environmental factors using a frequency ratio model. Among the total number of known leopard cat locations, we used 50% for mapping and the remaining 50% for model validation. Our models were relatively successful and showed a high level of accuracy during model validation with existing locations (frequency ratio model 82.15%). These maps can be used to manage and monitor the habitat of mammal species and top predators.

  15. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  16. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level.

  17. [Risk maps. The concept and the methodology for their development].

    PubMed

    García Gómez, M M

    1994-01-01

    In this article the concept of risk map is revised. It is considered as an instrument for the knowledge of risks and damages in a certain environment. A historic revision is made analyzing the birth and evolution of the concept. Different experiences and types of maps in different countries are described. Finally the operative steps, the data sources and the risk indicators which should be used in Spain are included.

  18. Toward best practices for developing regional connectivity maps.

    PubMed

    Beier, Paul; Spencer, Wayne; Baldwin, Robert F; McRae, Brad H

    2011-10-01

    To conserve ecological connectivity (the ability to support animal movement, gene flow, range shifts, and other ecological and evolutionary processes that require large areas), conservation professionals need coarse-grained maps to serve as decision-support tools or vision statements and fine-grained maps to prescribe site-specific interventions. To date, research has focused primarily on fine-grained maps (linkage designs) covering small areas. In contrast, we devised 7 steps to coarsely map dozens to hundreds of linkages over a large area, such as a nation, province, or ecoregion. We provide recommendations on how to perform each step on the basis of our experiences with 6 projects: California Missing Linkages (2001), Arizona Wildlife Linkage Assessment (2006), California Essential Habitat Connectivity (2010), Two Countries, One Forest (northeastern United States and southeastern Canada) (2010), Washington State Connected Landscapes (2010), and the Bhutan Biological Corridor Complex (2010). The 2 most difficult steps are mapping natural landscape blocks (areas whose conservation value derives from the species and ecological processes within them) and determining which pairs of blocks can feasibly be connected in a way that promotes conservation. Decision rules for mapping natural landscape blocks and determining which pairs of blocks to connect must reflect not only technical criteria, but also the values and priorities of stakeholders. We recommend blocks be mapped on the basis of a combination of naturalness, protection status, linear barriers, and habitat quality for selected species. We describe manual and automated procedures to identify currently functioning or restorable linkages. Once pairs of blocks have been identified, linkage polygons can be mapped by least-cost modeling, other approaches from graph theory, or individual-based movement models. The approaches we outline make assumptions explicit, have outputs that can be improved as underlying data are

  19. Roads to the development of improved pertussis vaccines paved by immunology.

    PubMed

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Wilk, Mieszko M; Han, Wanda G H; van Els, Cécile A C M; Mills, Kingston H G

    2015-11-01

    Current acellular pertussis vaccines have various shortcomings, which may contribute to their suboptimal efficacy and waning immunity in vaccinated populations. This calls for the development of new pertussis vaccines capable of inducing long-lived protective immunity. Immunization with whole cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection with Bordetella pertussis induce distinct and more protective immune responses when compared with immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines. Therefore, the immune responses induced with whole cell vaccine or after infection can be used as a benchmark for the development of third-generation vaccines against pertussis. Here, we review the literature on the immunology of B. pertussis infection and vaccination and discuss the lessons learned that will help in the design of improved pertussis vaccines.

  20. Roads to the development of improved pertussis vaccines paved by immunology

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Wilk, Mieszko M.; Han, Wanda G.H.; van Els, Cécile A.C.M.; Mills, Kingston H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Current acellular pertussis vaccines have various shortcomings, which may contribute to their suboptimal efficacy and waning immunity in vaccinated populations. This calls for the development of new pertussis vaccines capable of inducing long-lived protective immunity. Immunization with whole cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection with Bordetella pertussis induce distinct and more protective immune responses when compared with immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines. Therefore, the immune responses induced with whole cell vaccine or after infection can be used as a benchmark for the development of third-generation vaccines against pertussis. Here, we review the literature on the immunology of B. pertussis infection and vaccination and discuss the lessons learned that will help in the design of improved pertussis vaccines. PMID:26347400

  1. The Long Road to Desert Storm and Beyond: The Development of Precision Guided Bombs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    80% reliability rate.22 Eighth Air Force first used the GB-4 against Nazi submarine pens at Le Havre , France in 1944.23 The late introduction 10...Walleye very effective against small bridge abutments and bunkers . The U.S. Navy also has other special considerations in weapons development and...The Walleyes all hit within five feet of the aim point but the bridge still stood. Against smaller bridges, barracks, and bunkers the Walleye was very

  2. Embarking on the Road to Authentic Engagement: Investigating Racism through Interactive Learning Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Monica; Otinsky, Gennifer

    2006-01-01

    Taylor and Otinsky provide readers with a road map for interactive learning centers as a means to ground students as they develop their authentic questions about complex issues such as racism. Using interactive learning centers, students are invited to engage with a large number of collaborative experiences with texts of multiple media, the goal…

  3. New Developments on Inverse Polygon Mapping to Calculate Gravitational Lensing Magnification Maps: Optimized Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, E.; Mediavilla, T.; Muñoz, J. A.; Ariza, O.; Lopez, P.; Gonzalez-Morcillo, C.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.

    2011-11-01

    We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N -3/4 dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.

  4. NEW DEVELOPMENTS ON INVERSE POLYGON MAPPING TO CALCULATE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS: OPTIMIZED COMPUTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mediavilla, E.; Lopez, P.; Gonzalez-Morcillo, C.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.

    2011-11-01

    We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N {sup -3/4} dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.

  5. Ancient road transport devices: Developments from the Bronze Age to the Roman Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cesare; Chondros, Thomas G.; Milidonis, Kypros F.; Savino, Sergio; Russo, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    The development of transportation systems has significantly enhanced the welfare and modernization of society. Wooden vehicles pulled by animals have been used for land transportation since the early Bronze Age. Whole-body gharries with rigid wheels pulled by oxen appeared in Crete by 2000 BC or earlier. Horses originating from the East were depicted in early Cretan seal-rings of the same period. The two-wheeled horsedrawn chariot was one of the most important inventions in history. This vehicle provided humanity its first concept of personal transport and was the key technology of war for 2000 years. Chariots of Mycenaean and Archaic Greece with light and flexible four-spoked wheels acting as spring suspensions were depicted in vase paintings. The development of this vehicle incorporated the seeds of a primitive design activity and was important for engineering. The Trojan horse since 1194 BC and the helepolis since 700 BC were the first known machines on a wheeled base transported by horses or self-powered. Ancient engineers invented bearings lubricated with fat, and Romans introduced the ancestors of ball bearings for their wagons and carts. The historic evolution of wheeled transportation systems, along with early traction, suspension, and braking systems, is presented in this paper. Analytical and numerical methods are incorporated to analyze the most conceivable loading situations of typically reconstructed wheeled transportation systems in ancient times. Traction requirements both for horse-driven machines and the power for internal motors are also analyzed. This study can serve as a basis for further development of detailed reconstruction of transportation systems in antiquity.

  6. The impact of screening on road surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogren, J.; Gustavsson, T.; Karlsson, M.; Postgård, U.

    2000-06-01

    The effect of screening on road surface temperatures is analysed using data from the Swedish road weather information system (RWIS) together with data from thermal mapping. The study deals with the analysis of temperature variations caused by shading of the road surface during clear daytime conditions and focuses on the relation between solar elevation and magnitude of road surface temperature differences between screened and sun-exposed areas. Also included is an analysis of how the temperature differences during the day affect the establishment of temperature variations after sunset and the time it takes after sunset for temperature differences caused by shading to decline. The results show that the magnitude of road surface temperature differences between sun exposed and screened sites (RSTdiff) that develop during clear day conditions can be attributed to solar elevation ([beta]) and can be expressed by the equation: RSTdiff=[minus sign]2.7+0.46([beta]). A relationship between the daily maximum temperature difference andthe preservation of the screening effect after sunset is observed. The effect after sunset can be described by: RSTdiff=A[minus sign]Bh+Ch2[minus sign]Dh3[minus sign]Eh4+Fh5, where h is the time in hours after sunset and A to F are constants related to the time of the year at the actual site.

  7. [The primary research and development of software oversampling mapping system for electrocardiogram].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Ren, Jie

    2011-04-01

    We put forward a new concept of software oversampling mapping system for electrocardiogram (ECG) to assist the research of the ECG inverse problem to improve the generality of mapping system and the quality of mapping signals. We then developed a conceptual system based on the traditional ECG detecting circuit, Labview and DAQ card produced by National Instruments, and at the same time combined the newly-developed oversampling method into the system. The results indicated that the system could map ECG signals accurately and the quality of the signals was good. The improvement of hardware and enhancement of software made the system suitable for mapping in different situations. So the primary development of the software for oversampling mapping system was successful and further research and development can make the system a powerful tool for researching ECG inverse problem.

  8. Road Classification and Condition Determination Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, M.

    2012-07-01

    Hyperspectral data has remarkable capabilities for automatic identification and mapping of urban surface materials because of its high spectral resolution. It includes a wealth of information which facilitates an understanding of the ground material properties. For identification of road surface materials, information about their relation to hyperspectral sensor measurements is needed. In this study an approach for classification of road surface materials using hyperspectral data is developed. The condition of the road surface materials, in particular asphalt is also investigated. Hyperspectral data with 4m spatial resolution of the city of Ludwigsburg, Germany consisting of 125 bands (wavelength range of 0.4542μm to 2.4846 μm) is used. Different supervised classification methods such as spectral angle mapper are applied based on a spectral library established from field measurements and in-situ inspection. It is observed that using the spectral angle mapper approach with regions of interest is helpful for road surface material identification. Additionally, spectral features are tested using their spectral functions in order to achieve better classification results. Spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation are suitable for discriminating asphalt, concrete and gravel. Different asphalt conditions (good, intermediate and bad) are distinguished using the spectral functions such as mean and image ratio. The mean function gives reliable results. Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte (ALK) vector data for roads is integrated in order to confine the analysis to roads. Reliable reference spectra are useful in evaluation of classification results for spectrally similar road surface materials. The classification results are assessed using orthophotos and field visits information.

  9. Nanotech-derived topical microbicides for HIV prevention: the road to clinical development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Javier; Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Gómez, Rafael; De La Mata, F Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    More than three decades since its discovery, HIV infection remains one of the most aggressive epidemics worldwide, with more than 35 million people infected. In sub-Saharan Africa, heterosexual transmissions represent nearly 80% of new infections, with 50% of these occurring in women. In an effort to stop the dramatic spread of the HIV epidemic, new preventive treatments, such as microbicides, have been developed. Nanotechnology has revolutionized this field by designing and engineering novel highly effective nano-sized materials as microbicide candidates. This review illustrates the most recent advances in nanotech-derived HIV prevention strategies, as well as the main steps required to translate promising in vitro results into clinical trials.

  10. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  11. Development of Vehicle Model Test for Road Loading Analysis of Sedan Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the design development of modern passenger car structure especially during the conceptual stage. In Malaysia, however, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a physical model of SSS for sedan model with the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending and torsion is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results show that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that satisfactory load paths can give a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from a complete SSS model. It is identified that parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load. The results also match with the theoretical hypothesis, as the stiffness of the structure in an open section condition is shown weak when subjected to torsion load compared to bending load. The proposed approach can potentially be integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  12. Gate road development at Southern Ohio Coal Company-Meigs Division

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, N.L.; Latham, J.W. III

    1996-12-31

    Southern Ohio Coal Company`s (SOCCo) Meigs Division, a part of American Electric Power`s Fuel Supply Division, is located in the southeastern Ohio counties of Meigs and Vinton, and consists of two large underground mines and a central coal preparation plant. The division began mining the 54-inch Clarion 4A seam in the early 1970`s, with three underground mines, which first used conventional mining, but changed to continuous mining after only a few years. Longwall mining began in 1978 at the Meigs No. 2 Mine. In 1989, Meigs No. 1 and Raccoon No. 3 Mines were interconnected underground, with the combined mine being named Meigs No. 31. A longwall was installed in Meigs No. 31 in September 1989. The Meigs Division operated three longwalls until 1993, but then reduced to two longwalls (one at each mine) and five continuous miner sections, which are used solely to develop main entries and gateroads for the longwalls. Longwall panel size has steadily increased through the years, growing from the initial 500 ft. wide by 5000 ft. long panels to the present panels which range from 900 to 1100 ft. wide by 10,000 to 13,000 ft. long.

  13. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1993-01-01

    The SSME has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) Develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system. (2) Develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amounts of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. A high compression ratio can be achieved to allow the minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities. (3) Integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for a quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate

  14. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of

  15. Visual Map Development: Bidirectional Signaling, Bifunctional Guidance Molecules, and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Feldheim, David A.; O’Leary, Dennis D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Topographic maps are a two-dimensional representation of one neural structure within another and serve as the main strategy to organize sensory information. The retina’s projection via axons of retinal ganglion cells to midbrain visual centers, the optic tectum/superior colliculus, is the leading model to elucidate mechanisms of topographic map formation. Each axis of the retina is mapped independently using different mechanisms and sets of axon guidance molecules expressed in gradients to achieve the goal of representing a point in the retina onto a point within the target. An axon’s termination along the temporal-nasal mapping axis is determined by opposing gradients of EphAs and ephrin-As that act through their forward and reverse signaling, respectively, within the projecting axons, each of which inhibits interstitial branching, cooperating with a branch-promoting activity, to generate topographic specific branching along the shaft of the parent axons that overshoot their correct termination zone along the anterior-posterior axis of the target. The dorsal-ventral termination position is then determined using a gradient of ephrin-B that can act as a repellent or attractant depending on the ephrin-B concentration relative to EphB levels on the interstitial branches to guide them along the medial-lateral axis of the target to their correct termination zone, where they arborize. In both cases, axon-axon competition results in axon mapping based on relative rather than absolute levels of repellent or attractant activity. The map is subsequently refined through large-scale pruning driven in large part by patterned retinal activity. PMID:20880989

  16. Linear programming model to develop geodiversity map using utility theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, Adel

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the classification and mapping of geodiversity based on a quantitative methodology was accomplished using linear programming, the central idea of which being that geosites and geomorphosites as main indicators of geodiversity can be evaluated by utility theory. A linear programming method was applied for geodiversity mapping over Khorasan-razavi province located in eastern north of Iran. In this route, the main criteria for distinguishing geodiversity potential in the studied area were considered regarding rocks type (lithology), faults position (tectonic process), karst area (dynamic process), Aeolian landforms frequency and surface river forms. These parameters were investigated by thematic maps including geology, topography and geomorphology at scales 1:100'000, 1:50'000 and 1:250'000 separately, imagery data involving SPOT, ETM+ (Landsat 7) and field operations directly. The geological thematic layer was simplified from the original map using a practical lithologic criterion based on a primary genetic rocks classification representing metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The geomorphology map was provided using DEM at scale 30m extracted by ASTER data, geology and google earth images. The geology map shows tectonic status and geomorphology indicated dynamic processes and landform (karst, Aeolian and river). Then, according to the utility theory algorithms, we proposed a linear programming to classify geodiversity degree in the studied area based on geology/morphology parameters. The algorithm used in the methodology was consisted a linear function to be maximized geodiversity to certain constraints in the form of linear equations. The results of this research indicated three classes of geodiversity potential including low, medium and high status. The geodiversity potential shows satisfied conditions in the Karstic areas and Aeolian landscape. Also the utility theory used in the research has been decreased uncertainty of the evaluations.

  17. Developing of 10-year EEZ seafloor mapping and research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, M.; Hill, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of expanding the exploration already begun on the outer continental shelf to the frontier of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) is to determine the "characteristics' and resource potential of this region. To coordinate this exploration, a Joint Office for Mapping and Research (JOMAR) has been established by the US Geological Survey (in the Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (in the Department of Commerce). JOMAR's main purpose is to help direct and coordinate ongoing and planned seafloor related activities in the EEZ and prepare a 10-year plan for mapping and research. -from Authors

  18. Development of an Asset Value Map for Disaster Risk Assessment in China by Spatial Disaggregation Using Ancillary Remote Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jidong; Li, Ying; Li, Ning; Shi, Peijun

    2017-04-05

    The extent of economic losses due to a natural hazard and disaster depends largely on the spatial distribution of asset values in relation to the hazard intensity distribution within the affected area. Given that statistical data on asset value are collected by administrative units in China, generating spatially explicit asset exposure maps remains a key challenge for rapid postdisaster economic loss assessment. The goal of this study is to introduce a top-down (or downscaling) approach to disaggregate administrative-unit level asset value to grid-cell level. To do so, finding the highly correlated "surrogate" indicators is the key. A combination of three data sets-nighttime light grid, LandScan population grid, and road density grid, is used as ancillary asset density distribution information for spatializing the asset value. As a result, a high spatial resolution asset value map of China for 2015 is generated. The spatial data set contains aggregated economic value at risk at 30 arc-second spatial resolution. Accuracy of the spatial disaggregation reflects redistribution errors introduced by the disaggregation process as well as errors from the original ancillary data sets. The overall accuracy of the results proves to be promising. The example of using the developed disaggregated asset value map in exposure assessment of watersheds demonstrates that the data set offers immense analytical flexibility for overlay analysis according to the hazard extent. This product will help current efforts to analyze spatial characteristics of exposure and to uncover the contributions of both physical and social drivers of natural hazard and disaster across space and time.

  19. Bringing Together Users and Developers of Forest Biomass Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Forests store carbon and thus represent important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of the amount of carbon in standing forests will improve precision of estimates of anthropogenic contributions to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Although satellite remote sensing has long been an important tool for mapping land cover, until recently aboveground forest biomass estimates have relied mostly on systematic ground sampling of forests. In alignment with fiscal year 2010 congressional direction, NASA has initiated work toward a carbon monitoring system (CMS) that includes both maps of forest biomass and total carbon flux estimates. A goal of the project is to ensure that the products are useful to a wide community of scientists, managers, and policy makers, as well as to carbon cycle scientists. Understanding the needs and requirements of these data users is helpful not just to the NASA CMS program but also to the entire community working on carbon-related activities. To that end, this meeting brought together a small group of natural resource managers and policy makers who use information on forests in their work with NASA scientists who are working to create aboveground forest biomass maps. These maps, derived from combining remote sensing and ground plots, aim to be more accurate than current inventory approaches when applied at local and regional scales.

  20. Developments in large-scale coastal flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Dottori, Francesco; Giardino, Alessio; Bouziotas, Dimitrios; Bianchi, Alessandra; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Coastal flooding related to marine extreme events has severe socioeconomic impacts, and even though the latter are projected to increase under the changing climate, there is a clear deficit of information and predictive capacity related to coastal flood mapping. The present contribution reports on efforts towards a new methodology for mapping coastal flood hazard at European scale, combining (i) the contribution of waves to the total water level; (ii) improved inundation modeling; and (iii) an open, physics-based framework which can be constantly upgraded, whenever new and more accurate data become available. Four inundation approaches of gradually increasing complexity and computational costs were evaluated in terms of their applicability to large-scale coastal flooding mapping: static inundation (SM); a semi-dynamic method, considering the water volume discharge over the dykes (VD); the flood intensity index approach (Iw); and the model LISFLOOD-FP (LFP). A validation test performed against observed flood extents during the Xynthia storm event showed that SM and VD can lead to an overestimation of flood extents by 232 and 209 %, while Iw and LFP showed satisfactory predictive skill. Application at pan-European scale for the present-day 100-year event confirmed that static approaches can overestimate flood extents by 56 % compared to LFP; however, Iw can deliver results of reasonable accuracy in cases when reduced computational costs are a priority. Moreover, omitting the wave contribution in the extreme total water level (TWL) can result in a ˜ 60 % underestimation of the flooded area. The present findings have implications for impact assessment studies, since combination of the estimated inundation maps with population exposure maps revealed differences in the estimated number of people affected within the 20-70 % range.

  1. Meta-Analysis on Near-Road Air Pollutants Concentrations for Developing Traffic Indicators for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air pollution has been associated with various health risks in human populations living near roadways. To better understand relationship between vehicle emissions and spatial profiles of traffic-related air pollutants we performed a comprehensive and systematic literat...

  2. Development and application of traffic density-based parameters for studying near-road air pollutant exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly human populations are living and/or working in close proximity to heavily travelled roadways. There is a growing body of research indicating a variety of health conditions are adversely affected by near-road air pollutants. To reliably estimate the health risk assoc...

  3. Friend Not Foe: The Role of Curriculum Committee in Supporting the Development of Curriculum at Royal Roads University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum Committee at Royal Roads University (RRU) is mandated with ensuring that program and course curricula are of sufficient high academic integrity, consistent with other academic institutions, delivered in a manner consistent with program outcomes, and align with the recently adopted Learning and Teaching Model. Yet, the apparent…

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY-LEVEL WIND EROSION AND UNPAVED ROAD ALKALINE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report details the methods used and the result of the conversion of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) alkaline material emissions information for wind erosion, unpaved roads, and dust devils from the' current spatial resolution to county-level res...

  5. Geospatial Estimates of Road Salt Usage Across a Gradient of Urbanizing Watersheds in Southern Ontario:Thesis for Masters in Spatial Analysis (MSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giberson, G. K.; Oswald, C.

    2015-12-01

    In areas affected by snow, chloride (Cl) salts are widely used as a de-icing agent to improve road conditions. While the improvement in road safety is indisputable, there are environmental consequences to local aquatic ecosystems. In many waterways, Cl concentrations have been increasing since the early 1990s, often exceeding national water quality guidelines. To determine the quantity of Cl that is accumulating in urban and urbanizing watersheds, accurate estimates of road salt usage at the watershed-scale are needed. The complex jurisdictional control over road salt application in southern Ontario lends itself to a geospatial approach for calculating Cl inputs to improve the accuracy of watershed-scale Cl mass balance estimates. This study will develop a geospatial protocol for combining information on road salt applications and road network areas to refine watershed-scale Cl inputs, as well as assess spatiotemporal patterns in road salt application across the southern Ontario study region. The overall objective of this project is to use geospatial methods (predominantly ArcGIS) to develop high-accuracy estimates of road salt usage in urbanizing watersheds in southern Ontario. Specifically, the aims will be to map and summarize the types and areas ("lane-lengths") of roadways in each watershed that have road salt applied to them, to determine the most appropriate source(s) of road salt usage data for each watershed, taking into consideration multiple levels of jurisdiction (e.g. municipal, regional, provincial), to calculate and summarize sub-watershed and watershed-scale road salt usage estimates for multiple years, and to analyze intra-watershed spatiotemporal patterns of road salt usage, especially focusing on impervious surfaces. These analyses will recommend areas of concern exacerbated by high-levels of road salt distribution; recommendations around modifying on-the-ground operations will be the next step in helping to correct these issues.

  6. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-02-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian.

  7. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-01-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

  8. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal-Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists.

  9. Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications / App Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

  10. Development of Web Mapping Service Capabilities to Support NASA Disasters Applications/App Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason E.; Molthan, Andrew L.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last year several significant disasters have occurred such as Superstorm Sandy on the East coast of the United States, and Typhoon Bopha in the Phillipines, along with several others. In support of these disasters NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center delivered various products derived from satellite imagery to help in the assessment of damage and recovery of the affected areas. To better support the decision makers responding to the disasters SPoRT quickly developed several solutions to provide the data using open Geographical Information Service (GIS) formats. Providing the data in open GIS standard formats allowed the end user to easily integrate the data into existing Decision Support Systems (DSS). Both Tile Mapping Service (TMS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS) were leveraged to quickly provide the data to the end-user. Development of the deliver methodology allowed quick response to rapidly developing disasters and enabled NASA SPoRT to bring science data to decision makers in a successful research to operations transition.

  11. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  12. Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies.

  13. Designing Audio-Tutorial Map Systems for Blind Children: A Report of Collaborative Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack W.

    Low vision students can be helped to gain an understanding of map reading and geography by means of products developed by the American Printing House for the Blind. Among those products are a series of eight land form models with accompanying audiotapes, a series of continental color coded relief maps, and 18 audiotapes for the six continents. The…

  14. Concept-Mapping Tools and the Development of Students' Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Sheng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing students' critical-thinking skills has recently received attention at all levels of education. This article proposes the use of concept-mapping tools to improve students' critical-thinking skills. The article introduces a Web-based concept-mapping tool--Popplet--and demonstrates its application for teaching critical-thinking skills in…

  15. A Time Sequence-Oriented Concept Map Approach to Developing Educational Computer Games for History Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chen, Jing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been recognized as an effective tool for students to organize their knowledge; however, in history courses, it is important for students to learn and organize historical events according to the time of their occurrence. Therefore, in this study, a time sequence-oriented concept map approach is proposed for developing a game-based…

  16. Sequential Pattern Analysis: Method and Application in Exploring How Students Develop Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lin, Chien-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique that represents knowledge in graphs. It has been widely adopted in science education and cognitive psychology to aid learning and assessment. To realize the sequential manner in which students develop concept maps, most research relies upon human-dependent, qualitative approaches. This article proposes a method for…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

  18. Ontology Research and Development. Part 2 - A Review of Ontology Mapping and Evolving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert

    2002-01-01

    Reviews ontology research and development, specifically ontology mapping and evolving. Highlights include an overview of ontology mapping projects; maintaining existing ontologies and extending them as appropriate when new information or knowledge is acquired; and ontology's role and the future of the World Wide Web, or Semantic Web. (Contains 55…

  19. Development of molecular marker source profiles for emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicle fleets.

    PubMed

    Lough, Glynis C; Christensen, Charles G; Schauer, James J; Tortorelli, James; Mani, Erin; Lawson, Douglas R; Clark, Nigel N; Gabele, Peter A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California's South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions of particulate matter were analyzed for organic tracer compounds, including hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Large intervehicle variation was seen in emission rate and composition, and results were averaged to examine the impacts of vehicle ages, weight classes, and driving cycles on the variation. Average profiles, weighted by mass emission rate, had much lower uncertainty than that associated with intervehicle variation. Mass emission rates and elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) ratios for gasoline vehicle age classes were influenced most by use of cold-start or warm-start driving cycle (factor of 2-7). Individual smoker vehicles had a large range of mass and EC/OC (factors of 40 and 625, respectively). Gasoline vehicle age averages, data on vehicle ages and miles traveled in the area, and several assumptions about smoker contributions were used to create emissions profiles representative of on-road vehicle fleets in the Los Angeles area in 2001. In the representative gasoline fleet profiles, variation was further reduced, with cold-start or warm-start and the representation of smoker vehicles making a difference of approximately a factor of two in mass emission rate and EC/OC. Diesel vehicle profiles were created on the basis of vehicle age, weight class, and driving cycle. Mass emission rate and EC/OC for diesel averages were influenced by vehicle age (factor of 2-5), weight class (factor of 2-7), and driving cycle (factor of 10-20). Absolute and relative emissions of molecular marker compounds showed

  20. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  1. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  2. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Jarvis, D E; Kopp, O R; Jellen, E N; Mallory, M A; Pattee, J; Bonifacio, A; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Maughan, P J

    2008-04-01

    Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently quinoa has gained international attention for its high nutritional value and tolerances of extreme abiotic stresses. DNA markers and linkage maps are important tools for germplasm conservation and crop improvement programmes. Here we report the development of 216 new polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 SSR markers developed from bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BES-SSRs). Heterozygosity (H) values of the SSR markers ranges from 0.12 to 0.90, with an average value of 0.57. A linkage map was constructed for a newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population using these SSR markers. Additional markers, including amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), two 11S seed storage protein loci, and the nucleolar organizing region (NOR), were also placed on the linkage map. The linkage map presented here is the first SSR-based map in quinoa and contains 275 markers, including 200 SSR. The map consists of 38 linkage groups (LGs) covering 913 cM. Segregation distortion was observed in the mapping population for several marker loci, indicating possible chromosomal regions associated with selection or gametophytic lethality. As this map is based primarily on simple and easily-transferable SSR markers, it will be particularly valuable for research in laboratories in Andean regions of South America.

  3. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ketabi, Damon; Barkhordari, Abalfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Road accidents are a social phenomenon in different communities that its infra­structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech­nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving. Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv­ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips. Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious. PMID:24688909

  4. The use of concept mapping in measurement development and evaluation: Application and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Scott R; Ridings, John W

    2017-02-01

    The past decade has seen an increase of measurement development research in social and health sciences that featured the use of concept mapping as a core technique. The purpose, application, and utility of concept mapping have varied across this emerging literature. Despite the variety of uses and range of outputs, little has been done to critically review how researchers have approached the application of concept mapping in the measurement development and evaluation process. This article focuses on a review of the current state of practice regarding the use of concept mapping as methodological tool in this process. We systematically reviewed 23 scale or measure development and evaluation studies, and detail the application of concept mapping in the context of traditional measurement development and psychometric testing processes. Although several limitations surfaced, we found several strengths in the contemporary application of the method. We determined concept mapping provides (a) a solid method for establishing content validity, (b) facilitates researcher decision-making, (c) insight into target population perspectives that are integrated a priori, and (d) a foundation for analytical and interpretative choices. Based on these results, we outline how concept mapping can be situated in the measurement development and evaluation processes for new instrumentation.

  5. Statistical Patterns of Triggered Landslide Events and their Application to Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rainfall, as part of a triggered landslide event, one individual to tens of thousands of landslides may occur across a region. If in the region, one or more roads become blocked by landslides, this can cause extensive detours and delay rescue and recovery operations. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with real data of a model to simulate triggered landslide events and their impacts upon road networks. This is done by creating a 'synthetic' triggered landslide event inventory by randomly sampling landslide areas and shapes from already established statistical distributions. These landslides are then semi-randomly dropped across a given study region, conditioned by that region's landslide susceptibility. The resulting synthetic triggered landslide event inventory is overlaid with the region's road network map and the number, size, location and network impact of road blockages and landslides near roads calculated. This process is repeated hundreds of times in a Monte Carlo type simulation. The statistical distributions and approaches used in the model are thought to be generally applicable for low-mobility triggered landslides in many medium to high-topography regions throughout the world. The only local data required to run the model are a road network map, a landslide susceptibility map, a map of the study area boundary and a digital elevation model. Coupled with an Open Source modelling approach (in GRASS-GIS), this model may be applied to many regions where triggered landslide events are an issue. We present model results and confrontation with observed data for two study regions where the model has been applied: Collazzone (Central Italy) where rapid snowmelt triggered 413 landslides in January 1997 and Oat Mountain (Northridge, USA), where the Northridge Earthquake triggered 1,356 landslides in January 1994. We find that when the landslide

  6. Development of motor maps in rats and their modulation by experience.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicole A; Vuong, Jennifer; Teskey, G Campbell

    2012-09-01

    While a substantial literature demonstrates the effect of differential experience on development of mammalian sensory cortices and plasticity of adult motor cortex, characterization of differential experience on the functional development of motor cortex is meager. We first determined when forelimb movement representations (motor maps) could be detected in rats during postnatal development and then whether their motor map expression could be altered with rearing in an enriched environment consisting of group housing and novel toys or skilled learning by training on the single pellet reaching task. All offspring had high-resolution intracortical microstimulation (ICMS)-derived motor maps using methodologies previously optimized for the adult rat. First, cortical GABA-mediated inhibition was depressed by bicuculline infusion directly into layer V of motor cortex and ICMS-responsive points were first reliably detected on postnatal day (PND) 13. Without relying on bicuculline disinhibition of cortex, motor maps emerged on PND 35 and then increased in size until PND 60 and had progressively lower movement thresholds. Second, environmental enrichment did not affect initial detection of responsive points and motor maps in non-bicuculline-treated pups on PND 35. However, motor maps were larger on PND 45 in enriched rat pups relative to pups in the standard housing condition. Rats in both conditions had similar map sizes on PNDs 60, 75, and 90. Third, reach training in rat pups resulted in an internal reorganization of the map in the hemisphere contralateral, but not ipsilateral, to the trained forelimb. The map reorganization was expressed as proportionately more distal (digit and wrist) representations on PND 45. Our data indicate that both environmental enrichment and skilled reach training experience can differentially modify expression of motor maps during development.

  7. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  8. Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that

  9. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  10. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  11. Chicago Workforce Development Programs: System Map and Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Within the City of Chicago, a wide variety of public and private programs are geared towards preparing adults and youth for the workforce. This report of workforce development programs provides an overview of federal, state, and city workforce development programs within the City of Chicago through a detailed inventory table of the programs…

  12. Updating road databases from shape-files using aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häufel, Gisela; Bulatov, Dimitri; Pohl, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Road databases are an important part of geo data infrastructure. The knowledge about their characteristics and course is essential for urban planning, navigation or evacuation tasks. Starting from OpenStreetMap (OSM) shape-file data for street networks, we introduce an algorithm to enrich these available road maps by new maps which are based on other airborne sensor technology. In our case, these are results of our context-based urban terrain reconstruction process. We wish to enhance the use of road databases by computing additional junctions, narrow passages and other items which may emerge due to changes in the terrain. This is relevant for various military and civil applications.

  13. STUDY ON GEO-CODING OF ROAD EVENTS USING ROAD NAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yoshitaka; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Sibasaki, Ryosuke

    Recently, services with geospatial information have expanding rapidly. In case of road map, it has become increasingly important to represent various information such as stores, road works, traffic controls, accidents and positions of cars and people, because of the popularization of a vehicle and pedestrian navigation system. However, in Japan, coordinates that identify position from Japanese address is not on a road but on city block. So it is very important to identify the position on the road that various information indicates. Then, in this study, the geocoding technology was examined to specify the position on the road for the improvement and the upgrade of the convenience of service that used geospatial information. The method that used the location information and route information was invented about the identifying position on the road. Data targeted related information on road events in the process where the road structure was changed. In addition, the method at this identifying position was applied to information related to the road, the ratio of the accuracy and each accuracy was calculated, and application to service was examined.

  14. Study of Mobile GIS Application on the Field of GPR in the Road Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Q.; Yang, F.

    2013-12-01

    With the reflection principle of pulsed electromagnetic waves, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is available to measure depth of the pavement layer, reflecting different hidden danger underground. Currently, GPR has been widely used in road engineering with the constantly improved ability of detection and diagnosis to road diseases. The sum of road disease data of a region, a city, and even a wider range will be a very informative database, so we need a more convenient way to achieve data query intuitively. As mobile internet develops continuously, application of mobile terminal device plays a more important role in information platform. Mobile GIS, with smartphone as its terminal, is supported by the mobile Internet, GPS or base station as its positioning method. In this article, based on Android Platform and using C/S pattern, the LBS application of road diseases information which integrates Baidu Map API and database technology was discussed. After testing, it can display and query the real-time and historical road diseases data, the classification of data on a phone intuitively and easily. Because of the location technique and high portability of smart phone, the spot investigations of road diseases become easier. Though, the system needs further improvement, especially with the improving of the mobile phone performance, the system can also add the function of analysis to the disease data, thus forming a set of service system with more applicable.

  15. Mapping of hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides in developing countries: Examples from Honduras and Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Reid, M.E.; McKenna, J.P.; Michael, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of life and property caused by landslides triggered by extreme rainfall events demonstrates the need for landslide-hazard assessment in developing countries where recovery from such events often exceeds the country's resources. Mapping landslide hazards in developing countries where the need for landslide-hazard mitigation is great but the resources are few is a challenging, but not intractable problem. The minimum requirements for constructing a physically based landslide-hazard map from a landslide-triggering storm, using the simple methods we discuss, are: (1) an accurate mapped landslide inventory, (2) a slope map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) or topographic map, and (3) material strength properties of the slopes involved. Provided that the landslide distribution from a triggering event can be documented and mapped, it is often possible to glean enough topographic and geologic information from existing databases to produce a reliable map that depicts landslide hazards from an extreme event. Most areas of the world have enough topographic information to provide digital elevation models from which to construct slope maps. In the likely event that engineering properties of slope materials are not available, reasonable estimates can be made with detailed field examination by engineering geologists or geotechnical engineers. Resulting landslide hazard maps can be used as tools to guide relocation and redevelopment, or, more likely, temporary relocation efforts during severe storm events such as hurricanes/typhoons to minimize loss of life and property. We illustrate these methods in two case studies of lethal landslides in developing countries: Tegucigalpa, Honduras (during Hurricane Mitch in 1998) and the Chuuk Islands, Micronesia (during Typhoon Chata'an in 2002).

  16. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  17. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  1. 1988 Year End Report for Road Following at Carnegie Mellon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    regions and uncertainty. After the low-resolution obstacle detection was demonstrated as part of the Navlab, it was ported to 4 Martin Marietta. Work in...of Road Scenes Using an Active Sensor." Terrain Mapping: The algorithms that build a terrain description made of polygonal regions have been...the pixels in the image into regions . The road is detected by finding the set of regions which, grouped together, best match the road shape. UNSCARF

  2. Long-Range Technological Impact on Computer-Aided Product Development at DMA (Defense Mapping Agency).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    RICHARD W. POULIOT Plans & Programs Division DESTRUCTION NOTICE - For classified documents, follow the procedures in DOD 5200.22-M, Industrial Security...1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1. GOALS The Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) production plan is determined by the Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy (MC&G) needs of...investigation into technological trends and opportunities useful in the development of powerful new GDP systems assists planning and design efforts in

  3. Generating Multi-destination Maps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junsong; Fan, Jiepeng; Luo, Zhenshan

    2016-08-03

    Multi-destination maps are a kind of navigation maps aimed to guide visitors to multiple destinations within a region, which can be of great help to urban visitors. However, they have not been developed in the current online map service. To address this issue, we introduce a novel layout model designed especially for generating multi-destination maps, which considers the global and local layout of a multi-destination map. We model the layout problem as a graph drawing that satisfies a set of hard and soft constraints. In the global layout phase, we balance the scale factor between ROIs. In the local layout phase, we make all edges have good visibility and optimize the map layout to preserve the relative length and angle of roads. We also propose a perturbation-based optimization method to find an optimal layout in the complex solution space. The multi-destination maps generated by our system are potential feasible on the modern mobile devices and our result can show an overview and a detail view of the whole map at the same time. In addition, we perform a user study to evaluate the effectiveness of our method, and the results prove that the multi-destination maps achieve our goals well.

  4. Development of Visualization of Learning Outcomes Using Curriculum Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuta, Takashi; Gotoh, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Niigata University has started to develop the Niigata University Bachelor Assessment System (NBAS). The objective is to have groups of teachers belonging to educational programs discuss whether visualized learning outcomes are comprehensible. Discussions based on teachers' subjective judgments showed in general that visualized learning outcomes…

  5. Opening the Development Debate with Maps of Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This paper identifies how comparative educators have chosen to visually represent the field of development education since about 1963. This is an attempt to historicize the vision as scholars struggle with the representational dilemmas and opportunities of late modernity/postmodernity. The paper is organized in three parts. Part 1 illustrates how…

  6. A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trygve E; Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A; Royall, Joshua J; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Amaral, David G; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S

    2016-07-21

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high-resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical division of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons. Cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late in postnatal development. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing of gene expression, but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, although approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny compared to monkey.

  7. Developing Global Competences by Extended Chemistry Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celestino, Teresa; Piumetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on a possible teaching approach to promote chemistry learning for students during the first two years of technical high school in Italy (age 14-15). Critical thinking skills can be developed by integrating two different curriculum designs, converging in a novel didactic approach, a modified version of the Systemic Approach to…

  8. Mapping What Young Students Understand and Value Regarding Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manni, Annika; Sporre, Karin; Ottander, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate how 10-12 year old Swedish students understand and value the issue of sustainable development. The responses from open-ended questions in a questionnaire have been analyzed through a content analysis based on a phenomenographic approach. The results show that there are…

  9. Quantitative Cortical Mapping of Fractional Anisotropy in Developing Rat Brains

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Yamamoto, Akria; Hossain, Mir Ahamed; Younes, Laurent; Mori, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Cortical development is associated with a series of events that involve axon and dendrite growth and synaptic formation. Although these developmental processes have been investigated in detail with histology, three-dimensional and quantitative imaging methods for rodent brains may be useful for genetic and pharmacological studies in which cortical developmental abnormalities are suspected. It has been shown that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can delineate the columnar organization of the fetal and early neonatal cortex based on a high degree of diffusion anisotropy along the columnar structures. This anisotropy is known to decrease during brain development. In this study, we applied DTI to developing rat brains at five developmental stages, postnatal days 0, 3, 7, 11 and 19, and used diffusion anisotropy as an index to characterize the structural change. Statistical analysis reveals four distinctive cortical areas that demonstrate a characteristic time course of anisotropy loss. This method may provide a means to delineate specific cortical areas and a quantitative method to detect abnormalities in cortical development in rodent pathological models. PMID:18256263

  10. Mind Mapping on Development of Human Resource of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauzi, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Human resources in the field of education consists of students, teachers, administrative staff, university students, lecturers, structural employees, educational bureaucrats, stakeholders, parents, the society around the school, and the society around the campus. The existence of human resources need to be cultivated and developed towards the…

  11. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  12. Getting Road Expansion on the Right Track: A Framework for Smart Infrastructure Planning in the Mekong.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Chen, Huafang; Phalan, Ben; Wang, Mingcheng; O'Connell, Christine; Tayleur, Cath; Xu, Jianchu

    2016-12-01

    The current unprecedented expansion of infrastructure promises to enhance human wellbeing but risks causing substantial harm to natural ecosystems and the benefits they provide for people. A framework for systematically and proactively identifying the likely benefits and costs of such developments is badly needed. Here, we develop and test at the subregional scale a recently proposed global scheme for comparing the potential gains from new roads for food production with their likely impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Working in the Greater Mekong-an exceptionally biodiverse subregion undergoing rapid development-we combined maps of isolation from urban centres, yield gaps, and the current area under 17 crops to estimate where and how far road development could in principle help to increase food production without the need for cropland expansion. We overlaid this information with maps summarising the importance of remaining habitats to terrestrial vertebrates and (as examples of major ecosystem services) to global and local climate regulation. This intersection revealed several largely converted yet relatively low-yielding areas (such as central, eastern, and northeastern Thailand and the Ayeyarwady Delta), where narrowing yield gaps by improving transport links has the potential to substantially increase food production at relatively limited environmental cost. Concentrating new roads and road improvements here while taking strong measures to prevent their spread into areas which are still extensively forested (such as northern Laos, western Yunnan, and southwestern Cambodia) could thus enhance rural livelihoods and regional food production while helping safeguard vital ecosystem services and globally significant biological diversity.

  13. Flood probability quantification for road infrastructure: Data-driven spatial-statistical approach and case study applications.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Cavalli, Marco; Cantone, Carolina; Crema, Stefano; Destouni, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Climate-driven increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events is expected to impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructure, such as roads and railways. This study develops a data-driven spatial-statistical approach to quantifying and mapping the probability of flooding at critical road-stream intersection locations, where water flow and sediment transport may accumulate and cause serious road damage. The approach is based on novel integration of key watershed and road characteristics, including also measures of sediment connectivity. The approach is concretely applied to and quantified for two specific study case examples in southwest Sweden, with documented road flooding effects of recorded extreme rainfall. The novel contributions of this study in combining a sediment connectivity account with that of soil type, land use, spatial precipitation-runoff variability and road drainage in catchments, and in extending the connectivity measure use for different types of catchments, improve the accuracy of model results for road flood probability.

  14. A growth factor phenotype map for ovine preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Watson, A J; Watson, P H; Arcellana-Panlilio, M; Warnes, D; Walker, S K; Schultz, G A; Armstrong, D T; Seamark, R F

    1994-04-01

    The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the patterns of expression for several growth factor ligand and receptor genes during ovine preimplantation development. Transcripts for insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and the receptors for insulin and IGF-I were detected throughout ovine preimplantation development from the 1-cell to the blastocyst stage. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) transcripts were also detected throughout ovine preimplantation development. The mRNAs encoding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected in all stages of the ovine preimplantation embryo, although the relative abundance of this transcript consistently decreased from the 1-cell to the blastocyst stage, suggesting that it may represent a maternal transcript in early sheep embryos. Transcripts encoding ovine trophoblast protein (oTP) were detected only within blastocyst-stage embryos. Primary ovine oviduct cell cultures express the transcripts for IGF-II, IGF-I, TGF alpha, bFGF, TGF beta 1, and the receptors for insulin and IGF-I, suggesting that paracrine growth factor circuits may exist between the oviduct epithelium and the early ovine embryo. Transcripts for insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) were not detected in any stage of the ovine preimplantation embryo or within the oviduct cell preparations. The expression of growth factor transcripts very early in mammalian development would predict that these molecules fulfil a necessary role(s) in supporting the progression of early embryos through the preimplantation interval. Our future efforts will be directed to understanding the nature of these putative regulatory pathways.

  15. Development of Fracture Mechanics Maps for Composite Materials. Volume 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Failure B tes leve (85 %) 80 I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 LOG CYCIES Figure 4. Stiffness and Residual Strength Versus Life The process of damage development around...arbitrary, but are chosen to reflect transitions in the damage growth process as represented by stiffness change. In region I, the stiffness decreases at a...Thermally induced stresses are imitated in a laminate during the curing process when it reaches a temperature at which the resin changes from a

  16. Developing Vs30 site-condition maps by combining observations with geologic and topographic constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Wald, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite obvious limitations as a proxy for site amplification, the use of time-averaged shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m (VS30) remains widely practiced, most notably through its use as an explanatory variable in ground motion prediction equations (and thus hazard maps and ShakeMaps, among other applications). As such, we are developing an improved strategy for producing VS30 maps given the common observational constraints. Using the abundant VS30 measurements in Taiwan, we compare alternative mapping methods that combine topographic slope, surface geology, and spatial correlation structure. The different VS30 mapping algorithms are distinguished by the way that slope and geology are combined to define a spatial model of VS30. We consider the globally applicable slope-only model as a baseline to which we compare two methods of combining both slope and geology. For both hybrid approaches, we model spatial correlation structure of the residuals using the kriging-with-a-trend technique, which brings the map into closer agreement with the observations. Cross validation indicates that we can reduce the uncertainty of the VS30 map by up to 16% relative to the slope-only approach.

  17. The Development of Mathematical Prediction Model to Predict Resilient Modulus for Natural Soil Stabilized by Pofa-Opc Additive for the Use in Unpaved Road Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamil, Y. M. R.; Bakar, I. H.

    2016-07-01

    Resilient Modulus (Mr) is considered one of the most important parameters in the design of road structure. This paper describes the development of the mathematical model to predict resilient modulus of organic soil stabilized by the mix of Palm Oil Fuel Ash - Ordinary Portland Cement (POFA-OPC) soil stabilization additives. It aims to optimize the use of the use of POFA in soil stabilization. The optimization models enable to eliminate the arbitrary selection and its associated disadvantages in determination of the optimum additive proportion. The model was developed based on Scheffe regression theory. The mix proportions of the samples in the experiment were adopted from similar studies reported in the literature Twenty five samples were designed, prepared and then characterized for each mix proportion based on the MR in 28 days curing. The results are used to develop the mathematical prediction model. The model was statistically analyzed and verified for its adequacy and validity using F-test.

  18. Vector map geo-location using GPS tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yuanlu; Xu, Hao; Liu, Zhenan

    2007-06-01

    Geographic Information Systems, especially accurate digital traffic maps, have been becoming widely used in the Intelligent Transportation Systems. The GPS data usually are more accurate than the pre-existing base map data. This paper introduces a new cartography procedure for making digital map from a start-up paper map, which has no geography data (longitude and latitude). Contrary to traditional map-making which is first a precise survey-cartography and follow-on digital controlled mapping, the new procedure is first extracting layer from a raster map and vectorization, follow-on geo-adjusting for pinpointing all nodes on the vector map. There are two key processes in the new digital map-making technique. First, the map layer extraction is controlled by output feedback for optimal recognition of road network. Second, a dynamic topological mapping is developed for geo-location and improving the accuracy of vector traffic map by utilizing some recorded GPS data as the controlled pinpoint samples. Different from those traditional geolocation methods such as affine mapping, and the rubber-streeting with manual point-by-point matching, the new adjusting is decomposed into a series of optimal topological sub-mapping on relative sub-map region. Based on pinpointing one sample point to its accuracy location, the sub-mapping adjusts all nodes within the sub-map region.

  19. Developing Tsunami Evacuation Plans, Maps, And Procedures: Pilot Project in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, N. P.; Kong, L. S. L.; Arcas, D.; Aliaga, B.; Coetzee, D.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the End-to-End tsunami warning chain, once a forecast is provided and a warning alert issued, communities must know what to do and where to go. The 'where to' answer would be reliable and practical community-level tsunami evacuation maps. Following the Exercise Pacific Wave 2011, a questionnaire was sent to the 46 Member States of Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS). The results revealed over 42 percent of Member States lacked tsunami mass coastal evacuation plans. Additionally, a significant gap in mapping was exposed as over 55 percent of Member States lacked tsunami evacuation maps, routes, signs and assembly points. Thereby, a significant portion of countries in the Pacific lack appropriate tsunami planning and mapping for their at-risk coastal communities. While a variety of tools exist to establish tsunami inundation areas, these are inconsistent while a methodology has not been developed to assist countries develop tsunami evacuation maps, plans, and procedures. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) and partners is leading a Pilot Project in Honduras demonstrating that globally standardized tools and methodologies can be applied by a country, with minimal tsunami warning and mitigation resources, towards the determination of tsunami inundation areas and subsequently community-owned tsunami evacuation maps and plans for at-risk communities. The Pilot involves a 1- to 2-year long process centered on a series of linked tsunami training workshops on: evacuation planning, evacuation map development, inundation modeling and map creation, tsunami warning & emergency response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and conducting tsunami exercises (including evacuation). The Pilot's completion is capped with a UNESCO/IOC document so that other countries can replicate the process in their tsunami-prone communities.

  20. Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.

    PubMed

    Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

    2014-06-01

    The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS.

  1. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  2. Development of Fracture Mechanics Maps for Composite Materials. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    RD-At69 W4 DEVELOPMENT OF FRCTURE ECHNICS NPS FOR COMPOSITE V3jMATERIALS VOLUME 3( ) DEUTSCHE FORSCHUNOS- UND YERSUCHSANSTALT FUER LUFT- UND RAUMF...ungekerbter CFK -Laminate J.- Block DFVLR 4 Institut~~ ~ firSrutrecai Braunschweig le- DEUTSCHE ~~~~~*~ FOSHUG-UN ERUHA:TL Y FOR LUFT- UND RAUMFAHRT E.V...Laminaten mittels Schallemissionsanalyse e Braunschweig, den 15.11.1984 Der Bericht umfal~t-:-:. 32 Seiten mit . %. * 14 Bildern und 1 Anhang Institutsleiter

  3. Toward a Scientifically Rigorous Basis for Developing Mapped Ecological Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Gerard; Wiken, Ed B.; Gauthier, David A.

    2004-04-01

    Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities—coordination, funding, and education—that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  4. Toward a scientifically rigorous basis for developing mapped ecological regions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Wiken, E.B.; Gauthier, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities--coordination, funding, and education--that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  5. Mapping social processes at work in nursing knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Patti; Willis, Eileen; Henderson, Julie; Harvey, Clare; Toffoli, Luisa; Abery, Elizabeth; Verrall, Claire

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we suggest a blueprint for combining bibliometrics and critical analysis as a way to review published scientific works in nursing. This new approach is neither a systematic review nor meta-analysis. Instead, it is a way for researchers and clinicians to understand how and why current nursing knowledge developed as it did. Our approach will enable consumers and producers of nursing knowledge to recognize and take into account the social processes involved in the development, evaluation, and utilization of new nursing knowledge. We offer a rationale and a strategy for examining the socially-sanctioned actions by which nurse scientists signal to readers the boundaries of their thinking about a problem, the roots of their ideas, and the significance of their work. These actions - based on social processes of authority, credibility, and prestige - have bearing on the careers of nurse scientists and on the ways the knowledge they create enters into the everyday world of nurse clinicians and determines their actions at the bedside, as well as their opportunities for advancement.

  6. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  7. Development of Ground Reference GIS for Assessing Land Cover Maps of Northeast Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joe; Warner, Amanda; Terrie, Greg; Davis, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    GIS technology and ground reference data often play vital roles in assessing land cover maps derived from remotely sensed data. This poster illustrates these roles, using results from a study done in Northeast Yellowstone National Park. This area holds many forest, range, and wetland cover types of interest to park managers. Several recent studies have focused on this locale, including the NASA Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) hyperspectral project performed by Yellowstone Ecosystems Studies (YES) on riparian and in-stream habitat mapping. This poster regards a spin-off to the EOCAP project in which YES and NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate explored the potential for synergistic use of hyperspecral, synthetic aperture radar, and multiband thermal imagery in mapping land cover types. The project included development of a ground reference GIS for site-specific data needed to evaluate maps from remotely sensed imagery. Field survey data included reflectance of plant communities, native and exotic plant species, and forest health conditions. Researchers also collected GPS points, annotated aerial photographs, and took hand held photographs of reference sites. The use of ESRI, ERDAS, and ENVI software enabled reference data entry into a GIS for comparision to georeferenced imagery and thematic maps. The GIS-based ground reference data layers supported development and assessment of multiple maps from remotely sensed data sets acquired over the study area.

  8. Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot

    PubMed Central

    Budahn, Holger; Barański, Rafał; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Straka, Petra; Metge, Kai; Linke, Bettina; Nothnagel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L.) was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel) chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola) mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups (LGs) ranged between 65 and 145 cM. All LGs have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5) with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2) with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus. PMID:25339960

  9. Development of a Two-Wheel Contingency Mode for the MAP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on mission to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and is currently collecting data from its orbit near the second Sun-Earth libration point. Due to limited mass, power, and financial resources, a traditional reliability concept including fully redundant components was not feasible for MAP. Instead, the MAP design employs selective hardware redundancy in tandem with contingency software modes and algorithms to improve the odds of mission success. One direction for such improvement has been the development of a two-wheel backup control strategy. This strategy would allow MAP to position itself for maneuvers and collect science data should one of its three reaction wheels fail. Along with operational considerations, the strategy includes three new control algorithms. These algorithms would use the remaining attitude control actuators-thrusters and two reaction wheels-in ways that achieve control goals while minimizing adverse impacts on the functionality of other subsystems and software.

  10. Developing Coastal Surface Roughness Maps Using ASTER and QuickBird Data Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joe; Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation regards one element of a larger project on the integration of NASA science models and data into the Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard (HAZUS-MH) Hurricane module for hurricane damage and loss risk assessment. HAZUS-MH is a decision support tool being developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It includes the Hurricane Module, which employs surface roughness maps made from National Land Cover Data (NLCD) maps to estimate coastal hurricane wind damage and loss. NLCD maps are produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This presentation discusses an effort to improve upon current HAZUS surface roughness maps by employing ASTER multispectral classifications with QuickBird "ground reference" imagery.

  11. Critical Periods and Catastrophic Interference Effects in the Development of Self-Organizing Feature Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) in models of cognitive development has frequently been associated with explanations of "critical" or "sensitive periods". By contrast, error-driven connectionist models of development have been linked with "catastrophic interference" between new knowledge and old knowledge. We introduce a set of…

  12. Nautical Charts: Another Dimension in Developing Map Skills. Instructional Activities Series IA/S-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, W. F.; Botly, D. H.

    These activities are part of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. In the activities students develop map skills by learning about and using nautical charts. The first activity involves students in using parallel rulers and a compass rose to find their…

  13. Development of SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in jute.

    PubMed

    Das, Moumita; Banerjee, Sumana; Dhariwal, Raman; Vyas, Shailendra; Mir, Reyazul R; Topdar, Niladri; Kundu, Avijit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Sarkar, Debabrata; Sinha, Mohit K; Balyan, Harindra S; Gupta, Pushpendra K

    2012-01-01

    Jute is an important natural fibre crop, which is only second to cotton in its importance at the global level. It is mostly grown in Indian subcontinent and has been recently used for the development of genomics resources.We recently initiated a programme to develop simple sequence repeat markers and reported a set of 2469 SSR that were developed using four SSR-enriched libraries (Mir et al. 2009). In this communication, we report an additional set of 607 novel SSR in 393 SSR containing sequences. However, primers could be designed for only 417 potentially useful SSR. Polymorphism survey was carried out for 374 primer pairs using two parental genotypes (JRO 524 and PPO4) of a mapping population developed for fibre fineness; only 66 SSR were polymorphic. Owing to a low level of polymorphism between the parental genotypes and a high degree of segregation distortion in recombinant inbred lines, genotypic data of only 53 polymorphic SSR on the mapping population consisting of 120 RIL could be used for the construction of a linkage map; 36 SSR loci were mapped on six linkage groups that covered a total genetic distance of 784.3 cM. Hopefully, this map will be enriched with more SSR loci in future and will prove useful for identification of quantitative trait loci/genes for molecular breeding involving improvement of fibre fineness and other related traits in jute.

  14. Getting Road Expansion on the Right Track: A Framework for Smart Infrastructure Planning in the Mekong

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huafang; Phalan, Ben; Wang, Mingcheng; O’Connell, Christine; Tayleur, Cath

    2016-01-01

    The current unprecedented expansion of infrastructure promises to enhance human wellbeing but risks causing substantial harm to natural ecosystems and the benefits they provide for people. A framework for systematically and proactively identifying the likely benefits and costs of such developments is badly needed. Here, we develop and test at the subregional scale a recently proposed global scheme for comparing the potential gains from new roads for food production with their likely impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Working in the Greater Mekong—an exceptionally biodiverse subregion undergoing rapid development—we combined maps of isolation from urban centres, yield gaps, and the current area under 17 crops to estimate where and how far road development could in principle help to increase food production without the need for cropland expansion. We overlaid this information with maps summarising the importance of remaining habitats to terrestrial vertebrates and (as examples of major ecosystem services) to global and local climate regulation. This intersection revealed several largely converted yet relatively low-yielding areas (such as central, eastern, and northeastern Thailand and the Ayeyarwady Delta), where narrowing yield gaps by improving transport links has the potential to substantially increase food production at relatively limited environmental cost. Concentrating new roads and road improvements here while taking strong measures to prevent their spread into areas which are still extensively forested (such as northern Laos, western Yunnan, and southwestern Cambodia) could thus enhance rural livelihoods and regional food production while helping safeguard vital ecosystem services and globally significant biological diversity. PMID:27977663

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Riparian Buffer Mapping Tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milheim, Lesley E.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Land use and land cover within riparian areas greatly affect the conditions of adjacent water features. In particular, riparian forests provide many environmental benefits, including nutrient uptake, bank stabilization, steam shading, sediment trapping, aquatic and terrestrial habitat, and stream organic matter. In contrast, residential and commercial development and associated transportation infrastructure increase pollutant and nutrient loading and change the hydrologic characteristics of the landscape, thereby affecting both water quality and habitat. Restoring riparian areas is a popular and cost effective restoration technique to improve and protect water quality. Recognizing this, the Chesapeake Executive Council committed to restoring 10,000 miles of riparian forest buffers throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed by the year 2010. In 2006, the Chesapeake Executive Council further committed to 'using the best available...tools to identify areas where retention and expansion of forests is most needed to protect water quality'. The Chesapeake Bay watershed encompasses 64,000 square miles, including portions of six States and Washington, D.C. Therefore, the interpretation of remotely sensed imagery provides the only effective technique for comprehensively evaluating riparian forest protection and restoration opportunities throughout the watershed. Although 30-meter-resolution land use and land cover data have proved useful on a regional scale, they have not been equally successful at providing the detail required for local-scale assessment of riparian area characteristics. Use of high-resolution imagery (HRI) provides sufficient detail for local-scale assessments, although at greater cost owing to the cost of the imagery and the skill and time required to process the data. To facilitate the use of HRI for monitoring the extent of riparian forest buffers, the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Geographic Science Center funded the

  16. A rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Liu, J.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the development of a rich Internet application for automated detection of road blockage in post-disaster scenarios using volunteered geographic information from OpenStreetMap street centerlines and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The architecture of the application on the client-side and server-side was described. The major functionality of the application includes shapefile uploading, Web editing for spatial features, road blockage detection, and blockage points downloading. An example from the 2010 Haiti earthquake was included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the application. The results suggest that the prototype application can effectively detect (1) road blockage caused by earthquakes, and (2) some human errors caused by contributors of volunteered geographic information.

  17. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  18. Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] consensus linkage map constructed using four RIL mapping populations and newly developed EST-SSRs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a widely cultivated drought- and high-temperature tolerant C4 cereal grown under dryland, rainfed and irrigated conditions in drought-prone regions of the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa, South Asia and the Americas. It is considered an orphan crop with relatively few genomic and genetic resources. This study was undertaken to increase the EST-based microsatellite marker and genetic resources for this crop to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Results Newly developed EST-SSR markers (99), along with previously mapped EST-SSR (17), genomic SSR (53) and STS (2) markers, were used to construct linkage maps of four F7 recombinant inbred populations (RIP) based on crosses ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 (RIP A), H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 (RIP B), 81B-P6 × ICMP 451-P8 (RIP C) and PT 732B-P2 × P1449-2-P1 (RIP D). Mapped loci numbers were greatest for RIP A (104), followed by RIP B (78), RIP C (64) and RIP D (59). Total map lengths (Haldane) were 615 cM, 690 cM, 428 cM and 276 cM, respectively. A total of 176 loci detected by 171 primer pairs were mapped among the four crosses. A consensus map of 174 loci (899 cM) detected by 169 primer pairs was constructed using MergeMap to integrate the individual linkage maps. Locus order in the consensus map was well conserved for nearly all linkage groups. Eighty-nine EST-SSR marker loci from this consensus map had significant BLAST hits (top hits with e-value ≤ 1E-10) on the genome sequences of rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium with 35, 88, 58, 48 and 38 loci, respectively. Conclusion The consensus map developed in the present study contains the largest set of mapped SSRs reported to date for pearl millet, and represents a major consolidation of existing pearl millet genetic mapping information. This study increased numbers of mapped pearl millet SSR markers by >50%, filling important gaps in previously published SSR-based linkage maps for this

  19. Development of a genome-wide anchored microsatellite map for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Pedraza, F; Buendia, H F; Gaitán-Solís, E; Beebe, S E; Gepts, P; Tohme, J

    2003-11-01

    A total of 150 microsatellite markers developed for common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tested for parental polymorphism and used to determine the positions of 100 genetic loci on an integrated genetic map of the species. The value of these single-copy markers was evident in their ability to link two existing RFLP-based genetic maps with a base map developed for the Mesoamerican x Andean population, DOR364 x G19833. Two types of microsatellites were mapped, based respectively on gene-coding and anonymous genomic-sequences. Gene-based microsatellites proved to be less polymorphic (46.3%) than anonymous genomic microsatellites (64.3%) between the parents of two inter-genepool crosses. The majority of the microsatellites produced single bands and detected single loci, however four of the gene-based and three of the genomic microsatellites produced consistent double or multiple banding patterns and detected more than one locus. Microsatellite loci were found on each of the 11 chromosomes of common bean, the number per chromosome ranging from 5 to 17 with an average of ten microsatellites each. Total map length for the base map was 1,720 cM and the average chromosome length was 156.4 cM, with an average distance between microsatellite loci of 19.5 cM. The development of new microsatellites from sequences in the Genbank database and the implication of these results for genetic mapping, quantitative trait locus analysis and marker-assisted selection in common bean are described.

  20. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  1. A GRASS GIS Semi-Stochastic Model for Evaluating the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks in Collazzone, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2013-04-01

    During a landslide triggering event, the tens to thousands of landslides resulting from the trigger (e.g., earthquake, heavy rainfall) may block a number of sections of the road network, posing a risk to rescue efforts, logistics and accessibility to a region. Here, we present initial results from a semi-stochastic model we are developing to evaluate the probability of landslides intersecting a road network and the network-accessibility implications of this across a region. This was performed in the open source GRASS GIS software, where we took 'model' landslides and dropped them on a 79 km2 test area region in Collazzone, Umbria, Central Italy, with a given road network (major and minor roads, 404 km in length) and already determined landslide susceptibilities. Landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power-law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL; the rollover (maximum probability) occurs at about AL = 400 m.2 The number of landslide areas selected for each triggered event iteration was chosen to have an average density of 1 landslide km-2, i.e. 79 landslide areas chosen randomly for each iteration. Landslides were then 'dropped' over the region semi-stochastically: (i) random points were generated across the study region; (ii) based on the landslide susceptibility map, points were accepted/rejected based on the probability of a landslide occurring at that location. After a point was accepted, it was assigned a landslide area (AL) and length to width ratio. Landslide intersections with roads were then assessed and indices such as the location, number and size of road blockage recorded. The GRASS-GIS model was performed 1000 times in a Monte-Carlo type simulation. Initial results show that for a landslide triggering event of 1 landslide km-2 over a 79 km2 region with 404 km of road, the number of road blockages

  2. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the development of high-resolution flood hazard models have become feasible at continental and global scale, and their application in developing countries and data-scarce regions can be extremely helpful to increase preparedness of population and reduce catastrophic impacts. The present work describes the development of a novel procedure for global flood hazard mapping, based on the most recent advances in large scale flood modelling. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from the global hydrological simulations of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Streamflow data is downscaled on a high resolution river network and processed to provide the input for local flood inundation simulations, performed with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. All flood-prone areas identified along the river network are then merged to create continental flood hazard maps for different return periods at 30'' resolution. We evaluate the performance of our methodology in several large river basins by comparing simulated flood maps against both official hazard maps and satellite-derived flood maps. We further investigate the sensitivity of the flood modelling framework to different parameters and modelling approaches and identify strengths, limitations and possible improvements of the methodology.

  3. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Plans and drawings. Each applicant for a surface coal mining and reclamation permit shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used, or maintained within the proposed permit area. The plans and drawings shall— (1) Include a map,...

  4. Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sangkyou; Jeong, Joon; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kram, Andrzej; Kim, Mi-Sook; Tuziak, Tomasz; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sooyong; Park, Weon-Seo; Tang, Kuang S; Chung, Woonbok; Shen, Lanlan; Ahmed, Saira S; Johnston, Dennis A; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P; Zhou, Jain-Hua; Harris, R Alan; Snyder, Carrie; Filipek, Slawomir; Narod, Steven A; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry T; Gazdar, Adi; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Wu, Xifeng F; McConkey, David J; Baggerly, Keith; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Benedict, William F; Scherer, Steven E; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22-q24, 5q22-q31, 9q21-q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified

  5. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    Skin chromophore phantoms are widely used for better understanding of the light interaction with tissue and for calibration of skin diagnostic imaging techniques. In this work, different phantoms were examined and compared in order to find biologically equivalent substances that are the most promising for this purpose. For mimicking the skin medium and layered structure, a fibrin matrix with epidermal and dermal cell inclusion was used. Synthesized bilirubin, red blood cells and nigrosin were taken as absorbers. For spectral analysis of the developed phantoms a computer-aided multispectral imaging system Nuance 2.4 (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., USA) was used. In this study, skin phantoms were created using such substances as bilirubin, melanin, haemoglobin and nigrosin Mūsdienās multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtas izmanto ādas parametru un fizioloģisko procesu aprakstīšanai gan pētniecības, gan diagnostikas nolūkiem. Iekārtu darbības uzlabošanai ir nepieciešams labāk saprast gaismas mijiedarbību ar audiem, kā arī veikt šo iekārtu kalibrēšanu ar ādas maketu. Redzamā un tuvā infrasarkanā optiskā diapazona spektroskopijā ir svarīgi ādas maketi, kas simulē audu slāņaino struktūru un ķīmiskās īpašības, kā arī maketi, kas ir bioloģiski līdzvērtīgi. Šajā pētījumā tika izveidots ādas makets no bioloģiskām un ķīmiski sintezētām struktūrām. Ādas maketa izveidei tika izmantota fibrīna matrica ar dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu, lai imitētu ādas slāņaino struktūru. Fibrīna matrica tiek veidota no 0,47 ml asins plazmas, 0,4 ml fizioloģiskā šķīduma, 0,8 μl treneksāmskābes un 89,4 μl kalcija glukanāta. Izveidoto matricu ievieto šūnu inkubatorā, lai tā polimerizētos. Nākošais slānis tiek veidots ar dermālo šūnu piejaukumu (180-270 šūnas), un pēdējais fibrīna matriksa slānis tiek veidots ar epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu (270 šūnas) un šūnu aug

  6. Spatial resolution requirements for automated cartographic road extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1990-01-01

    Ground resolution requirements for detection and extraction of road locations in a digitized large-scale photographic database were investigated. A color infrared photograph of Sunnyvale, California was scanned, registered to a map grid, and spatially degraded to 1- to 5-metre resolution pixels. Road locations in each data set were extracted using a combination of image processing and CAD programs. These locations were compared to a photointerpretation of road locations to determine a preferred pixel size for the extraction method. Based on road pixel omission error computations, a 3-metre pixel resolution appears to be the best choice for this extraction method. -Authors

  7. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei.

  8. Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

  9. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  10. Development of the methodology of exhaust emissions measurement under RDE (Real Driving Emissions) conditions for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.; Siedlecki, M.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper analyzes the exhaust emissions from farm vehicles based on research performed under field conditions (RDE) according to the NTE procedure. This analysis has shown that it is hard to meet the NTE requirements under field conditions (engine operation in the NTE zone for at least 30 seconds). Due to a very high variability of the engine conditions, the share of a valid number of NTE windows in the field test is small throughout the entire test. For this reason, a modification of the measurement and exhaust emissions calculation methodology has been proposed for farm vehicles of the NRMM group. A test has been developed composed of the following phases: trip to the operation site (paved roads) and field operations (including u-turns and maneuvering). The range of the operation time share in individual test phases has been determined. A change in the method of calculating the real exhaust emissions has also been implemented in relation to the NTE procedure.

  11. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  12. Conceptual Maps: Measuring Learning Processes of Engineering Students Concerning Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalas, J.; Ferrer-Balas, D.; Mulder, K. F.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, courses on sustainable development (SD) were introduced in technological universities. After some years of practice, there is increased interest in the evaluation of the most effective ways for teaching SD. This paper introduces the use of conceptual maps as a tool to measure the knowledge acquired by students when taking a…

  13. Metaphor as Structure-Mapping: What Develops. Technical Report No. 315.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Dedre; Stuart, Patricia

    A study investigated developmental changes in children's fluency in interpreting metaphors. Specifically, it examined the development of an implicit interpretation strategy found in adults of mapping relational structure from base to target. Ten subjects from each of three age groups--five to six years, nine to ten years, and college-age…

  14. Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyons, E. C. M.; van Raan, A. F. J.

    1998-01-01

    Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of…

  15. Road marking features extraction using the VIAPIX® system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaddah, W.; Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.; Gutierrez, C.

    2016-07-01

    Precise extraction of road marking features is a critical task for autonomous urban driving, augmented driver assistance, and robotics technologies. In this study, we consider an autonomous system allowing us lane detection for marked urban roads and analysis of their features. The task is to relate the georeferencing of road markings from images obtained using the VIAPIX® system. Based on inverse perspective mapping and color segmentation to detect all white objects existing on this road, the present algorithm enables us to examine these images automatically and rapidly and also to get information on road marks, their surface conditions, and their georeferencing. This algorithm allows detecting all road markings and identifying some of them by making use of a phase-only correlation filter (POF). We illustrate this algorithm and its robustness by applying it to a variety of relevant scenarios.

  16. Contour Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

  17. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  18. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  19. On-the-road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, M.O.; Slavik, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    A special purpose dynamometer (Road Load Simulator) is being used at NASA Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the Road Load Simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are being conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the Lewis electric propulsion system test vehicle are described in this report. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast-down tests.

  20. Development of a new British Geologcial Survey(BGS) Map Series: Seabed Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, Dayton

    2015-04-01

    BGS scientists are developing a new offshore map series, Seabed Geomorphology (1:50k), to join the existing 1:250k 'Sea Bed Sediments', 'Quaternary Geology', and 'Solid Geology' map series. The increasing availability of extensive high-resolution swath bathymetry data (e.g. MCA's Civil Hydrography Programme) provides an unprecedented opportunity to characterize the processes which formed, and actively govern the physical seabed environment. Mapping seabed geomorphology is an effective means to describe individual, or groups of features whose form and other physical attributes (e.g. symmetry) may be used to distinguish feature origin. Swath bathymetry also provides added and renewed value to other data types (e.g. grab samples, legacy seismic data). In such cases the geomorphic evidence may be expanded to make inferences on the evolution of seabed features as well as their association with the underlying geology and other environmental variables/events over multiple timescales. Classifying seabed geomorphology is not particularly innovative or groundbreaking. Terrestrial geomorphology is of course a well established field of science, and within the marine environment for example, mapping submarine glacial landforms has probably become the most reliable method to reconstruct the extent and dynamics of past ice-sheets. What is novel here, and we believe useful/necessary for a survey organization, is to standardise the geomorphological classification scheme such that it is applicable to multiple and diverse environments. The classification scheme should be sufficiently detailed and interpretive to be informative, but not so detailed that we over-interpret or become mired in disputed feature designations or definitions. We plan to present the maps at 1:50k scale with the intention that these maps will be 'enabling' resources for research, educational, commercial, and policy purposes, much like the existing 1:250k map series. We welcome feedback on the structure and

  1. The Need for Accurate Risk Prediction Models for Road Mapping, Shared Decision Making and Care Planning for the Elderly with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Stryckers, Marijke; Nagler, Evi V; Van Biesen, Wim

    2016-11-01

    As people age, chronic kidney disease becomes more common, but it rarely leads to end-stage kidney disease. When it does, the choice between dialysis and conservative care can be daunting, as much depends on life expectancy and personal expectations of medical care. Shared decision making implies adequately informing patients about their options, and facilitating deliberation of the available information, such that decisions are tailored to the individual's values and preferences. Accurate estimations of one's risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease and death with or without dialysis are essential for shared decision making to be effective. Formal risk prediction models can help, provided they are externally validated, well-calibrated and discriminative; include unambiguous and measureable variables; and come with readily applicable equations or scores. Reliable, externally validated risk prediction models for progression of chronic kidney disease to end-stage kidney disease or mortality in frail elderly with or without chronic kidney disease are scant. Within this paper, we discuss a number of promising models, highlighting both the strengths and limitations physicians should understand for using them judiciously, and emphasize the need for external validation over new development for further advancing the field.

  2. Development and Validation of Transferable Amide I Vibrational Frequency Maps for Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Middleton, C. T.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the amide I band has been widely utilized for the analysis of peptides and proteins. Theoretical modeling of IR spectra of proteins requires an accurate and efficient description of the amide I frequencies. In this paper, amide I frequency maps for protein backbone and side chain groups are developed from experimental spectra and vibrational lifetimes of N-methylacetamide and acetamide in different solvents. The frequency maps, along with established nearest-neighbor frequency shift and coupling schemes, are then applied to a variety of peptides in aqueous solution and reproduce experimental spectra well. The frequency maps are designed to be transferable to different environments; therefore, they can be used for heterogeneous systems, such as membrane proteins. PMID:21405034

  3. A Tool for Modelling the Impact of Triggered Landslide Events on Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. E.; Santangelo, M.; Marchesini, I.; Malamud, B. D.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-12-01

    In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rain, tens to thousands of landslides may occur across a region, resulting in simultaneous blockages across the road network, which can impact recovery efforts. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with observed data, of a model to semi-stochastically simulate triggered landslide events and their impact on road network topologies. In this model, "synthetic" triggered landslide event inventories are created by randomly selecting landslide sizes and shapes from already established statistical distributions. The landslides are then semi-randomly distributed over the region's road network, where they are more or less likely to land based on a landslide susceptibility map. The number, size and network impact of the road blockages is then calculated. This process is repeated in a Monte Carlo type simulation to assess a range of scenarios. Due to the generally applicable statistical distributions used to create the synthetic triggered landslide event inventories and the relatively minimal data requirements to run the model, the model is theoretically applicable to many regions of the world where triggered landslide events occur. Current work focuses on applying the model to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. When appropriate adjustments are made to susceptibility in the immediate vicinity of the roads, model results match reasonably well observations. In Collazzone (length of road = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 s.d.), compared to the observed number of 5. In Northridge (length of road = 780 km, landslide density = 8

  4. Developing a map of geologically defined site-condition categories for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wills, C.J.; Clahan, K.B.

    2006-01-01

    Consideration of site conditions is a vital step in analyzing and predicting earthquake ground motion. The importance of amplification by soil conditions has long been recognized, but though many seismic-instrument sites have been characterized by their geologic conditions, there has been no consistent, simple classification applied to all sites. As classification of sites by shear-wave velocity has become more common, the need to go back and provide a simple uniform classification for all stations has become apparent. Within the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center's Next Generation Attenuation equation project, developers of attenuation equations recognized the need to consider site conditions and asked that the California Geological Survey provide site conditions information for all stations that have recorded earthquake ground motion in California. To provide these estimates, we sorted the available shear-wave velocity data by geologic unit, generalized the geologic units, and prepared a map so that we could use the extent of the map units to transfer the velocity characteristics from the sites where they were measured to sites on the same or similar materials. This new map is different from the California Geological Survey "preliminary site-conditions map of California" in that 19 geologically defined categories are used, rather than National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program categories. Although this map does not yet cover all of California, when completed it may provide a basis for more precise consideration of site conditions in ground-motion calculations.

  5. What happens inside a fuel cell? Developing an experimental functional map of fuel cell performance.

    PubMed

    Brett, Daniel J L; Kucernak, Anthony R; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C; Brandon, Nigel P; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-09-10

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an 'experimental functional map' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models.

  6. Developing the Stabilized Mapping System for the Gyrocopter - Report from the First Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, J.; Prochaska, M.; Kurczyński, Z.; Piątek, P.; Baranowski, J.

    2016-06-01

    The LiDAR mapping carried out using gyrocopters provides a relatively cheap alternative for traditional mapping involving airplanes. The costs of the fuel and the overall maintenance are much lower when compared to planes. At the same time the flight kinematics of the gyrocopter makes it an ideal vehicle for corridor mapping. However a limited payload and a strongly limited space prevent using stabilized platforms dedicated for aerial photogrammetry. As the proper stabilization of the laser scanner during the flight is crucial in order to keep the desirable quality of the LiDAR data, it was decided to develop the prototype of the stabilized, ultra-light mapping platform that can meet the restricted requirements of the gyrocopter. The paper starts with the brief discussion of the legal and practical aspects of the LiDAR data quality, dealing mostly with the influence of the flight imperfections on the point pattern and point density. Afterwards the mapping system prototype is characterized, taking into account three main components: stabilized platform, sensors and control. Subsequently first in-flight tests are described. Though the data are still not perfect mostly due to vibrations, the stabilization provides a substantial improvement of their geometry, reducing both roll and pitch deflections.

  7. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Hirpa, Feyera Aga; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the development of high-resolution flood hazard models have become feasible at continental and global scale, and their application in developing countries and data-scarce regions can be extremely helpful to increase preparedness of population and reduce catastrophic impacts. The present work describes the development of a novel procedure for global flood hazard mapping, based on the most recent advances in large scale flood modelling. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from the hydrological simulations of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Streamflow data is downscaled on a high resolution river network and processed to provide the input for local flood inundation simulations, performed with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. All flood-prone areas identified along the river network are then merged to create continental flood hazard maps for different return periods at 30‧‧ resolution. We evaluate the performance of our methodology in several river basins across the globe by comparing simulated flood maps with both official hazard maps and a mosaic of flooded areas detected from satellite images. The evaluation procedure also includes comparisons with the results of other large scale flood models. We further investigate the sensitivity of the flood modelling framework to several parameters and modelling approaches and identify strengths, limitations and possible improvements of the methodology.

  8. Scan Line Based Road Marking Extraction from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds†

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li; Liu, Hua; Tan, Junxiang; Li, Zan; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Mapping Technology (MMT) is one of the most important 3D spatial data acquisition technologies. The state-of-the-art mobile mapping systems, equipped with laser scanners and named Mobile LiDAR Scanning (MLS) systems, have been widely used in a variety of areas, especially in road mapping and road inventory. With the commercialization of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs) and self-driving technology, there will be a great demand for lane-level detailed 3D maps, and MLS is the most promising technology to generate such lane-level detailed 3D maps. Road markings and road edges are necessary information in creating such lane-level detailed 3D maps. This paper proposes a scan line based method to extract road markings from mobile LiDAR point clouds in three steps: (1) preprocessing; (2) road points extraction; (3) road markings extraction and refinement. In preprocessing step, the isolated LiDAR points in the air are removed from the LiDAR point clouds and the point clouds are organized into scan lines. In the road points extraction step, seed road points are first extracted by Height Difference (HD) between trajectory data and road surface, then full road points are extracted from the point clouds by moving least squares line fitting. In the road markings extraction and refinement step, the intensity values of road points in a scan line are first smoothed by a dynamic window median filter to suppress intensity noises, then road markings are extracted by Edge Detection and Edge Constraint (EDEC) method, and the Fake Road Marking Points (FRMPs) are eliminated from the detected road markings by segment and dimensionality feature-based refinement. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by three data samples and the experiment results indicate that road points are well extracted from MLS data and road markings are well extracted from road points by the applied method. A quantitative study shows that the proposed method achieves an average

  9. Scan Line Based Road Marking Extraction from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Liu, Hua; Tan, Junxiang; Li, Zan; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun

    2016-06-17

    Mobile Mapping Technology (MMT) is one of the most important 3D spatial data acquisition technologies. The state-of-the-art mobile mapping systems, equipped with laser scanners and named Mobile LiDAR Scanning (MLS) systems, have been widely used in a variety of areas, especially in road mapping and road inventory. With the commercialization of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs) and self-driving technology, there will be a great demand for lane-level detailed 3D maps, and MLS is the most promising technology to generate such lane-level detailed 3D maps. Road markings and road edges are necessary information in creating such lane-level detailed 3D maps. This paper proposes a scan line based method to extract road markings from mobile LiDAR point clouds in three steps: (1) preprocessing; (2) road points extraction; (3) road markings extraction and refinement. In preprocessing step, the isolated LiDAR points in the air are removed from the LiDAR point clouds and the point clouds are organized into scan lines. In the road points extraction step, seed road points are first extracted by Height Difference (HD) between trajectory data and road surface, then full road points are extracted from the point clouds by moving least squares line fitting. In the road markings extraction and refinement step, the intensity values of road points in a scan line are first smoothed by a dynamic window median filter to suppress intensity noises, then road markings are extracted by Edge Detection and Edge Constraint (EDEC) method, and the Fake Road Marking Points (FRMPs) are eliminated from the detected road markings by segment and dimensionality feature-based refinement. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by three data samples and the experiment results indicate that road points are well extracted from MLS data and road markings are well extracted from road points by the applied method. A quantitative study shows that the proposed method achieves an average

  10. Automated Road Extraction from High Resolution Multispectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Doucette, Peter J.; Agouris, Peggy; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Road networks represent a vital component of geospatial data sets in high demand, and thus contribute significantly to extraction labor costs. Multispectral imagery has only recently become widely available at high spatial resolutions, and modeling spectral content has received limited consideration for road extraction algorithms. This paper presents a methodology that exploits spectral content for fully automated road centerline extraction. Preliminary detection of road centerline pixel candidates is performed with Anti-parallel-edge Centerline Extraction (ACE). This is followed by constructing a road vector topology with a fuzzy grouping model that links nodes from a self-organized mapping of the ACE pixels. Following topology construction, a self-supervised road classification (SSRC) feedback loop is implemented to automate the process of training sample selection and refinement for a road class, as well deriving practical spectral definitions for non-road classes. SSRC demonstrates a potential to provide dramatic improvement in road extraction results by exploiting spectral content. Road centerline extraction results are presented for three 1m color-infrared suburban scenes, which show significant improvement following SSRC.

  11. Training Aids for Basic Combat Skills: Developing Map-Reading Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Aid Assessment and Revision Because the two training aids were specifically developed to benefit different types of learners , predictions about the...107. Hammond, J., & Gibbons, P. (2001). What is scaffolding? In J. Hammond (Ed.), Scaffolding: Teaching and learning in language and literacy ...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1941 Training Aids for Basic Combat Skills: Developing Map

  12. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    .e. grid and culs-de-sac). It is important to note that these results ignore the road safety effects of providing convenient off-road trails along trip desire lines to shift mode choice from auto to non-auto VRU modes. Subject to further research, it is intuitive that shifting trips from auto to pedestrian/bike modes will lead to reduced auto collisions. Hence, these initial results should be considered as conservative estimates, subject to further research. In before and after studies to date, researchers have shown that increasing bicycle use does not lead to a commensurate increase in bicycle collisions, but no predictive relationship has been found in the literature. Therefore, the next steps in this research are to develop collision prediction models that provide insight on VRU mode split and overall road safety.

  13. Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aileen Y; Parrales, Maria E; Jimenez, Javier; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Copenhaver, David J; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost. PMID:19627614

  14. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  15. Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust of non-Navajo researchers

  16. Development of INDEL Markers for Genetic Mapping Based on Whole Genome Resequencing in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wei, Haichao; Cheng, Wen; Yang, Suxin; Zhao, Yanxiu; Li, Xuan; Luo, Da; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Xianzhong

    2015-10-19

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop worldwide. In this study, a Chinese local soybean cultivar, Hedou 12, was resequenced by next generation sequencing technology to develop INsertion/DELetion (INDEL) markers for genetic mapping. 49,276 INDEL polymorphisms and 242,059 single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between Hedou 12 and the Williams 82 reference sequence. Of these, 243 candidate INDEL markers ranging from 5-50 bp in length were chosen for validation, and 165 (68%) of them revealed polymorphisms between Hedou 12 and Williams 82. The validated INDEL markers were also tested in 12 other soybean cultivars. The number of polymorphisms in the pairwise comparisons of 14 soybean cultivars varied from 27 to 165. To test the utility of these INDEL markers, they were used to perform genetic mapping of a crinkly leaf mutant, and the CRINKLY LEAF locus was successfully mapped to a 360 kb region on chromosome 7. This research shows that high-throughput sequencing technologies can facilitate the development of genome-wide molecular markers for genetic mapping in soybean.

  17. A modified Nordic prediction model of road traffic noise in a Taiwanese city with significant motorcycle traffic.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Wei-Ting; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2012-08-15

    A prediction model was developed to map road traffic noise in an area with significant motorcycle traffic in Taichung City, Taiwan. This model was modified from the Nordic prediction method by adding three types of traffic flow rates, including heavy vehicles, light vehicles, and motorcycles, as well as local traffic speeds and road characteristics to the calculating equations. The parameters that were input into the equations include traffic flow, vehicle speed, distance from the center of the road, height of the road surface, position and height of the barriers, thickness of the barriers, location of the receiver relative to the surrounding road surface or barriers, reflecting vertical surfaces, type of ground, and height of the buildings. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels at 42 sampling sites close to main roads with the predicted values. A significant correlation was found between the predicted and measured noise levels (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.75, p<0.001). The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±3.5 A-weighted decibel (dB(A)) was 90.5%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.9±2.1 dB(A). The modified Nordic prediction model is therefore applicable to estimate the noise exposure in this urban environment in Taiwan.

  18. Remote sensing, landscape and archaeology tracing ancient tracks and roads between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Silver, K.; Okkonen, J.; Nuñez, M.

    2015-08-01

    The present paper concentrates on the use of remote sensing by satellite imagery for detecting ancient tracks and roads in the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates in Syria. The Syrian desert was traversed by caravans already in the Bronze Age, and during the Greco-Roman period the traffic increased with the Silk Road and trade as well as with military missions annexing the areas into empires. SYGIS - the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project traced, recorded and documented ancient sites and roads in the region of Jebel Bishri in Central Syria in 2000-2010 before the outbreak of the civil war in Syria. Captured data of ancient roads and bridge points bring new light to the study of ancient communication framework in the area. Archaeological research carried out by the project on the ground confirmed the authenticity of many road alignments, new military and water harvesting sites as well as civilian settlements, showing that the desert-steppe area was actively used and developed probably from the second century AD. The studies further demonstrated that the area between Palmyra and the Euphrates was militarily more organised already in the second and third centuries AD than earlier believed. Chronologically, the start of this coincided with the "golden age" of the Palmyrene caravans in the second century AD. Topography and landscape were integral parts of the construction of graves/tumuli as sign-posts guiding in the desert, as well as roads and all kinds of settlements whether military or civilian.

  19. Fine mapping of E(kp)-1, a locus associated with silkworm (Bombyx mori) proleg development.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; Li, M; Yang, F; Guo, Q; Zhan, S; Lin, H; Miao, X; Huang, Y

    2008-05-01

    The silkworm homeotic mutant E(kp) has a pair of rudimentary abdominal legs, called prolegs, in its A2 segment. This phenotype is caused by a single dominant mutation at the E(kp)-1 locus, which was previously mapped to chromosome 6. To explore the possible association of Hox genes with proleg development in the silkworm, a map-based cloning strategy was used to isolate the E(kp)-1 locus. Five E(kp)-1-linked simple sequence repeat markers on chromosome 6 were used to generate a low-resolution map with a total genetic distance of 39.5 cM. Four additional cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were developed based on the initial map. The closest marker to E(kp)-1 was at a genetic distance of 2.7 cM. A high-resolution genetic map was constructed using nine BC1 segregating populations consisting of 2396 individuals. Recombination suppression was observed in the vicinity of E(kp)-1. Four molecular markers were tightly linked to E(kp)-1, and three were clustered with it. These markers were used to screen a BAC library. A single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone spanning the E(kp)-1 locus was identified, and E(kp)-1 was delimited to a region less than 220 kb long that included the Hox gene abdominal-A and a non-coding locus, iab-4. These results provide essential information for the isolation of this locus, which may shed light on the mechanism of proleg development in the silkworm and possibly in Lepidoptera.

  20. Plasticity in developing brain: active auditory exposure impacts prelinguistic acoustic mapping.

    PubMed

    Benasich, April A; Choudhury, Naseem A; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P

    2014-10-01

    A major task across infancy is the creation and tuning of the acoustic maps that allow efficient native language processing. This process crucially depends on ongoing neural plasticity and keen sensitivity to environmental cues. Development of sensory mapping has been widely studied in animal models, demonstrating that cortical representations of the sensory environment are continuously modified by experience. One critical period for optimizing human language mapping is early in the first year; however, the neural processes involved and the influence of passive compared with active experience are as yet incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that, while both active and passive acoustic experience from 4 to 7 months of age, using temporally modulated nonspeech stimuli, impacts acoustic mapping, active experience confers a significant advantage. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we show that active experience increases perceptual vigilance/attention to environmental acoustic stimuli (e.g., larger and faster P2 peaks) when compared with passive experience or maturation alone. Faster latencies are also seen for the change discrimination peak (N2*) that has been shown to be a robust infant predictor of later language through age 4 years. Sharpening is evident for both trained and untrained stimuli over and above that seen for maturation alone. Effects were also seen on ERP morphology for the active experience group with development of more complex waveforms more often seen in typically developing 12- to 24-month-old children. The promise of selectively "fine-tuning" acoustic mapping as it emerges has far-reaching implications for the amelioration and/or prevention of developmental language disorders.

  1. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  2. High resolution digital soil mapping as a future instrument for developing sustainable landuse strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Philipp; Funke, Lisa-Marie; Baumann, Frank; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, increase in population and intensification of land use pose a great challenge for sustainable handling of soils. Intelligent landuse systems are able to minimize and/or avoid soil erosion and loss of soil fertility. A successful application of such systems requires area-wide soil information with high resolution. Containing three consecutive steps, the project INE-2-H („innovative sustainable landuse") at the University of Tuebingen is about creating high-resolution soil information using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) techniques to develop sustainable landuse strategies. Input data includes soil data from fieldwork (texture and carbon content), the official digital soil and geological map (1:50.000) as well as a wide selection of local, complex and combined terrain parameters. First, soil maps have been created using the DSM approach and Random Forest (RF). Due to high resolution (10x10 m pixels), those maps show a more detailed spatial variability of soil information compared to the official maps used. Root mean square errors (RMSE) of the modelled maps vary from 2.11 % to 6.87 % and the coefficients of determination (R²) go from 0.42 to 0.68. Second, soil erosion potentials have been estimated according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Long-term average annual soil loss ranges from 0.56 to 24.23 [t/ha/a]. Third, combining high-resolution erosion potentials with expert-knowledge of local farmers will result in a landuse system adapted to local conditions. This system will include sustainable strategies reducing soil erosion and conserving soil fertility.

  3. On the Road Map of Vogel's Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Ruben L.

    2016-01-01

    We define "population" of Vogel's plane as points for which universal character of adjoint representation is regular in the finite plane of its argument. It is shown that they are given exactly by all solutions of seven Diophantine equations of third order on three variables. We find all their solutions: classical series of simple Lie algebras (including an "odd symplectic" one), {D_{2,1,λ}} superalgebra, the line of sl(2) algebras, and a number of isolated solutions, including exceptional simple Lie algebras. One of these Diophantine equations, namely {knm=4k+4n+2m+12,} contains all simple Lie algebras, except so{(2N+1).} Among isolated solutions are, besides exceptional simple Lie algebras, so called {e_{71/2}} algebra and also two other similar unidentified objects with positive dimensions. In addition, there are 47 isolated solutions in "unphysical semiplane" with negative dimensions. Isolated solutions mainly belong to the few lines in Vogel plane, including some rows of Freudenthal magic square. Universal dimension formulae have an integer values on all these solutions at least for first three symmetric powers of adjoint representation.

  4. Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-22

    include, but not be limited to: 1) openness to team members’ suggestions and functional expertise, .2) confidence in team members’ abilities, 6 3) immediate...challenge while presenting the news of base closure. Fortunately, there are success stories of civilian reuse of closed military bases. 6 The Department of...and the Department of the Army Relocation Services for Employees (DARSE).15 OPM can authorize early retirement during a BRAC action. 1 6 The CPO must

  5. Cyber Security: A Road Map for Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-19

    Cyber warfare is a form of information warfare, sometimes seen as analogous to conventional warfare, among a range of potential actors, including...nation states, non-state groups, and a complex hybrid of conflict involving both state and non-state actors. Cyber warfare is a tool of national power...An entire nation s ability to operate and fight in the information age is vital toward survival. Nowadays, cyber warfare is mostly focused on

  6. Road map to esophagectomy for nurses.

    PubMed

    Logue, Barbara; Griffin, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Esophageal cancer, although considered uncommon in the United States, continues to exhibit increased incidence. Esophageal cancer now ranks seventh among cancers in mortality for men in the United States. Even as treatment continues to advance, the mortality rate remains high, with a 5-year survival rate less than 35%. Esophageal cancer typically is discovered in advanced stages, which reduces the treatment options. When disease is locally advanced, esophagectomy remains the standard for treatment. Surgery remains challenging and complicated. Multiple surgical approaches are available, with the choice determined by tumor location and stage of disease. Recovery is often fraught with complications-both physical and emotional. Nursing care revolves around complex care managing multiple body systems and providing effective education and emotional support for both patients and patients' families. Even after recovery, local recurrence and distant metastases are common. Early diagnosis, surgical advancement, and improvements in postoperative care continue to improve outcomes.

  7. Road Maps for Learning and Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) make a compelling case for a coherent model of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment, all built around a well-specified theory of learning. Arguing that dominant assessment policies and practices tend to drive pedagogy and student attitudes toward learning in pernicious ways, Black et al. make an argument that is…

  8. Mediterranean maquis fuel model development and mapping to support fire modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Salis, M.; Ventura, A.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

    2009-04-01

    Fuel load data and fuel model maps represent a critical issue for fire spread and behaviour modeling. The availability of accurate input data at different spatial and temporal scales can allow detailed analysis and predictions of fire hazard and fire effects across a landscape. Fuel model data are used in spatially explicit fire growth models to attain fire behaviour information for fuel management in prescribed fires, fire management applications, firefighters training, smoke emissions, etc. However, fuel type characteristics are difficult to be parameterized due to their complexity and variability: live and dead materials with different size contribute in different ways to the fire spread and behaviour. In the last decades, a strong help was provided by the use of remote sensing imagery at high spatial and spectral resolution. Such techniques are able to capture fine scale fuel distributions for accurate fire growth projections. Several attempts carried out in Europe were devoted to fuel classification and map characterization. In Italy, fuel load estimation and fuel model definition are still critical issues to be addressed due to the lack of detailed information. In this perspective, the aim of the present work was to propose an integrated approach based on field data collection, fuel model development and fuel model mapping to provide fuel models for the Mediterranean maquis associations. Field data needed for the development of fuel models were collected using destructive and non destructive measurements in experimental plots located in Northern Sardinia (Italy). Statistical tests were used to identify the main fuel types that were classified into four custom fuel models. Subsequently, a supervised classification by the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied on IKONOS images to identify and map the different types of maquis vegetation. The correspondent fuel model was then associated to each vegetation type to obtain the fuel model map. The results show the

  9. Mapping the Development of a New MA Programme in Higher Education: Comparing Privately Held Perceptions of a Public Endeavour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, Ian; Hosein, Anesa; Medland, Emma; Lygo-Baker, Simon; Warburton, Steven; Gash, Darren; Rees, Roger; Loughlin, Colin; Woods, Rick; Price, Shirley; Usherwood, Simon

    2017-01-01

    After spending a year working on the development of a new online Master's programme in higher education, members of the development team were interviewed to reveal their thoughts about the nature of the programme. The dialogue of each interview was summarised as a concept map. Analysis of the resulting maps included a modified Bernsteinian…

  10. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  11. Map and Compass Skills for the Secondary School (Understanding Topographic Maps, Developing Compass Skills, and Orienteering). Instructional Activities Series IA/S-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Robert P.

    This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. The activity investigates the development of compass skills, map skills, and orienteering. It employs the educational-games approach. Given specific exercises and instructions, students become…

  12. Developing a climate-based risk map of fascioliasis outbreaks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Halimi, Mansour; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Delavari, Mahdi; Arbabi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The strong relationship between climate and fascioliasis outbreaks enables the development of climate-based models to estimate the potential risk of fascioliasis outbreaks. This work aims to develop a climate-based risk map of fascioliasis outbreaks in Iran using Ollerenshaw's fascioliasis risk index incorporating geographical information system (GIS). Using this index, a risk map of fascioliasis outbreaks for the entire country was developed. We determined that the country can be divided into 4 fascioliasis outbreak risk categories. Class 1, in which the Mt value is less than 100, includes more than 0.91 of the country's area. The climate in this class is not conducive to fascioliasis outbreaks in any month. Dryness and low temperature in the wet season (December to April) are the key barriers against fascioliasis outbreaks in this class. The risk map developed based on climatic factors indicated that only 0.03 of the country's area, including Gilan province in the northern region of Iran, is highly suitable to fascioliasis outbreaks during September to January. The Mt value is greater than 500 in this class. Heavy rainfall in the summer and fall, especially in Rasht, Astara and Bandar Anzaly (≥ 1000 mm/year), creates more suitable breeding places for snail intermediate hosts.

  13. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  14. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  15. An expert-based landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) module developed for Netcad Architect Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, E. A.; Nefeslioglu, H. A.; Osna, T.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to introduce an expert-based LSM module developed for Netcad Architect Software. A landslide-prone area located at the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey was selected as the experimental site for this study. The investigations were performed in four stages: (i) introducing technical details of LSM module and theoretical background of the methods implemented in the module, (ii) experiments; landslide susceptibility evaluations by applying the methods M-AHP and Mamdani type FIS by using the expert-based LSM module, (iii) map similarity assessments and evaluations for the generalization capacities of the expert-based models, and (iv) performance assessments of the LSM module. When considering the areal distributions of matching ratios obtained from the map similarity evaluations, it is revealed that M-AHP is more pessimistic and covers a greater area in higher hazard classes, whereas the Mamdani type FIS behaves more optimistically and restricts the area of higher hazard classes in the experimental site. According to the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analyses, the value of Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was obtained as 0.66 for the resultant map produced with Mamdani type FIS and 0.82 for the map produced with M-AHP. To compare the time consumptions of the expert methods, experiments were implemented. Mamdani type FIS completes its task in 3 h and 39 min, whereas M-AHP only requires 47 s. As a consequence, (i) the LSM module developed for Netcad Architect Software presents full-featured expert-based landslide susceptibility mapping abilities, and (ii) M-AHP is a useful method for obtaining an expert opinion and modeling landslide susceptibility.

  16. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    A large part of the countryside roads on the Pleistocene sands of The Netherlands are dirt roads. Most are footpaths, but a small percentage are relatively heavily used by motorized vehicles. These latter roads are a cause subject of debate. Puddles and potholes develop during periods of wet weather, while dust whirls from the roads form during spells of dry weather as do washboard ripples. They cause problems for people living along these roads and tourists (walkers and bikers. The community of Ede (NL), like many other communities on the sand, wants to keep its 80 km of dirt roads because of the natural values they harbour as well as for their characteristic landscape quality and cultural heritage value. A part of the dirt roads in Ede is heavily used. In 2009, the community of Ede developed a decision model to support management of the dirt roads. Ede acknowledges that each dirt road is unique and asks for a tailor-made solution. Road maintenance measures include grading, making a camber, digging pits, applying loam or sandy loam. If problems become too large, one-way traffic can be an option. In more and more cases the dirt roads are barred for motorized through traffic (Gemeente Ede, 2009). As a reconnaissance we have studied the dirt roads of the Horabos/Horalaan over the last year. Incidentally we looked at other parts of the main Horalaan and the footpaths in the adjacent forest of Hoekelum. All dirt roads lie near the top of a Saalian push-moraine in which the upper course of dry valleys are present. Some results of the reconnaissance: - Most dirt roads sections in the Horabos lie lower than the surrounding terrain; - The problems develop in a short period of time during special weather conditions; - Certain dirt road sections e.g. those sections crossing a slight depression are quickly developing potholes; - Even a small slope of the road (< 2 degrees) causes water to flow over the road and form rills in the pavement. On preferential spots the rills

  17. Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

    2002-01-01

    An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and monitor defects in fatigue specimens. This system expedites the examination of the entire gauge section of fatigue specimens so that defects can be found using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translation and rotation stages are driven by microprocessor-based controllers that are, in turn, interfaced to a computer running custom-designed software. This system is currently being used to find and record the location of ceramic inclusions in powder metallurgy materials. The mapped inclusions are periodically examined during interrupted fatigue experiments. The number of cycles to initiate cracks from these inclusions and the rate of growth of initiated cracks can then be quantified. This information is necessary to quantify the effect of this type of defect on the durability of powder metallurgy materials. This system was developed with support of the Ultra Safe program.

  18. Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

  19. Standards Development for the U.S. National Geologic Map Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, D. R.; Berg, T. M.; Stamm, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Nation's state geological surveys (under authority of the Association of American State Geologists) are mandated by Congress to provide a National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) of standardized geoscience information that can be used to address societal issues and improve our base of scientific knowledge. Over the past decade, the NGMDB project has addressed its mandate by providing: 1) basic information and services that enable users to find available geoscience information; 2) a venue for development of community-based standards that are promoting broader public use of geoscience map information and more effective interoperability among the Nation's geological surveys; and 3) a research and development environment in which we are building a distributed database system to archive and serve the Nation's geologic map information. The NGMDB is addressing its mission in an incremental fashion, by building "support" databases and standards, and by working toward the long-term goal of the distributed system. Products currently available to serve the geoscience community and the general public are: the U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon ("GEOLEX"), which is a standard reference for the Nation's stratigraphic nomenclature; the Geoscience Map Catalog and Image Library, which helps people find and view 70,000 published geoscience maps and related products; and various standards, which are the subject of this paper. In cooperation with other U.S. and Canadian agencies, and with the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information ("CGI"), the NGMDB project is defining standards that include: a science terminology; a conceptual data model; a physical implementation of the data model in ArcGIS; a FGDC-endorsed standard for map symbols and patterns and for descriptions of locational accuracy of geologic features in the field; and a GML-based exchange standard to promote interoperability among data providers to the NGMDB

  20. Development of 200-channel mapping system for tissue oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu; Kohata, Daisuke; Shao, Jun; Kudo, Nobuki; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Katsumura, Toshihito; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    2000-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a very useful technique for noninvasive measurement of tissue oxygenation. Among various methods of NIRS, continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW- NIRS) is especially suitable for real-time measurement and for practical use. CW-NIRS has recently been applied in vivo reflectance imaging of muscle oxygenation and brain activity. However, conventional mapping systems do not have a sufficient mapping area at present. Moreover, they do not enable quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation because conventional NIRS is based on the inappropriate assumption that tissue is homogeneous. In this study, we developed a 200-channel mapping system that enables measurement of changes in oxygenation and blood volume and that covers a wider area (30 cm x 20 cm) than do conventional systems. The spatial resolution (source- detector separation) of this system is 15 mm. As for the effcts of tissue inhomogeneity on muscle oxygenation measurement, subcutaneous adipose tissue greatly reduces measurement sensitivity. Therefore, we also used a correction method for influence of the subcutaneous fat layer so that we could obtain quantitative changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin. We conducted exercise tests and measured the changed in hemoglobin concentration in the thigh using the new system. The working muscles in the exercises could be imaged, and the heterogeneity of the muscles was shown. These results demonstrated the new 200-channel mapping system enables observation of the distribution of muscle metabolism and localization of muscle function.

  1. Development and application of site mapping methods for the design of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Agostino, Mark; Gandhi, Neha S; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2014-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides involved in a wide range of biological signaling events, as well as being important as biological structural materials. Despite the ubiquity and importance of GAG-protein interactions in biological systems and potentially as therapeutic targets, detailed structures of such interactions are sparse in availability. Computational methods can provide detailed structural knowledge of these interactions; however, they should be evaluated against suitable test systems prior to their widespread use. In this study, we have investigated the application of automated molecular docking and interaction mapping techniques to characterizing GAG-protein interactions. A series of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of GAGs in complex with proteins was used to evaluate the approaches. Accurately scoring the pose fitting best with the crystal structure was a challenge for all docking programs evaluated. The site mapping technique offered excellent prediction of the key residues involved in ligand recognition, comparable to the best pose and improved over the top-ranked pose. A design protocol incorporating site- and ligand-based mapping techniques was developed and applied to identify GAGs capable of binding to acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF). The protocol was able to identify ligands known to bind to aFGF and accurately able to predict the binding modes of those ligands when using a known ligand-binding conformation of the protein. This study demonstrates the value of mapping-based techniques in identifying specific GAG epitopes recognized by proteins and for GAG-based drug design.

  2. Development of PowerMap: a software package for statistical power calculation in neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru

    2012-10-01

    Although there are a number of statistical software tools for voxel-based massively univariate analysis of neuroimaging data, such as fMRI (functional MRI), PET (positron emission tomography), and VBM (voxel-based morphometry), very few software tools exist for power and sample size calculation for neuroimaging studies. Unlike typical biomedical studies, outcomes from neuroimaging studies are 3D images of correlated voxels, requiring a correction for massive multiple comparisons. Thus, a specialized power calculation tool is needed for planning neuroimaging studies. To facilitate this process, we developed a software tool specifically designed for neuroimaging data. The software tool, called PowerMap, implements theoretical power calculation algorithms based on non-central random field theory. It can also calculate power for statistical analyses with FDR (false discovery rate) corrections. This GUI (graphical user interface)-based tool enables neuroimaging researchers without advanced knowledge in imaging statistics to calculate power and sample size in the form of 3D images. In this paper, we provide an overview of the statistical framework behind the PowerMap tool. Three worked examples are also provided, a regression analysis, an ANOVA (analysis of variance), and a two-sample T-test, in order to demonstrate the study planning process with PowerMap. We envision that PowerMap will be a great aide for future neuroimaging research.

  3. USCS and the USDA Soil Classification System: Development of a Mapping Scheme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Development Center ESDB European Soil Database FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FASST Fast All-Season Soil Strength GI Group Index HWSD Harmonized...Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization USCS Unified Soil Classification System USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture WES Waterways...and Agriculture Organization – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ) Soil ERDC/CRREL TR-15-4 4 Map of the World. It

  4. OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

  5. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. 1: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This research program has developed a viable methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using imagery obtained from orbital multispectral scanners.

  6. Making the Road by Walking and Talking: Critical Literacy and/as Professional Development in a Teacher Inquiry Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Cathy; Botelho, Maria Jose; Fontaine, Dawn; French, Kristen; Iverson, Kris; Matos, Nelida

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a description of critical literacy practice and/as professional development as it evolved in a teacher inquiry group investigating critical literacy. The authors describe this professional development experience as an instance of critical literacy in practice. The entirety of this article is a collaborative product in which the…

  7. On-Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine: Final Technical Report, July 1999 - January 2001

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, D. L.; Horrell, W. A.

    2001-09-24

    Report that discusses John Deere's field development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine. As part of the field development project, Waste Management of Orange County, California refitted four existing trash packers with John Deere's prototype spark ignited 280-hp 8.1 L CNG engines. This report describes the project and also contains information about engine performance, emissions, and driveability.

  8. The effect of seatbelt legislation on hospital admissions with road traffic injuries in an oil-rich, fast-developing country.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Humoud, Suhail M Q; Price, Penny; Azhar, Abdulaziz; Khalid, Muayad K; Rysavy, Martin; Crundall, David

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of seat-belt legislation on hospital admissions with road traffic injuries and was designed as a retrospective descriptive study. All motor vehicle crashes recorded during the period 2001 - 2004 were extracted from the Emergency Medical Service Department. Details of the crashes, injuries and safety devices used were studied. The present study revealed that safety belt usage rates have increased from 8% in 2001 to 67% in 2004 among patients admitted to hospital with injury after road traffic crashes. The admission rate of patients with road traffic injuries per 100 000 population reduced by 17.7%. The enforcement of the seat-belt legislation played a vital role in reduction of hospital admissions due to road traffic crashes.

  9. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  10. Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide

    2003-05-01

    Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

  11. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  12. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  13. Fuzzy cognitive mapping in support of integrated ecosystem assessments: Developing a shared conceptual model among stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Vasslides, James M; Jensen, Olaf P

    2016-01-15

    Ecosystem-based approaches, including integrated ecosystem assessments, are a popular methodology being used to holistically address management issues in social-ecological systems worldwide. In this study we utilized fuzzy logic cognitive mapping to develop conceptual models of a complex estuarine system among four stakeholder groups. The average number of categories in an individual map was not significantly different among groups, and there were no significant differences between the groups in the average complexity or density indices of the individual maps. When ordered by their complexity scores, eight categories contributed to the top four rankings of the stakeholder groups, with six of the categories shared by at least half of the groups. While non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis displayed a high degree of overlap between the individual models across groups, there was also diversity within each stakeholder group. These findings suggest that while all of the stakeholders interviewed perceive the subject ecosystem as a complex series of social and ecological interconnections, there are a core set of components that are present in most of the groups' models that are crucial in managing the system towards some desired outcome. However, the variability in the connections between these core components and the rest of the categories influences the exact nature of these outcomes. Understanding the reasons behind these differences will be critical to developing a shared conceptual model that will be acceptable to all stakeholder groups and can serve as the basis for an integrated ecosystem assessment.

  14. School Mapping and Geospatial Analysis of the Schools in Jasra Development Block of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2016-06-01

    GIS is a collection of tools and techniques that works on the geospatial data and is used in the analysis and decision making. Education is an inherent part of any civil society. Proper educational facilities generate the high quality human resource for any nation. Therefore, government needs an efficient system that can help in analysing the current state of education and its progress. Government also needs a system that can support in decision making and policy framing. GIS can serve the mentioned requirements not only for government but also for the general public. In order to meet the standards of human development, it is necessary for the government and decision makers to have a close watch on the existing education policy and its implementation condition. School mapping plays an important role in this aspect. School mapping consists of building the geospatial database of schools that supports in the infrastructure development, policy analysis and decision making. The present research work is an attempt for supporting Right to Education (RTE) and Sarv Sikha Abhiyaan (SSA) programmes run by Government of India through the use of GIS. School mapping of the study area is performed which is followed by the geospatial analysis. This research work will help in assessing the present status of educational infrastructure in Jasra block of Allahabad district, India.

  15. Map-Based Cloning of Genes Important for Maize Anther Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaya, Y.; Walbot, V.; Nan, G.

    2012-12-01

    Map-Based cloning for maize mutant MS13 . Scientists still do not understand what decides the fate of a cell in plants. Many maize genes are important for anther development and when they are disrupted, the anthers do not shed pollen, i.e. male sterile. Since the maize genome has been fully sequenced, we conduct map-based cloning using a bulk segregant analysis strategy. Using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), we look for biomarkers that are linked to our gene of interest, Male Sterile 13 (MS13). Recombinations occur more often if the biomarkers are further away from the gene, therefore we can estimate where the gene is and design more PCR primers to get closer to our gene. Genetic and molecular analysis will help distinguish the role of key genes in setting cell fates before meiosis and for being in charge of the switch from mitosis to meiosis.

  16. Mapping knowledge translation and innovation processes in Cancer Drug Development: the case of liposomal doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Duran, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ochoa, Hector; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-09-03

    We explored how the knowledge translation and innovation processes are structured when theyresult in innovations, as in the case of liposomal doxorubicin research. In order to map the processes, a literature network analysis was made through Cytoscape and semantic analysis was performed by GOPubmed which is based in the controlled vocabularies MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and GO (Gene Ontology). We found clusters related to different stages of the technological development (invention, innovation and imitation) and the knowledge translation process (preclinical, translational and clinical research), and we were able to map the historic emergence of Doxil as a paradigmatic nanodrug. This research could be a powerful methodological tool for decision-making and innovation management in drug delivery research.

  17. Road landslide information management and forecasting system base on GIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei Dong; Du, Xiang Gang; Xie, Cui Ming

    2009-09-01

    Take account of the characters of road geological hazard and its supervision, it is very important to develop the Road Landslides Information Management and Forecasting System based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The paper presents the system objective, function, component modules and key techniques in the procedure of system development. The system, based on the spatial information and attribute information of road geological hazard, was developed and applied in Guizhou, a province of China where there are numerous and typical landslides. The manager of communication, using the system, can visually inquire all road landslides information based on regional road network or on the monitoring network of individual landslide. Furthermore, the system, integrated with mathematical prediction models and the GIS's strongpoint on spatial analyzing, can assess and predict landslide developing procedure according to the field monitoring data. Thus, it can efficiently assists the road construction or management units in making decision to control the landslides and to reduce human vulnerability.

  18. The Road Taken: A Report on the Career Paths of a Modern Academic Workforce for Faculty Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Genevieve G.

    2013-01-01

    Nontenure-track faculty are an increasingly crucial component of the higher education workforce. Much of what we know about this population remains either quantitative or anecdotal and does little to provide in-depth insights directly from the faculty themselves that can be of use for faculty development. This phenomenological, interview-based…

  19. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated

  20. [Impacts of road network on forest landscape pattern in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Hui; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Hong-Wei; Li, Na-Na; Hu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Yu

    2012-08-01

    By characterizing the composition of road network in the Huzhong Forestry Bureau in Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China, we investigated the effects of road networks on landscape pattern by quantifying 1989 landscape pattern for each of the 17 forestry farms on maps with and without roads by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that road networks, including the main and secondary timber-transport roads, were distributed evenly among the observed 17 forestry farms with a density of 2.3 m x hm(-2) and spread along the river networks throughout each farm. The emergence of roads significantly altered the landscape pattern at the landscape level in each farm, which was characterized by landscape fragmentation involving a decline in patch area and an increase in patch number and distance among patches. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between fragmentation and road density. The road network had more impact on fragmentation than on aggregation at the landscape level.

  1. Machine Learning Based Road Detection from High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ye; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Xiangyun

    2016-06-01

    At present, remote sensing technology is the best weapon to get information from the earth surface, and it is very useful in geo- information updating and related applications. Extracting road from remote sensing images is one of the biggest demand of rapid city development, therefore, it becomes a hot issue. Roads in high-resolution images are more complex, patterns of roads vary a lot, which becomes obstacles for road extraction. In this paper, a machine learning based strategy is presented. The strategy overall uses the geometry features, radiation features, topology features and texture features. In high resolution remote sensing images, the images cover a great scale of landscape, thus, the speed of extracting roads is slow. So, roads' ROIs are firstly detected by using Houghline detection and buffering method to narrow down the detecting area. As roads in high resolution images are normally in ribbon shape, mean-shift and watershed segmentation methods are used to extract road segments. Then, Real Adaboost supervised machine learning algorithm is used to pick out segments that contain roads' pattern. At last, geometric shape analysis and morphology methods are used to prune and restore the whole roads' area and to detect the centerline of roads.

  2. Hydraulic model and flood-inundation maps developed for the Pee Dee National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Douglas G.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2016-04-08

    A series of digital flood-inundation maps were developed on the basis of the water-surface profiles produced by the model. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Program Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels at the USGS streamgage Pee Dee River at Pee Dee Refuge near Ansonville, N.C. These maps, when combined with real-time water-level information from USGS streamgages, provide managers with critical information to help plan flood-response activities and resource protection efforts.

  3. Developing and Applying Quantitative Skills Maps for STEM Curricula, with a Focus on Different Modes of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jackie; Wilkes, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Mapping quantitative skills across the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula will help educators identify gaps and duplication in the teaching, practice and assessment of the necessary skills. This paper describes the development and implementation of quantitative skills mapping tools for courses in STEM at a regional…

  4. Societal Unity of Effort, a Fork in the Road to Development or Disaster -- Considerations for State Building

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    Social and Economic Organization, ed. by Talcott Parsons , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947) 114-118. 18 Norbu, 20-22. 19 Palmer, 80-86...1992. Palmer, Monte. Political Development Dilemmas and Challenges. Illinois: F. E. Peacock, 1997. Parsons , Talcott , Edward Shils, Kaspar D. Naegele...York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Weber, Max. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, edited by Talcott Parsons . New York: Oxford

  5. The Irish Seabed Mapping Programme: INFOMAR - Integrated Mapping Survey for the Sustainable Developments of Ireland's Marine Resources. Progress to Date.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Fitzpatrick, F.

    2006-12-01

    During the last six years, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute of Ireland worked together on the multimillion Irish National Seabed Survey project with the purpose of mapping the Irish marine territory using a suite of remote sensing equipment, from multibeam to seismic, achieving 87% coverage of the marine zone. Ireland was the first country in the world to carry out an extensive mapping project of their extended Exclusive Economic Zone. The Irish National Seabed Survey is now succeeded by the multiyear INFOMAR Programme. INFOMAR will concentrate initially on mapping twenty-six selected priority bays, three sea areas and the fisheries-protection "Biologically Sensitive Area", and then will complete 100% mapping of the remainder of the EEZ. Designed to incorporate all elements of an integrated mapping programme, the key data acquisition will include hydrography, oceanographic, geological and heritage data. These data sets discharge Ireland's obligations under international treaties to which she is signatory and the uses of these data are vast and multipurpose: from management plans for inshore fishing, aquaculture, coastal protection and engineering works, to environmental impact assessments related to licensing activity and support to the evolving needs of integrated coastal zone management. INFOMAR also includes a data management, exchange and integration programme for the establishment of a National Marine Data Discovery and Exchange Service; providing improved dissemination of information to researchers, policy makers, the public and private sector and the adoption of standard operating procedures in data management to facilitate inter-agency data integration. During the first year of activity, INFOMAR carried out an integrated survey from the national research vessel, the RV Celtic Explorer, acquiring hydrographic, geophysical and groundtruthing data from Bantry and Dunmanus Bays, located off the South West coast of Ireland. Airborne Li

  6. Implementation of the EU environmental noise directive: lessons from the first phase of strategic noise mapping and action planning in Ireland.

    PubMed

    King, E A; Murphy, E; Rice, H J

    2011-03-01

    The first phase of noise mapping and action planning in Ireland, in accordance with EU Directive 2002/49/EC, is now complete. In total this included one agglomeration, one airport and approximately 600 km of major roads outside the agglomeration. These noise maps describe the level of noise exposure of approximately 1.25 million people. The first phase of noise mapping was dealt with by five noise mapping bodies while 26 action planning authorities were involved in the development of the associated action plans. The second phase of noise mapping, due to be completed in 2012, sees a reduction in the defined thresholds describing the required agglomerations, roads and railways that have to be mapped. This will have a significant impact on the extent of mapping required. In Ireland this will result in an increased number of local authorities being required to develop strategic noise maps for their area along with the further development of associated action plans. It is appropriate at this point to review the work process and results from the first phase of noise mapping in Ireland in order to establish areas that could be improved, throughout the noise mapping project. In this paper a review of the implementation procedures focussing on (dominant) road traffic noise is presented. It is identified that more standardisation is needed and this could be achieved by the establishment of a national expert steering group.

  7. Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Program Using Functional and Structural Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setianingsih, A. I.; Sangaji, S.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Road sector development policy in Bangka Belitung emphasis on equitable development, which is opening up new areas for industrial development zones of potential marine and coastal tourism, so that having an impact on the budget priority to build a new road. This led to a minimal budget provided for the maintenance of the existing road. This study aimed to evaluate the condition of the pavement both functionally and structurally, the growth of traffic density and the availability of existing road maintenance costs. Then, to analyze the influence of existing road conditions, traffic density and road maintenance costs to the type of road maintenance management. The results are compared with the results of the existing maintenance conducted by the Public Works Department of Bangka Belitung province. Evaluation of pavement conditions consists of visual assessment of pavement condition using IRI, pavement condition assessment functionally with deflection method using test data tool Benkelman Beam (BB) and the actual traffic load. IRI value, deflections and traffic growth gained from years 2011-2015 subsequently created regression models to obtain the relationship and the correlation coefficient. The analysis showed that using the same relative magnitude of the budget from 2011 to 2015, giving priority to the maintenance of the road with good conditions capable of providing the road with a steady state of 100%. Recommendations can be given that maintain the road with good conditions reflecting that preservation provide maximum results with the more efficient maintenance cost.

  8. Seerley Road Fire Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  10. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  11. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  12. Using intervention mapping to develop a work-related guidance tool for those affected by cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Working-aged individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer require support and assistance to make decisions regarding work. However, healthcare professionals do not consider the work-related needs of patients and employers do not understand the full impact cancer can have upon the employee and their work. We therefore developed a work-related guidance tool for those diagnosed with cancer that enables them to take the lead in stimulating discussion with a range of different healthcare professionals, employers, employment agencies and support services. The tool facilitates discussions through a set of questions individuals can utilise to find solutions and minimise the impact cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may have on their employment, sick leave and return to work outcomes. The objective of the present article is to describe the systematic development and content of the tool using Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP). Methods The study used the first five steps of the intervention mapping process to guide the development of the tool. A needs assessment identified the ‘gaps’ in information/advice received from healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. The intended outcomes and performance objectives for the tool were then identified followed by theory-based methods and an implementation plan. A draft of the tool was developed and subjected to a two-stage Delphi process with various stakeholders. The final tool was piloted with 38 individuals at various stages of the cancer journey. Results The tool was designed to be a self-led tool that can be used by any person with a cancer diagnosis and working for most types of employers. The pilot study indicated that the tool was relevant and much needed. Conclusions Intervention Mapping is a valuable protocol for designing complex guidance tools. The process and design of this particular tool can lend itself to other situations both occupational and more health-care based. PMID:23289708

  13. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  14. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV

  15. [A review on road ecology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

    2003-03-01

    Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology.

  16. Development of a genetic linkage map for Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis) and mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Olivera, P D; Kilian, A; Wenzl, P; Steffenson, B J

    2013-07-01

    Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass), a diploid wheat relative, is known to be a rich source of disease resistance genes for wheat improvement. To facilitate the transfer of these genes into wheat, information on their chromosomal location is important. A genetic linkage map of Ae. sharonensis was constructed based on 179 F2 plants derived from a cross between accessions resistant (1644) and susceptible (1193) to wheat leaf rust. The linkage map was based on 389 markers (377 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci) and was comprised of 10 linkage groups, ranging from 2.3 to 124.6 cM. The total genetic length of the map was 818.0 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 3.63 cM. Based on the chromosomal location of 115 markers previously mapped in wheat, the four linkage groups of A, B, C, and E were assigned to Ae. sharonensis (S(sh)) and homoeologous wheat chromosomes 6, 1, 3, and 2. The single dominant gene (designated LrAeSh1644) conferring resistance to leaf rust race THBJ in accession 1644 was positioned on linkage group A (chromosome 6S(sh)) and was flanked by DArT markers wpt-9881 (at 1.9 cM distal from the gene) and wpt-6925 (4.5 cM proximal). This study clearly demonstrates the utility of DArT for genotyping uncharacterized species and tagging resistance genes where pertinent genomic information is lacking.

  17. Development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using climatic and air pollution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Fathoni; M, Zakaria C.; O, Rohayu C.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has catapulted to an era of major transition. This rapid transition has also cause impact to the environment. The human activities contribute to pollutions. Buildings and it component's performances are affected directly or indirectly by air pollutions and climate factors. It has triggering and accelerating degradation processes. When deterioration start, service life of the buildings and its components will decrease. This paper presents initial development of corrosion risk map for Peninsular Malaysia using Geographical Information System (GIS). The air pollution and climate data obtained from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MMD). The air pollution data was the salt ion deposition of nitrate, chloride and sulphate in a form of wet fall out (WFO). The corrosion risk map generated using geographical information system (GIS) using inverse distance weighing (IDW) and weighted overlay method. It found that the corrosion risk map can be generated with further site verification and it can be used by engineers for further prediction of service life of building components in achieving sustainable construction design.

  18. Fracture-mode map of brittle coatings: Theoretical development and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chong; Xie, Zhaoqian; Guo, Zhenbin; Yao, Haimin

    2015-10-01

    Brittle coatings, upon sufficiently high indentation load, tend to fracture through either ring cracking or radial cracking. In this paper, we systematically study the factors determining the fracture modes of bilayer material under indentation. By analyzing the stress field developed in a coating/substrate bilayer under indentation in combination with the application of the maximum-tensile-stress fracture criterion, we show that the fracture mode of brittle coatings due to indentation is determined synergistically by two dimensionless parameters being functions of the mechanical properties of coating and substrate, coating thickness and indenter tip radius. Such dependence can be graphically depicted by a diagram called 'fracture-mode map', whereby the fracture modes can be directly predicated based on these two dimensionless parameters. Experimental verification of the fracture-mode map is carried out by examining the fracture modes of fused quartz/cement bilayer materials under indentation. The experimental observation exhibits good agreement with the prediction by the fracture-mode map. Our finding in this paper may not only shed light on the mechanics accounting for the fracture modes of brittle coatings in bilayer structures but also pave a new avenue to combating catastrophic damage through fracture mode control.

  19. Glial and neuronal Semaphorin signaling instruct the development of a functional myotopic map for Drosophila walking

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Durafshan Sakeena; Gowda, Swetha B.M.; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2016-01-01

    Motoneurons developmentally acquire appropriate cellular architectures that ensure connections with postsynaptic muscles and presynaptic neurons. In Drosophila, leg motoneurons are organized as a myotopic map, where their dendritic domains represent the muscle field. Here, we investigate mechanisms underlying development of aspects of this myotopic map, required for walking. A behavioral screen identified roles for Semaphorins (Sema) and Plexins (Plex) in walking behavior. Deciphering this phenotype, we show that PlexA/Sema1a mediates motoneuron axon branching in ways that differ in the proximal femur and distal tibia, based on motoneuronal birth order. Importantly, we show a novel role for glia in positioning dendrites of specific motoneurons; PlexB/Sema2a is required for dendritic positioning of late-born motoneurons but not early-born motoneurons. These findings indicate that communication within motoneurons and between glia and motoneurons, mediated by the combined action of different Plexin/Semaphorin signaling systems, are required for the formation of a functional myotopic map. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11572.001 PMID:26926907

  20. Identification of mesoderm development (mesd) candidate genes by comparative mapping and genome sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Wines, M E; Lee, L; Katari, M S; Zhang, L; DeRossi, C; Shi, Y; Perkins, S; Feldman, M; McCombie, W R; Holdener, B C

    2001-02-15

    The proximal albino deletions identify several functional regions on mouse Chromosome 7 critical for differentiation of mesoderm (mesd), development of the hypothalamus neuroendocrine lineage (nelg), and function of the liver (hsdr1). Using comparative mapping and genomic sequence analysis, we have identified four novel genes and Il16 in the mesd deletion interval. Two of the novel genes, mesdc1 and mesdc2, are located within the mesd critical region defined by BAC transgenic rescue. We have investigated the fetal role of genes located outside the mesd critical region using BAC transgenic complementation of the mesd early embryonic lethality. Using human radiation hybrid mapping and BAC contig construction, we have identified a conserved region of human chromosome 15 homologous to the mesd, nelg, and hsdr1 functional regions. Three human diseases cosegregate with microsatellite markers used in construction of the human BAC/YAC physical map, including autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ENFL2; also known as ADNFLE), a syndrome of mental retardation, spasticity, and tapetoretinal degeneration (MRST); and a pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome (PAPA).